Internet Engineering Task Force                             Nabil Bitar
     Internet Draft                                                  Verizon
     Intended status: Informational
     Expires: December 2012                                    Marc Lasserre
                                                                Florin Balus
                                                                Thomas Morin
                                                       France Telecom Orange
                                                               June 26, 2012
                            NVO3 Data Plane Requirements
     Status of this Memo
        This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
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        This Internet-Draft will expire on December 26, 2012.
     Copyright Notice
        Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
        document authors. All rights reserved.
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        This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
        Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
        ( in effect on the date of
        publication of this document. Please review these documents
        carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with
        respect to this document.
        Several IETF drafts relate to the use of overlay networks to support
        large scale virtual data centers. This draft provides a list of data
        plane requirements for Network Virtualization over L3 (NVO3) that
        have to be addressed in solutions documents.
     Table of Contents
        1. Introduction...................................................3
           1.1. Conventions used in this document.........................3
           1.2. General terminology.......................................3
        2. Data Path Overview.............................................4
        3. Data Plane Requirements........................................5
           3.1. Virtual Access Points (VAPs)..............................5
           3.2. Virtual Network Instance (VNI)............................5
           3.2.1. L2 VNI..................................................6
           3.2.2. L3 VNI..................................................6
           3.3. Overlay Module............................................7
           3.3.1. NVO3 overlay header.....................................7
  Virtual Network Context Identification................7
  Service QoS identifier................................8
           3.3.2. NVE Tunneling function..................................9
  LAG and ECMP..........................................9
  DiffServ and ECN marking.............................10
  Handling of BUM traffic..............................10
           3.4. External NVO3 connectivity...............................11
           3.4.1. GW Types...............................................11
  VPN and Internet GWs.................................11
  Inter-DC GW..........................................11
  Intra-DC gateways....................................12
           3.4.2. Path optimality between NVEs and Gateways..............12
  Triangular Routing Issues,a.k.a.: Traffic Tromboning.13
           3.5. Path MTU.................................................14
           3.6. Hierarchical NVE.........................................14
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           3.7. NVE Multi-Homing Requirements............................14
           3.8. OAM......................................................15
           3.9. Other considerations.....................................15
           3.9.1. Data Plane Optimizations...............................15
           3.9.2. NVE location trade-offs................................16
        4. Security Considerations.......................................16
        5. IANA Considerations...........................................17
        6. References....................................................17
           6.1. Normative References.....................................17
           6.2. Informative References...................................17
        7. Acknowledgments...............................................18
     1. Introduction
     1.1. Conventions used in this document
        The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
        "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
        document are to be interpreted as described in RFC-2119 [RFC2119].
        In this document, these words will appear with that interpretation
        only when in ALL CAPS. Lower case uses of these words are not to be
        interpreted as carrying RFC-2119 significance.
     1.2. General terminology
        The terminology defined in [NVO3-framework] is used throughout this
        document. Terminology specific to this memo is defined here and is
        introduced as needed in later sections.
        DC: Data Center
        BUM: Broadcast, Unknown Unicast, Multicast traffic
        TES: Tenant End System
        VAP: Virtual Access Point
        VNI: Virtual Network Instance
        VNID: VNI ID
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     2. Data Path Overview
        The NVO3 framework [NVO3-framework] defines the generic NVE model
        depicted in Figure 1:
                           +------- L3 Network ------+
                           |                         |
                           |       Tunnel Overlay    |
             +------------+---------+       +---------+------------+
             | +----------+-------+ |       | +---------+--------+ |
             | |  Overlay Module  | |       | |  Overlay Module  | |
             | +---------+--------+ |       | +---------+--------+ |
             |           |VN context|       | VN context|          |
             |           |          |       |           |          |
             |  +-------+--------+  |       |  +--------+-------+  |
             |  | |VNI|  ... |VNI|  |       |  | |VNI|  ... |VNI|  |
        NVE1 |  +-+------------+-+  |       |  +-+-----------+--+  | NVE2
             |    |   VAPs     |    |       |    |    VAPs   |     |
             +----+------------+----+       +----+------------+----+
                  |            |                 |            |
                  |            |     Tenant      |            |
                  |            |   Service IF    |            |
                 Tenant End Systems            Tenant End Systems
                   Figure 1 : Generic reference model for NV Edge
        When a frame is received by an ingress NVE from a Tenant End System
        over a local VAP, it needs to be parsed in order to identify which
        virtual network instance it belongs to. The parsing function can
        examine various fields in the data frame (e.g., VLANID) and/or
        associated interface/port the frame came from.
