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Versions: 00                                                            
INTERNET DRAFT                                          D. Collier-Brown
Expires March 1997                                             Sept 1996


                   On Experimental Top Level Domains
                                 Rev 0
                 draft-collier-brown-itld-exper-00.txt


Status

   This document is an Internet-Draft.  Internet-Drafts are working
   documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas,
   and its working groups.  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet- Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress".

   To learn the current status of any Internet-Draft, please check the
   "1id-abstracts.txt" listing contained in the Internet- Drafts Shadow
   Directories on ftp.is.co.za (Africa), nic.nordu.net (Europe),
   munnari.oz.au (Pacific Rim), ds.internic.net (US East Coast), or
   ftp.isi.edu (US West Coast).

   Abstract

   This memorandum describes a proposed mechanism under which differing
   schemes for the naming, allocation and management of new
   international top-level domains may be tried without their
   interfering with each other.

   This memorandum discusses the trademrk issues underlying the current
   debate on International TLDs, and proposes non-interfering
   simultaneous experiments, following the proposals of
   [DENNINGER],[HIGGS],[MASEK] and [POSTEL].

   This memo is being distributed to the Internet community in order to
   solicit their opinions of the proposals contained in it. In
   particular, The IETF, IANA, NEWDOM SHARED-TLD and related mailing
   lists are invited to read and comment on this material.








Collier-Brown                                                   [Page 1]


INTERNET DRAFT                                            September 1996


   Index

   Status                                               1
   Abstract                                             1
   Index                                                2
   Revisions                                            2
   Introduction                                         2
     Historical Background                              3
     Trademark Issues                                   4
   Appreciation of the Situation                        4
     Aim                                                4
     Factors                                            5
     Courses                                            6
     Conclusions                                       12
   Reccomendations                                     12
   Mechanism                                           13
   Appendices                                          14
     Appendix A: International Trademark Categories    14
     Appendix B: Appreciations of the Situation        52
   References                                          53
   Thanks                                              54
   Author's Address                                    54


   Revisions

   As a draft, this document may be revised at any time.  The revision
   number of the document in question is displayed at the top of the
   masthead, and should be referred to when commenting on the proposal
   contained in this draft.

Introduction

   This paper was written to inform the community, to suggest adapting
   existing practices of the IETF (two implementations before
   standardization) to a mixed technical and political problem and to
   suggest means by which this practice could be carried out.

   It was once pointed out to the author that it was a serious error to
   try to deal with a problem indirectly, without explicitly stating the
   problem and taking account of it in the solutions.

   This paper therefor directly raises the question of how much the U.S.
   and world trademark system affects domain names, and particularly
   domain name in the international top-level domains.  Following that
   it considers what effects particular proposed changes in the
   available domains might reasonably have on the trademark issues.
   This is the main body of the paper, and is written in the form of an



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   appreciation of the situation.

   The paper draws some interim conclusions, and suggests further work
   before we settling on a final solution or set of solutions.

   Finally, it points out means by which we can continue the
   investigation without interference with the proposals of Postel at
   all.

Historical Background

   Commercial organizations have recently found problems with the
   availability of particular domain names, since they have generally
   fallen into the practice of requesting their business names and
   trademarks as their domain names.

   Since the current domain naming scheme is a naming scheme, designed
   to map arbitrary but meaningful names into IP numbers, the business
   community rapidly fell into difficulties with the fact that domain
   names are unique.  There can only be one ``united'' subdomain in the
   ``.com'' top-level domain, for example.

   Alas, ``United Airlines'' and ``United Vanlines'' and presumably
   ``United Trucklines'' all use the word United as part of their
   trademark, and might well all desire the ```united.com'' domain.

   This has caused difficulties and bad feelings, exacerbated by the
   resolution policies which the operator of the .com registry has tried
   in order to deal with the problem.

   The problem is moderately serious, in that it affects major
   commercial organizations.  It does not pose a threat to the operation
   of the net, but does pose problems in its use by commercial
   organizations, especially international organizations which wish to
   register in the international top-level domain ``.com''.

   There is great interest and debate about the problem, however, as it
   is very topical.  Several IETF and ISOC-related conferences have
   included sessions on the subject and numerous initiatives have
   commenced:


        Several proposals [DENNINGER],[HIGGS],[MASEK],[POSTEL] have been
        made, in the form of internet drafts, to create additional top-
        level domains.

        One organization, ALTERNIC, has commenced an initiative to
        register and serve these additional experimental top-level



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        domains.

        Numerous organizations have applied to be registries for the new
        domains when a procedure to do so is standardized.

Trademark Issues

   Trademark is a well-studied and well-understood subject in jurispru-
   dence and business practice.

   Trademark law keeps one manufacturer from misrepresenting his goods
   as someone else's, by protecting the first user of a mark from others
   who might try to use identical or misleadingly similar marks.

   Like domain-names, they are established by someone starting to use
   them.  Also like domain names, they are unique.  However, because
   there are only so many words in the english (or any other) language,
   they have come to be used as "proper adjectives".  We say the Allied
   van lines, Esso gasoline or the Unix timesharing system.  The use of
   a category serves to disambiguate the trademark from other, similar,
   ones.

   Similarly, they are often geographically disambiguated: one can have
   Judy's Cafe in Tucson Arizona and Judy's Cafe in El Paso, Texas.
   Most jurisdictions allow registry of trademarks within that particu-
   lar state or country as a part of the use of the legal system to pro-
   tect them. There are internationally known trademarks, but there are
   only voluntary means of settling disputes about those.

   In common usage, a trademark is often used as part of a phrase, such
   as ``the Unix timesharing system'' or ``Standard Oil of New Jersey''.
   This is a distinguished name, the thing from which it is dis-
   tinguished and sometimes a broader category.  In domain-name notation
   these might be stated as ``unix.operatingsystems'' and
   ``standard.oilrefiners.nj''.

   As such, several proposals have been made to employ a similar disam-
   biguation in the allocation of domain names to such companies.
   Expanding on this is the contents of the next part of the paper, an
   appreciation (cf Appendix A) of the possible naming schemes which
   might be employed.

Appreciation of the Situation

   Aim

      The aim of the appreciation is to provide in brief the material
      factors and plausible courses of action which a body setting out



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      the form of future top-level domain names will need to consider.

      The paper is limited to discussing issues centered around the form
      of domain names and their interaction with trademark and trademark
      litigation.

      Criteria for choosing a solution sufficient to meet best current
      practice standards have been proposed in [AGMON].

      It is the intention of the author to advance discussion, not to
      exclude or propose particular courses.

   Factors

      Trademarks

         The primary factor in this discussion is the issue of trademark
         on names which organizations wish to use as domain names.

         There is a rich history of jurisprudence on the subject: for
         our purposes, a trademark holder which wishes to establish a
         presence on the internet may wish:

           A domain name identical to one or more of their trademarks
           (referred to in the rest of the document as [identical]).

           Protection against dilution of their trademark from the use
           of a similar name as a domain name by another party on the
           net (referred to henceforth as [dilution]).

         Companies registering domains in the United States have evi-
         denced such desires, with numerous lawsuits currently underway.
         This is exacerbated by the conflict resolution mechanisms used
         by NSI, the U.S. InterNIC operator.  However, it should be
         noted that this problem has not yet become significant in any
         of the national top-level domains.

         A further variant is that some trademark holders, notably of
         very well-known names, have expressed an intention to register
         their name in all applicable domains, to proactively prevent
         infringement or dilution in any context.  This is especially
         true of well-known multinational companies,  and conflicts in
         suhc registration is a known problem in the allocation of 800
         numbers (referred to as [all domains] below).







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      Inferrability

         A second factor is the desire of the companies registering
         domain to have their domain names ``guessable'' from their com-
         pany names (referred to in the following as [guessable]).

         For example, a company named ``SeaTech'' might wish the domain
         ``seatech.com''.  With a name of this form, persons made aware
         of it would assume that it was doing business throughout North
         America (and indeed the world), and that one could send mail to
         <persons-name>@seatech.com and find their web page at
         www.seatech.com.


