RADIT                                                         J. Coretta
Internet-Draft                                         February 29, 2024
Intended status: Experimental
Obsoletes: X660LDAP
Expires: August 27, 2024


                    The OID Directory: The RA DIT
                  draft-coretta-oiddir-radit-00.txt

Abstract

   In service to the "OID Directory" ID series, this ID covers design
   strategies and requirements relating to the Registration Authority
   Directory Information Tree.

   See the RADIR ID for a complete draft series manifest.

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   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 27, 2024.

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   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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   described in the Simplified BSD License.






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Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ....................................................2
      1.1. Conventions ................................................2
      1.2. Acronyms Used ..............................................3
         1.2.1. Definitions ...........................................3
      1.3. Intended Audience ..........................................3
      1.4. Allocations ................................................3
   2. Assessments .....................................................3
      2.1. Schema Availability ........................................4
      2.2. Spectral Coverage ..........................................4
      2.3. Content Capacity and Location ..............................5
      2.4. User Base ..................................................5
      2.5. Class and Attribute Usage ..................................5
      2.6. Content Sourcing ...........................................6
   3. The RA DIT ......................................................6
      3.1. Directory Models ...........................................7
         3.1.1. Choosing the Appropriate Model ........................7
         3.1.2. The Two Dimensional Model .............................7
         3.1.3. The Three Dimensional Model ...........................9
      3.2. Entry Content ..............................................9
         3.2.1. Registrants ..........................................10
         3.2.2. Registrations ........................................13
         3.2.3. Value Forms ..........................................23
         3.2.4. Special Attributes ...................................25
   4. IANA Considerations ............................................36
   5. Security Considerations ........................................36
      5.1. Access Control ............................................36
      5.2. Creation and Modification Identities ......................36
   6. References .....................................................36
      6.1. Normative References ......................................36
      6.2. Informative References ....................................37
   Author's Address ..................................................38

1.  Introduction

   The X.500 Directory Information Tree is an abstract data structure
   comprised of hierarchical contexts called entries.  Each entry bears
   an unambiguous reference -- a distinguished name -- to its location
   within the structure.

   Within the terms of this ID series, this structure represents -- or
   houses -- an information base of OID registrations and registrants
   in the context of ITU-T Recommendations X.660 and X.680, et al.

1.1.  Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY",
   and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described
   in BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in
   all capitals, as shown here.

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1.2.  Acronyms Used

   See Section 1.3 of the RADIR ID for all acronym references.

1.2.1.  Definitions

   The composite acronym, "RA DIT", is hereby introduced within this ID.
   The acronym abbreviates the 'Registration Authority Directory
   Information Tree' term, which describes the directory tree structure
   that has been created or leveraged for storage of registration and
   registrant data in accordance with this ID series.

   The composite acronym "RA DSA" used throughout this ID is defined in
   Section 1.2.1 of the RADSA ID.

   The composite acronym "RA DUA" used throughout this ID is defined in
   Section 1.2.1 of the RADUA ID.

1.3.  Intended Audience

   This ID is specifically geared towards X.500/LDAP professionals, such
   as administrators, architects or application developers tasked with
   managing and/or implementing an RA DIT.

   General familiarity with the standards of X.500 and LDAP, as well as
   with the RASCHEMA, RADUA and RADSA IDs is STRONGLY RECOMMENDED.

1.4.  Allocations

   This specification extends the previously defined ID series OID root
   '1.3.6.1.4.1.56521.101', defined in Section 1.6 of the RADIR ID, in
   the following manner:

     - 1.3.6.1.4.1.56521.101.3 (rA-DIT)
     - 1.3.6.1.4.1.56521.101.3.1 (models)
     - 1.3.6.1.4.1.56521.101.3.1.2 (twoDimensional)
     - 1.3.6.1.4.1.56521.101.3.1.3 (threeDimensional)

   OIDs defined in this ID correlate to their section numbers of origin.

   Should this ID be elevated to RFC status, the aforementioned ID root
   OID prefix shall be rendered obsolete in favor of an IANA-assigned
   OID, at which point this ID will be updated to reference the literal
   'IANA-ASSIGNED-OID' placeholder prefix where appropriate.

2.  Assessments

   Implementation of this ID should not be taken lightly.  Certain key
   design decisions need to be made well in advance of use.

   To aid in this process, the following subsections outline relevant
   assessment categories for consideration.

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2.1.  Schema Availability

   Complete access and usage capabilities for all schema definitions
   found throughout Section 2 of the RASCHEMA ID is REQUIRED for
   the design and ongoing maintenance of the RA DIT.

   Adopters MUST confirm positive access to these definitions.

   Adopters are also advised to confirm positive support for DIT
   Content Rule, DIT Structure Rule and Name Form definitions by the
   respective RA DSA implementation if their use is necessary.

   At an absolute minimum, access to all attribute types and object
   classes defined within Sections 2.3 and 2.5 of the RASCHEMA ID
   respectively are REQUIRED for the effective construction of the RA
   DIT.

2.2.  Spectral Coverage

   The overall "size" of the planned implementation is a very important
   consideration.  Adopters should decide how thorough their planned
   RA DIT shall be in terms of content.

     - Which of the three (3) ITU-T Rec. X.660 root arcs will
       be implemented?
     - Will subordinate registrations be retained indiscriminately, or
       are only specific arcs targeted?

   Root arc entries, ostensibly those bearing the 'rootArc' STRUCTURAL
   class defined in Section 2.5.2 of the RASCHEMA ID, are intended to
   store registrations of like ancestry only.

   In the RECOMMENDED three dimensional model, this is REQUIRED.  Here,
   all registrations of the same ancestry or "lineage" of the desired
   entry -- from root to immediate parent -- MUST be created in order to
   conform to the requisite tree structure.  In other words, if '1.3.6'
   is desired for registration, '1.3' and '1' MUST exist hierarchically
   beforehand, even if they are unnecessary in context.

   When using the STRONGLY DISCOURAGED two dimensional model, only
   specific (desired) registrations need to be created -- NOT their
   entire ancestry.  The result is a collection of sibling entries
   with no hierarchically significant placement.

   With these considerations in mind, adopters should decide the
   extent to which adoption shall occur in terms of directory content
   maintained and its effective footprint.






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2.3.  Content Capacity and Location

   Adopters are advised to consider the long-term implications of
   the planned RA DIT in terms of capacity provided by the hosting RA
   DSA(s) and take measures to ensure a suitable operating environment.

   Based on the assessments made in Section 2.2, adopters may wish
   to consider whether a particularly large RA DIT may be better suited
   for context segmentation, whether or not distribution is indicated,
   to allow for larger portions of the RA DIT to function independently
   and with dedicated resources and specialized security policies.

   ITU-T Rec. X.518 defines the concepts of the distributed directory.

2.4.  User Base

   The targeted user base of an implementation can influence its nature.

   A private RA -- for example, one administered under the governance of
   a private corporation for internal use -- may be exposed to a largely
   vetted and fairly small user base.  If so, it may be acceptable to
   relax certain restrictions, such as registrant privacy controls.

   In the case of public-facing RA -- for example, one meant to serve an
   unvetted and potentially hostile user base -- the requirements for a
   practical and secure implementation become far more complicated.

   Lack of an effective access control model employed by the RA DSA MUST
   preclude the storage of sensitive content within any RA DIT that is
   potentially vulnerable to hostile entities.  Design of the RA DIT in
   this manner depends on positive support for suitable access controls
   by the RA DSA.  Adopters are advised to confirm availability and
   effective operation of such controls under the expected conditions.

   The effective mass and vitality of the user base is also a point of
   consideration.  Adopters are advised to consider whether subtrees
   of a particularly volatile nature may be better suited for placement
   within a separate RA DSA or environment, which may or may not involve
   use of a distributed model or shadowed context.

2.5.  Class and Attribute Usage

   Not all attribute types defined in the RASCHEMA ID are required
   for use within an RA DIT.  For example, only one (1) attribute type
   -- 'n', per Section 2.3.1 of the RASCHEMA ID -- is truly REQUIRED
   for all registrations.  Naturally, such stringent use of the types
   made available may result in an unhelpful implementation.

   While attribute types have been defined for most contingencies, the
   adoption of these types is entirely up to the adopter(s).



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   Consult Section 2.3 of the RASCHEMA ID for the particulars of the
   named attribute types in the following subsections.

   Consult Section 2.5 of the RASCHEMA ID for definitions of object
   class instances which allow assignment of these types to eligible
   entries.

   Consult Section 3.2 for examples of object class and attribute type
   usage as complete entries, as well as an overview of use cases for
   specific types.

2.6.  Content Sourcing

   This ID acknowledges that -- even in complete implementations -- no
   single RA manages ALL of the OID spectrum directly.  Most, if not all
   of this content is under the authority of external entities.

