Network Working Group                                       B. Carpenter
Internet-Draft                                         Univ. of Auckland
Intended status: Informational                                  S. Jiang
Expires: August 27, 2011                    Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd
                                                                  Z. Cao
                                                       February 23, 2011

                     Problem Statement for Referral


   The purpose of a referral is to enable a given entity in a multiparty
   Internet application to pass information to another party.  It
   enables a communication initiator to be aware of relevant information
   of its destination entity before launching the communication.  This
   memo discusses the problems involved in referral scenarios.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
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   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
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   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 27, 2011.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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   ( in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must

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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   3.  Goals of Referral  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     3.1.  Reachability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     3.2.  Path Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
       3.2.1.  An Example: Triangle Path Optimization . . . . . . . .  4
     3.3.  Interface Selection  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   4.  Problem Statement  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     4.1.  IP Addresses are not sufficient  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     4.2.  FQDNs are not sufficient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     4.3.  Relevant Information is lacking  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     4.4.  Extra complexity from ID-Locator Split Mechanisms  . . . .  9
   5.  A Generic Referral Mechanism is needed . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   6.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   7.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   8.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   9.  Change log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   10. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

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1.  Introduction

   A frequently occurring situation is that one entity A connected to
   the Internet (or to some private network using the Internet protocol
   suite) needs to be aware of the information of another entity B in
   order to reach it.  The information can be obtained from B itself or
   some third-party entity C. This is known as a referral.

   Referral is the act whereby one entity informs another entity how to
   contact a specific entity.  It enables a communication initiator to
   be aware of relevant information of its destination entity in order
   to launch a communication channel.  This referral information can be
   obtained through an existing communication channel between these two
   entities or from thrid-party entities.

   In the original design of the Internet, IP addresses were global,
   unique, and quasi-permanent.  Also any differentiation beyond that
   provided by an IP address was done by protocol and port numbers.
   Referrals were therefore performed simply by passing an IP address
   and possibly protocol and port numbers.  In fact simple referrals
   (the first case above, sometimes called first-party referrals) were
   never needed since A could simply use B's address.  Third-party
   referrals were trivial: C would tell A about B's address.  Thus, it
   became common practice to pass raw addresses between entities.  A
   classical example is the FTP PORT command [RFC0959].

2.  Terminology

   This document makes use of the following terms:
   o  "Entity": we use this rather than "application" to describe any
      software component embedded in an Internet host, not just a
      specific application, that sends, receives or makes use of
      referrals.  Also, in case of dynamic load sharing or failover, an
      entity might even migrate between hosts.
   o  "Referral": the act of one entity informing another entity how to
      contact a specific entity.
   o  "Reference": the actual data (name, address, identitifier,
      locator, pointer, etc.) that is the basis of a referral.
   o  "Referring entity": the entity that sends a referral.
   o  "Receiving entity": the entity that receives a referral.
   o  "Referenced entity": the target entity of a reference.
   o  "Scope": the region or regions of the Internet within which a
      given reference is applicable to reach the referenced entity.

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3.  Goals of Referral

   The principal purpose of referral is to enable one entity in a multi-
   party application to pass information to another party involved in
   the same application.  This document makes no assumptions about
   whether the entities are acting as clients, servers, peers, super-
   nodes, relays, proxies, etc., as far as the application is concerned.
   Neither does it take a position as to how the various entities become
   aware of the need to send a referral; this depends entirely on the
   structure of the application.

3.1.  Reachability

   The primary goals of referral is to enable a communication initiator
   to reach its destination entity.  Referral is a best effort
   mechanism.  It does not guarantee actual reachability, since the
   referring entity has no general way of knowing which paths exist
   between the receiving entity and the referenced entity.  Even if a
   reference is theoretically in scope, and within its defined lifetime,
   it may have become unreachable since it was sent.  A receiving entity
   should always be prepared for reachability failures and associated
   retry and failover mechanisms, which are out of scope for the
   referral mechanism itself.

