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Versions: 00 01                                                         
TSVWG                                                         A. Custura
Internet-Draft                                              G. Fairhurst
Intended status: Informational                                 R. Secchi
Expires: August 25, 2021                          University of Aberdeen
                                                       February 21, 2021


        Considerations for Assigning DiffServ Codepoints (DCSPs)
               draft-custura-tsvwg-dscp-considerations-00

Abstract

   This document discusses the considerations for assigning new DiffServ
   Code Points (DCSPs).  It considers the common remarking behaviours
   that the Diffserv field might be subjected to along an Internet path.
   It also notes some implications of using a specific DSCP.

   This individual draft aims to seek comments and contributions from
   the TSVWG working group.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 25, 2021.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2021 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must



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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Current usage of DSCPs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     3.1.  IP-Layer Semantics  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     3.2.  Network Control Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   4.  Remarking the DSCP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     4.1.  Bleaching the DSCP Field  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.2.  IP Type of Service manipulations  . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       4.2.1.  Impact of ToS Precedence Bleaching  . . . . . . . . .   5
       4.2.2.  Impact of ToS Precedence Remarking  . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.3.  Remarking to a Particular DSCP  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   5.  Interpretation of the IP DSCP at Lower Layers . . . . . . . .   7
     5.1.  Mapping Specified for IEEE 802.11 . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     5.2.  Mappings Specified for MPLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     5.3.  Mapping Specified for Mobile Networks . . . . . . . . . .   9
     5.4.  Mappings Specified for Carrier Ethernet . . . . . . . . .   9
     5.5.  Remarking as a Side-effect of Another Policy  . . . . . .   9
   6.  Considerations for DSCP Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     6.1.  Effect of Bleaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     6.2.  Where the proposed DSCP > 0x07 (7)  . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     6.3.  Where the proposed DSCP < 0x07 (7)  . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   7.  Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   8.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   9.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   10. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     10.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     10.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   Appendix A.  Revision Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13

1.  Introduction

   The Differentiated Services (DiffServ) architecture has been deployed
   in many networks; it provides differentiated traffic forwarding based
   on the value of the Diffserv field [RFC2474] carried in the IP packet
   header.

   This document discusses considerations for assigning a new DiffServ
   Code Point (DCSP).  It considers some commonly observed DSCP
   remarking behaviours that might be expected to be experienced along
   an Internet path.  It also notes some packet forwarding treatments
   that a packet can receive when using a specific DSCP.



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   The document is motivated by new opportunities to use DiffServ end-
   to-end across multiple domains, such as [I-D.ietf-tsvwg-nqb],
   proposals to build mechanisms using DSCPs in other standards-setting
   organisations, and the desire to use a common set of DSCPs across a
   range of infrastructure (e.g., [I-D.learmonth-rfc1226-bis]).

2.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

3.  Current usage of DSCPs

   This section describes current usage of DSCPs.

3.1.  IP-Layer Semantics

   The DiffServ architecture specifies use of the Diffserv field in the
   IPv4 and IPv6 packet headers to carry one of 64 distinct DSCP values.
   This codepoint space is divided into three pools for the purpose of
   assignment and management:

   The pools are defined in the following table (where 'x' refers to
   either a bit position with value '0' or '1').

   DSCP Pool 1  Apool of 32 codepoints with a format 0bxxxxx0, to be
      assigned by IANA Standards Action [RFC8126].

   DSCP Pool 2  Apool of 16 codepoints with a format 0bxxxx11, reserved
      for experimental or local use by network operators.

   DSCP Pool 3  A pool of 16 codepoints with a 0bxxxx01.  This was
      initially available for experimental or local use, but which
      should be preferentially utilized for standardized assignments if
      Pool 1 is ever exhausted.  Pool 3 codepoints are now utilized for
      standardized assignments and are no longer available for
      experimental or local use [RFC8436].

   The DiffServ architecture allows forwarding treatments to be
   associated with each DSCP, and the RFC series describes some of these
   as Per Hop Behaviours (PHBs).  Although DSCPs are intended to
   identify specific treatment requirements. multiple DSCPs might also
   be mapped to the same forwarding treatment.  Several IP standards map
   treatment aggregates to DSCPs, that might result in remarking:
   RFC5160 [RFC5160] suggests Meta-QoS-Classes to help enable deployment
   of standardized end-to-end QoS classes.