         If the company does not have a short, unique name, it is to
         their advantage to have a name which can be found by a domain
         name system or web search.  For example, the American Airlines
         web page can be found in a few seconds as
         ``www.americanair.com'' by an Alta Vista search for ``american
         airlines''.

   Courses of Action

      Course 0: Do Nothing.

         We could, of course, do nothing. This would leave us with a
         problem in the .com domain, and place the responsibility for
         solving it on the NIC operator.

         Based on their lack of success to date, this is probably
         inadvisable.

         (Course 0 is always ``do nothing'', and is conventionally
         included to ensure that all reasonable courses of action are
         considered.  This includes a failure to make a decision, which
         is implicitly an unintentional decision to do nothing.)

      Course 1: Revert to First-Come, First Served

         We could revert to allocating domain names in .com and the
         other existing domains to the first person requesting them,
         without other conditions.  This would not directly address
         either of the above problems, but would remove the NIC operator
         from the center of the debate, as they could merely disclaim
         responsibility for trademark problems, require the parties to
         go to court, and agree to abide by the result.

         In the case of either identical or very similar names, the



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         trademark holders would have to ``fight it out'' in court.
         [identical][dilution]

         As there would only be a single international .com domain (and
         some similar national domains), the ability of a company which
         holds a trademark in the airline business to distinguish itself
         from one which holds the same trademark in the trucking busi-
         ness would be limited.

         Litigation would presumably continue in the international
         domain and to a lesser degree in national domains.

         Companies desiring a presence in all domains would need only to
         establish a single international domain, in .com, and might
         attempt to establish domains in national domains, .edu and/or
         .org [all domains]

         Company's domain names would be in one sense hard to guess, as
         there is no rule about which trademark holder would get the
         domain in .com.  In another sense, they would be easy to guess,
         so long as you wanted the site of the winner of the race to
         register.

         Other trademark holders might elect to add distinguishing words
         to their domain names, such as ``americanair'' or ``allied-
         vanlines''.[guessable]

         There would be little or no effect on domains looked up via
         search services.

      Course 2: Synonyms

         We could establish more domains in parallel to .com, such as
         .biz, an existing experimental top-level domain.

         Companies desiring the ``same'' name as another could simply
         register in .biz as opposed to .com, so that allied.biz would
         be united vanlines and united.com would be united
         airlines.[identical]

         This would not address the dilution problem, however: there
         would be ``two'' uniteds, with nothing to distinguish between
         them in the mind of the customer save which synonym for ``busi-
         ness'' they were registered under.  It is likely that at least
         one allied would be displeased with this lack of differentia-
         tion and ask for relief on the basis of dilution of their
         trademark.[dilution]




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         Companies inclined to defend their trademarks strongly would
         attempt to register the same domain in all synonymous domains.
         This would be a brand-new point of contention between trademark
         holders in different businesses.[all domains]

         Company names would be hard to guess, as there would be a com-
         ponent of the domain name which would not be predictable (which
         synonym) and which would have to be memorized or looked up by
         the customer.[guessable]

         There would be little effect on domains looked up via search
         services, and more people would find it necessary to use such
         services.

      Course 3: Meaningless Names

         We could establish domains whose names were meaningless: for
         example, we could have .AAA, .AAB, .AAC and so on, and allow or
         coerce companies to register in randomly-chose ones.

         If we allowed companies to register in the one of their choice,
         many companies would choose domains meaningful to them, with
         many desiring to be in the first, last or most meaningful
         domain.

         Companies desiring the ``same'' name as another could simply
         register in a different domain, so that allied.aaa might be
         united vanlines and united.bbb might be united
         airlines.[identical]

         This would not address the dilution problem, however: there
         would be ``two'' uniteds, with nothing to distinguish between
         them in the mind of the customer save a random string. It is
         likely that companies would be displeased with this lack of
         differentiation and ask for relief on the basis of dilution of
         their trademark by someone in another domain.[dilution]

         Companies inclined to defend their trademarks strongly would
         attempt to register the same domain in all random domains.
         This would be (like .biz/.com) a new point of contention
         between trademark holders in different businesses.[all domains]

         Company names would be hard to guess, as there would be a com-
         ponent of the domain name which would be random and which would
         have to be memorized or looked up by the customer.[guessable]

         As before, there would be little effect on domains looked up
         via search services, and more people would find it necessary to



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         use such services.

      Course 4: Meaningful Names

         We could establish domains whose names were meaningful business
         categories drawn from existing trademark categories established
         by national bodies or international agreement. For example, we
         could have .soap, and names like lever-brothers.soap for the
         cleaner-related branches of Lever Brothers.

         This is also called a controlled vocabulary, and is commonly
         used in library searching and categorization (eg, the U.S.
         Library of Congress system).

         Companies wishing to have identical domain names, if in dif-
         ferent categories, would simply register their desired name.
         We could have american.buslines and american.airlines without
         difficulty.  If the categories are over-broad, we would have
         problems with clashes, such as if bus-, truck- and air-lines
         were all grouped together under the .transport
         domain.[identical]

         Companies fearing dilution would suffer directly only if the
         categories were over-broad.  They could suffer dilution if the
         general public was inclined to assume that the same ``united''
         operated united.vanlines, united.airlines and united.buslines.
         This is possible, but appears far-fetched.[dilution]

         Companies desiring to protect their trademark by defending it
         broadly would find it difficult and expensive to justify regis-
         tration in a very large number of arguably inappropriate
         domains.  If the bozotron company wished to proactively defend
         its good name by registering bozotron.soap, while not manufac-
         turing soap, there would be room for litigation if a soap com-
         pany with bozotron as a trademark desired the bozotron.soap
         domain. [all domains] (This might be a solved problem in trade-
         mark law: comments are invited from the reader.)

         Domain names would be relatively guessable, given a small
         enough set of categories and some experience with the system by
         the customer.  Persons unsure of the business categories would
         need to look those up with a search service.  Persons who do
         not know the business's category, only its name, would have to
         use search services, as above.[guessable]







Collier-Brown                                                   [Page 9]


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      Course 5: Obfuscated Meaningful Names

         We could establish domains whose names were meaningful business
         categories, but refer to them by the category number, thus giv-
         ing us C10, C02 and so forth.

         This has a result indistinguishable from random names, save the
         names will not chance to match meaningful short words.  If the
         obfuscation were progressively less effective, such that
         categories could be inferred to increasing degrees from the
         names, it would come more and more to resemble meaningful
         names.

      Course 6: Unconstrained Names

         We could establish domains with unconstrained names: any organ-
         ization could propose a name and have it made a top-level
         domain.

         This is in fact the former case within .com, with the limita-
         tion that only nominally commercial entities can be registered.
         Films are seemingly businesses, however, so the limitation is
         not absolute.

         This has a result indistinguishable from reverting to first-
         come first-served in com, save that the load on the root name
         servers would be remarkable, as most enquiries would have to go
         to them.

      Course 7: Partially Unconstrained Names

         We could allow names to be drawn from a vocabulary which is
         constrained only in that it distinguishes different kinds of
         business.  This might start with the existing categories and
         subcategories established in international trademark law, and
         be expanded by reference to the literature of trademark with
         more and more precise terms.  For example, transportation might
         be an initial category, from which companies might well ask
         that trucklines, buslines and airlines be added, sufficient to
         distinguish their businesses.  Companies doing business in
         several specific subcategories would have the option of regis-
         tering in each (x.trucklines and x.railways) or in the parent
         category (x.transport).

         Companys seeking to distinguish themselves would ask for regis-
         tration in the category that most accurately describes their
         business, to avoid being mistaken for another, like-named
         business.[identical]



Collier-Brown                                                  [Page 10]


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         Companies concerned with dilution might choose more specific
         names, to avoid anyone mistaking them for someone else.  In
         effect, the category they choose would become closely associ-
         ated with their names (eg, the Unix[tm] Timesharing System) and
         would appear to the customer to be part of the name.[dilution]

         Companies wishing to defend their trademarks strongly could
         regard the above as sufficient.  If not, they would have the
         option of trying to register their name in all domains where
         they believed there was a chance some-one might use the same
         name.  This would be expensive and time-consuming, though: the
         International Olympic Committee might well find itself faced
         with registering olympic.restaurant.brampton.on.ca in one known
         extreme case.  [all domains]

         Names would be guessable, but less so than with a more con-
         trolled vocabulary.  A search service with a knowledge of the
         requisite synonyms would be straightforward to provide,
         however.[guessable]

      Course 9: Retire the International Domains

         We could cease registering domains in the international top-
         level domains.