3.2.  Path Selection

   A reference might carry multiple references for the same target.
   These may lead to multiple possible paths from the receiving entity
   to the referenced entity.  This scenario is particularly generic when
   the destination or/and source entity has multiple interfaces or is

   The referring entity is not likely to know which path is best.  The
   receiving entity will need to make a choice, possibly by local policy
   (e.g.  [RFC3484]) or possibly by trial and error (e.g.  [RFC4038],
   [RFC5534]).  This choice is also out of scope for the referral
   mechanism itself.

3.2.1.  An Example: Triangle Path Optimization

   In application scenarios, the triangular path shown below is common.
   Both Host A and Host B connect to an application server and the
   application server forwards traffic as a relay agent.  A slightly
   more complicated scenario is when the two hosts connect to different
   application servers individually and application servers talk to each
   other's relay agents.  In SIP, this is often called the "SIP

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                 |      application server      |
                   /                         \
                  |                          |
                  |   referral information   |
                  |                          |
                  |                          |
                +-+-+                      +-+-+
                | A +----------------------+ B |
                +---+ direct communication +---+

   By passing A's reference to B, B can try to communicate directly with
   A, using the communication line at the bottom.  If the direct
   communication is established successfully, the triangle path gets
   optimized.  Both the application server and network bandwidth can be
   benefit from this operation.

3.3.  Interface Selection

   We also encounter multi-interfaced hosts whose reachability is bound
   to a particular (logical/physical) interface.  More information is
   required to indicate which interface may be used under different
   circumstances.  The multi-interface problem is defined and studied by
   the IETF MIF WG.  Here referral can provide host A's multi-interface
   information to host B; accordingly, host B can select one of the
   interfaces to establish a connection.

             +------------+      Path 1    +------------+
             |Interface A1+----------------+Interface B1|
             |   Host A   |                |   Host B   |
             |Interface A2|----------------+Interface B2|
             +------------+      Path 2    +-----------+

   For example, as shown in the above figure, Host A has connected to
   Host B through Path 1.  They can exchange references through Path 1.
   They may disciver that Path 2, using different interfaces, is better
   than Path 1, maybe cheaper, faster or more stable.  Then, they can
   switch to Path 2.  For example, Host A has interface A1 as broadband
   access, almost free; and interface A2 is 3G access, which costs 0.1 $
   per MB.  Both of them are avaible for incoming connections.  If this
   information is passed to host B, through referral, then host B should
   choose the A1 interface to reach host A. Such information is useful
   to express a host's status or preference.

   In order to choose between different interfaces, not only the
   connectivity information of these interfaces, but also some additonal

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   information may be helpful, such as bandwidth, financial cost,
   latency, etc.  This additional information may also be provided
   through referral.  However, this additional information, even if
   accurate when sent by the referring entity, may nevertheless be
   invalid at the location of the receiving entity.

4.  Problem Statement

   Unfortunately, the simple approach to referrals, passing an IP
   address, often fails in today's Internet.  As has been known for some
   time [RFC2101], hosts' IP addresses no longer all have global scope.
   They often have limited reachability, and may have limited lifetime.
   They are not sufficient to establish communication in many cases of
   dynamic referrals, for a variety of reasons.  FQDNs may be used
   instead in some scenarios.  However, FQDNs also have their own
   limitations and may fail in some scenarios.

4.1.  IP Addresses are not sufficient

   It is no longer reasonable to assume that a host with a fixed
   location has a fixed IP address, or even a stable IP address.

