Open Password Automation Recipe (OPAR) Protocol
draft-bwilliams-kitten-opar-00

Versions: 00                                                            
Common Authentication Technology Next Generation            B. Williams
Internet Draft                                              Independent
Intended status: Standard                            September 26, 2017
Expires: March 2018



              Open Password Automation Recipe (OPAR) Protocol
                     draft-bwilliams-kitten-opar-00.txt


Abstract

   This document introduces the Open Password Automation Recipe (OPAR)
   Protocol, a suggested format for providing instructions to password
   managers programmatically that defines the valid construction of a
   password. With password managers becoming integrated into browsers,
   websites should be able to describe the elements of an acceptable
   password programmatically so password management plugins can read
   and automatically generate the best option. Without this, manual
   intervention by the user is required when the password is too long,
   contains invalid characters, or does not meet complexity
   requirements.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on March 26, 2018.



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Copyright Notice

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Table of Contents


1. Introduction......................................................3
2. Conventions used in this document.................................4
3. Construction of OPAR Policy.......................................4
      3.1. OPAR_Policy - OPAR Version 1..............................4
         3.1.1. "min_length" - Integer value.........................5
         3.1.2. "max_length" - Integer value.........................5
         3.1.3. "numbers" - Object...................................5
            3.1.3.1. "allowed" - Boolean value.......................5
            3.1.3.2. "minimum" - Integer value.......................5
         3.1.4. "lowercase" - Object.................................5
            3.1.4.1. "allowed" - Boolean value.......................5
            3.1.4.2. "minimum" - Integer value.......................5
         3.1.5. "uppercase" - Object.................................6
            3.1.5.1. "allowed" - Boolean value.......................6
            3.1.5.2. "minimum" - Integer value.......................6
         3.1.6. "special_characters" - Object........................6
            3.1.6.1. "allowed" - Boolean value.......................6
            3.1.6.2. "valid_characters" - String value...............6
            3.1.6.3. "minimum" - Integer value.......................6
         3.1.7. "wide_characters" - Object...........................6
            3.1.7.1. "allowed" - Boolean value.......................7
            3.1.7.2. "minimum" - Integer value.......................7
         3.1.8. "include_extended_ascii" - Boolean value.............7
      3.2. Examples..................................................7
         3.2.1. Password Recipe Example 1............................7
         3.2.2. Password Recipe Example 1............................8
4. Security Considerations..........................................10


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5. IANA Considerations..............................................10
6. Conclusions......................................................10
7. References.......................................................10
      7.1. Normative References.....................................10
      7.2. Informative References...................................10
8. Acknowledgments..................................................11

1. Introduction

   Password managers are becoming the norm as both Apple and Google
   have embedded them into their operating systems and browsers. The
   goal addressed by password managers is to enable users to use
   different username/password combinations on every site they visit,
   while locally storing all of those items encrypted. When a user
   visits a site, stored passwords are automatically presented for
   authentication.

   Password reuse is a known vulnerability in authentication systems
   and can lead to identity theft[2]. With several available password
   management systems such as 1Password, LastPass, and the Apple
   Keychain, a standardized, programmatic way to read the password
   policy of a website would further automate these applications.
   Password managers embed functionality into popular browsers to
   suggest secure passwords and manage them across devices.

   The challenge with password generation is that not all sites use the
   same requirements to create a password, and individuals will often
   not maximize the strength of a new password as they take the default
   suggested value. As an example, a site that suggests a password of
   8-20 characters might receive "9ay-mgr-3PO-iaa" from a password
   manager, five characters short of the maximum. In addition, the site
   may not permit hyphens in passwords, yet still require a special
   character. Users would need to randomly create one to comply with
   the standard.

   This document proposes the Open Password Automation Recipe (OPAR)
   Protocol as a way to define valid password recipes for password
   managers while improving user experience. OPAR is a simple protocol
   that can be implemented on any page where password generation is
   required (such as a sign up or change password page) to inform
   password managers of the acceptable format for a valid password.
   Then the password manager can suggest and fill in the strongest
   possible password without requiring user intervention to tweak the
   recipe.