         The problem would immediately be relocated to the registries
         and courts of individual countries.  This would be very similar
         to reverting to first-come, first-served in .com, save it would
         now be in (eg) .com.us and presumably in .com.az.us.

         In the case of either identical or very similar names, the
         trademark holders would have to ``fight it out'' in court, but
         would have a clear indication of what court system to use.
         [identical][dilution]

         Companies which were in different jurisdictions such as Judy's
         Cafe in Tucson AZ and Judy's Cafe in El Paso, Texas, would be
         able to easily distinguish themselves from one another.  Com-
         panies in the same jurisdiction would still suffer from the
         inability to distinguish airlines from the like-named companies
         in the trucking business. Litigation would presumably continue
         over these issues.

         Companies desiring a presence in all domains would need to
         establish themselves in all possible national domains.  [all
         domains]

         Company's domain names would be substantially easier to guess:



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         one would have to have an idea of how wide an area they do
         business in in order to know whether to look in .com.us or
         .com.tucson.az.us.  This has not proved a problem un the .ca
         domain, where a similar scheme is employed.[guessable]

      Course 9: Restrict the .com Domain to Multinationals

         This would separate the problem into two: one relocatable, as
         in the previous example, and one in correspondingly less chance
         of clashes.  As multinationals tend to avoid name-clashes in
         any case, this might significantly reduce the size of the prob-
         lem.  [identical][dilution]

         Multinationals also are among the main companies who desire to
         protect their trademarks strongly and proactively.  [all
         domains]

         Otherwise, the analysis is the same as the last case.

      Course 10: Combinations

         Finally, we might elect to try combinations of courses based on
         their relative strengths and weaknesses.

         It is plausible to have constrained or partially constrained
         names with a special category for companies who are both
         inclined to protect their trademarks strongly and who are
         internationally known.  If Ortel found it necessary to defend
         its name against all similar names (eg, Nortel), then it might
         ask for a higher-level domain than all other companies.  In the
         root if necessary, in .com if all the categories were to exist
         within .com.

         It is also plausible to have combinations of geography in sub-
         national domains, and categories in national and international
         domains.

   Conclusions

      Contrary to the author's previous opinion, it appears that some
      combination of courses might meet the needs of copyright holders
      as set out in the factors section above, and the public policy
      recommendations of [AGMON].

      Nevertheless, it is not apparent at this time what the correct
      combination might be.





Collier-Brown                                                  [Page 12]


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Recommendations

   The author recommends further study.

   Allow the experiment to continue: this would allow allow multiple
   different streams of development, inclusing those of Postel, Higgs,
   Denninger, and similar experiments by autonomous national domains
   (eg, .ca)

   This is a direct parallell to the normal practice of requiring multi-
   ple working implementations before proceeding to standardization.
   The difference here is that at least two working instances of a
   viable (if imperfect) solution might be asked for, rather than two
   examples of working code.


   Set groundrules so there would be no ``pollution'' of one experiment
   by another: keep the experiments orthogonal to one another, so suc-
   cess in a particular aspect could be clearly identified.

   The author suggests commercial vs non-commercial registries (done),
   shared versus singular-registry domains,  synonym domains vs
   categories (using unshared registries) and shared registries (using
   any domain or domains).

   Run the experiment for no less that one year nor more than two.

Mechanism

   IANA shall seperate the namespaces.

   The IANA shall reserve names from the U.S. and International Trade-
   mark Classes for use by category-based top-level domains. It shall
   authorize the creation of top-level domains with names which appear
   on the World Intellectual Property Organizations' list, or in the
   U.S. Patent and Trademark Office's ``Trademark Acceptable Identifica-
   tion of Goods and Services Manual'' only for experiments in categori-
   cal naming.  Suitable forms of the main categories will be acccepted
   by the IANA for such categorical domains, and at their sole discre-
   tion, names of sub-categories may be made available if in IANA's
   opinion the category is over-broad.  IANA shall refrain from author-
   izing any top-level domains synonymous with those names.  These names
   are enumerated in Appendix B below, and forms suitable for use as
   domain names are partially enumerated in [HIGGS].

   IANA shall expressly permit creation of new top-level domains
   synonymous to others, including existing domains, so long as they are
   not synonymous with these categories.



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   Finally, IANA shall permit at its discretion the creation of other
   top-level domains, with naming schemes not discussed here, so long as
   they are not synonymous with either of the above.

   Within these new top-level domains, IANA shall reserve all second-
   level names which match existing top-level domains categories and
   sub-categories, to avoid the inadvertent creation of ambigous, redun-
   dant or non-meaningfull domains such as oil.oil.

   IANA may elect to authorize multi-level categorizations like
   lubricants.oil if, after initial experimentation, it is their opinion
   that such are desirable in place of or in addition to narrowly
   defined top-level domains.

Appendices

   Appendix A: International and U.S. Trademark Categories

      From the World Intellectual Property Organization's (WIPO) list,
      as established by the Nice Treaty and the U.S. Patent and Trade-
      mark Office[USPTO]
      Goods:
      Class 001 Chemicals
              Agar
              Alum
              Antifreeze
              Compost
              Desiccants
              Humus
              Loam
              Manure
              Saccharin
              Additives (Concrete)
              Admixtures (Concrete)
              Agricultural lime
              Artificial sweeteners
              Blueprint paper
              Brake fluid
              Ceramic glazings
              Chemicals (Chromatography)
              Chemicals (Lithographic)
              Chemicals (Photographic)
              Chromatography chemicals
              Concrete additives
              Concrete admixtures
              Distilled water
              Dry ice
              Fermentation extrat



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              Flower preservative
              Flush (Radiator)
              Flux (Soldering)
              Food (Plant)
              Glazings (Ceramic)
              Ice (Dry)
              Lime (Agricultural)
              Lithographic chemicals
              Litmus paper
              Paper (Blueprint)
              Paper (Litmus)
              Paper (Photosensitive)
              Paste (Wallpaper)
              Peat (fertilizer)
              Photographic chemicals

      Class 002 Paints
              Varnish
              Bactericidal paints
              Color pigments
              Enamels (Pottery)
              Engraving ink
              Gum turpentine
              House paint
              Ink (Printers')
              Paint (Exterior)
              Paint (House)
              Paint (Interior)
              Paint primer
              Paint sealers
              Paint thinner
              Pigments (Color)
              Pottery enamel
              Preservatives (Wood)
              Primers (Paint)
              Printers' ink
              Putty (Glaziers')
              Sealers (Paint)
              Size (Wall)
              Stains (Leather)
              Stains (Wood)
              Toner cartridges
              Turpentine (Gum)
              Wall size
              Watercolor paints
              Wood preservatives
              Agglutinates for paints
              Anti-rust greases



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              Anti-rust oils
              Glazes (paints, lacquers)
              Greases (Anti-rust)
              Oil (Anti-rust)
              Paint for artists
              Photocopier toner
              Size for walls
              Toner for copiers
              Wallpaper removing preparations

      Class 003 Cosmetics and cleaning preparations
              Antiperspirants
              Blusher
              Cologne
              Dentifrices
              Eyeliners
              Incense
              Lipstick
              Makeup
              Mascara
              Mouthwash
              Perfume
              Potpourri
              Rouge
              Sachets
              Sandpaper
              Artificial eyelashes
              Artificial fingernails
              Baby oil
              Baby powder
              Baby shampoo
              Baby wipes
              Balm (Shaving)
              Bath gel
              Bath oil
              Bath powder
              Beauty masks
              Bleach (Laundry)
              Blush
              Body cream
              Body oil
              Body powder
              Breath freshener
              Bubble bath
              Chrome polish
              Cobblers' wax
              Cold cream
              Conditioners (Hair)



Collier-Brown                                                  [Page 16]