   In lieu of this, this ID assumes some mechanism may be in place meant
   to obtain and synchronize content from appropriate sources.  While
   the specifics are well outside the intended scope, this process may
   resemble any of the following:

     - Native replication agreements spanning implementations of this ID
     - Regular data file receipt and processing (e.g.: LDIF, XML, CSV)
     - Direct parsing of originating standard, ID or module
     - Remote (proprietary) API requests
     - Remote AXFR or IXFR requests [RFC5936] in the context of ORS

   While the particulars of such synchronization and/or incorporation of
   content external to this ID are well outside of the scope intended,
   this ID acknowledges that such sourcing methods are often necessary.
   Adopters SHOULD determine if any external registration content
   is worthy of incorporation and in what manner.

   Conversely, if the RA is responsible for any number of registrations
   that are public-facing in nature, the RA SHOULD make registrations
   available for consumption by external parties by some means.

3.  The RA DIT

   The RA DIT is a traditional X.500/LDAP directory information tree
   served by way of an RA DSA with which clients may interact.

   The RA DIT may or may not contain unrelated content such as employee
   accounts, user groups or system data.  This ID series has no official
   position as it relates to the presence of such content.







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3.1.  Directory Models

   The appropriate DIT structure for any scenario depends upon the scope
   of implementation in the long-term.  Directory models defined within
   this ID series are meant to provide an indication to clients (DUAs)
   regarding the governing structure of the implementation.

   DUAs optimized for use within the terms of this ID series, known as
   RA DUAs, will use this information to define the operating methods
   exercised during routine operation.

3.1.1.  Choosing the Appropriate Model

   This introductory section aids the reader in choosing the appropriate
   model for their implementation.  Generally this decision is made well
   in advance of any tangible implementation.

   The three dimensional model, as defined in Section 3.1.3, is the most
   likely candidate for adoption if ANY of the following are considered
   TRUE:

     - The RA is operating as an official, or widely recognized, public
       service that conforms to all relevant standards
     - Consistent, unambiguous DN-based registration references for an
       entire ancestry is desired
     - Reliable, bidirectional client-based conversion (or "resolution")
       between DNs and numeric OIDs for an entire ancestry is desired
     - RA DIT scalability and flexibility is a non-trivial concern
     - The distribution (or "segmentation") of select DIT content is
       in effect, or may be desirable, across multiple RA DSAs
     - A single RA DIT is logically divided into multiple subordinate
       naming contexts within an RA DSA
     - The implementation will be thorough, spanning more than a single
       root arc, with an ever-increasing number of registrations being
       stored and served
     - Collective Attribute support is desired
     - Content privileges are complex, highly regimented and/or will
       vary across different registration hierarchies
     - Sparse or fractional replication agreements are possible
     - Ranged registrations are present or expected

   Should NONE of the above scenarios apply, the implementation is to
   be regarded as non-standard and may be an appropriate candidate for
   the two dimensional model described in Section 3.1.2.

3.1.2.  The Two Dimensional Model

   The two dimensional model is advertised, or identified, using the
   following OID assigned to an instance of 'rADirectoryMode':

     1.3.6.1.4.1.56521.101.3.1.2


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   Per Section 3.1.1, this model is available for informal, unofficial
   or otherwise non-standard implementations of this ID.  Use of this
   model is STRONGLY DISCOURAGED.

   The two dimensional model describes a simple "list" of registration
   entries, all accessible exactly one (1) level below the top-level
   registration root.  The concept of subtrees beyond this magnitude
   does not apply in this model.

   The ideal DN syntax for use with this model involves use of the
   'dotNotation' attribute type as the principal RDN component of the
   entry DN.

   For example, the following DN would reference the OID registration
   for "dod":

     dotNotation=1.3.6,ou=Registrations,o=rA

   If the DN syntax used the 'identifier' value, it might appear as:

     identifier=dod,ou=Registrations,o=rA

   Registrations are stored with no regard for vertical or horizontal
   relationships.  Sibling, subordinate and superior registrations may
   be stored within the same naming context and the same hierarchical
   "level":

     dotNotation=2.1,ou=Registrations,o=rA
     dotNotation=1.3.6,ou=Registrations,o=rA
     n=0,ou=Registrations,o=rA
     dotNotation=1.3,ou=Registrations,o=rA
     dotNotation=0.9,ou=Registrations,o=rA

   This model does NOT scale well.  Beyond the basic organization of OID
   registrations within their respective roots, hierarchically-based OID
   registration organization is NOT practical, as this technique would
   almost certainly produce absurdly long and/or counterintuitive DNs.

   Contiguity of superior registrations is not implicitly guaranteed as
   it is when using the three dimensional model.  For example, if the
   registration for '1.3.6' ("dod") is present, this does not guarantee
   the superior registration '1.3' ("identified-organization") exists in
   the RA DIT.

   This model is NEVER RECOMMENDED for official implementations, nor
   in any scenario even approaching the severity of mission-critical.

   Only private implementations of especially weak definition or those
   of an ephemeral nature should ever truly consider adoption of this
   directory model.



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3.1.3.  The Three Dimensional Model

   The three dimensional model is advertised, or identified, using the
   following OID assigned to an instance of 'rADirectoryModel':

     1.3.6.1.4.1.56521.101.3.1.3

   The three dimensional model describes a registration hierarchy that
   mirrors the hierarchical nature of the OIDs directly, with absolute
   root arc registrations superior to all subordinate arc registrations.

   Per Section 3.1.1, this model is STRONGLY RECOMMENDED for complete,
   thorough or official implementations of this ID.  It is also quite
   suitable for general use, though at the risk of some administrative
   tedium if a suitable RA DUA is not made available.

   The three dimensional model imposes very strict and well-defined DN
   syntax requirements.  In particular, the 'n' attribute type is an
   important component in the formation of a valid and unambiguous
   reference to a single registration and its ancestry.

   The result is a model that fosters seamless bidirectional conversion
   -- performed by the RA DUA -- between DNs and numeric OIDs.

   For example, the following DN represents OID '1.3.6.1.4.1.56521.999'.
   In this syntax, a DN is divided into two (2) logical abstractions:

      n=999,n=56521,n=1,n=4,n=1,n=6,n=3,n=1 ,ou=Registrations,o=rA
      ------------------------------------- ----------------------
              Registration Ancestry            Registration Base

   The conversion process from OID to DN is as follows:

      1. Reverse OID (becomes 999.56521.1.4.1.6.3.1)
      2. Swap all ASCII "%x2e" (".") instances with ASCII "%x2c" (",")
      3. Preface each ASCII "%x2c"-delimited integer with 'n=', which
         completes assembly of the registration ancestry
      4. Append ASCII "%x2c" (",") and appropriate registration base

   In the obverse -- or "unreversed" -- context, the following process
   converts a DN to a numeric OID:

      1. Discard registration base leading ASCII "%x2c" delimiter (","),
         leaving only the registration ancestry
      2. Discard all occurrences of 'n='
      3. Swap all ASCII "%x2c" (",") instances with ASCII "%x2e" (".")
      4. Reverse values (becomes OID 1.3.6.1.4.1.56521.999)

3.2.  Entry Content

   The following subsections discuss various topics that pertain to DIT
   content management within the spirit of this ID series.

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   Certain examples are defined for consumption by adopters of this ID.
   These examples are expressed as LDIF, and may employ indenting and
   line-wrapping of attribute values whose lengths exceed the maximum
   size permitted by the RFC ID standard format.

   This condition does not invalidate the usability or syntactical
   conformity of these instances.

3.2.1.  Registrants

   Registrants are documented authorities of various forms involved
   in the ownership, allocation and/or general management of an OID.

   Whether directly or through inheritance, all OIDs have an authority
   of some form.  This ID allows for flexible and scalable management
   of such content.

3.2.1.1.  Registrant Strategy

   Per ITU-T Rec. X.660, there are three (3) types of authorities:

     - Current
     - Previous (First)
     - Sponsor

   To parallel these authority types, three (3) AUXILIARY object classes
   are defined within Section 2.5 of the RASCHEMA ID:

     - 'currentAuthorityContext'
     - 'firstAuthorityContext'
     - 'sponsorContext'

   Use of any number of these object classes will result in related
   contact and identity attribute types being made available for use
   within the class bearing entry.

   Generally, authorities manifest as any of the following entities:

     - An individual
     - A public or private organization, institution or working group
     - A document (e.g.: a standard or ID, e.g.: [RFC4519])

   Implementations of this ID may choose either of the following models
   to govern registrant-related DIT content:

     - Dedicated (independent) entry model
     - Combined (inline) entry model






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3.2.1.1.1.  Dedicated Registrants

   In this model, every distinct registrant is expressed using a single
   dedicated directory entry bearing the 'registrant' STRUCTURAL object
   class and is uniquely identifiable by way of a 'registrantID' value,
   ideally assigned as the leaf-node RDN component of the entry.

   This is the RECOMMENDED strategy for all implementations and models
   in which registrant information is present.