   Implementing and Executing the OPAR Protocol:



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   1. Site operator adds markup or JSON in the format below to pages
      requiring password automation.

   2. Password manager interprets format to automatically suggest a
      password that maximizes password strength according to the
      recipe.

   3. Submit the password while storing credentials inside the password
      manager.

2. Conventions used in this document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119[1].

   In this document, these words will appear with that interpretation
   only when in ALL CAPS. Lower case uses of these words are not to be
   interpreted as carrying significance described in RFC 2119.

   In this document, the characters ">>" preceding an indented line(s)
   indicates a statement using the key words listed above. This
   convention aids reviewers in quickly identifying or finding the
   portions of this RFC covered by these keywords.

3. Construction of OPAR Policy

   This section defines the construction of a JSON object that declares
   the options in the OPAR protocol.

3.1. OPAR_Policy - OPAR Version 1

   The JSON object that stores the OPAR values MUST be named
   OPAR_Policy. This object SHOULD be included only on the new password
   and change password pages.

   The first element in the JSON object MUST be named "version" with an
   integer value corresponding to the value of the protocol. The only
   value that is acceptable at this time is 1, but future versions of
   the protocol may add additional features.

   All of the elements below MUST be included in the OPAR object
   definition to be considered a valid implementation of version 1 of
   the protocol. Some elements, however, MAY be listed at 0 (say for
   example if there is no minimum number of special characters), but
   the element MUST be present in the object.



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   The following sub-sections describe the remainder of the OPAR record
   options available in version 1 of the OPAR protocol.

3.1.1. "min_length" - Integer value

   Password recipes require a minimum length to be valid. The integer
   value in this field represents the absolute minimum number of
   characters required for a valid password.

3.1.2. "max_length" - Integer value

   The integer value here should be the maximum number of characters
   allowed. Password managers should focus on this value and elect to
   fill every available position in the password with a character.

3.1.3. "numbers" - Object

   The numbers object will define the options for numbers in the
   password recipe.

3.1.3.1. "allowed" - Boolean value

   If numbers are allowed, set the value to true. If not, set the value
   to false.

3.1.3.2. "minimum" - Integer value

   If numbers are required, enter the minimum amount of single digit
   integers that will constitute a valid password. If numbers are
   allowed but not required, set this value to 0.

3.1.4. "lowercase" - Object

   The lowercase object will define the options for lowercase letters
   in the password recipe.

3.1.4.1. "allowed" - Boolean value

   If lowercase letters are allowed, set the value to true. If not, set
   the value to false.

3.1.4.2. "minimum" - Integer value

   If lowercase letters are required, enter the minimum amount of
   single digit lowercase characters that will constitute a valid
   password. If lowercase letters are allowed but not required, set
   this value to 0.


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3.1.5. "uppercase" - Object

   The uppercase object will define the options for uppercase letters
   in the password recipe.

3.1.5.1. "allowed" - Boolean value

   If uppercase letters are allowed, set the value to true. If not, set
   the value to false.

3.1.5.2. "minimum" - Integer value

   If uppercase letters are required, enter the minimum amount of
   single digit uppercase characters that will constitute a valid
   password. If uppercase letters are allowed but not required, set
   this value to 0.

3.1.6. "special_characters" - Object

   The special_characters object will define the options for special
   characters in the password recipe.

3.1.6.1. "allowed" - Boolean value

   If special characters are allowed, set the value to true. If not,
   set the value to false.

3.1.6.2. "valid_characters" - String value

   A single string value that contains one of every special character.
   This should be represented as a set of valid special characters that
   make up a password. Only include special characters that may be used
   in the password. Remember to escape double quotes if that character
   is allowed.

3.1.6.3. "minimum" - Integer value

   If special characters are required, enter the minimum amount of
   single digit special characters that will constitute a valid
   password. If special characters are allowed but not required, set
   this value to 0.

3.1.7. "wide_characters" - Object

   Some locales may require or desire the use of so called wide or
   multibyte characters. This object will define the options for wide
   characters in the password recipe.