INTERNET DRAFT                                            September 1996


              Cosmetic pencils
              Cream (Body)
              Cream (Cold)

      Class 004 Lubricants and fuels
              Anthracite
              Candles
              Firewood
              Gasoline
              Kerosene
              Kindling
              Naphtha
              Paraffin
              Tallow
              Tapers
              Automobile lubricants
              Automotive greases
              Automotive lubricants
              Belt dressings
              Briquettes (Charcoal)
              Carnauba wax
              Charcoal briquettes
              Diesel fuel
              Fireplace logs
              Fuel oil
              Fuels (Diesel)
              Greases (Automotive)
              Industrial lubricants
              Industrial oils
              Lamp oil
              Lighter fluid
              Logs (Fireplace)
              Lubricants (Automobile)
              Lubricants (Graphite)
              Lubricants (Industrial)
              Motor oil
              Oil (Crude)
              Oil (Fuel)
              Oil (Industrial)
              Oil (Lamp)
              Oil (Motor)
              Scented candles
              Transmission fluid
              Wax (Carnauba)
              Charcoal lighter fluid

      Class 005 Pharmaceuticals
              Analgesics



Collier-Brown                                                  [Page 17]


INTERNET DRAFT                                            September 1996


              Antacids
              Anthelmintics
              Antiarrhythmics
              Antibiotics
              Anticoagulants
              Anticonvulsants
              Antidepressants
              Antiemetics
              Antiflatulants
              Antihistamines
              Antihypertensives
              Antiparasitics
              Antiseptics
              Antivirals
              Aspirin
              Bronchodilators
              Decongestants
              Dermatologicals
              Douches
              Electrolytes
              Expectorants
              Gargles
              Gauze
              Hemoglobin
              Hormones
              Hydrocortisone
              Hypnotics
              Insulin
              Iodine
              Laxatives
              Liniments
              Merthiolate
              Mildewstats
              Poultices
              Psychotropics
              Rodenticides
              Sedatives
              Steroids
              Suppositories

      Class 006 Metal goods
              Andirons
              Anvils
              Handcuffs
              Nails
              Spurs
              Wire
              Aluminum foil



Collier-Brown                                                  [Page 18]


INTERNET DRAFT                                            September 1996


              Anchors (Marine)
              Barbed wire
              Barrels (Metal)
              Beams (Metal)
              Bells (Metal)
              Bins (Metal)
              Bolts (Metal)
              Boxes (Metal)
              Brads (Metal)
              Brazing rods
              Buoys (Metal)
              Cabinet stops
              Casks (Metal)
              Casters (Metal)
              Casting alloys
              Castings (Metal)
              Chains (Metal)
              Chests (Metal)
              Chimneys (Metal)
              Clamps (Metal)
              Cornices (Metal)
              Doorknobs (Metal)
              Doorknockers (Metal)
              Doors (Metal)
              Eye bolts
              Figurines (Pewter)
              Flooring (Metal)
              Floors (Metal)
              Foil (Aluminum)
              Foil (Metal)
              Gate stops
              Gates (Metal)
              Gold solder
              Andirons
              Anvils
              Handcuffs
              Nails
              Spurs
              Wire
              Aluminum foil
              Anchors (Marine)
              Barbed wire
              Barrels (Metal)
              Beams (Metal)
              Bells (Metal)
              Bins (Metal)
              Bolts (Metal)
              Boxes (Metal)



Collier-Brown                                                  [Page 19]


INTERNET DRAFT                                            September 1996


              Brads (Metal)
              Brazing rods
              Buoys (Metal)
              Cabinet stops
              Casks (Metal)
              Casters (Metal)
              Casting alloys
              Castings (Metal)
              Chains (Metal)
              Chests (Metal)
              Chimneys (Metal)
              Clamps (Metal)
              Cornices (Metal)
              Doorknobs (Metal)
              Doorknockers (Metal)
              Doors (Metal)
              Eye bolts
              Figurines (Pewter)
              Flooring (Metal)
              Floors (Metal)
              Foil (Aluminum)
              Foil (Metal)
              Gate stops
              Gates (Metal)
              Gold solder
              Andirons
              Anvils
              Handcuffs
              Nails
              Spurs
              Wire
              Aluminum foil
              Anchors (Marine)
              Barbed wire
              Barrels (Metal)
              Beams (Metal)
              Bells (Metal)
              Bins (Metal)
              Bolts (Metal)
              Boxes (Metal)
              Brads (Metal)
              Brazing rods
              Buoys (Metal)
              Cabinet stops
              Casks (Metal)
              Casters (Metal)
              Casting alloys
              Castings (Metal)



Collier-Brown                                                  [Page 20]


INTERNET DRAFT                                            September 1996


              Chains (Metal)
              Chests (Metal)
              Chimneys (Metal)
              Clamps (Metal)
              Cornices (Metal)
              Doorknobs (Metal)
              Doorknockers (Metal)
              Doors (Metal)
              Eye bolts
              Figurines (Pewter)
              Flooring (Metal)
              Floors (Metal)
              Foil (Aluminum)
              Foil (Metal)
              Gate stops
              Gates (Metal)
              Gold solder

      Class 007 Machinery
              Bulldozers
              Centrifuges
              Conveyors
              Cranes
              Cyclones
              Derricks
              Dynamos
              Elevators
              Escalators
              Hoists
              Lathes
              Plows
              Snowblowers
              Turbogenerators
              Winches
              Air compressors
              Aircraft engines
              Airplane motors
              Aquarium pumps
              Augers (Earth)
              Bellows (Forge)
              Boat engines
              Boat motors
              Boring machines
              Brushes (Dynamo)
              Cartoning machines
              Centrifugal pumps
              Compactors (Trash)
              Compressors (Air)



Collier-Brown                                                  [Page 21]


INTERNET DRAFT                                            September 1996


              Compressors (Refrigerator)
              Concrete mixers
              Cranes (Mobile)
              Cyclone separators
              Disposals (Garbage)
              Dredging machines
              Drivers (Pile)
              Dynamo brushes
              Earth augers
              Egg incubators
              Electric generators

      Class 008 Hand tools
              Axes
              Bayonets
              Chopsticks
              Cleavers
              Forks
              Gimlets
              Hoes
              Machetes
              Mallets
              Mattocks
              Nightsticks
              Penknives
              Pickaxes
              Pliers
              Rakes
              Razors
              Sabres
              Scissors
              Scythes
              Shovels
              Sickles
              Sledgehammers
              Spades
              Spears
              Spoons
              Swords
              Trowels
              Tweezers
              Whetstones
              Aprons (Tool)
              Belts (Tool)
              Billy clubs
              Blades (Planing)
              Blades (Razor)
              Branding irons



Collier-Brown                                                  [Page 22]


INTERNET DRAFT                                            September 1996


              Buffers (Nail)
              Butcher knives
              Carpenter's clamps
              Cases (Razor)
              Caulking guns

      Class 009 Electrical and scientific apparatus
              Actinometers
              Aerometers
              Altimeters
              Ammeters
              Anemometers
              Antennas
              Barometers
              Batteries
              Binoculars
              Calculators
              Capacitors
              Clinometer
              Computers
              Condensers
              Converters
              Cyclotrons
              Dosimeters
              Dynamometers
              Epidiascopes
              Eyeglasses
              Galvanometers
              Gasometers
              Headphones
              Hydrometers
              Hygrometers
              Kaleidoscopes
              Loudspeakers
              Megaphones
              Metronomes
              Microcomputers
              Microfiche
              Micrometers
              Microphones
              Microscopes
              Minicomputers
              Modems
              Multiplexers
              Odometers
              Ohmmeters
              Oscilloscopes




Collier-Brown                                                  [Page 23]