   Furthermore, in the context of IPv4 address exhaustion, several
   solutions have emerged to share a single public IPv4 address between
   several customers simultaneously.  Consequently, a public IPv4
   address often no longer identifies a single customer/user/host, while
   a private IPv4 address is meaningless out of the private network
   scope.  Other information (e.g., port range) is required to identify
   unambiguously a given customer/user/host.  Both IP addresses and port
   numbers may be different on either side of a NAT or some other
   middlebox [RFC3234], and firewalls may block them.  It is no longer
   reasonable to assume that an IP address for a host, which allows a
   given peer to reach that host in one location, also works from a
   different location - even if that host is reachable from the second

   Also, the Internet now has two co-existing address formats for IPv4
   and IPv6.  Direct communication can only be established when both
   peers use the same IP version.  Having the address of the source and
   destination in the same IP version does not necessarily mean that the
   path will be using that IP version.  Simple approaches may cause
   unnecessary double translation [I-D.boucadair-softwire-cgn-bypass].
   Some addresses may even be the result of translation between IPv4 and
   IPv6, with severe limitations on their scope and lifetime.  Sending
   an out-of-scope or expired address, or one of the wrong format, as a
   referral will fail.

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   A specific problem of this kind may be caused by NAT64
   [I-D.ietf-behave-v6v4-xlate-stateful].  If an IPv6-only host behind a
   NAT64 obtains a synthetic IPv6 address for an IPv4-only host, it can
   communicate successfully via the NAT64.  However, if the synthetic
   address is referred to another IPv6 host, it may or may not work
   correctly.  We can consider four cases:

   1.  If the receiving entity is behind the same NAT64 as the referring
       entity, all should be well.
   2.  If the referring entity and the receiving entity are behind
       different NAT64 devices, both using the defined Well Known Prefix
       [RFC6052], all should be well, because the same synthetic address
       will work in both cases.
   3.  If the receiving entity is behind a different NAT64 that uses a
       Network Specific Prefix [RFC6052], the synthetic address will be
       meaningless and communication will fail.  The only way to avoid
       this failure is for the original NAT64's Network Specific Prefix
       to be globally reachable, which seems highly unlikely for
       operational and security reasons.
   4.  If the receiving entity is a dual stack node that is not behind a
       NAT64, the synthetic address will be meaningless.  Although there
       is an IPv4 path to the target host, the receiving entity will not
       know how to find it.  Again, the only way to avoid this failure
       is for the original NAT64's prefix to be globally reachable.

   In the last two cases, even if connectivity failure is avoided, the
   path taken by the packets will be far from optimal, traversing the
   original NAT64.

   IP addresses today may have an implied "context" (VPN, VoIP VC, IP
   TV, etc.): the reachability of such an address depends on that

   An implication of these issues is that there is no clean definition
   of the scope of an address (especially an IPv4 address, due to the
   prevalence of NAT).  It is impossible to determine algorithmically,
   by inspecting the bits of an address, what its scope of reachability
   is.  Resolving this problem would greatly clarify the general problem
   of referrals.

4.2.  FQDNs are not sufficient

   In some cases, this problem may be readily solved by passing a Fully
   Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) instead of an IP address.  Indeed, that
   is an architecturally preferred solution [RFC1958].  However, it is
   not sufficient in many cases of dynamic referrals.  Experience shows
   that an application cannot use a domain name in order to reliably
   find usable address(es) of an arbitrary peer.  Domain names work

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   fairly well to find the addresses of public servers, as in web
   servers or SMTP servers, because operators of such servers take pains
   to make sure that their domain names work.  But DNS records are not
   as reliably maintained for arbitrary hosts such as might need to be
   contacted in peer-to-peer applications, or for servers within
   corporate networks.  Many small networks do not even maintain DNS
   entries for their hosts, and for some networks that do list local
   hosts in DNS, the listings may well be unusable from a remote
   location, because of two-faced DNS, or because the A record contains
   a private address.  These cases may even be intentional as part of a
   security ring-fence, where only resolves within the
   corporate boundary, and/or resolves to IP addresses which are only
   reachable within the corporate administrative boundaries.  In such
   contexts, incoming connections are usually filtered by the corporate

   An additional issue with FQDNs is the very common situation where
   multiple hosts are hidden behind a NAT, but they share one FQDN which
   is in fact a dummy name, created automatically by the ISP so that
   reverse DNS lookup will succeed for the NAT's public IPv4 address.
   Such FQDNs are useless for identifying specific hosts.