        Once a corresponding VNI is identified, a lookup is performed to
        determine where the frame needs to be sent. This lookup can be based
        on any combinations of various fields in the data frame (e.g.,
        destination MAC addresses and/or destination IP addresses). Note
        that additional criteria such as 802.1p and/or DSCP markings might
        be used to select an appropriate tunnel or local VAP destination.
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        Lookup tables can be populated using different techniques: data
        plane learning, management plane configuration, or a distributed
        control plane. Management and control planes are not in the scope of
        this document. The data plane based solution is described in this
        document as it has implications on the data plane processing
        The result of this lookup yields the corresponding tunnel
        information needed to build the overlay encapsulation header. This
        information includes the destination L3 address of the egress NVE.
        Note that this lookup might yield a list of tunnels such as when
        ingress replication is used for BUM traffic.
        The overlay tunnel encapsulation header MUST include a context
        identifier which the egress NVE will use to identify which VNI this
        frame belongs to.
        The egress NVE checks the context identifier and removes the
        encapsulation header and then forwards the original frame towards
        the appropriate recipient, usually a local VAP.
     3. Data Plane Requirements
     3.1. Virtual Access Points (VAPs)
        The NVE forwarding plane MUST support VAP identification through the
        following mechanisms:
        -  Using the local interface on which the frames are received, where
          the local interface may be an internal, virtual port in a VSwitch
          or a physical port on the ToR
        -  Using the local interface and some fields in the frame header,
          e.g. one or multiple VLANs or the source MAC
     3.2. Virtual Network Instance (VNI)
        VAPs are associated with a specific VNI at service instantiation
        A VNI identifies a per-tenant private context, i.e. per-tenant
        policies and a FIB table to allow overlapping address space between
        There are different VNI types differentiated by the virtual network
        service they provide to Tenant End Systems. Network virtualization
        can be provided by L2 and/or L3 VNIs.
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     3.2.1. L2 VNI
        An L2 VNI MUST provide an emulated Ethernet multipoint service as if
        Tenant End Systems are interconnected by an 802.1Q LAN over a set of
        NVO3 tunnels. An L2 VNI provides per tenant virtual switching
        instance with MAC addressing isolation and L3 tunneling. Loop
        avoidance capability MUST be provided.
        In the absence of a management or control plane, data plane learning
        MUST be used to populate forwarding tables. Forwarding table entries
        provide mapping information between MAC addresses and L3 tunnel
        destination addresses. As frames arrive from VAPs or from overlay
        tunnels, the MAC learning procedures described in IEEE 802.1Q are
        used: The source MAC address is learned against the VAP or the NVO3
        tunnel on which the frame arrived.
        Broadcast, Unknown Unicast and Multicast (BUM) traffic handling MUST
        be supported. To achieve this, the NVE MUST support ingress
        replication and MAY support multicast over an overlay multicast
        tree. In this latter case, the NVE must be able to build at least a
        default flooding tree per VNI. The flooding tree is equivalent with
        a multicast (*,G) construct where all the NVEs for which the
        corresponding VNI is instantiated are members. The multicast tree
        MAY be established automatically via routing and signaling or pre-
        When multicast is supported, it SHOULD also be possible to select
        whether the NVE provides optimized multicast trees inside the VNI
        for individual tenant multicast groups or whether the default VNI
        flooding tree is used. If the former option is selected the VNI
        SHOULD be able to snoop IGMP/MLD messages in order to efficiently
        join/prune Tenant End System from multicast trees.
     3.2.2. L3 VNI
        L3 VNIs MUST provide virtualized IP routing and forwarding. L3 VNIs
        MUST support per-tenant forwarding instance with IP addressing
        isolation and L3 tunneling for interconnecting instances of the same
        VNI on NVEs.
        In the case of L3 VNI, the inner TTL field MUST be decremented by
        (at least) 1 as if the NVO3 egress NVE was one (or more) hop(s)
        away. The TTL field in the outer IP header must be set to a value
        appropriate for delivery of the encapsulated frame to the tunnel
        exit point. Thus, the default behavior must be the TTL pipe model
        where the overlay network looks like one hop to the sending NVE.
