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Versions: 00 01 02                                                      
Network Working Group                                       M. Boucadair
Internet Draft                                        France Telecom R&D
Document: draft-boucadair-ipte-acct-pib-00.txt                 June 2002
Category: Experimental


         An IP Traffic Engineering PIB for Accounting purposes
                  <draft-boucadair-ipte-acct-pib-00.txt>


Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC 2026 [1].

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that other
   groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts.
   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress".

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

Abstract

   This document defines a set of IP Traffic Engineering Policy
   Provisioning Classes (PRCs) for accounting usage within the context
   of a COPS-based policy enforcement scheme. The purpose of those PRCs
   is to provide information exploitable by the IP Traffic Engineering
   decision-making process. Those PRCs are intended for use by the
   reporting process of the IP TE Client-Type [2].

Table of Contents

   1.      Introduction................................................2
   2.      Conventions used in this document...........................2
   3.      Accounting and Traffic Engineering..........................3
   3.1.    Introduction................................................3
   3.2.    The IP TE Selection Tables..................................4
   3.3.    The IP TE Accounting Usage Tables...........................4
   3.4.    PIB overview................................................5
   4.      IP TE Usage PIB.............................................5
   5.      Security Considerations....................................14
   6.      References.................................................14

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   7.      Acknowledgments............................................15
   8.      Author's Addresses.........................................15


1. Introduction

   Traffic engineering is one of the possible means for solving
   congestion problems and permitting efficient use of the network
   resources. The design of an IP Traffic Engineering (IP TE) policy
   implies the manipulation of a large amount of configuration
   information that includes routing considerations, traffic forecast,
   available resources, etc.

   These parameters are provisioned as configuration information to the
   network devices by means of a COPS-based communication scheme, thanks
   to the use of a specific client-type. But remains the choice of the
   appropriate parameters to meet network constraints as well as Quality
   Of Service (QOS) requirements, and also to observe the impact of such
   choice on the stability of the network.

   From this standpoint, several methods can be adopted: either use
   statistical data based on mathematical models, or data resulting of
   measurements. The advantage of the second method is that it allows
   for real time statistics.

   Therefore, the actual enforcement of a traffic engineering policy
   requires a feedback mechanism not only to qualify how efficient such
   enforcement is, but also the impact the future decisions made by the
   Policy Decision Point (PDP) and installed by the PDP at the Policy
   Enforcement Point (PEP)-embedded devices.

   Within the context of this document, the data recorded, monitored
   and/or reported by the PEP are the results of the activation of
   dynamic routing processes (e.g. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) and
   Border Gateway Protocol version 4 (BGP)).

   We propose in this document to define a set of IP TE accounting usage
   Policy Rule Classes (PRC) that will be monitored, recorded and/or
   reported by the PEP. Those PRCs complement the PRC classes that have
   been defined in the Framework of COPS-PR PIB for Policy Usage [3].

   This document is organised as follows:

   - Section 3 shows the use of accounting mode within a TE context.
   - Section 4 presents the IP TE Usage PIB.


2. Conventions used in this document




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   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED",  "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC-2119 [4].

3. Accounting and Traffic Engineering
3.1. Introduction

   The actual enforcement of an IP TE policy is conditioned by the
   manipulation of information such as traffic forecast (according to
   customers' requests, for example [5]), and traffic load calculation
   (see fig.1). Within the context of a COPS architecture, the
   qualification of a policy's efficiency could be based upon the
   accounting mode.

   [6] defines the capability to report information to the PDP. Several
   types of reports are defined: success, failure and accounting. A
   framework of the use of the accounting mode is introduced in [3].