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3.1.7.1. "allowed" - Boolean value

   If wide characters are allowed, set the value to true. If not, set
   the value to false.

3.1.7.2. "minimum" - Integer value

   If wide characters are required, enter the minimum amount of single
   digit wide characters that will constitute a valid password. If wide
   characters are allowed but not required, set this value to 0.

3.1.8. "include_extended_ascii" - Boolean value

   Some locales may leverage characters from the extended ASCII
   character set, such as Cyrillic, accented Western characters, and
   Greek characters. If you want to allow these characters, set this
   value to true. There are no minimums here as these would simply
   extend the uppercase and lowercase character sets.

3.2. Examples

   The following sections provide two examples of JSON objects that
   define a password recipe.

3.2.1. Password Recipe Example 1

   The following OPAR password recipe defines a valid password that
   must be at least 8 characters, but no more than 20, with numbers,
   lowercase letters, and uppercase letters all allowed (minimum two of
   each), and only these special characters allowed (+ - _ ( ) * & ^ %
   $ # @ ! ?), minimum 2. No wide characters are allowed, but the
   extended ASCII set is permitted.

   {

      "version":1,

      "min_length":8,

      "max_length":20,

      "numbers":{

        "allowed": true,

        "minimum": 2



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      },

      "lowercase":{

        "allowed": true,

        "minimum": 2

      },

      "uppercase":{

        "allowed": true,

        "minimum": 2

      },

      "special_characters":{

        "allowed": true,

        "valid_characters": "+-_()*&^%$#@!?",

        "minimum": 2

      },

      "wide_characters":{

        "allowed": false,

        "minimum": 0

      },

      "include_extended_ascii": true

   }

3.2.2. Password Recipe Example 1

   The following OPAR password recipe defines a valid password that
   must be at least 6 characters, but no more than 12, with numbers,
   lowercase letters, and uppercase letters only allowed (minimum one
   of each). No special characters, extended ASCII, or wide characters
   are permitted.


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   {

      "version":1,

      "min_length":6,

      "max_length":12,

      "numbers":{

        "allowed": true,

        "minimum": 1

      },

      "lowercase":{

        "allowed": true,

        "minimum": 1

      },

      "uppercase":{

        "allowed": true,

        "minimum": 1

      },

      "special_characters":{

        "allowed": false,

        "valid_characters": null,

        "minimum": 0

      },

      "wide_characters":{

        "allowed": false,

        "minimum": 0


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      },

      "include_extended_ascii": false

   }

4. Security Considerations

   In order for the recipes to be effective, site managers must ensure
   that the recipe promotes the maximum password complexity possible.
   Ideally, two things should happen. Site managers should review
   existing password storage capabilities to maximize the strength of
   new passwords, and recipes should mirror the instructions given to
   users in English on how to construct a secure password.

   Password managers should focus on the largest effective strength of
   password based on the maximum allowed character positions given the
   defined acceptable keyspace (allowed characters) to provide maximum
   password effectiveness[3].

5. IANA Considerations

   No IANA considerations required.

6. Conclusions

   The OPAR Protocol is designed to improve automation and usability of
   password managers used by individuals at large. Through this
   additional automation, users will not have to fight password
   managers and may more readily adopt them as their user experience
   improves.

7. References

7.1. Normative References

   [1]   Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
         Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

7.2. Informative References

   [2]   Gaw, S., & Felten, E. W. (2006, July). Password management
         strategies for online accounts. In Proceedings of the second
         symposium on Usable privacy and security (pp. 44-55). ACM.





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   [3]   O'Gorman, L. (2003). Comparing passwords, tokens, and
         biometrics for user authentication. Proceedings of the IEEE,
         91(12), 2021-2040.

8. Acknowledgments

   Special thanks to Matt Springfield for being a sounding board.

   This document was prepared using 2-Word-v2.0.template.dot.








































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Authors' Addresses
   Branden Williams
   Independent
   2450 Lakeside Parkway
   Suite 150-1026
   Flower Mound TX 75022

   Email: ietf@brandenwilliams.com









































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