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        Configuration of a "uniform" TTL model where the outer tunnel TTL is
        set equal to the inner TTL on ingress NVE and the inner TTL is set
        to the outer TTL value on egress MAY be supported.
        L2 and L3 VNIs can be deployed in isolation or in combination to
        optimize traffic flows per tenant across the overlay network. For
        example, an L2 VNI may be configured across a number of NVEs to
        offer L2 multi-point service connectivity while a L3 VNI can be co-
        located to offer local routing capabilities and gateway
        functionality. In addition, integrated routing and bridging per
        tenant MAY be supported on an NVE. An instantiation of such service
        may be realized by interconnecting an L2 VNI as access to an L3 VNI
        on the NVE.
        The L3 VNI does not require support for Broadcast and Unknown
        Unicast traffic. The L3 VNI MAY provide support for customer
        multicast groups. This paragraph will be expanded in a future
        version of the draft.
     3.3. Overlay Module
        The overlay module performs a number of functions related to NVO3
        header and tunnel processing. Specifically for a L2 VNI it provides
        the capability to encapsulate and send Ethernet traffic over NVO3
        tunnels. For a L3 VNI it provides the capability to encapsulate and
        carry IP traffic (both IPv4 and IPv6) over NVO3 tunnels.
     3.3.1. NVO3 overlay header
        An NVO3 overlay header MUST be included after the tunnel
        encapsulation header when forwarding tenant traffic. This section
        describes the fields that need to be included as part of the NOV3
        overlay header. In this version the focus is on the VN instance and
        service QoS fields. Future versions may include additional fields.
  Virtual Network Context Identification
        The overlay encapsulation header MUST contain a field which allows
        the encapsulated frame to be delivered to the appropriate virtual
        network endpoint by the egress NVE. The egress NVE uses this field
        to determine the appropriate virtual network context in which to
        process the packet. This field MAY be an explicit, unique (to the
        administrative domain) virtual network identifier (VNID) or MAY
        express the necessary context information in other ways (e.g. a
        locally significant identifier).
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        It SHOULD be aligned on a 32-bit boundary so as to make it
        efficiently processable by the data path. It MUST be distributable
        by a control-plane or configured via a management plane.
        In the case of a global identifier, this field MUST be large enough
        to scale to 100's of thousands of virtual networks. Note that there
        is no such constraint when using a local identifier.
  Service QoS identifier
        Traffic flows originating from different applications could rely on
        differentiated forwarding treatment to meet end-to-end availability
        and performance objectives. Such applications may span across one or
        more overlay networks. To enable such treatment, support for
        multiple Classes of Service across or between overlay networks is
        To effectively enforce CoS across or between overlay networks, NVEs
        should be able to map CoS markings between networking layers, e.g.,
        Tenant End Systems, Overlays, and/or Underlay, enabling each
        networking layer to independently enforce its own CoS policies. For
        -  TES (e.g. VM) CoS
             o   Tenant CoS policies MAY be defined by Tenant administrators
             o   QoS fields (e.g. IP DSCP and/or Ethernet 802.1p) in the
               tenant frame are used to indicate application level CoS
        -  NVE CoS
             o   NVE MAY classify packets based on Tenant CoS markings or
               other mechanisms (eg. DPI) to identify the proper service CoS
               to be applied across the overlay network
             o   NVE service CoS levels are normalized to a common set (for
               example 8 levels) across multiple tenants; NVE uses per
               tenant policies to map Tenant CoS to the normalized service
               CoS fields in the NVO3 header
        -  Underlay CoS
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             o   The underlay/core network may use a different CoS set (for
               example 4 levels) than the NVE CoS as the core devices may
               have different QoS capabilities compared with NVEs.
             o   The Underlay CoS may also change as the NVO3 tunnels pass
               between different domains.
        Support for NVE Service CoS SHOULD be provided through a QoS field,
        inside the NVO3 overlay header. Examples of service CoS provided
        part of the service tag are 802.1p and DE bits in the VLAN and PBB
        ISID tags and MPLS TC bits in the VPN labels.
     3.3.2. NVE Tunneling function
        This section describes NVE tunneling requirements. From an
        encapsulation perspective the IPv4 and IPv6 encapsulations MUST be
        supported, MPLS tunneling MAY be supported.
