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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09                                 
AAA Working Group                                             Jari Arkko
Internet-Draft                                         Oy LM Ericsson Ab
Category: Standards Track                                 Pat R. Calhoun
<draft-calhoun-diameter-accounting-09.txt>        Sun Microsystems, Inc.
                                                               Glen Zorn
                                                     Cisco Systems, Inc.
                                                           February 2001


                     Diameter Accounting Extensions



Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.  Internet-Drafts are working
   documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas,
   and its working groups.  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at
   any time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at:

      http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at:

      http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

   This document is an individual contribution for consideration by the
   AAA Working Group of the Internet Engineering Task Force.  Comments
   should be submitted to the diameter@diameter.org mailing list.

   Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

   Copyright   (C) The Internet Society 2000.  All Rights Reserved.










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Abstract

   The Diameter protocol provides Authentication, Authorization and
   Accounting for network access technologies, such as NASREQ,
   ROAMOPS and Mobile IP. This extension describes how accounting
   records can be securely transmitted over the Diameter protocol.
   When combined with the Strong Security extension, accounting
   records MAY traverse intermediate proxies in a secure fashion and
   is compatible with the referral broker model. This extension
   allows real-time accounting transfers.

Table of Contents

      1.0  Introduction
            1.1  Requirements language
            1.2  Authorization-Server Directed Model
            1.3  Protocol Messages
            1.4  Accounting Info, Usage and Service Specific AVPs
                  1.4.1  Extension document requirements
            1.5  Fault Resilience
            1.6  Session Records
            1.7  Accounting in brokering environments
      2.0  Command-Codes Values
            2.1  Accounting-Request (ACR) Command
            2.2  Accounting-Answer (ACA) Command
            2.3  Accounting-Poll-Ind (ACP) Command
            2.4  Accounting-Status-Ind (ASI) Command
      3.0  Accounting Message Information AVPs
            3.1  Accounting-Record-Type AVP
            3.2  Accounting-Interim-Interval AVP
            3.3  Accounting-Record-Number AVP
            3.4  Accounting-State AVP
            3.5  Accounting-Session-Id AVP
            3.6  Accounting-Authentication-Type AVP
      4.0  Accounting Usage AVPs
            4.1  Accounting-Input-Octets AVP
            4.2  Accounting-Output-Octets AVP
            4.5  Accounting-Session-Time AVP
            4.6  Accounting-Input-Packets AVP
            4.7  Accounting-Output-Packets AVP
      5.0  Result-Code Values
      6.0  IANA Considerations
      7.0  Security Considerations
      8.0  Acknowledgments
      9.0  References
      10.0  Authors' Addresses
      11.0  Full Copyright Statement




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1.0  Introduction

   This accounting protocol is based on an authorization-server directed
   model with capabilities for real-time delivery of accounting
   information. Several fault resilience methods [11] have been built in
   to the protocol in order minimize loss of accounting data in various
   fault situations and under different assumptions about the
   capabilities of the used devices.


1.1  Requirements language

   In this document, the key words "MAY", "MUST", "MUST NOT",
   "optional", "recommended", "SHOULD", and "SHOULD NOT", are to be
   interpreted as described in [6].


1.2  Authorization-Server Directed Model

   The authorization-server directed model means that at authorization
   time, the device generating the accounting data gets information from
   the authorization server regarding the way accounting data shall be
   forwarded. This information includes accounting record timeliness
   requirements.

   As discussed in [11], real-time transfer of accounting records is a
   requirement, such as the need to perform credit limit checks and
   fraud detection. However, [10] states that batch accounting is not a
   current requirement, and is therefore not supported by this
   extension. Should Batched Accounting be required in the future, a new
   Diameter extension will need to be created, or it could be handled
   using another protocol.

   The authorization server (chain) directs the selection of proper
   transfer strategy, based on its knowledge of the user and
   relationships of roaming partnerships. The server (or proxies in
   between) uses the Accounting-Interim-Interval AVP to control the
   operation of the Diameter peer operating as a client. The
   Accounting-Interim-Interval AVP, when present, instructs the Diameter
   node acting as a client to produce accounting records continuously
   even during a session.