   For any practical use, each 'registrant' entry SHOULD bear one (1) or
   more of the following AUXILIARY object class definitions previously
   mentioned:

     - 'currentAuthorityContext'
     - 'firstAuthorityContext'
     - 'sponsorContext'

   For example, consider the following 'registrant' entry describing the
   author of this ID series:

      dn: registrantID=a0efcce18a,ou=Registrants,o=rA
      objectClass: registrant
      objectClass: firstAuthorityContext
      firstAuthorityStartTimestamp: 20210930124105Z
      firstAuthorityCommonName: Jesse Coretta
      firstAuthorityEmail: jesse.coretta@icloud.com

   Use of the 'registrantID' attribute type as the principal RDN type
   is STRONGLY RECOMMENDED as shown.


   The concept of a dedicated registrant entry is unfixed.  Attribute
   types related to authority information extended via the RASCHEMA
   ID are present largely for convenience and reasons of clarity.

   Adopters of the RA DIT MAY choose to forego use of some or all of
   these types in favor of those defined within official standards such
   as [RFC4519] and [RFC4524].

   It is RECOMMENDED that in this case, use of such attribute types that
   serve as super types of the replaced RASCHEMA types be observed.
   For example, the appropriate replacement type for 'sponsorCommonName'
   is 'cn', because 'cn' is its super type.

   Some types defined within the RASCHEMA ID are unique in nature and
   may not be derived from a super type.  An example of this is the
   'firstAuthorityStartTimestamp' attribute type.  Continued use of
   these types is likely indicated.




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   Use of the 'extensibleObject' AUXILIARY object class defined within
   Section 4.3 of [RFC4512] is likely indicated where this replacement
   strategy is employed.  Continued use of the 'registrant' STRUCTURAL
   object class is REQUIRED for compatibility reasons relating to the
   RA DUA.

   To offer a more complete example of this alternative use, the above
   'registrant' entry bearing the 'registrantID' value of 'a0efcce18a'
   implements 'cn' and 'mail' over their sub typed counterparts defined
   within the RASCHEMA ID.

      dn: registrantID=e2ef220b3b,ou=Registrants,o=rA
      objectClass: registrant
      objectClass: extensibleObject
      objectClass: firstAuthorityContext
      firstAuthorityStartTimestamp: 20210930124105Z
      cn: Jesse Coretta
      mail: jesse.coretta@icloud.com

   The drawback of this replacement strategy is that this 'registrant'
   entry cannot combine the ITU-T Rec. X.660 authority classifications
   within the bounds of a single 'registrant' entry any longer.

   For example, observe how two (2) distinct authority contexts reside
   within this single 'registrant' entry:

      dn: registrantID=aec17eef17,ou=Registrants,o=rA
      objectClass: registrant
      objectClass: firstAuthorityContext
      objectClass: currentAuthorityContext
      currentAuthorityOrg: ITU-T SG 17 & ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 6
      firstAuthorityOrg: ITU-T SG 7 & ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 33

   If the implementation, instead, favors use of the indicated super
   types, the context of the above 'registrant' entry will have to
   be split into two (2) distinct entries:

      dn: registrantID=b7ea16ef5e,ou=Registrants,o=rA
      objectClass: registrant
      objectClass: extensibleObject
      objectClass: currentAuthorityContext
      o: ITU-T SG 17 & ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 6

      dn: registrantID=e1f0ffb677,ou=Registrants,o=rA
      objectClass: registrant
      objectClass: extensibleObject
      objectClass: firstAuthorityContext
      o: ITU-T SG 7 & ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 33





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   With a cogent "dedicated registrant" policy devised, 'registration'
   entries may reference appropriate entries through DN referencing in
   the context of appropriate authority classification by way of the
   following attribute types:

     - 'currentAuthority' and/or 'c-currentAuthority'
     - 'firstAuthority' and/or 'c-firstAuthority'
     - 'sponsor' and/or 'c-sponsor'

   It is permitted for 'registration' entries to bear both collective
   and non-collective equivalent instances of these attribute types.
   For example, the presence of instances of both the 'sponsor' and
   'c-sponsor' types within a single 'registration' entry is permitted.

   A practical use case might involve collective value assignment to a
   large number of entries, with non-collective supplemental authority
   references added in ad hoc fashion, as needed.

3.2.1.1.2.  Combined Registrants

   In this model, 'registration' entries are assigned one (1) or more of
   the following AUXILIARY object class definitions:

     - 'currentAuthorityContext'
     - 'firstAuthorityContext'
     - 'sponsorContext'

   Unlike the RECOMMENDED registrant approach shown in Section 3.2.1,
   contact and identity attribute types are stored directly within the
   given 'registration' entry.  Essentially, this merges the ideas of
   'registration' entries and 'registrant' entries into a singular
   context.

   This model is highly inefficient, and would only apply to limited
   use-cases within the STRONGLY DISCOURAGED two dimensional model,
   and ONLY if the footprint is particularly small with registrant
   data that is unique and non-repeating in form.

   Limited examples of this registrant model are shown in Section 3.2.2.

   In general, use of this model is STRONGLY DISCOURAGED.

3.2.2.  Registrations

   Registrations are official allocations of ASN.1 object identifiers.
   Within the context of this ID, a registration manifests through a
   directory entry bearing the 'registration' STRUCTURAL class and
   any number of supporting attribute type instances.





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3.2.2.1.  Root Arcs

   Regardless of the implemented dimensional model, certain scenarios
   will call for the creation of so-called root registrations, or root
   arcs.  These are special entries -- of which there can only be three
   (3) -- meant to represent the absolute superior root context of any
   and all registrations of origin.

   The three (3) root arcs -- defined in ITU-T Rec. X.660 -- are covered
   in the following subsections and are expressed as LDIF entries.  Some
   attribute values are both line-wrapped and indented due to character
   lengths, which is permitted using LDIF.

   These registration forms are dimension neutral, meaning they manifest
   no differently regardless of directory model employed.

   Root 'registration' entries are based upon the 'rootArc' STRUCTURAL
   object class.  Be advised that root registration entries cannot bear
   instances of the 'dotNotation' attribute type due to syntactical
   limitations.  The standard OID syntax for LDAP requires at least two
   (2) number form instances in dot notation for a legal OID value.

   Because 'dotNotation' was defined upon this syntax, this precludes
   any single root arc -- such as 2 -- being used to identify a root
   OID.  This is why the 'n' attribute type is RECOMMENDED for the leaf
   node RDN component of all 'registration' entries -- including roots.

   It is generally discouraged to use any attribute type OTHER THAN 'n'
   for the RDN attribute type of the 'registration' DN within the three
   dimensional model.  Using types such as 'identifier', 'unicodeValue'
   or others, can interfere with DN/OID conversion and extrapolation.

3.2.2.1.1.  ITU-T

      dn: n=0,ou=Registrations,o=rA
      objectClass: registration
      objectClass: rootArc
      objectClass: x660Context
      objectClass: x680Context
      objectClass: registrationSupplement
      description: International Telecommunication Union -
        Telecommunication standardization sector (ITU-T)
      unicodeValue: ITU-T
      identifier: itu-t
      iRI: /ITU-T
      iRI: /ITU-R
      aSN1Notation: {itu-t(0)}
      secondaryIdentifier: ccitt
      standardizedNameForm: {itu-t}
      additionalUnicodeValue: ITU-R
      registrationClassification: Standards development organization


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   This registration may also be expressed in minimalistic form:

      dn: n=0,ou=Registrations,o=rA
      objectClass: registration
      objectClass: rootArc

3.2.2.1.2.  ISO

      dn: n=1,ou=Registrations,o=rA
      objectClass: registration
      objectClass: rootArc
      objectClass: x660Context
      objectClass: x680Context
      objectClass: registrationSupplement
      description: International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
      unicodeValue: ISO
      identifier: iso
      iRI: /ISO
      aSN1Notation: {iso(1)}
      standardizedNameForm: {iso}
      registrationClassification: Standards development organization

   This registration may also be expressed in minimalistic form:

      dn: n=1,ou=Registrations,o=rA
      objectClass: registration
      objectClass: rootArc

3.2.2.1.3.  Joint ISO/ITU-T

      dn: n=2,ou=Registrations,o=rA
      objectClass: registration
      objectClass: rootArc
      objectClass: x660Context
      objectClass: x680Context
      objectClass: registrationSupplement
      description: Areas of joint work between ISO/IEC (International
        Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical
        Commission) and ITU-T (International Telecommunication Union -
        Telecommunication standardization sector), and other intl. work
      firstAuthority: registrantID=e1f0ffb677,ou=Registrants,o=rA
      currentAuthority: registrantID=b7ea16ef5e,ou=Registrants,o=rA
      unicodeValue: Joint-ISO-ITU-T
      identifier: joint-iso-itu-t
      iRI: /Joint-ISO-ITU-T
      aSN1Notation: {joint-iso-itu-t(2)}
      secondaryIdentifier: joint-iso-ccitt
      standardizedNameForm: {joint-iso-itu-t}
      registrationClassification: Standards development organization




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   See Section 3.2.1.1.1 for authority entry examples referenced here.
   If using the (generally) DISCOURAGED "combined registrants" strategy,
   the following object classes and attribute types may be added to this
   entry instead of the above authority-related DN references:

      objectClass: firstAuthorityContext
      objectClass: currentAuthorityContext
      currentAuthorityOrg: ITU-T SG 17 & ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 6
      firstAuthorityOrg: ITU-T SG 7 & ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 33

   This registration may also be expressed in minimalistic form:

      dn: n=2,ou=Registrations,o=rA
      objectClass: registration
      objectClass: rootArc

3.2.2.2.  Subordinate Arcs

   Also referred to as 'sub arcs' and 'non-root arcs', these entries
   represent the majority of content that comprises the typical RA DIT.