  LAG and ECMP
        For performance reasons, multipath over LAG and ECMP paths SHOULD be
        LAG (Link Aggregation Group) [IEEE 802.1AX-2008] and ECMP (Equal
        Cost Multi Path) are commonly used techniques to perform load-
        balancing of microflows over a set of a parallel links either at
        Layer-2 (LAG) or Layer-3 (ECMP). Existing deployed hardware
        implementations of LAG and ECMP uses a hash of various fields in the
        encapsulation (outermost) header(s) (e.g. source and destination MAC
        addresses for non-IP traffic, source and destination IP addresses,
        L4 protocol, L4 source and destination port numbers, etc).
        Furthermore, hardware deployed for the underlay network(s) will be
        most often unaware of the carried, innermost L2 frames or L3 packets
        transmitted by the TES. Thus, in order to perform fine-grained load-
        balancing over LAG and ECMP paths in the underlying network the NVO3
        encapsulation headers and/or tunneling methods MUST contain a
        "entropy field" or "entropy label" so the underlying network can
        perform fine-grained load-balancing of the NVO3 encapsulated
        traffic, (e.g.: [RFC6391], [RFC6438], [draft-kompella-mpls-entropy-
        label-02], etc.) It is recommended this entropy label/field be
        applied at the ingress VNI, likely using information gleaned from
        the ingress VAP. If necessary, the entropy label/field will be
        discarded at the egress VNI.
        All packets that belong to a specific flow MUST follow the same path
        in order to prevent packet re-ordering. This is typically achieved
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        by ensuring that the fields used for hashing are identical for a
        given flow.
        All paths available to the overlay network SHOULD be used
        efficiently. Different flows SHOULD be distributed as evenly as
        possible across multiple underlay network paths. For instance, this
        can be achieved by ensuring that some fields used for hashing are
        randomly generated.
  DiffServ and ECN marking
        When traffic is encapsulated in a tunnel header, there are numerous
        options as to how the Diffserv Code-Point (DSCP) and Explicit
        Congestion Notification (ECN) markings are set in the outer header
        and propagated to the inner header on decapsulation.
        [RFC2983] defines two modes for mapping the DSCP markings from inner
        to outer headers and vice versa.  The Uniform model copies the inner
        DSCP marking to the outer header on tunnel ingress, and copies that
        outer header value back to the inner header at tunnel egress.  The
        Pipe model sets the DSCP value to some value based on local policy
        at ingress and does not modify the inner header on egress.  Both
        models SHOULD be supported.
        ECN marking MUST be performed according to [RFC6040] which describes
        the correct ECN behavior for IP tunnels.
  Handling of BUM traffic
        NVO3 data plane support for either ingress replication or point-to-
        multipoint tunnels is required to send traffic destined to multiple
        locations on a per-VNI basis (e.g. L2/L3 multicast traffic, L2
        broadcast and unknown unicast traffic). It is possible that both
        methods be used simultaneously.
        L2 NVEs MUST support ingress replication and SHOULD support point-
        to-multipoint tunnels. L3 VNIs MAY support either one of the two
        There is a bandwidth vs state trade-off between the two approaches.
        User-definable knobs MUST be provided to select which method(s) gets
        used based upon the amount of replication required (i.e. the number
        of hosts per group), the amount of multicast state to maintain, the
        duration of multicast flows and the scalability of multicast
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        When ingress replication is used, NVEs must track for each VNI the
        related tunnel endpoints to which it needs to replicate the frame.
        For point-to-multipoint tunnels, the bandwidth efficiency is
        increased at the cost of more state in the Core nodes. The ability
        to auto-discover or pre-provision the mapping between VNI multicast
        trees to related tunnel endpoints at the NVE and/or throughout the
        core SHOULD be supported.
     3.4. External NVO3 connectivity
        NVO3 services MUST interoperate with current VPN and Internet
        services. This may happen inside one DC during a migration phase or
        as NVO3 services are delivered to the outside world via Internet or
        VPN gateways.
        Moreover the compute and storage services delivered by a NVO3 domain
        may span multiple DCs requiring Inter-DC connectivity. From a DC
        perspective a set of gateway devices are required in all of these
        cases albeit with different functionalities influenced by the
        overlay type across the WAN, the service type and the DC network
        technologies used at each DC site.