   The Extension number for this draft is five (5). This value is used
   in the Extension-Id Attribute value Pair (AVP) as defined in [1].


1.3  Protocol Messages




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   The Diameter peer, acting as a client, generating the accounting data
   will use the Accounting-Request message to send accounting records to
   its peer. The receiver (server) MUST reply with the Accounting-Answer
   message with appropriate confirmations.

   Upon receipt of an Accounting-Request, a home Diameter server MUST
   generate a response. A home server is the node that "owns" the realm
   portion of the user's NAI. The response includes the Result-Code,
   which MAY contain an error if the accounting information is
   incorrect.

   Each Diameter Accounting protocol message MAY be compressed using
   IPComp [12] in order to reduce the used network bandwidth, which MAY
   use IKE [7] to negotiate the compression parameters.


1.4  Accounting Info, Usage and Service Specific AVPs

   There are three separate type of classes of Accounting AVPs;
   Informational, Usage and Service-Specific. The first two are
   specified in this document, while Service-Specific AVPs are described
   in service-specific extension documents. Informational Accounting
   AVPs are used describe the accounting message, including numbering,
   the type of record, interim accounting intervals, etc.  The
   Accounting Usage AVPs, on the other hand, describe usage information
   for a given session, and are described in section 4.0.


1.4.1  Extension document requirements

   Each Service-Specific Diameter extension (e.g. NASREQ, MobileIP),
   MUST define their Service-Specific AVPs that MUST be present in the
   Accounting-Request message in a section entitled "Accounting
   Considerations". The extension MUST assume that the AVPs described in
   this document will be present in all Accounting messages, so only
   their respective service-specific AVPs need to be defined in this
   section.


1.5  Fault Resilience

   Diameter Base protocol [11] mechanisms are used to overcome small
   message loss and network faults of temporary nature.

   Diameter peers acting as clients MUST implement the use of alternate
   servers to guard against server failures and certain network
   failures. Diameter peers acting as servers or related off-line
   processing systems MUST detect duplicate accounting records caused by



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   the sending of same record to several servers and duplication of
   messages in transit. This detection MUST be based on the inspection
   of the Session-Id [1] and Accounting-Record-Number AVP pairs.

   Diameter clients MAY have non-volatile memory for the safe storage of
   accounting records over reboots or extended network failures, network
   partitions, and server failures.  If such memory is available the
   client SHOULD store new accounting records there as soon as the
   records are created and until a positive acknowledgement of their
   reception from the Diameter Server has been received. Upon a reboot,
   the client MUST starting sending the records in the non-volatile
   memory to the accounting server with appropriate modifications in
   termination cause, session length, and other relevant information in
   the records.

   A further extension of this protocol may include AVPs to control how
   many accounting records may at most be stored in the Diameter client
   without committing them to the non-volatile memory or transferring
   them to the Diameter server.

   The client SHOULD NOT remove the accounting data from any of its
   memory areas before the correct Accounting-Answer has been received.
   The client MAY remove oldest, undelivered or yet unacknowledged
   accounting data if it runs out of resources such as memory. It is an
   implementation dependent matter for the client to accept new sessions
   under this condition.


1.6  Session Records

   In all accounting records the Session-Id and User-Name AVPs MUST be
   present. If strong authentication is required, as described in [9],
   the CMS-Data AVP may be used to authenticate the Accounting Data and
   Service Specific AVPs. It is not typically necessary, nor
   recommended, that the strong authentication cover any additional AVPs
   since the Data and Service Specific AVP, and associated CMS-Data, MAY
   need to be submitted to a third party (see section 1.7 below).

   Different types of session records are sent depending on the actual
   type of accounted service and the authorization server's directions
   for interim accounting. If the accounted service is a one-time event,
   meaning that the start and stop of the event are simultaneous, then
   the Accounting-Record-Type AVP MUST be present and set to the value
   EVENT_RECORD.