   These registration forms -- unlike their root counterparts -- may
   manifest in slightly different manners depending on the directory
   model employed by the RA DIT in question.  The following sections
   that outline examples of these entries will include remarks which
   relate to any indicated dimensional considerations.  These sections
   also cite certain well-known registrations relevant to the examples.

   Subordinate arcs may incorporate additional attribute types and
   object classes not permitted for use by root arcs described within
   Section 3.2.2.1 -- whether due to schema restrictions or by virtue
   of logical context.

   In particular, arcs bear the 'arc' STRUCTURAL object class instead of
   the 'rootArc' object class, and MAY bear one (1) of the following
   AUXILIARY classes only, and would be based upon the leading digit of
   the registration's effective OID:

      - 'iTUTRegistration' (0)
      - 'iSORegistration' (1)
      - 'jointISOITUTRegistration' (2)

   Additional permitted attribute types include, but are not limited to:

      - 'dotNotation'
      - 'isLeafNode'
      - 'registrationRange'
      - '[c-]topArc'
      - '[c-]supArc'




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3.2.2.2.1.  Identified-Organization

      dn: n=3,n=1,ou=Registrations,o=rA
      objectClass: registration
      objectClass: arc
      objectClass: iSORegistration
      objectClass: x660Context
      objectClass: x680Context
      objectClass: registrationSupplement
      description: Organization identification schemes registered
        according to ISO/IEC 6523-2
      aSN1Notation: {iso(1) identified-organization(3)}
      isFrozen: TRUE
      dotNotation: 1.3
      unicodeValue: Identified-Organization
      registrationModified: 20120101000000Z
      registrationCreated: 19870101000000Z
      standardizedNameForm: {identified-organization}
      iRI: /ISO/Identified-Organization

   If using the STRONGLY DISCOURAGED two dimensional directory model,
   "Identified-Organization" SHOULD express the RECOMMENDED DN syntax
   for this model:

      dotNotation=1.3,ou=Registrations,o=rA

3.2.2.2.2.  ASN.1

      dn: n=1,n=2,ou=Registrations,o=rA
      objectClass: registration
      objectClass: arc
      objectClass: jointISOITUTRegistration
      objectClass: x660Context
      objectClass: x680Context
      n: 1
      description: ASN.1 standards
      aSN1Notation: {joint-iso-itu-t(2) asn1(1)}
      dotNotation: 2.1
      iRI: /ASN.1
      longArc: /ASN.1
      unicodeValue: ASN.1

   If using the STRONGLY DISCOURAGED two dimensional directory model,
   "ASN.1" SHOULD express the RECOMMENDED DN syntax indicated:

      dotNotation=2.1,ou=Registrations,o=rA







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3.2.2.2.3.  X

      dn: n=24,n=0,n=0,ou=Registrations,o=rA
      objectClass: registration
      objectClass: arc
      objectClass: iTUTRegistration
      objectClass: x660Context
      objectClass: x680Context
      n: 24
      description: Series X of ITU-T Recommendations "Data networks,
        open system communications and security"
      aSN1Notation: {itu-t(0) recommendation(0) x(24)}
      dotNotation: 0.0.24
      iRI: /ITU-T/Recommendations/X
      standardizedNameForm: {x}
      unicodeValue: X

   If using the STRONGLY DISCOURAGED two dimensional directory model,
   "X" SHOULD bear the RECOMMENDED DN syntax for this model:

      dn: dotNotation=0.0.24,ou=Registrations,o=rA

3.2.2.2.4.  The "OID Directory"

   This section describes a small portion of the OID registrations
   officiated by this ID series.  Note that the entire ancestry is
   not shown for reasons of significant brevity.

   The same twoDimensional DN syntax scheme shall apply, as mentioned
   in previous sections, when using the STRONGLY DISCOURAGED two
   dimensional directory model.

   Note the referenced 'firstAuthority' entry DN, which bears the value
   "a0efcce18a" for 'registrantID', is defined in Section 3.2.1.1.1.

      dn: n=56521,n=1,n=4,n=1,n=6,n=3,n=1,ou=Registrations,o=rA
      objectClass: registration
      objectClass: arc
      objectClass: iSORegistration
      objectClass: x660Context
      objectClass: x680Context
      objectClass: registrationSupplement
      firstAuthority: registrantID=a0efcce18a,ou=Registrants,o=rA
      registrationURI: https://www.iana.org/assignments/enterprise-
        numbers/
      description: Jesse Coretta
      aSN1Notation: {iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6)
        internet(1) private(4) enterprise(1) 56521}
      dotNotation: 1.3.6.1.4.1.56521
      iRI: /ISO/Identified-Organization/6/1/4/1/56521



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      dn: n=101,n=56521,n=1,n=4,n=1,n=6,n=3,n=1,ou=Registrations,o=rA
      objectClass: registration
      objectClass: arc
      objectClass: iSORegistration
      objectClass: x680Context
      description: The OID Directory
      identifier: oid-directory
      nameAndNumberForm: oid-directory(101)
      aSN1Notation: {iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6)
        internet(1) private(4) enterprise(1) 56521 oid-directory(101)}
      dotNotation: 1.3.6.1.4.1.56521.101
      iRI: /ISO/Identified-Organization/6/1/4/1/56521/101

      dn: n=2,n=101,n=56521,n=1,n=4,n=1,n=6,n=3,n=1,
        ou=Registrations,o=rA
      objectClass: registration
      objectClass: arc
      objectClass: iSORegistration
      objectClass: x680Context
      description: Directory Schema
      identifier: schema
      nameAndNumberForm: schema(2)
      aSN1Notation: {iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6)
        internet(1) private(4) enterprise(1) 56521 oid-directory(101)
        schema(2)}
      dotNotation: 1.3.6.1.4.1.56521.101.2
      iRI: /ISO/Identified-Organization/6/1/4/1/56521/101/2

      dn: n=3,n=2,n=101,n=56521,n=1,n=4,n=1,n=6,n=3,n=1,
        ou=Registrations,o=rA
      objectClass: registration
      objectClass: arc
      objectClass: iSORegistration
      objectClass: x680Context
      description: Attribute Types
      identifier: attributeTypes
      nameAndNumberForm: at(3)
      aSN1Notation: {iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6)
        internet(1) private(4) enterprise(1) 56521 oid-directory(101)
        schema(2) attributeTypes(3)}
      dotNotation: 1.3.6.1.4.1.56521.101.2.3
      iRI: /ISO/Identified-Organization/6/1/4/1/56521/101/2/3











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      dn: n=1,n=3,n=2,n=101,n=56521,n=1,n=4,n=1,n=6,n=3,n=1,
        ou=Registrations,o=rA
      objectClass: registration
      objectClass: arc
      objectClass: iSORegistration
      objectClass: x680Context
      objectClass: registrationSupplement
      description: Number Form
      isLeafNode: TRUE
      identifier: n
      secondaryIdentifier: numberForm
      nameAndNumberForm: n(1)
      aSN1Notation: {iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6)
        internet(1) private(4) enterprise(1) 56521 oid-directory(101)
        schema(2) attributeTypes(3) n(1)}
      dotNotation: 1.3.6.1.4.1.56521.101.2.3.1
      iRI: /ISO/Identified-Organization/6/1/4/1/56521/101/2/3/1

      dn: n=5,n=2,n=101,n=56521,n=1,n=4,n=1,n=6,n=3,n=1,
        ou=Registrations,o=rA
      objectClass: registration
      objectClass: arc
      objectClass: iSORegistration
      objectClass: x680Context
      description: Object Classes
      identifier: objectClasses
      nameAndNumberForm: objectClasses(5)
      aSN1Notation: {iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6)
        internet(1) private(4) enterprise(1) 56521 oid-directory(101)
        schema(2) objectClasses(5)}
      dotNotation: 1.3.6.1.4.1.56521.101.2.5
      iRI: /ISO/Identified-Organization/6/1/4/1/56521/101/2/5

      dn: n=1,n=5,n=2,n=101,n=56521,n=1,n=4,n=1,n=6,n=3,n=1,
        ou=Registrations,o=rA
      objectClass: registration
      objectClass: arc
      objectClass: iSORegistration
      objectClass: x680Context
      objectClass: registrationSupplement
      description: Registration AUXILIARY Class
      isLeafNode: TRUE
      identifier: registration
      nameAndNumberForm: registration(1)
      aSN1Notation: {iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6)
        internet(1) private(4) enterprise(1) 56521 oid-directory(101)
        schema(2) objectClasses(5) registration(1)}
      dotNotation: 1.3.6.1.4.1.56521.101.2.5.1
      iRI: /ISO/Identified-Organization/6/1/4/1/56521/101/2/5/1