        A GW handling the connectivity between NVO3 and external domains
        represents a single point of failure that may affect multiple tenant
        services. Redundancy between NVO3 and external domains MUST be
     3.4.1. GW Types
  VPN and Internet GWs
        Tenant sites may be already interconnected using one of the existing
        VPN services and technologies (VPLS or IP VPN). If a new NVO3
        encapsulation is used, a VPN GW is required to forward traffic
        between NVO3 and VPN domains. Translation of encapsulations MAY be
        required. Internet connected Tenants require translation from NVO3
        encapsulation to IP in the NVO3 gateway. The translation function
        SHOULD NOT require provisioning touches and SHOULD NOT use
        intermediate hand-offs, for example VLANs.
  Inter-DC GW
        Inter-DC connectivity may be required to provide support for
        features like disaster prevention or compute load re-distribution.
        This may be provided through a set of gateways interconnected
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        through a WAN. This type of connectivity may be provided either
        through extension of the NVO3 tunneling domain or via VPN GWs.
  Intra-DC gateways
        Even within one DC there may be End Devices that do not support NVO3
        encapsulation, for example bare metal servers, hardware appliances
        and storage. A gateway device, e.g. a ToR, is required to translate
        the NVO3 to Ethernet VLAN encapsulation.
     3.4.2. Path optimality between NVEs and Gateways
        Within the NVO3 overlay, a default assumption is that NVO3 traffic
        will be equally load-balanced across the underlying network
        consisting of LAG and/or ECMP paths. This assumption is valid only
        as long as: a) all traffic is load-balanced equally among each of
        the component-links and paths; and, b) each of the component-
        links/paths is of identical capacity. During the course of normal
        operation of the underlying network, it is possible that one, or
        more, of the component-links/paths of a LAG may be taken out-of-
        service in order to be repaired, e.g.: due to hardware failure of
        cabling, optics, etc. In such cases, the administrator should
        configure the underlying network such that an entire LAG bundle in
        the underlying network will be reported as operationally down if
        there is a failure of any single component-link member of the LAG
        bundle, (e.g.: N = M configuration of the LAG bundle), and, thus,
        they know that traffic will be carried sufficiently by alternate,
        available (potentially ECMP) paths in the underlying network. This
        is a likely an adequate assumption for Intra-DC traffic where
        presumably the costs for additional, protection capacity along
        alternate paths is not cost-prohibitive. Thus, there are likely no
        additional requirements on NVO3 solutions to accommodate this type
        of underlying network configuration and administration.
        There is a similar case with ECMP, used Intra-DC, where failure of a
        single component-path of an ECMP group would result in traffic
        shifting onto the surviving members of the ECMP group.
        Unfortunately, there are no automatic recovery methods in IP routing
        protocols to detect a simultaneous failure of more than one
        component-path in a ECMP group, operationally disable the entire
        ECMP group and allow traffic to shift onto alternative paths. This
        is problem is attributable to the underlying network and, thus, out-
        of-scope of any NVO3 solutions.
        On the other hand, for Inter-DC and DC to External Network cases
        that use a WAN, the costs of the underlying network and/or service
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        (e.g.: IPVPN service) are more expensive; therefore, there is a
        requirement on administrators to both: a) ensure high availability
        (active-backup failover or active-active load-balancing); and, b)
        maintaining substantial utilization of the WAN transport capacity at
        nearly all times, particularly in the case of active-active load-
        balancing. With respect to the dataplane requirements of NVO3
        solutions, in the case of active-backup fail-over, all of the
        ingress NVE's MUST dynamically adapt to the failure of an active NVE
        GW when the backup NVE GW announces itself into the NVO3 overlay
        immediately following a failure of the previously active NVE GW and
        update their forwarding tables accordingly, (e.g.: perhaps through
        dataplane learning and/or translation of a gratuitous ARP, IPv6
        Router Advertisement, etc.) Note that active-backup fail-over could
        be used to accomplish a crude form of load-balancing by, for
        example, manually configuring each tenant to use a different NVE GW,
        in a round-robin fashion. On the other hand, with respect to active-
        active load-balancing across physically separate NVE GW's (e.g.:
        two, separate chassis) an NVO3 solution SHOULD support forwarding
        tables that can simultaneously map a single egress NVE to more than
        one NVO3 tunnels. The granularity of such mappings, in both active-
        backup and active-active, MUST be unique to each tenant.