   If the accounted service is of a measurable length, then the AVP MUST
   use the values START_RECORD, STOP_RECORD, and possibly,
   INTERIM_RECORD.  If the authorization server has directed interim



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   accounting to be enabled for the session, but no interim interval was
   specified, two accounting records MUST be generated for each service
   of type session.  When the initial Accounting-Request is sent for a
   given session is sent, the Accounting-Record-Type AVP MUST be set to
   the value START_RECORD. When the last Accounting-Request is sent, the
   value MUST be STOP_RECORD.

   If a specified interim interval exists, the Diameter client MUST
   produce additional records between the START_RECORD and STOP_RECORD,
   marked INTERIM_RECORD. The production of these records is directed
   both by Accounting-Interim-Interval as well as any re-authentication
   or re-authorization of the session.  The Diameter client MUST
   overwrite any previous interim accounting records that are locally
   stored for delivery, if a new record is being generated for the same
   session. This ensures that only one pending interim record can exist
   on a NAS for any given session.


1.7  Accounting in brokering environments

   The Diameter base protocol [1] describes brokers that provide
   redirect services, by allowing AAA servers within a roaming
   consortium to directly communicate. Referral services can be secured
   using the strong security extension defined in [9]. Since brokers can
   also provide settlement services, they typically need to be aware of
   the accounting information exchange, and since they are no longer
   part of the message exchange, the Diameter protocol MUST allow the
   broker to receive the accounting record.  The strong security [9]
   provides the broker with the assurances it needs that both parties
   agreed with the accounting information submitted.

   When the local AAA server issues an Accounting-Request to the home
   AAA server, it includes accounting usage and service specific AVPs as
   well as a CMS-Data AVP [9], which contains the signature of the local
   AAA server. The home server MUST add it's own signature to the CMS-
   Data AVP, that covers both the same AVPs as above and the local AAA's
   signature.  The whole is submitted to the local AAA server in the
   Accounting-Answer.  The local AAA server MUST submit the accounting
   AVPs, and associated CMS-Data AVP to the broker. The broker can
   verify that both parties participated and accepted the accounting
   record, by validating the signatures.


2.0  Command-Codes Values

   This section defines new Command-Code [1] values that MUST be
   supported by all Diameter implementations that conform to this
   specification. The following Command Codes are currently defined in



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   this document:

      Command-Name             Abbrev.    Code       Reference
      --------------------------------------------------------
      Accounting-Answer         ACA       272           2.2
      Accounting-Poll-Ind       ACP       273           2.4
      Accounting-Request        ACR       271           2.1
      Accounting-Status-Ind     ASI       279           2.3



2.1  Accounting-Request (ACR) Command

   The Accounting-Request command, indicated by the Command-Code field
   set to 271, is sent by a Diameter node, acting as a client, in order
   to exchange accounting information with a peer.

   When the Accounting-Request is being submitted to a broker, and
   includes the CMS-Data AVP [9], the CMS-Data AVP MUST be signed by
   both the local and home Diameter server using the countersignature
   procedures described in [9].

   The AVP listed below SHOULD include service specific accounting AVPs,
   as described in section 1.4.

   Message Format

      <Accounting-Request> ::= < Diameter Header: 271 >
                               { Session-Id }
                               { Host-Name }
                               { Accounting-Record-Type }
                               { Accounting-Record-Number }
                               [ Accounting-Interim-Interval ]
                               [ Accounting-State ]
                               { Accounting-Session-Id }
                               { Accounting-Authentication-Type }
                               { Accounting-Input-Octets }
                               { Accounting-Output-Octets }
                               { Accounting-Session-Time }
                               { Accounting-Input-Packets }
                               { Accounting-Output-Packets }
                             * [ AVP ]
                               [ CMS-Data ]
                             * [ Proxy-State ]
                             * [ Route-Record ]
                             * [ Routing-Realm ]
                            0*1< Integrity-Check-Value >




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2.2  Accounting-Answer (ACA) Command

   The Accounting-Answer command, indicated by the Command-Code field
   set to 272, is used to acknowledge an Accounting-Request command. The
   Accounting-Answer command contains the same Session-Id and MAY
   contains the same Accounting Description and Usage AVPs that were
   sent in the Accounting-Request command. If the CMS-Data AVP was
   present in the Accounting-Request, the corresponding ACA message MUST
   include the CMS-Data AVP signed by the responder to provide strong
   AVP authentication, which MAY be used for the purposes of
   repudiation.