INTERNET DRAFT                                            September 1996


      Class 010 Medical apparatus
              Cannulae
              Condoms
              Crutches
              Defibrillators
              Dentures
              Electrocardiographs
              Gastroscopes
              Lancets
              Laryngoscopes
              Ophthalmometers
              Ophthalmoscopes
              Otoscopes
              Resuscitators
              Retinoscopes
              Scalpels
              Sphygmomanometers
              Stethoscopes
              Sutures
              Trusses
              Abdominal belts
              Abdominal corsets
              Abdominal pads
              Acupuncture needles
              Anesthetic masks
              Articulators (dental)
              Artificial limbs
              Artificial teeth
              Baby bottles
              Baby nursers
              Bandages (Compression)
              Bandages (Elastic)
              Bed pans
              Bed vibrators
              Belts (Abdominal)
              Belts (Orthopedic)
              Birthing chairs
              Blades (Surgical)
              Blood filters
              Bone implants
              Bone screws

      Class 011 Environmental control apparatus
              Autoclaves
              Bathtubs
              Bidets
              Chandeliers
              Dehumidifiers



Collier-Brown                                                  [Page 24]


INTERNET DRAFT                                            September 1996


              Faucets
              Fireplaces
              Flares
              Flashlights
              Freezers
              Furnaces
              Humidifiers
              Hydrants
              Incinerators
              Kilns
              Lamps
              Lavatories
              Refrigerators
              Saunas
              Searchlights
              Showers
              Sinks
              Toilets
              Whirlpools
              Acetylene burners
              Acetylene flares
              Air conditioners
              Aquarium heaters
              Aquarium lights
              Barbecue grills
              Baths (Whirlpool)
              Bathtub enclosures
              Bicycle lights
              Boilers (Furnace)
              Burners (Acetylene)
              Candelabras (Electric)
              Ceiling fans
              Clean rooms
              Clothes dryers
              Combustion chambers

      Class 012 Vehicles
              Airplanes
              Ambulances
              Automobiles
              Barges
              Bicycles
              Boats
              Buses
              Canoes
              Cars
              Gliders
              Gycopters



Collier-Brown                                                  [Page 25]


INTERNET DRAFT                                            September 1996


              Helicopters
              Hovercraft
              Hydroplanes
              Kayaks
              Locomotives
              Mopeds
              Motorcycles
              Oars
              Parachutes
              Rafts
              Railcars
              Sailboats
              Sailplanes
              Sculls
              Seaplanes
              Ships
              Tires
              Tractors
              Tricycles
              Trolleys
              Trucks
              Vans
              Wagons
              Wheelchairs
              Yachts
              Amphibious airplanes
              Automobile bodies
              Automobile bumpers
              Automobile chassis

      Class 013 Firearms
              Ammunition
              Bombs
              Caissons
              Cannons
              Detonators
              Dynamite
              Explosives
              Firearms
              Firecrackers
              Fuse
              Grenades
              Gunpowder
              Guns
              Holsters
              Munitions
              Muskets
              Rifles



Collier-Brown                                                  [Page 26]


INTERNET DRAFT                                            September 1996


              Squibs
              Torpedoes
              Air rifles
              Ammunition bags
              Ammunition wagons
              Armored turrets
              Artillery guns
              Automatic carbines
              Automatic guns
              Automatic pistols
              Automatic revolvers
              Automatic rifles
              Bags (Ammunition)
              Barrels (Gun)
              Barrels (Rifle)
              Belts (Cartridge)
              Belts (Shell)
              Belts (Shot)
              Blank cartridges
              Blasting caps
              Blasting compounds
              Blasting explosives
              Blasting gelatin

      Class 014 Jewelry
              Brooches
              Charms
              Chronometers
              Clocks
              Diamonds
              Earrings
              Emeralds
              Jewelry
              Medallions
              Necklaces
              Pearls
              Pendants
              Watches
              Wristwatches
              Alarm clocks
              Ankle bracelets
              Bands (Watch)
              Bands (Wedding)
              Bracelets (Ankle)
              Bracelets (jewelry)
              Cases (Watch)
              Chains (Jewelry)
              Chains (Watch)



Collier-Brown                                                  [Page 27]


INTERNET DRAFT                                            September 1996


              Clips (Ear)
              Clips (Tie)
              Clocks (Alarm)
              Clocks (Wall)
              Costume jewelry
              Cuff-links
              Ear clips
              Fasteners (Necktie)
              Fasteners (Tie)
              Findings (Jewelry)
              Fobs (Watch)
              Gemstones (Precious)
              Gemstones (Semi
              Jewelry (Costume)
              Jewelry findings
              Movements (Watch)
              Necktie fasteners

      Class 015 Musical instruments
              Accordions
              Bagpipes
              Banjos
              Bugles
              Castanets
              Clarinets
              Drumheads
              Drums
              Drumsticks
              Flutes
              Guitars
              Handbells
              Harmonicas
              Harps
              Lyres
              Mandolins
              Organs
              Pianos
              Saxophones
              Tambourines
              Trombones
              Ukeleles
              Xylophones
              Zithers
              Acoustic guitars
              Batons (Conductor's)
              Boxes (Music)
              Conductor's batons
              Guitar picks



Collier-Brown                                                  [Page 28]


INTERNET DRAFT                                            September 1996


              Guitar strings
              Guitars (Acoustic)
              Guitars (Electric)
              Harmoniums
              Music boxes
              Music synthesizers
              Picks (Guitar)
              Player pianos
              Strings (Guitar)
              Synthesizers (Music)
              Keyboards (Electronic musical)

      Class 016 Paper goods and printed matter
              Almanacs
              Aquariums
              Atlases
              Bibles
              Binders
              Blackboards
              Blotters
              Blueprints
              Bookbindings
              Bookends
              Bookmarks
              Calendars
              Cardboard
              Caricatures
              Chalk
              Collages
              Confetti
              Copy
              Copyholders
              Coupons
              Crayons
              Decalcomanias
              Decals
              Diaries
              Dictionaries
              Easels
              Electrotypes
              Engravings
              Envelopes
              Etchings
              Gazetteers
              Globes
              Hectographs
              Illustrations
              Lithographs



Collier-Brown                                                  [Page 29]


INTERNET DRAFT                                            September 1996


              Maps
              Markers
              Monographs
              Murals
              Oleographs

      Class 017 Rubber goods
              Caulking
              Air hoses
              Building insulation
              Caulking compounds
              Clutch linings
              Duct tape
              Electrical tape
              Fire hoses
              Garden hoses
              Gaskets (Pipe)
              Hoses (Air)
              Hoses (Fire)
              Hoses (Garden)
              Hoses (Lawn)
              Hoses (Watering)
              Insulation (Building)
              Lawn hoses
              Linings (Clutch)
              Masking tape
              Strapping tape
              Tape (Duct)
              Tape (Electrical)
              Tape (Masking)
              Tape (Strapping)
              Watering hoses
              Bottle stoppers (Rubber)
              Carpet seam tape
              Ceramic insulators (Electrical)
              Cylinder joinings (seals)
              Drywall joint tape
              Electrical ceramic insulators
              Electrical insulating tape
              Fiberglass insulation (Residential)
              Insulating plaster
              Insulating tape (Electrical)
              Insulation (Residential fiberglass)
              Insulation for aircraft
              Insulators (Electrical ceramic)
              Joint tape (Drywall)
              Jointings (seals) (Cylinder)




Collier-Brown                                                  [Page 30]


INTERNET DRAFT                                            September 1996


      Class 018 Leather goods
              Alpenstocks
              Backpacks
              Bandoliers
              Billfolds
              Briefbags
              Briefcases
              Canes
              Daypacks
              Handbags
              Harnesses
              Haversacks
              Knapsacks
              Luggage
              Muzzles
              Parasols
              Pelts
              Pocketbooks
              Portmanteaus
              Pullmans
              Purses
              Reins
              Rucksacks
              Saddlery
              Saddles
              Satchels
              Suitcases
              Thongs
              Umbrellas
              Valises
              Wallets
              Whips
              Animal carriers
              Animal harnesses
              Animal leashes
              Athletic bags
              Attache cases
              Baby backpacks
              Backpacks (Baby)
              Bags (Athletic)
              Bags (Barrel)

      Class 019 Non-metallic building materials
              Alabaster
              Asphalt
              Balustrades
              Bricks
              Concrete



Collier-Brown                                                  [Page 31]