   Furthermore, an FQDN may not be sufficient to establish successful
   communications involving heterogeneous peers (i.e., IPv4 and IPv6)
   since A and AAAA records may not be consistently provisioned.  There
   are known cases where a server has one name that produces an A record
   (e.g., and another name that produces an AAAA record
   (e.g.,  An additional complication is that some
   answers from DNS may be synthetic IP addresses, e.g., AAAA records
   sent by DNS64.  The host may have no means to detect that such an
   address represents an IPv4 host.  These addresses should not be
   interpreted as native IPv6 address.

   In such cases, an IP address either cannot be derived from an FQDN,
   or if so derived, cannot be accessed from an arbitrary location in
   the Internet.

   A related problem is that an application does not have a reliable way
   of knowing its own domain name - or to be more precise, a way of
   knowing a domain name that will allow the application to be reached
   from another location.

   There are wider systemic problems with the DNS as a reliable way to
   find a usable address, which are somewhat out of scope here, but can
   be summarised:
   o  In large networks, it is now quite common that the DNS
      administrator is out of touch with the applications user or
      administrator, and as a result, that the DNS is out of sync with

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   o  DNS was never designed to accommodate mobile or roaming hosts,
      whose locator may change rapidly.
   o  DNS has never been satisfactorily adapted to isolated,
      transiently-connected, or ad hoc networks.
   o  It is no longer reasonable to assume that all addresses associated
      with a DNS name are bound to a single host.  One result is that
      the DNS name might suffice for an initial connection, but a
      specific address is needed to rebind to the same peer, say, to
      recover from a broken connection.
   o  It is no longer reasonable to assume that a DNS query will return
      all usable addresses for a host.
   o  Hosts may be identified by a different URI per service: no unique
      URI scheme, meaning no single FQDN, will apply.

   For all the above reasons, the problem of address referrals cannot be
   solved simply by recommending the use of FQDNs instead.  The
   guideline in [RFC1958] is in fact too simple for today's network.
   Something more elaborate than an IP address or an FQDN appears to be
   needed in the general case of application referrals.

4.3.  Relevant Information is lacking

   Neither an IP address nor an FQDN gives complete information about
   the referenced entity.  For example, IP addresses normally have
   associated lifetimes (derived from DHCP, SLAAC or the relevant DNS
   TTL), so they should be treated as invalid after their lifetimes
   expire.  A referral that does not convey the lifetime associated with
   an address is problematic.  As mentioned above, the scope of a
   reference also affects its usefulness.  These are examples of
   additional information that is necessary to correctly interpret a
   referral; therefore part of the problem is conveying such information
   along with the reference.

4.4.  Extra complexity from ID-Locator Split Mechanisms

   Additional complexity for referrals would come from the deployment of
   any technology that separates locators from identifiers, rather than
   combining the two as an IP address.  Since a very wide range of such
   solutions have been proposed (e.g.  HIP, LISP, ILNP and Name-based
   Sockets) [I-D.ubillos-name-based-sockets], it is difficult to define
   the resulting problems precisely.

   However, to consider the example of Name-based Sockets, if a referral
   was made based on the IP address being used at a given instant for a
   Name-based Socket, that address might be useless by the time the
   referral was completed, because the socket suddenly migrated to a
   different IP address.

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   The SHIM6 protocol [RFC5533] and the Multiple Interfaces (MIF)
   Working Group may produce similar difficulties, since they also
   consider scenarios where the IP address in use for some purpose may
   change unexpectedly.

   Any referral mechanism must be able to deal with situations where the
   locator corresponding to a given identifier is subject to change.

5.  A Generic Referral Mechanism is needed

   The first motivation is the observation that unless the parties
   involved have reached an understanding about the scope, lifetime, and
   format of the elements in a referral through some other means, that
   information must be passed with the referral.  This is required so
   that the receiving entity can determine whether or not the referral
   is useful.  The referral therefore needs to consist of a fully-
   fledged data structure, or to be made using a mutually agreed
   referral protocol.