   Only the target Diameter Server, known as the home Diameter Server,
   SHOULD respond with the Accounting-Answer command. However, if a
   Diameter node in the proxy chain stores the accounting records for
   submission to the home network in batched mode, it MUST respond to
   the request.

   The AVP listed below SHOULD include service specific accounting AVPs,
   as described in section 1.4.

   Message Format

      <Accounting-Answer> ::= < Diameter Header: 272 >
                              { Session-Id }
                              { Result-Code }
                              { Host-Name }
                              { Accounting-Record-Type }
                              { Accounting-Record-Number }
                              { Accounting-Session-Id }
                              [ Accounting-Interim-Interval ]
                              [ Accounting-State ]
                              [ Accounting-Authentication-Type ]
                              [ Accounting-Input-Octets ]
                              [ Accounting-Output-Octets ]
                              [ Accounting-Session-Time ]
                              [ Accounting-Input-Packets ]
                              [ Accounting-Output-Packets ]
                            * [ AVP ]
                              [ CMS-Data ]
                            * [ Proxy-State ]
                            * [ Route-Record ]
                            * [ Routing-Realm ]
                           0*1< Integrity-Check-Value >


2.3  Accounting-Status-Ind (ASI) Command




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   The Accounting-Status-Ind command, indicated by the Command-Code
   field set to 279, is sent by a Diameter node in order to inform its
   peer of whether Accounting messages will be sent in the future. A
   Diameter node that is about to be taken out of service SHOULD issue
   an Accounting-Status-Ind message, with the Accounting-State AVP set
   to DISABLED. A Diameter node that detected that it is able to issue
   Accounting messages MUST issue an Accounting-Status-Ind message, with
   the Accounting-State AVP set to ENABLED.

   Message Format

      <Accounting-Status-Ind> ::= <Diameter Header: 279 >
                                  { Host-Name }
                                  { Accounting-State }
                                * [ AVP ]
                                * [ Proxy-State ]
                                * [ Route-Record ]
                                * [ Routing-Realm ]
                               0*1< Integrity-Check-Value >


2.3  Accounting-Poll-Ind (ACP) Command

   The Accounting-Poll-Ind command, indicated by the Command-Code field
   set to 273, is sent by a Diameter Server in order to force the peer
   to send current accounting data. This data MUST include not yet sent
   accounting records from completed sessions, as well as INTERIM_RECORD
   records from all ongoing sessions.

   Diameter implementations MAY support the Accounting-Poll-Ind command.
   An implementation still conforms to this specification if ACP is not
   supported.

   The receiver MUST use the Accounting-Request command to send the
   accounting data.

   The use of Accounting-Poll-Ind is useful in situations where a
   Diameter server comes up after an unscheduled downtime, and wishes to
   synchronize with the client(s) sooner than at the end of the next
   INTERIM_RECORD or at the end of a session.

   Warning: The use of the Accounting-Poll-Ind message is discouraged in
   roaming networks, since it is unfeasible for a server to attempt to
   poll all of it's roaming partner's Diameter peers.







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   Message Format

      <Accounting-Poll-Ind> ::= <Diameter Header: 273 >
                                { Session-Id }
                                { Host-Name }
                                { Accounting-Session-Id }
                                [ Destination-NAI ]
                              * [ AVP ]
                              * [ Proxy-State ]
                              * [ Route-Record ]
                              * [ Routing-Realm ]
                             0*1< Integrity-Check-Value >


3.0  Accounting Message Information AVPs

   The following table describes the Diameter AVPs defined in the
   Accounting extension, their AVP Code values, types, possible flag
   values and whether the AVP MAY be encrypted.