                         +-----------------+
                         |       Other     |
                         | external system |
                         +-----------------+
                                   ^
                                   |       +-----------------+
                                   |       |       TE        |
                                   |       | Forecast Block  |
                                   |       +-----------------+
                                   |               ^ +------------------+
                                   |               | |       PDP        |
                                   |               | | Decision-making  |
                                   |               | +--------/\--------+
                                   |               | +--------\/--------+
                                   |               | |                  |
                                   |               | |       PDP        |
                                   |               | |                  |
                                   |               | +------------------+
  +--------------------------+     |               |       ^
  |          PEP             |     |               |       |
  | +-------------------+    |     |               |       |
  | | IP TE Client-Type |    |     |               |       |
  | | +--------------+  |    |<----+               |       |
  | | |Report Process|  |    |<--------------------+       |
  | | |-Monitoring   |  |    |<----------------------------+
  | | |-Recording    |  |    |    IP TE REPORT
  | | |-Reporting    |  |    |
  | | +--------------+  |    |
  | +-------------------+    |
  +--------------------------+
                    Fig.1: IP TE Reporting Mechanism

   According to Fig.1, the report sent by the IP TE client type is
   received by the PDP.

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   The IP TE report classes are instantiated as multiple Provisioning
   Instance (PRI) instances, each of which being identified by
   PRovisioning Instance iDentifier (PRID). These classes contain
   attributes that actually describe the accounting IP TE-related
   information collected in the network.

3.2. The IP TE Selection Tables

   The document [7] defines an IP Traffic Engineering Policy Information
   Base (IP TE PIB). The IP TE PIB is organized into the following
   provisioning classes:

   1. The Forwarding classes (ipTeFwClasses): the information contained
     in these classes is meant to provide a detailed description of the
     traffic-engineered routes. Only one table is defined: the IP TE
     Route table, which describes the information related to TE routes
     that have been installed by the routers in their FIBs.

   2. The Metrics classes (ipTeMetricsClasses): the information stored
     in the tables included in this class is meant to provide the
     description of the metric values that will be taken into account
     by intra- and inter-domain routing protocols for the computation
     and the selection of traffic-engineered routes.

   3. The Statistics classes (ipTeStatsClasses): the information
     contained in these classes is meant to provide statistics on the
     enforcement of the TE policies.

   These tables are used as selection tables.

3.3. The IP TE Accounting Usage Tables

   Within the context of [8], three policies are defined:
   - The selection criteria policy: defines the conditions used by PEP
     to monitor and record a usage policy.
   - The usage policy: defines what attributes are monitored and/or
     recorded by the PEP.
   - The linkage policy: provides a linkage for the selection and usage
     policies.

   As mentioned above, the tables defined in the IP TE PIB are used as
   the Selection policies and we introduced in the following Section 4
   the Usage classes.

   In addition, the IP TE Selection Usage Combination Capability Table
   contains objects pointing to the IP TE Usage tables, IP TE Selection
   tables and Threshold tables.


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3.4. PIB overview

   The PIB defined within the context of IP traffic engineering for
   accounting purposes has the goal to complete the whole COPS TE
   reporting machinery. This PIB contains the following tables:

   - ospfTeRouterUsageTable             : this class defines the usage
                       attributes to be reported, and which are related
                       to the router identified by the Router-Id.
   - ospfTeUsageTable                           : this class defines the usage attributes to use
                       for OSPF TE purposes.
   - bgpTeTable                                 : this table contains a set of accounting
                       information related to the activation of BGP
                       process enabling exchange of QOS information.
   - ospfTeThresholdTable: this class defines the threshold attributes
                       corresponding to OSPF TE usage attributes
                       specified in ospfTeUsageTable.
   - bgpTeThresholdTable: this class defines the threshold attributes
                       corresponding to BGP usage attributes specified
                       in bgpTeUsageTable.
4. IP TE Usage PIB

   --
   -- The PIB defined within the context of IP traffic engineering
   -- for accounting purposes has the goal to complete the whole
   -- COPS TE reporting machinery.
   -- Data contained in this PIB aren't stabilized yet and will be
   -- modified and updated as necessary.
   --