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      dn: n=7,n=2,n=101,n=56521,n=1,n=4,n=1,n=6,n=3,n=1,
        ou=Registrations,o=rA
      objectClass: registration
      objectClass: arc
      objectClass: iSORegistration
      objectClass: x680Context
      description: Name Forms
      identifier: nameForms
      nameAndNumberForm: nameForms(7)
      aSN1Notation: {iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6)
        internet(1) private(4) enterprise(1) 56521 oid-directory(101)
        schema(2) nameForms(7)}
      dotNotation: 1.3.6.1.4.1.56521.101.2.7
      iRI: /ISO/Identified-Organization/6/1/4/1/56521/101/2/7

      dn: n=1,n=7,n=2,n=101,n=56521,n=1,n=4,n=1,n=6,n=3,n=1,
        ou=Registrations,o=rA
      objectClass: registration
      objectClass: arc
      objectClass: iSORegistration
      objectClass: x680Context
      objectClass: registrationSupplement
      description: Root Arc Name Form
      isLeafNode: TRUE
      identifier: nRootArcForm
      nameAndNumberForm: nRootArcForm(1)
      aSN1Notation: {iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6)
        internet(1) private(4) enterprise(1) 56521 oid-directory(101)
        schema(2) nameForms(7) nRootArcForm(1)}
      dotNotation: 1.3.6.1.4.1.56521.101.2.7.1
      iRI: /ISO/Identified-Organization/6/1/4/1/56521/101/2/7/1

      dn: n=3,n=101,n=56521,n=1,n=4,n=1,n=6,n=3,n=1,
        ou=Registrations,o=rA
      objectClass: registration
      objectClass: arc
      objectClass: iSORegistration
      objectClass: x680Context
      description: The RA DIT
      identifier: rA-DIT
      secondaryIdentifier: dIT
      nameAndNumberForm: rA-DIT(3)
      aSN1Notation: {iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6)
        internet(1) private(4) enterprise(1) 56521 oid-directory(101)
        rA-DIT(3)}
      dotNotation: 1.3.6.1.4.1.56521.101.3
      iRI: /ISO/Identified-Organization/6/1/4/1/56521/101/3






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      dn: n=1,n=3,n=101,n=56521,n=1,n=4,n=1,n=6,n=3,n=1,
        ou=Registrations,o=rA
      objectClass: registration
      objectClass: arc
      objectClass: iSORegistration
      objectClass: x680Context
      description: Directory Models
      identifier: models
      nameAndNumberForm: models(1)
      aSN1Notation: {iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6)
        internet(1) private(4) enterprise(1) 56521 oid-directory(101)
        rA-DIT(3) models(1)}
      dotNotation: 1.3.6.1.4.1.56521.101.3.1
      iRI: /ISO/Identified-Organization/6/1/4/1/56521/101/3/1

      dn: n=2,n=1,n=3,n=101,n=56521,n=1,n=4,n=1,n=6,n=3,n=1,
        ou=Registrations,o=rA
      objectClass: registration
      objectClass: arc
      objectClass: iSORegistration
      objectClass: x680Context
      objectClass: registrationSupplement
      description: The Two Dimensional Model
      isLeafNode: TRUE
      identifier: twoDimensional
      nameAndNumberForm: twoDimensional(2)
      aSN1Notation: {iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6)
        internet(1) private(4) enterprise(1) 56521 oid-directory(101)
        rA-DIT(3) models(1) twoDimensional(2)}
      dotNotation: 1.3.6.1.4.1.56521.101.3.1.2
      iRI: /ISO/Identified-Organization/6/1/4/1/56521/101/3/1/2

      dn: n=3,n=1,n=3,n=101,n=56521,n=1,n=4,n=1,n=6,n=3,n=1,
        ou=Registrations,o=rA
      objectClass: registration
      objectClass: arc
      objectClass: iSORegistration
      objectClass: x680Context
      objectClass: registrationSupplement
      description: The Three Dimensional Model
      isLeafNode: TRUE
      identifier: threeDimensional
      nameAndNumberForm: threeDimensional(3)
      aSN1Notation: {iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6)
        internet(1) private(4) enterprise(1) 56521 oid-directory(101)
        rA-DIT(3) models(1) threeDimensional(3)}
      dotNotation: 1.3.6.1.4.1.56521.101.3.1.3
      iRI: /ISO/Identified-Organization/6/1/4/1/56521/101/3/1/3





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3.2.2.2.5.  Registration Ranges

   This section demonstrates finite and infinite registration ranges.

      dn: n=0,n=171,n=999,n=56521,n=1,n=4,n=1,n=6,n=3,n=1,
        ou=Registrations,o=rA
      objectClass: registration
      objectClass: arc
      objectClass: iSORegistration
      objectClass: registrationSupplement
      description: Total/Infinite Range (1.3.6.1.4.1.56521.999.171.*)
      registrationRange: -1

      dn: n=10,n=401,n=999,n=56521,n=1,n=4,n=1,n=6,n=3,n=1,
        ou=Registrations,o=rA
      objectClass: registration
      objectClass: arc
      objectClass: iSORegistration
      objectClass: registrationSupplement
      description: Finite Range (1.3.6.1.4.1.56521.999.401.10-19)
      registrationRange: 19

3.2.3.  Value Forms

   Attribute type instances residing within the RA DIT may, or may not,
   manifest in a few different ways, each of which are covered in the
   following subsections.

3.2.3.1.  Composite

   Consider the 'nameAndNumberForm' attribute type, per Section 2.3.19
   of the RASCHEMA ID.  This attribute type combines the 'identifier'
   and 'n' attribute types to form a complete value, for instance:

      identified-organization(3)

   The RA DIT MAY opt for composite or "virtual" assembly of an instance
   of this attribute type by the RA DUA.  This negates the need for this
   instance to be stored within an entry in literal fashion, though ONLY
   if the aforementioned constituent types are present within the entry.

   In addition to the 'nameAndNumberForm' attribute type, 'aSN1Notation'
   also qualifies for this design strategy.  This type is a sequence of
   one (1) or more 'nameAndNumberForm' or 'numberForm' values -- whether
   composite or literal -- as derived from multiple superior entries.
   Note this is only practical within three dimensional implementations,
   and only when the entire ancestry is thoroughly populated and mapped
   spatially using attribute types extended via the 'spatialContext'
   AUXILIARY object class.




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   The most obvious benefit to the composite approach is the reduced
   storage space required for preservation of literal attribute values.
   The degree of "savings" is naturally proportional to the overall size
   of the RA DIT.

   A significant drawback, however, is (likely) limited client support.
   In order for composite values to be extrapolated by any client, the
   client must first be aware of the necessary "component" types which
   are required in order to produce a composite value.

   Performance may also be a concern when composite values are assembled
   using a lengthy sequence of superior entries, or if the operational
   state of the RA DSA is suboptimal in some manner.

3.2.3.2.  Literal

   Contrary to the theory described in Section 3.2.3.1, literal values
   are set to provide clients with access to needed information without
   any "assembly" required.  This is the standard approach to managing
   an attribute type value.

   The benefits and drawbacks of this approach are the direct inverse of
   those described in Section 3.2.3.1.  Storage space requirements would
   increase, while client capability and performance issues are abated.

   In general, this is the RECOMMENDED approach for RA DIT population
   as opposed to composite values.

3.2.3.3.  Collective

   Section 2.3 of the RASCHEMA ID defines collective attribute types
   to parallel certain attribute types which may apply to a great many
   entries in the context of a subtree within the RA DIT.

   In thorough implementations of this ID series, this can often provide
   considerable savings in terms of administrative effort in addition to
   reduced risk relating to potentially content updates applied manually
   to the RA DIT.  In such cases, collective attributes are RECOMMENDED.

   Every attribute type in collective form is conceptually based upon a
   non-collective equivalent attribute type, both in use and in context
   (e.g.: 'topArc' and 'c-topArc').

   Configuration for [RFC3671] support varies across X.500/LDAP products
   but most situations involve use of the 'subtreeSpecification' type in
   some fashion.  This type is used to limit the influence of collective
   attribute operations within the context of a subtree.

   While this ID series does not delve into the particulars of specific
   implementation steps for any given X.500/LDAP product, it does offer
   certain 'subtreeSpecification' examples where appropriate.