INTERNET DRAFT                                            September 1996


              Fiberboard
              Flagstones
              Granite
              Gravel
              Grout
              Hardboard
              Limestone
              Lumber
              Marble
              Mortars
              Pavers
              Pitch
              Planks
              Plaster
              Plywood
              Quartz
              Sand
              Shingles
              Skylights
              Slate
              Staircases
              Stones
              Asphalt (Bitumen)
              Asphalted felts
              Bitumen asphalt
              Blocks (Concrete)
              Blocks (Refractory)
              Booths (Telephone)
              Bricks (Fireplace)
              Bricks (Refractory)
              Cement (Hydraulic)
              Cement (Portland)
              Cement (Roofing)
              Cement mixes

      Class 020 Furniture and articles not otherwise classified
              Antlers
              Armchairs
              Bassinets
              Beds
              Beehives
              Benches
              Bookcases
              Cabinetwork
              Caskets
              Casks
              Chairs
              Coatstands



Collier-Brown                                                  [Page 32]


INTERNET DRAFT                                            September 1996


              Coffins
              Corks
              Cots
              Couches
              Credenzas
              Cribs
              Cupboards
              Cushions
              Desks
              Divans
              Drawers
              Flagpoles
              Footstools
              Furniture
              Hampers
              Ivory
              Lecterns
              Lockers
              Mannequins
              Mattresses
              Ottomans
              Pillowforms
              Pillows
              Plaques
              Playpens
              Settees
              Shelves
              Shelving

      Class 021 Housewares and glass
              Beverageware
              Bowls
              Brooms
              Buckets
              Buttonhooks
              Canteens
              Cauldrons
              Cups
              Decanters
              Epergnes
              Flasks
              Funnels
              Goblets
              Jugs
              Mops
              Mugs
              Pails
              Pitchers



Collier-Brown                                                  [Page 33]


INTERNET DRAFT                                            September 1996


              Plates
              Pots
              Saucepans
              Saucers
              Scoops
              Toothpicks
              Trivets
              Troughs
              Urns
              Vases
              Whisks
              Back scratchers
              Basins (Earthenware)
              Basins (Hand)
              Basins (Sugar)
              Basins (Wash)
              Basins (bowls)
              Baskets (Steamer)
              Baskets (Wastepaper)
              Basting spoons
              Bathtubs (Baby)

      Class 022 Cordage and fibers
              Clothesline
              Cord
              Cordage
              Fiberfill
              Hammocks
              Hemp
              Horsehair
              Jute
              Kapok
              Liber
              Linter
              Ropes
              Sails
              Sawdust
              String
              Tents
              Tow
              Twine
              Acrylic fibers
              Animal hair
              Bags (Laundry)
              Baling twine
              Batting (Polyester)
              Brattice cloth
              Bungie cords



Collier-Brown                                                  [Page 34]


INTERNET DRAFT                                            September 1996


              Camel hair
              Canopies (Canvas)
              Canvas canopies
              Canvas tarpaulins
              Cloth (Brattice)
              Coconut fibers
              Commercial nets
              Cord (Macrame)
              Cord (Sash)
              Cords (Bungie)
              Cotton (Raw)
              Down (Eider)
              Down feathers
              Eiderdown (feathers)
              Esparto grass

      Class 023 Yarns and threads
              Thread
              Yarn
              Angora yarn
              Chenille yarn
              Coir thread
              Coir yarn
              Cotton (Spun)
              Cotton thread
              Cotton yarn
              Darning thread
              Darning yarn
              Eiderdown yarn
              Elastic thread
              Elastic yarn
              Embroidery floss
              Embroidery thread
              Embroidery yarn
              Fiberglass thread
              Floss (Embroidery)
              Hair yarn
              Hemp thread
              Hemp yarn
              Jute thread
              Jute yarn
              Knitting yarn
              Linen thread
              Linen yarn
              Plastic thread
              Rayon thread
              Rayon yarn
              Rubber thread



Collier-Brown                                                  [Page 35]


INTERNET DRAFT                                            September 1996


              Sail thread
              Sewing thread
              Sewing yarn
              Shoemaker's thread
              Silk (Spun)
              Silk thread
              Silk yarn
              Spun cotton
              Spun silk

      Class 024 Fabrics
              Afghans
              Brocade
              Buckram
              Calico
              Comforters
              Curtains
              Damask
              Dimity
              Draperies
              Duvets
              Flannel
              Frieze
              Fustian
              Handkerchiefs
              Linen
              Quilts
              Sackcloth
              Saris
              Shams
              Shrouds
              Taffeta
              Towels
              Tulle
              Velvet
              Washcloths
              Banners (Cloth)
              Barbecue mitts
              Bath linen
              Bed canopies
              Bed linen
              Bed pads
              Bed sheets
              Bed spreads
              Billiard cloth
              Bolting cloth
              Bumpers (Crib)
              Bunting (Cloth)



Collier-Brown                                                  [Page 36]


INTERNET DRAFT                                            September 1996


              Canopies (Bed)
              Canopies (Crib)
              Cascades (Fabric)

      Class 025 Clothing
              Aprons
              Ascots
              Babushkas
              Bandanas
              Bandeaux
              Bathrobes
              Beachwear
              Berets
              Bikinis
              Blazers
              Bloomers
              Blouses
              Blousons
              Boas
              Boleros
              Bonnets
              Booties
              Boots
              Bottoms
              Bras
              Brassieres
              Breeches
              Bustiers
              Caftans
              Camisoles
              Capes
              Cardigans
              Cassocks
              Chaps
              Chemises
              Clogs
              Coats
              Collars
              Corselets
              Coveralls
              Coverups
              Cravats
              Creepers
              Cuffs
              Culottes

      Class 026 Fancy goods
              Barrettes



Collier-Brown                                                  [Page 37]


INTERNET DRAFT                                            September 1996


              Braids
              Embroidery
              Eyelets
              Fringes
              Needles
              Passementerie
              Ribbons
              Thimbles
              Toupees
              Wigs
              Zippers
              Appliques (Fabric)
              Artificial flowers
              Artificial fruit
              Artificial garlands
              Artificial plants
              Bands (Hair)
              Basket clasps
              Baskets (Sewing)
              Belt clasps
              Bobbin lace
              Bows (Hair)
              Boxes (Sewing)
              Buckles (Clothing)
              Buckles (Hair)
              Buckles (Shoe)
              Buttons (Press)
              Buttons (Rivet)
              Buttons (Shirt)
              Campaign buttons
              Chenille (passementerie)
              Clasps (Basket)
              Clasps (Belt)
              Clothing buckles
              Collar stays
              Cosies (Tea)
              Covers (Toaster)
              Crochet hooks
              Curling pins

      Class 027 Floor coverings
              Carpets
              Rugs
              Wallpaper
              Artificial turf
              Carpet padding
              Carpet tiles
              Carpet underlining



Collier-Brown                                                  [Page 38]


INTERNET DRAFT                                            September 1996


              Cork mats
              Mats (Cork)
              Mats (Door)
              Mats (Reed)
              Mats (Rubber)
              Mats (Straw)
              Padding (Carpet)
              Reed mats
              Rubber mats
              Turf (Artificial)
              Automobiles (Carpets for)
              Bath mats (Plastic)
              Bath mats (Rubber)
              Carpet underlay
              Carpets for automobiles
              Coverings (Plastic wall)
              Coverings (Vinyl wall)
              Door mats (Wooden)
              Exercise mats (Gymnasium)
              Gymnasium exercise mats
              Mats (Gymnasium exercise)
              Mats (Plastic bath)
              Mats (Rubber bath)
              Mats (Wooden door)
              Vinyl wall coverings
              Wall coverings (Plastic)
              Wall coverings (Vinyl)
              Door mats of textile
              Floor mats for vehicles
              Mats for vehicles (Floor)
              Mats of textile (Door)
              Vinyl floor coverings
              Coverings for floors (Hard surface)

      Class 028 Toys and sporting goods
              Pinatas
              Balloons
              Barbells
              Baseballs
              Basketballs
              Bobsleds
              Boomerangs
              Crossbows
              Darts
              Dice
              Discuses
              Dolls
              Dominoes



Collier-Brown                                                  [Page 39]