  Triangular Routing Issues,a.k.a.: Traffic Tromboning
        L2/ELAN over NVO3 service may span multiple racks distributed across
        different DC regions. Multiple ELANs belonging to one tenant may be
        interconnected or connected to the outside world through multiple
        Router/VRF gateways distributed throughout the DC regions. In this
        scenario, without aid from an NVO3 or other type of solution,
        traffic from an ingress NVE destined to External gateways will take
        a non-optimal path that will result in higher latency and costs,
        (since it is using more expensive resources of a WAN). In the case
        of traffic from an IP/MPLS network destined toward the entrance to
        an NVO3 overlay, well-known IP routing techniques may be used to
        optimize traffic into the NVO3 overlay, (at the expense of
        additional routes in the IP/MPLS network). In summary, these issues
        are well known as triangular routing.
        Procedures for gateway selection to avoid triangular routing issues
        SHOULD be provided. The details of such procedures are, most likely,
        part of the NVO3 Management and/or Control Plane requirements and,
        thus, out of scope of this document. However, a key requirement on
        the dataplane of any NVO3 solution to avoid triangular routing is
        stated above, in Section 3.4.2, with respect to active-active load-
        balancing. More specifically, an NVO3 solution SHOULD support
        forwarding tables that can simultaneously map a single egress NVE to
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        more than one NVO3 tunnels. The expectation is that, through the
        Control and/or Management Planes, this mapping information may be
        dynamically manipulated to, for example, provide the closest
        geographic and/or topological exit point (egress NVE) for each
        ingress NVE.
     3.5. Path MTU
        The tunnel overlay header can cause the MTU of the path to the
        egress tunnel endpoint to be exceeded.
        IP fragmentation should be avoided for performance reasons.
        The interface MTU as seen by a Tenant End System SHOULD be adjusted
        such that no fragmentation is needed. This can be achieved by
        configuration or be discovered dynamically.
        Either of the following options MUST be supported:
          o Classical ICMP-based MTU Path Discovery [RFC1191] [RFC1981] or
             Extended MTU Path Discovery techniques such as defined in
          o Segmentation and reassembly support from the overlay layer
             operations without relying on the Tenant End Systems to know
             about the end-to-end MTU
          o The underlay network may be designed in such a way that the MTU
             can accommodate the extra tunnel overhead.
     3.6. Hierarchical NVE
        It might be desirable to support the concept of hierarchical NVEs,
        such as spoke NVEs and hub NVEs, in order to address possible NVE
        performance limitations and service connectivity optimizations.
        For instance, spoke NVE functionality MAY be used when processing
        capabilities are limited. A hub NVE would provide additional data
        processing capabilities such as packet replication.
        NVEs can be either connected in an any-to-any or hub and spoke
        topology on a per VNI basis.
     3.7. NVE Multi-Homing Requirements
        Multi-homing to a set of NVEs may be required in certain scenarios:
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          .  End Device dual-homed to two ToR switches acting as NVEs
          .  Multi-homing into NVE-GWs providing connectivity between
             domains using different technologies
          .  Hierarchical NVEs: Spoke NVE multi-homed to Hub NVEs
        This section will be extended in the next revision.
     3.8. OAM
        NVE may be able to originate/terminate OAM messages for connectivity
        verification, performance monitoring, statistic gathering and fault
        isolation. Depending on configuration, NVEs SHOULD be able to
        process or transparently tunnel OAM messages, as well as supporting
        alarm propagation capabilities.
        Given the critical requirement to load-balance NVO3 encapsulated
        packets over LAG and ECMP paths, it will be equally critical to
        ensure existing and/or new OAM tools allow NVE administrators to
        proactively and/or reactively monitor the health of various
        component-links that comprise both LAG and ECMP paths carrying NVO3
        encapsulated packets. For example, it will be important that such
        OAM tools allow NVE administrators to reveal the set of underlying
        network hops (topology) in order that the underlying network
        administrators can use this information to quickly perform fault
        isolation and restore the underlying network.