   IPTE-ACCOUNTING-PIB PIB-DEFINITIONS ::= BEGIN

         IMPORTS
            ExtUTCTime, Unsigned32, Unsigned64,
            Integer32, MODULE-IDENTITY, OBJECT-TYPE
                       FROM COPS-PR-SPPI
            TruthValue, TEXTUAL-CONVENTION
                       FROM SNMPv2-TC
            PolicyInstanceId, PolicyReferenceId
                       FROM COPS-PR-SPPI-TC;
            RoleCombination
                       FROM POLICY-DEVICE-AUX-MIB;
            Counter64
                       FROM SNMPv2-SMI;

         ipTeAccountingPib  MODULE-IDENTITY

             SUBJECT-CATEGORIES  {tbd}
             LAST-UPDATED       "200201250900Z"
             ORGANIZATION       "France Telecom R&D"

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             CONTACT-INFO       "
                       Mohamed Boucadair
                       Adresse: 42, rue des Coutures
                       BP 6243
                       14066 Caen Cedex
                       Phone: +33 2 31 75 92 31
                       Email: Mohamed.Boucadair@francetelecom.com"

           DESCRIPTION
                   "The PIB module that contains classes describing the
                   parameters to be monitored, recorded and/or reported
                   by the PEP for Traffic Engineering accounting
                   purposes."

               ::= {tbd}

      --
      -- The ipTe Accounting Class
      --

      ipTeAccountingClasses
              OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { ipTeAccountingPib  1 }

      --
      -- The MPLS TE Accounting Class
      --
        -- This class defines tables related to MPLS TE
        -- To be done in next version of this draft.

      lspTeAccountingClasses
              OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { ipTeAccountingPib  2 }

      --
      -- ospfTeRouterUsageTable
      --

        ospfTeRouterUsageTable OBJECT-TYPE

            SYNTAX          SEQUENCE OF ospfTeRouterUsageEntry
            PIB-ACCESS      report-only
            STATUS          current
            DESCRIPTION
                 "This class defines the usage attributes to be
                 reported, and which are related to the router
                 identified by the Router-Id."

            ::= { ipTeAccountingClasses  1}

        ospfTeRouterUsageEntry  OBJECT-TYPE


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            SYNTAX          ospfTeUsageRouterEntry
            STATUS          current
            DESCRIPTION
                 "An entry for the ospfTeRouterUsageTable."

            PIB-INDEX  { ospfTeRouterUsagePrid}
            UNIQUENESS { ospfTeRouterUsageLinkPrid,
                       ospfTeUsageIfActif}

            ::= {ospfTeRouterUsageTable 1}

        ospfTeRouterUsageEntry ::= SEQUENCE {
                       ospfTeRouterUsagePrid        InstanceID,
                       ospfTeRouterUsageLinkPrid    Prid,
                       ospfTeRouterUsageIfActif                                                 Counter64 }

        ospfTeRouterUsagePrid        OBJECT-TYPE

            SYNTAX      Prid
            STATUS      current
            DESCRIPTION
                 "An integer index that uniquely identifies this
                 instance of the ospfTeRouterUsage class."

            ::= { ospfTeRouterUsageEntry 1 }

        ospfTeRouterUsageLinkPrid        OBJECT-TYPE

            SYNTAX      Prid
            STATUS      current
            DESCRIPTION
                 "The PRID of the Linkage policy instance used to refer
                 this usage policy instance."

            ::= { ospfTeRouterUsageEntry 2 }


        ospfTeRouterUsageIfActif         OBJECT-TYPE

            SYNTAX       Counter64
            STATUS       current
            DESCRIPTION
                 "The number of interfaces that participate to an OSPF-
                 TE route computation in the router identified by
                 Router-ID."

            ::= { ospfTeRouterUsageEntry 3 }

      --
      -- ospfTeUsageTable
      --

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      ospfTeUsageTable OBJECT-TYPE

            SYNTAX          SEQUENCE OF ospfTeUsageEntry
            PIB-ACCESS      report-only
            STATUS          current
            DESCRIPTION
                 "This class defines the usage attributes to use for
                 OSPF TE purposes."