   When an attempt to establish a communication channel based on certain
   referral information fails, good design suggests that the receiving
   entity should attempt to correct the situation.  For example, if
   communication fails to be established using an IP address, it would
   often be appropriate to attempt a DNS lookup, despite the
   difficulties mentioned above.  The second motivating problem is that
   it may be helpful to the entity receiving a reference to also receive
   information about the source of the reference, such as an FQDN, if
   that is known to the sender of the reference.  The receiving entity
   can then attempt to recover a valid address (and possibly port
   number) for the referred entity.

   The third motivating problem is to allow a reference to contain
   alternatives to an IP address or an FQDN, when any such alternatives

   Additional arguments for a generic referral mechanism include:
   1.  Allow for general mechanisms that can be used by any application
       to handle references and understand the meaning of referral
       information, such as IP address, possibly protocol and port
       numbers.  However, there is an open question whether this
       standard referral design should be used for new applications
       only, or extended to existing applications.
   2.  Simplify ALG design during middlebox traversal.  There are
       middleboxes, like firewalls and translators, especially in the
       mobile network, which require application layer gateways ALG.
       The cost of ALG functions is huge for the mobile operator in
       terms of implementation, performance.  Standard references could

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       simplify ALG implementation during middlebox traversal in the
       mobile network.
   3.  Simplify packet inspection.  Operators sometimes need to inspect
       information or details during communication for administration
       reasons.  If referral mechanism is standardized, it is easier for
       an operator to capture and investigate the required information.

   We observe that we have identified two general requirements: the need
   to define address scope more precisely, and the need to communicate
   references in a generic way.

   It should be noted that partial or application-specific solutions to
   these problems abound, because any multi-party distributed
   application must solve them.  The best documented example is ICE
   [RFC5245], which is an active protocol specific to applications
   mediated by SDP [RFC4566].  ICE "works by including a multiplicity of
   IP addresses and ports in SDP offers and answers, which are then
   tested for connectivity by peer-to-peer connectivity checks."  The
   question raised here is whether we can define requirements for a
   generic solution that can be used by future applications, and
   possibly be retro-fitted to existing applications.

   One approach could be a "SuperICE" designed to be completely general
   and not tied to the SDP model.  Another approach is the idea of a
   generic referral object.  Such an object could be passed between the
   entities of a multi-party application, but without defining a
   specific protocol for that purpose.  Some applications might choose
   to send it in-band as a raw binary object, others might use a simple
   ASCII encoding, and still others might prefer to encode it in XML,
   for example.  Finally, it might also be used as part of SuperICE.

6.  Security Considerations

   It should be noted that referral should not function as a way to
   nullify the effect of a firewall or any other security mechanism.  If
   the receiving entity chooses a particular reference and attempts to
   send packets to the corresponding IP address, whether they are
   delivered or not will depend on the existing security mechanisms,
   whatever they may be.

   Nevertheless, if a site security policy requires it, certain
   references may be excluded from referral information sent to certain
   destinations.  This would require a security policy mechanism to be
   added to the process of generating referral information.

   Forged or intercepted referral information would enable a wide
   variety of attacks.  Although not fundamentally different from

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   attacks based on forged or observed IP addresses or FQDNs, no doubt
   referral would allow such attacks to be more ingenious, simply
   because they provide more information than an address or FQDN alone.
   Referral information should be transmitted through authenticated and
   encrypted channels.  It is not further elaborated here.

   Referral may raise potential privacy issues, which are not explored
   in this document.  For example, in the SIP context, mechanisms such
   as [RFC3323] and [RFC5767] are available to hide information that
   might identify end-points.  Referral usage scenarios must ensure that
   they do not unintentionally defeat privacy solutions.

7.  IANA Considerations

   This document requests no action by IANA.

8.  Acknowledgements

   Bo Zhou, formerly with China Mobile, was an original author of this
   document.  His contributions are gratefully acknowledged.

   Valuable comments and contributions were made by Mohamed Boucadair,
   Dan Wing, Keith Moore and others.

   This document was produced using the xml2rfc tool [RFC2629].