                                            +---------------------+
                                            |    AVP Flag rules   |
                                            |----+-----+----+-----|----+
                   AVP  Section             |    |     |SHLD| MUST|MAY |
   Attribute Name  Code Defined  Value Type |MUST| MAY | NOT|  NOT|Encr|
   -----------------------------------------|----+-----+----+-----|----|
   Accounting-       45  3.6     Unsigned32 | M  |  P  |    |  V  | Y  |
     Authentication-Type                    |    |     |    |     |    |
   Accounting-      482  3.2     Unsigned32 | M  |  P  |    |  V  | Y  |
     Interim-Interval                       |    |     |    |     |    |
   Accounting-      485  3.3     Unsigned32 | M  |  P  |    |  V  | Y  |
     Record-Number                          |    |     |    |     |    |
   Accounting-      480  3.1     Unsigned32 | M  |  P  |    |  V  | Y  |
     Record-Type                            |    |     |    |     |    |
   Accounting-       44  3.5     OctetString| M  |  P  |    |  V  | Y  |
     Session-Id                             |    |     |    |     |    |
   Accounting-State 486  3.4     Unsigned32 | M  |  P  |    |  V  | Y  |


3.1  Accounting-Record-Type AVP

   The Accounting-Record-Type AVP (AVP Code 480) is of type Unsigned32
   and contains the type of accounting record being sent. The following
   values are currently defined for the Accounting-Record-Type AVP:

      EVENT_RECORD                    1
         An Accounting Event Record is used to indicate that a one-time
         event has occurred (meaning that the start and end of the event



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         are simultaneous).  This record contains all information
         relevant to the service, and is the only record of the service.

      START_RECORD                    2
         An Accounting Start, Interim, and Stop Records are used to
         indicate that a service of a measurable length has been given.
         An Accounting Start Record is used to initiate an accounting
         session, and contains accounting information that is relevant
         to the initiation of the session.

      INTERIM_RECORD                  3
         An Interim Accounting Record contains cumulative accounting
         information for an existing accounting session. Interim
         Accounting Records SHOULD be sent every time a re-
         authentication or re-authorization occurs.  Further, additional
         interim record triggers MAY be defined by application-specific
         Diameter extensions. The selection of whether to use
         INTERIM_RECORD records is directed by the Accounting-Interim-
         Interval AVP.

      STOP_RECORD                     4
         An Accounting Stop Record is sent to terminate an accounting
         session and contains cumulative accounting information relevant
         to the existing session.


3.2  Accounting-Interim-Interval AVP

   The Accounting-Interim-Interval AVP (AVP Code 482) is of type
   Unsigned32 and is sent from the Diameter authenticating/authorizing
   server to the Diameter client. The client uses information in this
   AVP to decide how and when to produce accounting records. With
   different values in this AVP, service sessions can result in one,
   two, or two+N accounting records, based on the needs of the home-
   organization. The following accounting record production behaviour is
   directed by the inclusion of this AVP:

      1. The omission of the Accounting-Interim-Interval AVP or its
         inclusion with Value field set to 0 means that EVENT_RECORD,
         START_RECORD, and STOP_RECORD are produced, as appropriate for
         the service.

      2. The inclusion of the AVP with Value field set to a non-zero
         value means that INTERIM_RECORD records MUST be produced
         between the START_RECORD and STOP_RECORD records.  The Value
         field of this AVP is the nominal interval between these records
         in seconds. The Diameter node that originates the accounting
         information, known as the client, MUST produce the first



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         INTERIM_RECORD record roughly at the time when this nominal
         interval has elapsed from the START_RECORD, the next one again
         as the interval has elapsed once more, and so on until the
         session ends and a STOP_RECORD record is produced.

         The client MUST ensure that the interim record production times
         are randomized so that large accounting message storms are not
         created either among records or around a common service start
         time.


3.3  Accounting-Record-Number AVP

   The Accounting-Record-Number AVP (AVP Code 485) is of type Unsigned32
   and identifies this record within one session. As Session-Id AVPs are
   globally unique, the combination of Session-Id and Accounting-
   Record-Number AVPs is also globally unique, and can be used in
   matching accounting records with confirmations.  An easy way to
   produce unique numbers is to set the value to 0 for records of type
   EVENT_RECORD and START_RECORD, and set the value to 1 for the first
   INTERIM_RECORD, 2 for the second, and so on until the value for
   STOP_RECORD is one more than for the last INTERIM_RECORD.