            ::= { ipTeAccountingClasses  1 }

     ospfTeUsageEntry   OBJECT-TYPE

            SYNTAX          ospfTeUsageEntry
            STATUS          current
            DESCRIPTION
                 "An entry for the ospfTeUsageTable."

            PIB-INDEX  { ospfTeUsagePrid}
            UNIQUENESS                          { ospfTeUsageLinkPrid,
                       OspfTeUsageLinkDelay }

            ::= {ospfTeUsageTable 1 }

     ospfTeUsageEntry ::= SEQUENCE { ospfTeUsagePrid
        InstanceID,
                                                ospfTeUsageLinkPrid             Prid,
                               ospfTeUsageLinkDelay    Unsigned32 }

     ospfTeUsagePrid        OBJECT-TYPE

            SYNTAX      Prid
            STATUS      current
            DESCRIPTION
                 "An integer index that uniquely identifies this
                 instance of the ospfTeUsage class."

            ::= { ospfTeUsageEntry 1 }

     ospfTeUsageLinkPrid        OBJECT-TYPE

            SYNTAX      Prid
            STATUS      current
            DESCRIPTION
                 "The PRID of the Linkage policy instance used to refer
                 this usage policy instance."

            ::= { ospfTeUsageEntry 2 }

     ospfTeUsageLinkDelay OBJECT-TYPE

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            SYNTAX       Unsigned32
            STATUS       current
            DESCRIPTION
                 "The one-way delay that has been observed on this
                 route."

            ::= { ospfTeUsageEntry 3 }

      --
      -- bgpTeUsageTable
      --

     bgpTeTable          OBJECT-TYPE

            SYNTAX         SEQUENCE OF bgpTeUsageEntry
            PIB-ACCESS     report-only
            STATUS         current
            DESCRIPTION
                 "This table contains a set of accounting information
                 related to the activation of BGP process enabling
                 exchange of QOS information."

                      ::= { ipTeAccountingClasses   2 }

      bgpTeUsageEntry          OBJECT-TYPE

            SYNTAX          bgpTeUsageEntry
            STATUS          current
            DESCRIPTION
                 "An entry to bgpTeUsage Class."


            PIB-INDEX      { bgpTeUsagePrid }
            UNIQUENESS     { bgpTeUsageLinkPrid,
                             bgpTeUsageActIf,
                                              bgpTeUsageOneWayDelay }

            ::= { bgpTeUsageTable 1 }

      bgpTeUsageEntry ::= SEQUENCE {
                         bgpTeUsagePrid           InstanceId,
                         bgpTeUsageLinkPrid       Prid,
                        bgpTeUsageActIf          Counter64,
                        bgpTeUsageOneWayDelay     Unsigned32 }

      bgpTeUsagePrid                  OBJECT-TYPE

              SYNTAX                InstanceId

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              STATUS                current
              DESCRIPTION
                 "An integer index that uniquely identifies this
                 instance of the bgpTeUsage class."

              ::= { bgpTeUsageEntry 1 }

      bgpTeUsageLinkPrid             OBJECT-TYPE

              SYNTAX                Prid
              STATUS                current
              DESCRIPTION
                 "The PRID of the Linkage policy instance used to base
                 this usage policy instance upon."

              ::= { bgpTeUsageEntry 2 }

      bgpTeUsageActIf                OBJECT-TYPE

              SYNTAX                 Counter64
              STATUS                 current
              DESCRIPTION
                 "Specifies the number of interfaces that participate
                 to the BGP route computation process."

              ::= { bgpTeUsageEntry 3 }

      bgpTeUsageOneWayDelay        OBJECT-TYPE

            SYNTAX                Unsigned32
            STATUS                 current
            DESCRIPTION
                 "Specifies the one-way delay that has been observed on
                 this route."