9.  Change log

   draft-carpenter-referral-ps-00: original version, 2010-06-21.

   draft-carpenter-referral-ps-01: add content regarding to ID-Locator
   Split Mechanisms, 2010-08-30.

   draft-carpenter-referral-ps-02: add content regarding NAT64,

10.  Informative References

              Boucadair, M., Jacquenet, C., Song, J., and Q. Niu,
              "Procedure to bypass DS-Lite AFTR",
              draft-boucadair-softwire-cgn-bypass-03 (work in progress),
              October 2010.

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              Bagnulo, M., Matthews, P., and I. Beijnum, "Stateful
              NAT64: Network Address and Protocol Translation from IPv6
              Clients to IPv4 Servers",
              draft-ietf-behave-v6v4-xlate-stateful-12 (work in
              progress), July 2010.

              Ubillos, J., Xu, M., Ming, Z., and C. Vogt, "Name-Based
              Sockets Architecture", draft-ubillos-name-based-sockets-03
              (work in progress), September 2010.

   [RFC0959]  Postel, J. and J. Reynolds, "File Transfer Protocol",
              STD 9, RFC 959, October 1985.

   [RFC1958]  Carpenter, B., "Architectural Principles of the Internet",
              RFC 1958, June 1996.

   [RFC2101]  Carpenter, B., Crowcroft, J., and Y. Rekhter, "IPv4
              Address Behaviour Today", RFC 2101, February 1997.

   [RFC2629]  Rose, M., "Writing I-Ds and RFCs using XML", RFC 2629,
              June 1999.

   [RFC2775]  Carpenter, B., "Internet Transparency", RFC 2775,
              February 2000.

   [RFC3234]  Carpenter, B. and S. Brim, "Middleboxes: Taxonomy and
              Issues", RFC 3234, February 2002.

   [RFC3323]  Peterson, J., "A Privacy Mechanism for the Session
              Initiation Protocol (SIP)", RFC 3323, November 2002.

   [RFC3484]  Draves, R., "Default Address Selection for Internet
              Protocol version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 3484, February 2003.

   [RFC4038]  Shin, M-K., Hong, Y-G., Hagino, J., Savola, P., and E.
              Castro, "Application Aspects of IPv6 Transition",
              RFC 4038, March 2005.

   [RFC4566]  Handley, M., Jacobson, V., and C. Perkins, "SDP: Session
              Description Protocol", RFC 4566, July 2006.

   [RFC5245]  Rosenberg, J., "Interactive Connectivity Establishment
              (ICE): A Protocol for Network Address Translator (NAT)
              Traversal for Offer/Answer Protocols", RFC 5245,
              April 2010.

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Internet-Draft              Referral Problem               February 2011

   [RFC5533]  Nordmark, E. and M. Bagnulo, "Shim6: Level 3 Multihoming
              Shim Protocol for IPv6", RFC 5533, June 2009.

   [RFC5534]  Arkko, J. and I. van Beijnum, "Failure Detection and
              Locator Pair Exploration Protocol for IPv6 Multihoming",
              RFC 5534, June 2009.

   [RFC5767]  Munakata, M., Schubert, S., and T. Ohba, "User-Agent-
              Driven Privacy Mechanism for SIP", RFC 5767, April 2010.

   [RFC6052]  Bao, C., Huitema, C., Bagnulo, M., Boucadair, M., and X.
              Li, "IPv6 Addressing of IPv4/IPv6 Translators", RFC 6052,
              October 2010.

Authors' Addresses

   Brian Carpenter
   Department of Computer Science
   University of Auckland
   PB 92019
   Auckland,   1142
   New Zealand


   Sheng Jiang
   Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd
   Huawei Building, No.3 Xinxi Rd.,
   Shang-Di Information Industry Base, Hai-Dian District, Beijing
   P.R. China


   Zhen Cao
   China Mobile
   Unit2, 28 Xuanwumenxi Ave,Xuanwu District
   Beijing,   100053
   P.R. China


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