3.4  Accounting-State AVP

   The Accounting-State AVP (AVP Code 486) is of type Unsigned32 and is
   used to communicate to a peer whether Accounting messages will be
   sent in the future. A node that issues an ASI with the Accounting-
   State AVP set to DISABLED is informing its peer that it will no
   longer be transmitting Accounting messages until a subsequent ASI
   message is sent with the Accounting-State AVP set to ENABLED.

   The following values have been defined:
      1      ENABLED
      2      DISABLED


3.5  Accounting-Session-Id AVP

   The Accounting-Session-Id AVP (AVP Code 44) is of type OctetString,
   and SHOULD be encoded in UTF-8 format. The Accounting-Session-Id is
   not used by the Diameter protocol, since the Session-Id defined in
   [1] is used for both authentication/authorization and accounting
   purposes.  However, a RADIUS/Diameter gateway MAY need to include the
   Accounting-Session-Id in Diameter accounting messages.





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3.6  Accounting-Authentication-Type AVP

   The Accounting-Authentication-Type AVP (AVP Code 45) is of type
   Unsigned32, and specifies how the user was authenticated. The
   following values are supported:
      1      RADIUS
      2      Local
      3      Remote
      4      Diameter


4.0  Accounting Usage AVPs

   This section contains AVPs that describe accounting usage information
   related to a specific session.

                                            +---------------------+
                                            |    AVP Flag rules   |
                                            |----+-----+----+-----|----+
                   AVP  Section             |    |     |SHLD| MUST|MAY |
   Attribute Name  Code Defined  Value Type |MUST| MAY | NOT|  NOT|Encr|
   -----------------------------------------|----+-----+----+-----|----|
   Accounting-       42  4.1     Unsigned32 | M  |  P  |    |  V  | Y  |
     Input-Octets                           |    |     |    |     |    |
   Accounting-       47  4.4     Unsigned32 | M  |  P  |    |  V  | Y  |
     Input-Packets                          |    |     |    |     |    |
   Accounting-       43  4.2     Unsigned32 | M  |  P  |    |  V  | Y  |
     Output-Octets                          |    |     |    |     |    |
   Accounting-       48  4.5     Unsigned32 | M  |  P  |    |  V  | Y  |
     Output-Packets                         |    |     |    |     |    |
   Accounting-       46  4.3     Unsigned32 | M  |  P  |    |  V  | Y  |
     Session-Time                           |    |     |    |     |    |


4.1  Accounting-Input-Octets AVP

   The Accounting-Input-Octets AVP (AVP Code 42) is of type Unsigned64,
   and contains the number of octets in IP packets received by the user.


4.2  Accounting-Output-Octets AVP

   The Accounting-Output-Octets AVP (AVP Code 43) is of type Unsigned64,
   and contains the number of octets in IP packets sent to the user.


4.3  Accounting-Session-Time AVP




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   The Accounting-Session-Time AVP (AVP Code 46) is of type Unsigned32,
   and indicates the length of the current session in seconds.


4.4  Accounting-Input-Packets AVP

   The Accounting-Input-Packets (AVP Code 47) is of type Unsigned64, and
   contains the number of IP packets received by the user.


4.5  Accounting-Output-Packets AVP

   The Accounting-Output-Packets (AVP Code 48) is of type Unsigned64,
   and contains the number of IP packets sent to the user.


5.0  Result-Code Values

   Errors defined in this section indicates a particular type of failure
   in the accounting data transfer process. Diameter clients MAY use
   this information in deciding a retransmission strategy after the
   error has happened. For instance, an out of space condition isn't
   typically recovered very soon, so a Diameter node might wait longer
   for the next retry than after network or server outage.

      DIAMETER_OUT_OF_SPACE           4007
         A Diameter node received the accounting request but was unable
         to commit it to stable storage due to a temporary lack of
         space.


6.0  IANA Considerations

   The command codes defined in Section 2.0 are values taken from the
   Command-Code [1] address space and extended in [2], [3] and [9].
   IANA should record the values as defined in Section 2.0.

   The AVPs defined in section 3.0 and 5.0 were alllocated from from the
   AVP numbering space defined in [1], and extended in [2], [3] and [9].
   IANA should record the values as defined in Section 3.0.