              ::= { bgpTeUsageEntry 4 }


   --
   -- The Threshold class that accompanies the OSPF and BGP usage
   -- tables
   --
        --
        -- OSPF Threshold attributes
        --


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     ospfTeThresholdTable OBJECT-TYPE

           SYNTAX         SEQUENCE OF ospfThresholdEntry
              PIB-ACCESS     Install
              STATUS         current
              DESCRIPTION
                 "This class defines the threshold attributes
                 corresponding to OSPF TE usage attributes specified in
                 ospfTeUsageTable."

              ::= { ipTeAccountingClasses  3 }

      ospfTeThresholdEntry   OBJECT-TYPE

           SYNTAX          ospfTeThresholdEntry
              STATUS          current
              DESCRIPTION
                 "Defines the attributes to hold threshold values."

              PIB-INDEX { ospfTeThresholdId }

              ::= { ospfTeThresholdId 1 }

      ospfTeThresholdEntry::= SEQUENCE {
               ospfTeThresholdId             InstanceID,
               ospfTeThresholdBwThresholds     Integer64,
               ospfTeThresholdRsvBwThresholds  Integer64 }

      ospfTeThresholdId   OBJECT-TYPE

           SYNTAX       InstanceId
              STATUS       current
              DESCRIPTION
                 "Arbitrary integer index that uniquely identifies an
                 instance of the class."

              ::= { ospfTeThresholdEntry 1 }

     ospfTeThresholdBwThresholds  OBJECT-TYPE

              SYNTAX       Integer64
              STATUS       current
              DESCRIPTION
                 "The threshold the used bandwidth on the link
                 shouldn't exceed."


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              ::= { ospfTeThresholdEntry  2 }

     ospfTeThresholdRsvBwThresholds   OBJECT-TYPE

           SYNTAX       Integer64
              STATUS       current
              DESCRIPTION
                 "The threshold the reserved bandwidth on the link
                 shouldn't exceed."

              ::= { ospfTeThresholdEntry 3 }

        --
        -- BGP Threshold attributes
        --

     bgpTeThresholdTable OBJECT-TYPE

           SYNTAX         SEQUENCE OF bgpThresholdEntry
              PIB-ACCESS     Install
              STATUS         current
              DESCRIPTION
                 "This class defines the threshold attributes
                 corresponding to BGP usage attributes specified in
                 bgpTeUsageTable."

              ::= { ipTeAccountingClasses  4 }

      bgpTeThresholdEntry   OBJECT-TYPE

           SYNTAX          bgpTeThresholdEntry
              STATUS          current
              DESCRIPTION
                 "Defines the attributes to hold threshold values."

              PIB-INDEX { bgpTeThresholdPrid }

              ::= { bgpTeThresholdId 1 }

      bgpTeThresholdEntry ::= SEQUENCE {
               bgpTeThresholdId                                                 InstanceID,
                                bgpTeThresholdNlriAddress       InetAddress,
               bgpTeThresholdNextHopAddress    InetAddress,
               bgpTeThresholdOneWayDelayThreshold      Integer64,
                                bgpTeThresholdInterPacketDelayThreshold Integer64,

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               bgpTeThresholdLossRateThreshold         Integer64 }

     bgpTeThresholdId   OBJECT-TYPE

           SYNTAX       InstanceId
              STATUS       current
              DESCRIPTION
                 "Arbitrary integer index that uniquely identifies an
                 instance of the class."

              ::= { bgpTeThresholdEntry 1 }

      bgpTeThresholdNlriAddress        OBJECT-TYPE

             SYNTAX       InetAddress
             STATUS       current
             DESCRIPTION
                 "The IP address to match against the NLRI field of
                 QOS_NLRI attribute of the BGP4 UPDATE message
                 introduced in [9]."

                 ::= { bgpTeThresholdEntry 2 }

      bgpTeThresholdNextHopAddress     OBJECT-TYPE

           SYNTAX       InetAddress
              STATUS       current
              DESCRIPTION
                 "The address of the next router."