INTERNET DRAFT                                            September 1996


              Dumbbells
              Footballs
              Handballs
              Kites
              Marbles
              Netballs
              Paragliders
              Puppets
              Skateboards
              Skis
              Skittles
              Snorkels
              Spinning
              Surfboards
              Targets
              Volleyballs
              Waterskis
              Action figures
              Airplanes (Paper)
              Airplanes (Toy)
              Armor (Toy)
              Arrows (Archery)
              Arrows (toy)
              Athletic supporters
              Athletic tape
              Baby rattles
              Badminton rackets

      Class 029 Meats and processed foods
              Applesauce
              Aspic
              Bacon
              Beef
              Bologna
              Bouillon
              Butter
              Caviar
              Charcuterie
              Chicken
              Chowder
              Cream
              Eggs
              Escargot
              Gherkins
              Guacamole
              Ham
              Jams
              Jellies



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              Jerky
              Kefir
              Lard
              Laver
              Lentils
              Liver
              Margarine
              Marmalade
              Meat
              Milk
              Mincemeat
              Omelets
              Pate'
              Piccalilli
              Pickles
              Pork
              Quenelles
              Raisins
              Rennet
              Salami
              Sardines

      Class 030 Staple foods
              Allspice
              Bagels
              Biscuits
              Bran
              Bread
              Brioches
              Brownies
              Buns
              Burritos
              Cakes
              Candy
              Capers
              Caramels
              Catsup
              Chalupas
              Cheesecake
              Chervil
              Chimichanga
              Chocolate
              Chutney
              Cinnamon
              Cloves
              Cocoa
              Coffee
              Cookies



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              Couscous
              Crackers
              Crepes
              Crumpets
              Curry
              Custards
              Dough
              Doughnuts
              Dumplings
              eclairs
              Empanadas
              Enchiladas
              Fajitas
              Farina
              Flour

      Class 031 Natural agricultural products
              Hay
              Mulch
              Seedlings
              Sod
              Anchovies (Fresh)
              Anchovies (Raw)
              Anchovies (Unprocessed)
              Animal feed
              Animal foodstuffs
              Apples (Fresh)
              Apples (Raw)
              Apples (Unprocessed)
              Apricots (Fresh)
              Apricots (Raw)
              Apricots (Unprocessed)
              Artichokes (Fresh)
              Artichokes (Raw)
              Artichokes (Unprocessed)
              Asparagus (Fresh)
              Asparagus (Raw)
              Asparagus (Unprocessed)
              Avocados (Fresh)
              Avocados (Raw)
              Avocados (Unprocessed)
              Bark (Raw)
              Beans (Fresh)
              Beans (Raw)
              Beans (Unprocessed)
              Beets (Fresh)
              Beets (Raw)
              Beets (Unprocessed)



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              Beverages (Pet)
              Bird seed
              Blueberries (Fresh)
              Blueberries (Raw)
              Blueberries (Unprocessed)
              Bulbs (Flower)
              Bushes (Live)
              Cabbage (Fresh)
              Cabbage (Raw)

      Class 032 Light beverages
              Ale
              Beer
              Lager
              Lemonade
              Stout
              Ale (Brunswick)
              Beer (Ginger)
              Beer (Malt)
              Beer (Pale)
              Beer wort
              Brunswick ale
              Cider (Sweet)
              Fruit drinks
              Fruit juices
              Fruit nectars
              Fruit punch
              Ginger ale
              Ginger beer
              Malt beer
              Malt wort
              Mineral water
              Must (unfermented)
              Nectars (Fruit)
              Porter (beer)
              Punch (Fruit)
              Quinine water
              Seltzer water
              Soda water
              Sports drinks
              Spring water
              Table water
              Water (Aerated)
              Water (Drinking)
              Water (Lithia)
              Water (Mineral)
              Water (Quinine)
              Water (Seltzer)



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              Water (Soda)
              Water (Spring)
              Water (Table)

      Class 033 Wines and spirits
              Amontillado
              Anisette
              Arrack
              Calvados
              Champagne
              Cognac
              Cordials
              Gin
              Kirsch
              Liqueurs
              Mead
              Ouzo
              Rum
              Sangria
              Schnapps
              Sherry
              Tequila
              Vermouth
              Vodka
              Whiskey
              Aperitif wines
              Bitters (Alcoholic)
              Brandy spirits
              Cider (Hard)
              Cooking wine
              Curacao
              Herb liqueurs
              Liqueurs (Herb)
              Port wines
              Punch (Alcoholic)
              Punch (Wine)
              Spirits (Brandy)
              Wine (Aperitif)
              Wine (Cooking)
              Wine (Fruit)
              Wine punches
              Alcoholic cocktail (Prepared)
              Aperitif bitters (Alcoholic)
              Bitters (Alcoholic aperitif)
              Cocktail (Prepared alcoholic)

      Class 034 Smokers' articles
              Cigarettes



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              Cigarillos
              Cigars
              Matches
              Snuff
              Tobacco
              Chewing tobacco
              Cigar cutters
              Cigarette papers
              Cutters (Cigar)
              Papers (Cigarette)
              Pipes (Smoking)
              Pouches (Tobacco)
              Smokeless tobacco
              Smoking tobacco
              Spittoons (Tobacco)
              Tobacco (Chewing)
              Tobacco (Smokeless)
              Tobacco (Smoking)
              Tobacco pouches
              Cigarette rolling papers
              Flints for lighters
              Herbs for smoking
              Papers (Cigarette rolling)
              Pipe cleaners (Smoking)
              Rolling papers (Cigarette)
              Ashtrays, not of precious metal
              Cigarettes (Pocket machines for rolling)
              Machines for rolling cigarettes (Pocket)
              Cases not of precious metal (Cigarette)
              Cigarette cases, not of precious metal
              Cigarette holders, not of precious metal
              Cigarette lighters not for land vehicles
              Cigarette lighters not of precious metal
              Holders not of precious metal (Cigarette)
              Lighters not for land vehicles (Cigarette)
              Lighters not of precious metal (Cigarette)
              Snuff boxes, not of precious metal
              Match boxes not of precious metal
              Match holders not of precious metal


      Services:

      Class 035 Advertising and business services
              Auctioneering
              Billing
              Bookkeeping
              Photocopying



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              Stenography
              Telemarketing
              Typing
              Account auditing
              Accounting (Cost)
              Accounting services
              Advertising agencies
              Agencies (Employment)
              Agencies (Modeling)
              Analysis (Market)
              Appraisal (Business)
              Attorney referrals
              Auditing (Account)
              Auditing (Business)
              Business appraisals
              Business auditing
              Business consultation
              Business information
              Business investigations
              Business management
              Business networking
              Business planning
              Business relocation
              Business research
              Business supervision
              Buying clubs
              Career placement
              Clerical services
              Clubs (Buying)
              Commodity quotations
              Consultation (Business)
              Consultation (Demographic)
              Consultation (Tax)
              Copyright management
              Cost accounting
              Demographic consultation

      Class 036 Insurance and financial services
              Banking
              Actuarial services
              Administration (Insurance)
              Annuity underwriting
              Appraisal (Coin)
              Appraisal (Jewelry)
              Appraisal (Numismatic)
              Appraisal (Stamp)
              Art brokerage
              Bail bonding



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              Banking (Mortgage)
              Betting services
              Bonding (Bail)
              Bonding services
              Brokerage (Art)
              Brokerage (Business)
              Brokerage (Commodity)
              Brokerage (Customs)
              Brokerage (Insurance)
              Brokerage (Investment)
              Brokerage (Mortgage)
              Brokerage (Pawn)
              Brokerage (Security)
              Brokerage (Stock)
              Brokerage (Yacht)
              Business brokerage
              Cash management
              Check cashing
              Check processing
              Check verification
              Coin appraisal
              Collection agencies
              Commodity brokerage
              Commodity exchange
              Consultation (Insurance)
              Consultation (Investment)
              Credit agencies
              Credit bureaus
              Credit unions
              Customs brokerage