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   Specific methodologies relating to use varies greatly among the
   potential X.500/LDAP DSA products available today.  For the purposes
   of simplicity, this ID assumes that 'subtreeSpecification' instances
   are assigned to subentries of the relevant directory entry.

3.2.4.  Special Attributes

   This section outlines certain important attribute types extended via
   Section 2.3 of the RASCHEMA ID.

3.2.4.1.  'n'

   This attribute type plays a CRUCIAL role with regards to the syntax
   of DNs used in the three dimensional directory model.  It is the only
   attribute type defined in this ID REQUIRED for ALL registrations --
   root or not -- without exception.

   Instances of this attribute type SHALL NOT be negative, and SHALL NOT
   appear on entries other than 'registration' entries.  Instances of
   this type MUST remain unique among horizontal (sibling) entries.

   UUID-based OID registrations, by way of ITU-T Rec. [X.667], are
   dependent upon proper underlying ASN.1 INTEGER syntax support.  The
   value of 'n' MUST be the integer form of the hexadecimal UUID value.

   X.500/LDAP implementations or architectures incapable of supporting
   unsigned integers greater than or equal to 128 bits in length are
   ineligible for support and processing of such registrations by way
   of this type.

   Instances of this attribute type represent the start of a range of
   registration allocations when present in entries that also bear an
   instance of the 'registrationRange' attribute type, which signifies
   the terminus of an allocated OID range.

   This attribute type is defined in Section 2.3.1 of the RASCHEMA ID.

3.2.4.2.  'dotNotation'

   This attribute type plays a crucial role with regards to DN syntax
   used in the two dimensional directory model described within the
   RADIT ID.  It cannot be assigned to registration entries which bear
   the 'rootArc' STRUCTURAL object class.

   Instances of this attribute type SHALL NOT appear on entries other
   than 'registration' entries, and MUST be unique throughout an RA DIT.

   Use of this attribute type is entirely OPTIONAL within RA DITs based
   upon the RECOMMENDED three dimensional directory model.

   This attribute type is defined in Section 2.3.2 of the RASCHEMA ID.


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3.2.4.3.  'registrationInformation'

   This attribute type allows extended information to be assigned to
   any registration.  It is based upon the ASN.1 OCTET STRING syntax.

   While use of this syntax does allow for NULL values, it is considered
   invalid within the context of this ID.  In cases where no extended
   information is available for a given registration, instances of this
   attribute type SHOULD NOT be set for the entry.

   This attribute type is defined in Section 2.3.9 of the RASCHEMA ID.

3.2.4.4.  'registrationModified'

   This attribute type identifies any number of generalized timestamps
   that pinpoint previous modifications to a registration.

   When appropriate, this attribute type may be used to represent the
   "LAST-UPDATED" definition as shown in Section 2 of [RFC2578], but
   may also be used to record any known modification date.

   Whether multiple dates, or merely the most recent date, are stored in
   the directory is entirely up to the administrator(s) involved.

   This type is defined in Section 2.3.12 of the RASCHEMA ID.

3.2.4.5.  'registrationRange'

   This attribute type stores the numerical representation of the end
   of an allocation range.  The start of the range is defined using
   the 'n' attribute type value.

   The value of this attribute MUST always be greater than the value
   of 'n' EXCEPT when using "-1".

   For example, if a 'registrationRange' attribute value of '999' were
   set for the OID '2.999.44', it MUST be interpreted as an entire range
   of OIDs starting at '2.999.44' up to and including '2.999.999'.  This
   represents a finite range and means, without exception, that further
   sibling allocations MUST be defined outside of this, and any other,
   defined boundary.

   Similarly, keeping with the same example above, if the value of "-1"
   were used instead, this MUST be interpreted as an all-encompassing
   OID range starting at '2.999.44' with no upper limit, representing
   an infinite range.  This means, without exception, that no further
   sibling allocations greater than 'n' will be permitted.

   This type is defined in Section 2.3.13 of the RASCHEMA ID.




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3.2.4.6.  'registrationStatus'

   This attribute type associates a particular allocation status value
   to a registration.

   Multiple values can be provided, provided they remain meaningful in
   the particular combination.

   In most cases, the attribute type is used in order to mark an OID
   registration as OBSOLETE, RESERVED, PRIVATE or DEALLOCATED.

   Section 2 of [RFC2578] also defines "current" and "deprecated" for
   use in this context.

   Values of "active" or "in-force" may be used, though generally this
   is OPTIONAL.

   Absence of this attribute type within a given entry MAY be viewed
   as an implied deference to the 'registrationStatus' value held by
   a relevant ancestral registration, if applicable.  In the absence
   of information to the contrary, lack of this value could imply the
   "active", "current" or "in-force" declarations, however this is not
   definitive and may vary across implementations.

   A value of "private" MAY be used a component in any access control
   mechanics defined by the directory architect(s), but at the risk of
   possible performance costs depending on implementation.

   Other possible values not listed here MAY be used, however they would
   be wholly proprietary in nature.

   This type is defined in Section 2.3.14 of the RASCHEMA ID.

3.2.4.7.  'registrationClassification'

   This attribute type associates a classification with a registration.

   While independent of the 'registrationStatus' attribute type defined
   in Section 2.3.14, there may be cases of overlap with respect to the
   declaration of obsolescence or deallocation for a given registration,
   as both attribute types recognize and express such states.

   This type is defined in Section 2.3.15 of the RASCHEMA ID.

3.2.4.8.  'isLeafNode'

   This attribute type serves to declare a registration as the terminus
   of an ancestry using a Boolean TRUE or FALSE.

   Absence of this attribute type SHOULD be interpreted as an implicit
   FALSE value.  This is the most common scenario.


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   A value of FALSE indicates there are no restrictions regarding the
   allocation of child entries.

   A value of TRUE indicates the registration SHALL NOT be a parent of
   any subordinate registrations whatsoever.

   Instances of this attribute type are not to be interpreted in any
   recursive context.  Leaf-node status of a registration precludes
   any additional subtree context.

   This attribute type is NOT intended to serve in a security capacity.
   Presence of this attribute type is mainly used to alert any RA DUA
   that is optimized for this ID that neither subordinate enumeration,
   nor subordinate allocation, be attempted below the indicated entry.

   A registration that lacks subordinate entries is not necessarily a
   leaf-node.  Lack of this status could mean subordinate allocations
   might occur in the future.  Leaf-node status is meant for use in
   permanent contexts.

   This type is defined in Section 2.3.16 of the RASCHEMA ID.

3.2.4.9.  'isFrozen'

   This attribute type serves to identify a registration as frozen using
   a Boolean TRUE or FALSE.

   The condition of a registration being frozen indicates allocations of
   subordinate registrations of the bearer will not be honored.

   The condition of a frozen state is not necessarily permanent.

   A value of TRUE indicates that the given registration SHALL NOT honor
   any subordinate allocations.  Preexisting subordinate registration
   entries will be unaffected and may be queried freely by the RA DUA.

   Preexisting subordinate registration entries are considered frozen,
   regardless of vertical distance from the bearer of this type.

   A value of FALSE indicates there are no restrictions regarding the
   allocation of any subsequent child entries.

   An administratively-focused RA DUA MAY override the semantics of this
   attribute type in the context of historical input or another similar
   use case.

   This type is defined in Section 2.3.17 of the RASCHEMA ID.

3.2.4.10.  'longArc'

   This attribute type allows Long Arc instances to be assigned to a
   registration.

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   Per [X.660], entries that bear values of this attribute type MUST
   ONLY reside below the root joint-iso-itu-t(2) registration.

   In other words, OID registrations subordinate to either the itu-t(0)
   or iso(1) roots that bear a 'longArc' instance are considered bogus.

   DUAs optimized for this ID SHALL NOT allow routine presentation or
   modification (beyond corrective removal) of bogus 'longArc' values
   in this context.

   This type is defined in Section 2.3.20 the of the RASCHEMA ID.

   The 'minArc' and 'c-minArc' attribute types are defined in Section
   2.3.27 and 2.3.28 of the RASCHEMA ID.

   The 'maxArc' and 'c-maxArc' attribute types are defined in Section
   2.3.30 and 2.3.31 of the RASCHEMA ID.

3.2.4.11.  'discloseTo'

   This attribute type -- and its collective counterpart -- is used to
   identify authorized readers of otherwise private entries, typically
   registrations.

   This MAY cover any depth of subordinate entry disclosures as seen fit
   by the directory architect(s) or administrator(s).

   Identities referenced through instances of this attribute type can be
   single user entries, a 'groupOfNames'-based entry, per Section 3.5 of
   [RFC4519], a current authority or sponsorship registrant, or even an
   effective Proxy Authorization identity, per [RFC4370].

   Write-based access SHOULD NOT be governed by this attribute type, as
   that is an intended function of a (current) registration authority.

   The 'discloseTo' and 'c-discloseTo' attribute types are defined in
   Section 2.3.32 and 2.3.33 of the RASCHEMA ID respectively.