              ::= { bgpTeThresholdEntry 3 }

     bgpTeThresholdOneWayDelayThreshold  OBJECT-TYPE

           SYNTAX       Integer64
              STATUS       current
              DESCRIPTION
                 "The threshold of the one-way delay, that will trigger
                 a report in the next reporting interval when
                 exceeded."

              ::= { bgpTeThresholdEntry  4 }

      bgpTeThresholdInterPacketDelayThreshold  OBJECT-TYPE

           SYNTAX       Integer64
              STATUS       current

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              DESCRIPTION
                 "The threshold of the inter-packet delay variation,
                 that will trigger a report in the next reporting
                 interval, when exceeded."

              ::= { bgpTeThresholdEntry 5 }

     bgpTeThresholdLossRateThreshold  OBJECT-TYPE

           SYNTAX       Integer64
              STATUS       current
              DESCRIPTION
                 "The threshold, in terms of loss rate, that will
                 trigger a report in the next reporting interval, when
                 exceeded."

              ::= { bgpTeThresholdEntry 6 }

   END


5. Security Considerations

   Data manipulated within the context of IP TE accounting could be used
   by the IP TE decision-making processes, but only authorized COPS-PR
   communications can take place. Therefore, this draft does not
   introduce any additional security issues other than those that have
   been identified in the COPS-PR specification [10].

   Nevertheless, the activation of an integrity mechanism is recommended
   for external systems making use of the TE accounting data.


6. References

   [1] Bradner, S., "The Internet Standards Process -- Revision 3", BCP
      9, RFC 2026, October 1996.
   [2] Jacquenet, C., "An IP Traffic Engineering COPS Client-type",
      draft jacquenet-ip-te-cops-03.txt, Work in Progress, June 2002.
   [3] Rawlins, D., Kulkarni, A., Bokaemper, M., Ho Chan, K., "Framework
      of COPS-PR Policy Usage Feedback", draft-ietf-rap-feedback-frwk-
      02.txt, March 2002.
   [4] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
      Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997

   [5] Goderis, D., T'Joens, Y., Jacquenet, C., Memenios, G., Pavlou,
      G., Egan, R., Griffin, D., Georgatsos, P., Georgiadis,
      L.,"Specification of a Service Level Specification (SLS)


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      Template", draft-tequila-sls-02.txt, Work in Progress, February
      2002.
   [6] Boyle, J., Cohen, R., Durham, D., Herzog, S., Raja, R., Sastry,
      A., "The COPS (Common Open Policy Service) Protocol", RFC 2748,
      January 2000.
   [7] Boucadair, M., Jacquenet, C., "An IP Traffic Engineering Policy
      Information Base", draft-jacquenet-ip-te-pib-02.txt, Work in
      Progress, June 2002.
   [8] Rawlins, D., Kulkarni, A., Bokaemper, M., Ho Chan, K. "Framework
      of COPS-PR Policy Usage Feedback", draft-ietf-rap-feedback-frwk-
      02.txt, March 2002.
   [9] Jacquenet, C., "Providing Quality of Service Indication by   the
      BGP-4 Protocol: the QOS_NLRI Attribute", draft-jacquenet-qos-nrli-
      04.txt, Work in Progress, March 2002.
   [10] Ho Chan, K., Durham, D., Gai, S., Herzog, S., McLoghrie, K.,
      Reichmeyer, F., Seligson, J., Smith, A., Yavatkar, R., "COPS Usage
      for Policy Provisioning (COPS-PR)", RFC 3084, March 2001.

7. Acknowledgments

   The author would like to thank M. Jacquenet for his remarks and
   suggestions.

8. Author's Addresses

   Mohamed Boucadair
   France Telecom R & D
   DMI/SIR
   42, rue des Coutures
   BP 6243
   14066 Caen Cedex 4
   France
   Phone: +33 2 31 75 92 31
   Email: mohamed.boucadair@rd.francetelecom.com


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   copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be
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   The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
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