      Class 037 Construction and repair services
              Asphalting
              Bricklaying
              Countersinking
              Disinfecting
              Fumigating
              Plastering
              Pumicing
              Riveting
              Rustproofing
              Tinkering
              Asbestos removal
              Automobile cleaning
              Automobile detailing
              Automobile greasing
              Automobile lubrication
              Automobile painting



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              Automobile pinstriping
              Automobile polishing
              Automobile washing
              Automotive refinishing
              Balancing (Tire)
              Building demolition
              Building inspection
              Cabinet repair
              Car cleaning
              Car washing
              Carpet cleaning
              Chimney sweeping
              Cleaning (Automobile)
              Cleaning (Car)
              Cleaning (Carpet)
              Cleaning (Diaper)
              Cleaning (Rug)
              Cleaning (Textile)
              Clock repair
              Cloth ironing
              Cloth laundering
              Cloth laundry
              Cloth pressing
              Cloth washing

      Class 038 Communication services
              Teleprinting
              Audio broadcasting
              Audio teleconferencing
              Broadcasting (Audio)
              Broadcasting (Radio)
              Broadcasting (Television)
              Broadcasting (Video)
              Communication (Radio)
              Communication (Telephone)
              Facsimile transmission
              Paging services
              Radio broadcasting
              Radio communication
              Teleconferencing (Audio)
              Teleconferencing (Video)
              Telegram transmission
              Telegraph services
              Telematic services
              Teletext services
              Television broadcasting
              Transmission (Facsimile)
              Transmission (Telegram)



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              Video broadcasting
              Video teleconferencing
              Videotext services
              Broadcasting (Cable radio)
              Broadcasting (Cable television)
              Broadcasting (Subscription television)
              Cable radio broadcasting
              Cable radio transmission
              Cable television broadcasting
              Cable television transmission
              Cellular telephone services
              Communication (Mobile radio)
              Communication (Telegram transmission and)
              Communication by telegram
              Electronic mail services
              Mail services (Electronic)
              Mobile radio communication
              Network conferencing services

      Class 039 Transportation and storage services
              Air transportation
              Airplane chartering
              Airport services
              Ambulance transport
              Automobile salvage
              Barge transport
              Boat chartering
              Boat cruises
              Boat storage
              Boathouse services
              Bridge operation
              Brokerage (Freight)
              Brokerage (Ship)
              Brokerage (Transport)
              Bus chartering
              Car parking
              Cargo handling
              Cargo unloading
              Chauffeur services
              Clubs (Travel)
              Courier services
              Cruises (Boat)
              Delivery (Document)
              Delivery (Food)
              Delivery (Message)
              Delivery (Parcel)
              Delivery (Pizza)
              Drayage services



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              Food delivery
              Forwarding (Freight)
              Freight brokerage
              Freight forwarding
              Fur storage
              Furniture moving
              Furniture storage
              Handling (Cargo)
              Hauling (Truck)
              Lighterage services
              Limousine services
              Marina services

      Class 040 Material treatment services
              Blacksmithing
              Boilermaking
              Bookbinding
              Coppersmithing
              Dressmaking
              Electroplating
              Embroidering
              Engraving
              Galvanizing
              Gilding
              Grinding
              Metallizing
              Photofinishing
              Photogravure
              Recycling
              Silversmithing
              Smithing
              Soldering
              Tailoring
              Tanning
              Taxidermy
              Welding
              Woodworking
              Air deodorizing
              Air freshening
              Air purification
              Alteration (Clothing)
              Blasting (Sand)
              Blowing (Glass)
              Cabinet making
              Cadmium plating
              Canning (Food)
              Casting (Die)
              Casting (Jewelry)



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              Casting (Metal)
              Ceramic glazing
              Chromium plating
              Clothing alteration
              Crushing (Fruit)
              Demineralization (Water)

      Class 041 Education and entertainment services
              Casinos
              Discotheques
              Gymnasiums
              Libraries
              Museums
              Planetariums
              Zoos
              Amusement arcades
              Amusement centers
              Amusement parks
              Animal exhibitions
              Arcades (Amusement)
              Ballet schools
              Bookmobile services
              Botanical gardens
              Bowling alleys
              Camps (Recreational)
              Camps (Sport)
              Camps (Summer)
              Cinema studios
              Cinema theaters
              Clubs (Country)
              Clubs (Fan)
              Clubs (Health)
              Clubs (Yacht)
              Correspondence schools
              Country clubs
              Dance schools
              Dance studios
              Demonstrations (Educational)
              Dinner theaters
              Dog races
              Dog shows
              Educational demonstrations
              Educational research
              Educational testing
              Exhibitions (Animal)
              Fan clubs
              Figure salons
              Gardens (Botanical)



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INTERNET DRAFT                                            September 1996



      Class 042 Miscellaneous services
              Arbitration
              Barbershops
              Blueprinting
              Bottling
              Cabarets
              Cafes
              Cafeterias
              Catering
              Chaperoning
              Cremation
              Delicatessens
              Dentistry
              Drafting
              Engineering
              Guardianship
              Hospices
              Hospitals
              Hostels
              Hotels
              Keypunching
              Locksmithing
              Manicuring
              Mapping
              Massage
              Mediation
              Motels
              Pharmacies
              Printing
              Restaurants
              Sanitariums
              Supermarkets
              Tattooing
              Typesetting
              Typography
              Undertaking
              Videotaping
              Accident investigations
              Adoption agencies
              Adoption placement
              Aerial photography


Appendix B: Appreciations of the Situation

    This is a kind of document used by the military to teach junior off-
   icers ``to use their heads for more than hatracks''.  Writing



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   appreciations is taught as a means of clarifying one's thoughts about
   difficult problems.

   An appreciation has /in +2
   a single aim, stated without the use of ``and'' or ``or'',
   limitations, which may constrain the problem,
   factors, each of which affects at least one course of action,
   courses of action, each of which is affected by some or all of the
   factors, and
   a conclusion.

 All courses are annotated with the names of the factors which affect
 them.

 Readers are encouraged to look for missing relevant factors, missing
 courses of action, factors which are not used by any (or some) of the
 courses and courses which do not follow from the factors which sup-
 posedly affect them.

References


[AGMON]
     Agmon, Jonathan , Stacey Halpern and David Pauker, `` What's In A
     Name?'', Chapter 6, ``The Problem And Criteria For A Solution'', a
     publication of the Georgetown University Law Center,
     http://www.law.georgetown.edu/lc/internic/domain1.html.


[DENNINGER]
     Denninger, Karl, ``TOP LEVEL DOMAIN DELEGATION DRAFT'',
     ftp://ietf.cnri.reston.va.us/internet-drafts/draft-denninger-itld-
     admin-00.txt


[HIGGS]
     Higgs, Simon, ``Top Level Domain Classification and Categoriza-
     tion'', ftp://ietf.cnri.reston.va.us/internet-drafts/draft-higgs-
     tld-cat-02.txt


[MASEK]
     Masek, Jan, ``New Registries assignment, new iTLD formats and
     implementation of International Top Level Domains",
     ftp://ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-masek-itld-admin-00.txt


[POSTEL]



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     Postel, Jon, ``New Registries and the Delegation of International
     Top Level Domains'', ftp://ietf.cnri.reston.va.us/internet-
     drafts/draft-postel-iana-itld-admin-01.txt


[USPTO]
     Definitive terms from the Trademark Acceptable Identification of
     Goods and Services Manual are searchable at
     http://www.uspto.gov/cgi-bin/goods-services.pl?NNN, where NNN is
     the search string.

Thanks

   The author wishes to thank Arron Leonard, Greg Woods, Carl Oppedahl,
   Kent Crispin, Dan Busarow, Vince Wolodkin, Kathryn Kleiman and Simon
   Higgs for their insights and spirited criticisms, with special thanks
   to John R. Levine, who pointed out significant problems with using
   generics and categories within TLDs and so inadvertently triggered
   this paper.  All the errors and omissions, however, are the author's.

   ``I can see so far because I stand upon the shoulders of Giants''.

Author's Address

   David Collier-Brown

      Email: davecb@hobbes.ss.org
      Home:  (416) 223-8968
      Http:  //java.science.yorku.ca/~davecb






















Collier-Brown                                                  [Page 54]