        The NVE MUST provide the ability to reveal the set of ECMP and/or
        LAG paths used by NVO3 encapsulated packets in the underlying
        network from an ingress NVE to egress NVE. The NVE MUST provide the
        ability to provide a "ping"-like functionality that may be used to
        determine the health (liveness) of remote NVE's or their VNI's. The
        NVE SHOULD provide a "ping"-like functionality to more expeditiously
        aid in troubleshooting performance problems, i.e.: blackholing or
        other types of congestion occurring in the underlying network, for
        NVO3 encapsulated packets carried over LAG and/or ECMP paths.
     3.9. Other considerations
     3.9.1. Data Plane Optimizations
        Data plane forwarding and encapsulation choices SHOULD consider the
        limitation of possible NVE implementations, specifically in software
        based implementations (e.g.  servers running VSwitches)
        NVE should provide efficient processing of traffic. For instance,
        packet alignment, the use of offsets to minimize header parsing,
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        padding techniques SHOULD be considered when designing NVO3
        encapsulation types.
        The NV03 encapsulation/decapsulation processing in software-based
        NVEs SHOULD make use of hardware assist provided by NICs in order to
        speed up packet processing.
     3.9.2. NVE location trade-offs
        In the case of DC traffic, traffic originated from a VM is native
        Ethernet traffic. This traffic can be switched by a local VM switch
        or ToR switch and then by a DC gateway. The NVE function can be
        embedded within any of these elements.
        The NVE function can be supported in various DC network elements
        such as a VM, VM switch, ToR switch or DC GW.
        The following criteria SHOULD be considered when deciding where the
        NVE processing boundary happens:
          o Processing and memory requirements
               o Datapath (e.g. lookups, filtering,
               o Control plane processing (e.g. routing, signaling, OAM)
          o FIB/RIB size
          o Multicast support
               o Routing protocols
               o Packet replication capability
          o Fragmentation support
          o QoS transparency
          o Resiliency
     4. Security Considerations
        This requirements document does not raise in itself any specific
        security issues.
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     5. IANA Considerations
        IANA does not need to take any action for this draft.
     6. References
     6.1. Normative References
        [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
                  Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
     6.2. Informative References
        [NVOPS]  Narten, T. et al, "Problem Statement: Overlays for Network
                  Virtualization", draft-narten-nvo3-overlay-problem-
                  statement (work in progress)
        [NVO3-framework]  Lasserre, M. et al, "Framework for DC Network
                  Virtualization", draft-lasserre-nvo3-framework (work in
        [OVCPREQ] Kreeger, L. et al, "Network Virtualization Overlay Control
                  Protocol Requirements", draft-kreeger-nvo3-overlay-cp
                  (work in progress)
        [FLOYD]  Sally Floyd, Allyn Romanow, "Dynamics of TCP Traffic over
                  ATM Networks", IEEE JSAC, V. 13 N. 4, May 1995
        [RFC4364] Rosen, E. and Y. Rekhter, "BGP/MPLS IP Virtual Private
                  Networks (VPNs)", RFC 4364, February 2006.
        [RFC1191] Mogul, J. "Path MTU Discovery", RFC1191, November 1990
        [RFC1981] McCann, J. et al, "Path MTU Discovery for IPv6", RFC1981,
                  August 1996
        [RFC4821] Mathis, M. et al, "Packetization Layer Path MTU
                  Discovery", RFC4821, March 2007
        [RFC2983] Black, D. "Diffserv and tunnels", RFC2983, Cotober 2000
        [RFC6040] Briscoe, B. "Tunnelling of Explicit Congestion
                  Notification", RFC6040, November 2010
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        [RFC6438] Carpenter, B. et al, "Using the IPv6 Flow Label for Equal
                  Cost Multipath Routing and Link Aggregation in Tunnels",
                  RFC6438, November 2011
        [RFC6391] Bryant, S. et al, "Flow-Aware Transport of Pseudowires
                  over an MPLS Packet Switched Network", RFC6391, November
     7. Acknowledgments
        In addition to the authors the following people have contributed to
        this document:
        Shane Amante, Level3
        Dimitrios Stiliadis, Rotem Salomonovitch, Alcatel-Lucent
        This document was prepared using
     Authors' Addresses
        Nabil Bitar
        40 Sylvan Road
        Waltham, MA 02145
        Marc Lasserre
        Florin Balus
        777 E. Middlefield Road
        Mountain View, CA, USA 94043
        Thomas Morin
        France Telecom Orange
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