3.2.4.12.  'registrantID'

   This attribute type is meant for assignment to registrant entries for
   the purpose of unambiguous reference.

   In larger, more complete implementations of this specification, it
   is RECOMMENDED that this attribute type be the primary identifier
   (or, RDN) for dedicated registrant entries.

   Combined registrant entries have no particular use for this attribute
   type.  Instances of this type SHALL NOT appear on entries bearing the
   'registration' ABSTRACT class, defined within Section 2.5.1 of the
   RASCHEMA ID.


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   For distinguished registrants -- such as an RFC or ID -- the official
   identifier MAY be used as an alternative to an auto-generated value.

   This type is defined in Section 2.3.34 of the RASCHEMA ID.

3.2.4.13.  'firstAuthority', 'currentAuthority' and 'sponsor'

   These attribute types -- and their collective counterparts -- are for
   use in identifying registrant entries which describe individuals,
   groups and other entities that serve in authority over registrations.

   These attribute types are only intended for use in referencing
   dedicated registrants, which each bear the 'registrant' STRUCTURAL
   object class.  Instances of these types are meant for assignment
   to 'registration' entries of any kind.

   The 'firstAuthority' and 'c-firstAuthority' attribute types are
   defined in Sections 2.3.35 and 2.3.36 of the RASCHEMA ID.

   The 'currentAuthority' and 'c-currentAuthority' attribute types are
   defined in Sections 2.3.55 and 2.3.56 of the RASCHEMA ID.

   The 'sponsor' and 'c-sponsor' attribute types are defined in Sections
   2.3.74 and 2.3.75 of the RASCHEMA ID.

   Any combination of these attribute types and their collective forms
   as instances within a common 'registration' entry is acceptable so
   long as the respective reference values are unique in context.

3.2.4.14.  'rADITProfile'

   This attribute type references optimal 'rADUAConfig' configuration
   settings stored within entries in an RA DIT.  This information is
   meant for direct consumption by RA DUAs.

   Use of this attribute type is only meaningful in situations where
   multiple independent RA DITs are served by a single RA DSA.

   Instances of this type MUST NOT be assigned to entries which bear the
   'rARegistration' and/or 'rARegistrant' attribute types.

   See the RADSA ID for details regarding use of this attribute type.

   This type is defined in Section 2.3.94 of the RASCHEMA ID.

3.2.4.15.  'rARegistrationBase' and 'rARegistrantBase'

   These attribute types contain references to the registration and
   registrant bases within an RA DIT.  The RA DUA reads these values
   to determine where particular operations shall be conducted.



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   Instances of these types MUST NOT be assigned to entries which bear
   the instances of the 'rADITProfile' attribute type.

   See the RADSA ID for details regarding use of this attribute type.

   These attribute types are defined in Sections 2.3.95 and 2.3.96 of
   the RASCHEMA ID respectively.

3.2.4.16.  'registeredUUID'

   This attribute type is intended to store a UUID value in hexadecimal
   form that is equivalent to the 'n' value held by the same entry.

   For example, consider the registration "{joint-iso-itu-t(2) uuid(25)
   ans(987895962269883002155146617097157934)}":

     'n'              - 987895962269883002155146617097157934
     'registeredUUID' - 00be4308-0c89-1085-8ea0-0002a5d5fd2e

   The two values are identical; 'n' is simply being represented as an
   unsigned 128-bit integer and 'registeredUUID' is the equivalent value
   represented via hexadecimal encoding.

   This type is meant for use in the context of ITU-T Rec. X.667 and is
   defined within Section 2.3.102 of the RASCHEMA ID.

3.2.4.17.  'description'

   The 'description' attribute type is defined within Section 2.5 of
   [RFC4519] and clause 6.5.1 of ITU-T Rec. X.520.  This attribute type
   is included within the MAY clauses of certain object classes extended
   by this ID series.

   The purpose of the 'description' attribute type in the context of a
   'registration' entry is to assign the effective "title" of the entry.

   For example, the 'description' of the '1.3.6.1.4.1.56521.101.3.1.3'
   OID would read 'The Three Dimensional Model'.  This value is meant
   to be distinct from, and far less verbose than, any value assigned to
   the 'registrationInformation' type.

   While there is no specific use case for 'registrant' entries within
   the terms of this ID series, the 'description' attribute type is
   nonetheless permitted.

3.2.4.18.  'seeAlso'

   The 'seeAlso' attribute type is defined in Section 2.30 of [RFC4519]
   and clause 6.10.6 of ITU-T Rec. X.520.




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   Under the terms of this ID series, the 'seeAlso' attribute type is
   used to describe associations between multiple entries of related
   context, and is made available through use of certain object classes
   extended by this ID series.

   To offer a practical use case, the OID which identifies the Kingdom
   of the Netherlands Registration Authority (0.2.205) also refers to
   the OID 0.2.204 and vice versa.  This is the most common use case.

   The 'seeAlso' attribute type may also be used to provide a reverse
   associative context to registrants in terms of which registrations
   are subject to its ministrations.  This is the reversed concept of
   'firstAuthority', 'currentAuthority' and 'sponsor' type instances,
   however this use case is typically not required outside of certain
   audit related activities.

3.2.4.19.  Spatial References

   Section 2.3 of the RASCHEMA ID extends eleven (11) attribute types
   that describe both the horizontal and vertical arrangement of various
   sibling, superior and subordinate registrations using the respective
   DNs of entries.  These attribute types may be used in any directory
   model defined in this ID series, and many are extended by way of the
   'spatialContext' class defined in Section 2.5 of the RASCHEMA ID.

   The RA DIT SHALL NOT utilize both a non-collective and collective
   spatial attribute type of the same spirit.  For example, it is NOT
   permitted for a registration entry to bear instances of both the
   'topArc' and 'c-topArc' types -- regardless of respective values.

   The RA DIT MAY, however, utilize both non-collective and collective
   spatial types of differing forms.  For example, it is permitted for a
   registration to bear instances of the 'c-topArc' and 'supArc' types.

   References of any attribute type prefaced with the 'c-' flag implies
   Collective Attribute operation.  Positive support for this feature on
   part of the RA DSA(s) in question is REQUIRED for use of these types.

   With the exception of the 'subArc' attribute type, all spatial types
   extended through this ID series are meant for SINGLE-VALUE contextual
   use cases -- including collective spatial types.

3.2.4.19.1.  Horizontal Sibling References

   The 'minArc', 'maxArc', 'leftArc' and 'rightArc' attribute types are
   defined in order to describe horizontal relationships among sibling
   registrations.  The following diagram describes these relationships:






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                         example registration
                      (1.3.6.1.4.1.56521.999.140)
                                  |
                     less than  < | >  greater than
               +---+--------+---+---+---+--------+---+
               | 0 |........|139|140|141|........|200|
               +---+--------+---+---+---+--------+---+
                 |            |       |            |
              minimum        left   right       maximum

   To offer an example of these relationships expressed as an LDIF:

      dn: n=140,n=999,n=56521,n=1,n=4,n=1,n=6,n=3,n=1,
        ou=Registrations,o=rA
      objectClass: registration
      objectClass: arc
      objectClass: spatialContext
        ou=Registrations,o=rA
      leftArc: n=139,n=999,n=56521,n=1,n=4,n=1,n=6,n=3,n=1,
        ou=Registrations,o=rA
      rightArc: n=141,n=999,n=56521,n=1,n=4,n=1,n=6,n=3,n=1,
        ou=Registrations,o=rA
      minArc: n=0,n=999,n=56521,n=1,n=4,n=1,n=6,n=3,n=1,
        ou=Registrations,o=rA
      maxArc: n=200,n=999,n=56521,n=1,n=4,n=1,n=6,n=3,n=1,
        ou=Registrations,o=rA

   The 'minArc' and 'maxArc' types describe the absolute extremes of a
   set of sibling registrations, where 'minArc' describes the absolute
   "first" registration in a set of sibling registrations and 'maxArc'
   describes the absolute "final" registration.  The 'c-minArc' and
   'c-maxArc' collective variants serve the same function, except they
   are meant for assignment to an entire set of sibling registrations.

   Determination of so-called "first" and "final" status is based upon
   the lowest and highest values of the 'n' attribute type present in
   the set of sibling registrations.  The definitive values MUST ALWAYS
   be consistent for ALL sibling registration entries without exception.

   See the RADUA ID for considerations relating to RA DUA queries
   of a set of siblings terminated using a 'registrationRange' value,
   whether the range is finite or infinite in nature.

   The 'leftArc' and 'rightArc' types describe the immediate sibling
   registrations horizontally adjacent to the bearer.  The 'leftArc'
   type references the DN of the nearest sibling registration with an
   'n' value less than that of the bearer, while the 'rightArc' type
   references the DN of the nearest sibling registration with an 'n'
   value greater than that of the bearer.




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   Contrary to minimum and maximum values, the effective left and right
   values are always registration specific, and shall not be considered
   valid candidates for collective assignment.  This exposes a potential
   administrative challenge in the midst of many sibling entries.