   This document introduces the Accounting-Record-Type AVP, which
   contains pre-defined values. This document defines the values 1-3.
   All remaining values are available for assignment via a Designated
   Expert [8].


7.0  Security Considerations



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   This Diameter extension assumes that the accounting data is secured
   either through a hop-by-hop authentication mechanism, as described in
   [1], or using a strong authentication mechanism as defined in [9].


8.0  Acknowledgments

   The authors would like to thank Nenad Trifunovic, Tony Johansson and
   Pankaj Patel for their participation in the Document Reading Party.
   Thanks to the various people that have contributed to accounting
   related requirements at the IETF's AAA Working Group and other
   related WGs.


9.0  References


   [1]  P. Calhoun, A. Rubens, H. Akhtar, E. Guttman.  "Diameter Base
        Protocol", draft-calhoun-diameter-18.txt, IETF work in progress,
        January 2001.

   [2]  P. Calhoun, W. Bulley, A. Rubens, J. Haag.  "Diameter NASREQ
        Extension", draft-calhoun-diameter-nasreq-06.txt, IETF work in
        progress, January 2001.

   [3]  P. Calhoun, C. Perkins. "Diameter Mobile IP Extension", draft-
        calhoun-diameter-mobileip-12.txt, IETF work in progress, January
        2001.

   [4]  C. Rigney, A. Rubens, W. Simpson, S. Willens, "Remote Authenti-
        cation Dial In User Service (RADIUS)." RFC 2138, April 1997.

   [5]  C. Rigney, "RADIUS Accounting." RFC 2139,  April 1997.

   [6]  S. Bradner, "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
        Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [7]  D. Harkins, D. Carrel, "The Internet Key Exchange (IKE)", RFC
        2409, November 1998.

   [8]  Narten, Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considera-
        tions Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 2434, October 1998

   [9]  P. Calhoun, W. Bulley, S. Farrell, "Diameter Strong Security
        Extension", draft-calhoun-diameter-strong-crypto-06.txt, IETF
        work in progress, January 2001.

   [10] J. Arkko, P. Calhoun, E. Guttman, B. Nelson, B. Wolff, "AAA



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        Solutions", draft-ietf-aaa-solutions-01.txt, IETF work in pro-
        gress, November 2000.

   [11] B. Aboba, J. Arkko, D. Harrington. "Introduction to Accounting
        Management", draft-ietf-aaa-acct-06.txt, IETF work in progress,
        June 2000.

   [12] A. Shacham, R. Monsour, R. Pereira, M. Thomas, "IP Payload
        Compression Protocol (IPComp)", RFC 2393, December 1998.


10.0  Authors' Addresses

   Questions about this memo can be directed to:

      Jari Arkko
      Oy LM Ericsson Ab
      02420 Jorvas
      Finland

       Phone: +358 40 5079256
      E-Mail: Jari.Arkko@ericsson.com


      Pat R. Calhoun
      Network and Security Research Center, Sun Labs
      Sun Microsystems, Inc.
      15 Network Circle
      Menlo Park, California, 94025
      USA

       Phone:  +1 650-786-7733
         Fax:  +1 650-786-6445
      E-mail:  pcalhoun@eng.sun.com


      Glen Zorn
      Cisco Systems, Inc.
      500 108th Avenue N.E., Suite 500
      Bellevue, WA 98004
      USA

       Phone:  +1 425 438 8218
      E-Mail:  gwz@cisco.com


11.0  Full Copyright Statement




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   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2001).  All Rights Reserved.

   This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
   others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
   or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
   and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
   kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
   included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this docu-
   ment itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing the
   copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
   Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of develop-
   ing Internet standards in which case the procedures for copyrights
   defined in the Internet Standards process must be followed, or as
   required to translate it into languages other than English. The lim-
   ited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be revoked
   by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns. This document
   and the information contained herein is provided on an "AS IS" basis
   and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DIS-
   CLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
   TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT
   INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR
   FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


12.0  Expiration Date

   This memo is filed as <draft-calhoun-diameter-accounting-09.txt> and
   expires in July 2001.























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