   In cases where 'leftArc' and 'minArc' would share a common value,
   both values should be specified for optimal client support.

   In cases where 'rightArc' and 'maxArc' would share a common value,
   both values should be specified for optimal client support.

3.2.4.19.1.1.  Collective Use

   The 'minArc' and 'maxArc' attribute types have collective variants,
   identified by identical names prefaced with the requisite 'c-' flag.
   Use of these collective attributes instead of their non-collective
   incarnations can greatly ease the cost and tedium of the management
   of potentially huge sets of sibling entries.

   As the 'c-minArc' and 'c-maxArc' attribute types relate to a minimum
   and maximum number form common to multiple siblings, the appropriate
   'subtreeSpecification' value MUST be limited to ONLY the immediate
   children of the specified parent:

      "{ base 'n=140,n=999,n=56521,n=1,n=4,n=1,n=6,n=3,n=1',
         minimum 1, maximum 1 }"

3.2.4.19.2.  Superior Vertical References

   The 'supArc' and 'topArc' attribute types are used to reference the
   DNs of the immediate superior registration as well as the appropriate
   root registration.

      dn: n=140,n=999,n=56521,n=1,n=4,n=1,n=6,n=3,n=1,
        ou=Registrations,o=rA
      objectClass: registration
      objectClass: arc
      objectClass: spatialContext
      topArc: n=1,ou=Registrations,o=rA
      supArc: n=999,n=56521,n=1,n=4,n=1,n=6,n=3,n=1,
        ou=Registrations,o=rA

   Superior vertical references, in general, are far simpler to manage
   and implement as compared to subordinate vertical references because
   of their unchanging nature.

   In cases where 'supArc' and 'topArc' would share a common value,
   both values should be specified for optimal client support.





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3.2.4.19.2.1.  Collective Use

   The collective form of these types, as identified by identical names
   prefaced with the requisite 'c-' flag, serve an identical function
   but on a grand scale.  Using the 'c-topArc' attribute type can allow
   potentially millions of subordinate registrations to bear the correct
   root arc DN without the need for manual input.

   As the 'c-supArc' attribute type relates to the immediate vertical
   association, the appropriate 'subtreeSpecification' value MUST be
   limited to ONLY the immediate children of the specified parent:

      "{ base 'n=140,n=999,n=56521,n=1,n=4,n=1,n=6,n=3,n=1',
         minimum 1, maximum 1 }"

   As the 'c-topArc' attribute type is in service to a vertically global
   association for ALL subordinate registrations without exception, the
   appropriate 'subtreeSpecification' value MUST NOT be limited to any
   particular hierarchical depth.  Assuming the three dimensional model
   is in use, the 'subtreeSpecification' setting should reflect the
   following value for all ISO ("{iso(1)}") registrations:

      "{ base 'n=1' }"

3.2.4.19.3.  Subordinate Vertical References

   The multi-valued 'subArc' attribute type defined in the RASCHEMA ID
   allows the storage of immediate subordinate registration DNs for a
   (parent) registration.  Client architectures which read the values
   assigned to this type will receive an effective "list" of any and
   all subordinate registrations for the given registration.

   This attribute type exists solely to facilitate a performant means of
   subordinate registration DN enumeration.  This is the RECOMMENDED
   alternative to explicit List Operations, which may prove to be costly
   in the midst of particularly large sets of subordinate registrations.

   For instance:

      dn: n=140,n=999,n=56521,n=1,n=4,n=1,n=6,n=3,n=1,
        ou=Registrations,o=rA
      objectClass: registration
      objectClass: arc
      objectClass: spatialContext
      subArc: n=1,n=140,n=999,n=56521,n=1,n=4,n=1,n=6,n=3,n=1,
        ou=Registrations,o=rA
      subArc: n=2,n=140,n=999,n=56521,n=1,n=4,n=1,n=6,n=3,n=1,
        ou=Registrations,o=rA
      subArc: n=3,n=140,n=999,n=56521,n=1,n=4,n=1,n=6,n=3,n=1,
        ou=Registrations,o=rA



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   Instead, enumerated subordinate registration DNs may be retrieved
   by way of the Read Operation of the superior entry.  When retrieved,
   the RA DUA reads subordinate entries using DN references alone.

   One of the administrative challenges of this approach is the (proper)
   ordering of respective DNs assigned to this type.  Depending on the
   manner in which data was originally written to the RA DIT, sequential
   ordering of numeric (leaf-node) values may not manifest as expected.

   Certain X.500/LDAP implementations allow sorting of DN-based entry
   values, such as 'member' (per Section 2.17 of [RFC4519]) for large
   groups or email distribution lists.  Sorting of this form may be
   possible, though at the risk of RA DSA performance penalties.

   Alternatively, the RA DUA MAY perform the necessary sort operation if
   it is given this capability.

4.  IANA Considerations

   There are no requests to IANA in this document.

5.  Security Considerations

5.1.  Access Control

   See Section 4.3 of the RADSA ID for access control considerations.

5.2.  Creation and Modification Identities

   If the operational attributes 'creatorsName' and/or' 'modifiersName'
   (as defined in Sections 3.4.1 and 3.4.3 of [RFC4512] respectively)
   are exposed, directory architects MAY opt to use Proxy Authorization
   Controls, per [RFC4370], to allow an asserted (proxied) identity to
   effect the necessary changes without exposing the true identity.

   An appropriate proxy identity could be the distinguished name of the
   registrant referenced by the 'currentAuthority' or 'sponsor' types,
   or even a given registration entry itself.  In either case, this will
   require [RFC4370] support -- a topic out of scope for this ID.

6.  References

6.1.  Normative References

   RADIR      Coretta, J., "The OID Directory: A Technical Roadmap",
              draft-coretta-oiddir-roadmap, February 2024.

   RADSA      Coretta, J., "The OID Directory: The RA DSA",
              draft-coretta-oiddir-radsa, February 2024.

   RADUA      Coretta, J., "The OID Directory: The RA DUA",
              draft-coretta-oiddir-radua, February 2024.

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   RASCHEMA   Coretta, J., "The OID Directory: The RA Schema",
              draft-coretta-oiddir-schema, February 2024.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3671]  Zeilenga, K., "Collective Attributes in the Lightweight
              Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)", RFC 3671, December
              2003.

   [RFC4511]  J. Sermersheim, Ed. "Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
              (LDAP): The Protocol", RFC 4511, June 2006.

   [RFC4512]  Zeilenga, K., "Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
              (LDAP): Directory Information Models", RFC 4512, June
              2006.

   [RFC4517]  Legg, Ed., S., "Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
              (LDAP): Syntaxes and Matching Rules", RFC 4517, June
              2006.

   [RFC4519]  Sciberras, Ed., A., "Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
              (LDAP): Schema for User Applications", RFC 4519, June
              2006.

   [RFC4524]  Zeilenga, K., "Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
              (LDAP): COSINE LDAP/X.500 Schema", RFC 4524, June 2006.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", RFC 8174, May 2017.

   [X.660]    International Telecommunication Union - Telecommunication
              Standardization Sector, "General procedures and top arcs
              of the international object identifier tree", ITU-T X.660,
              July 2011.

   [X.680]    International Telecommunication Union - Telecommunication
              Standardization Sector, "Abstract Syntax Notation One
              (ASN.1): Specification of basic notation", ITU-T X.680,
              July 2002.

6.2.  Informative References

   [RFC1155]  Rose, M., "Structure and Identification of Management
              Information for TCP/IP-based Internets", RFC 1155, May
              1990.

   [RFC2696]  C. Weider, A. Herron, A. Anantha, Microsoft, T. Howes
              and Netscape, "LDAP Control Extension for Simple Paged
              Results Manipulation", RFC 2696, September 1999.



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   [RFC4370]  Weltman, R., "Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
              (LDAP): Proxy Authorization Control", RFC 4370, February
              2006.

   [X.500]    International Telecommunication Union - Telecommunication
              Standardization Sector, "The Directory: Overview of
              concepts, models and services", ITU-T X.500, October 2019.

   [X.501]    International Telecommunication Union - Telecommunication
              Standardization Sector, "The Directory: Models", ITU-T
              X.501, October 2016.

   [X.518]    International Telecommunication Union - Telecommunication
              Standardization Sector, "The Directory: Procedures for
              distributed operation", ITU-T X.518, October 2019.

   [X.525]    International Telecommunication Union - Telecommunication
              Standardization Sector, "The Directory: Replication",
              ITU-T X.525, October 2019.

   [X.672]    International Telecommunication Union - Telecommunication
              Standardization Sector, "OID resolution system: Problems,
              requirements and potential solutions", ITU-T X.672, March
              2020.

   [PRIVATE]  IANA, "Private Enterprise Numbers",
              https://www.iana.org/assignments/enterprise-numbers.

Author's Address

   Jesse Coretta
   California, United States

   Email: jesse.coretta@icloud.com




















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