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3.2.  Network Control Traffic

   Network Control Traffic is defined as packet flows that are essential
   for stable operation of the administered network (see [RFC4594],
   Section 3).  This traffic is marked using a set of Class Selector
   (CS) DSCPs.  Such network control traffic is often a special case
   within a provider network, and ingress traffic with these DSCP
   markings can be be remarked.

   DSCP CS2 is recommended for the OAM service class (see [RFC4594],
   Section 3.3.

   The DCSP CS6 is recommended for local network control traffic.  This
   includes routing protocols and OAM (Operations, Administration, and
   Maintenance) traffic that are essential to network operation
   administration, control and management.  Section 3.2 of RFC4594
   [RFC4594] recommends that "CS6 marked packet flows from untrusted
   sources (for example, end user devices) SHOULD be dropped or remarked
   at ingress to the DiffServ network".

   DSCP CS7 is reserved for future use with network control traffic.
   "CS7 marked packets SHOULD NOT be sent across peering points"
   [RFC4594].

4.  Remarking the DSCP

   It is a feature of the DiffServ architecture that the Diffserv
   fieldpackets can be remarked at domain boundaries (see section
   2.3.4.2 of RFC2475 [RFC2475]).  A DSCP can be remarked at the ingress
   of a DiffServ domain.  This can be with or without restoring the
   initial DSCP marking at egress of the domain.  The Diffserv field can
   also be re-marked based upon common semantics and agreements between
   the providers.

   If packets are received that are marked with an unknown or an
   unexpected DSCP, RFC2474 [RFC2474] recommends forwarding the packet
   using a default (best effort) treatment, but without changing the
   DSCP.  This seeks to support incremental DiffServ deployment in
   existing networks as well as preserving DSCP markings by routers that
   have not been configured to support DiffServ.

   Reports measuring existing deployments have categorized DSCP
   remarking [Custura] [Barik] into the following six behaviours:

   Bleach:  bleaches all traffic (sets DSCP to zero);

   Bleach-ToS:  sets the first three bits (reset the former ToS
      Precedence bits) on all traffic to 0b000;



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   Remark-ToS:  sets the first three bits (replace the former ToS
      Precedence bits) on all traffic to 0b001;

   Remark-ToS:  sets the first three bits (replace the former ToS
      Precedence bits) on all traffic to 0b010;

   Reset-low:  sets the last three bits on all traffic to 0b000;

   Reset-some-low:  sets the last three bits on all traffic to 0b000,
      unless the first two bits (the former precedence bits) are 0b11;

   Remark:  remarks all traffic to one or more particular (non-zero)
      DSCP values.

4.1.  Bleaching the DSCP Field

   A specific form of remarking occurs when the DiffServ field is re-
   assigned to the default treatment, CS0 (0x00).  This results in
   traffic being forwarded using the BE PHB.  For example, AF31 (0x1a)
   would be bleached to CS0.

   Resetting all the bits of the DiffServ field to 0 is more prevalent
   at the edge of the network, and rather less common in core networks
   [Custura].

4.2.  IP Type of Service manipulations

   The IETF defined ToS precedence field for IP packets in RFC1349
   [RFC1349].  Since 1998, this practice has been deprecated by RFC2474
   [RFC2474].  RFC 2474 defines codepoints 0x xxx000 as the Class
   Selector codepoints, where PHBs selected by these codepoints MUST
   meet the Class Selector PHB Requirements" described in Sec. 4.2.2.2
   of that RFC.

   However, practices based on ToS semantics have not yet been
   eliminated from Internet, and these need to currently stiil be
   considered when making new DCSP assignments.

4.2.1.  Impact of ToS Precedence Bleaching

   ToS precedence bleaching (/Bleach-ToS/) is a method that resets to
   zero the upper 3 bits of the DSCP field (the former ToS Precedence
   field), leaving the lower bits unchanged.  This behaviour is
   distinctive of non-DiffServ aware routers and one of the more common
   manipulations of the DiffServ field.






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   +-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0 0 0|x x x|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+


   Figure showing the ToS bleaching pathology, based on Section 3 of
   RFC1349 [RFC1349].

   If ToS precedence bleaching occurs, packets with a DSCP 'x' would be
   remarked and then would be treated according to the PHB specified for
   'x' & 0x07.  For example, AF31 (0x1a) would be remarked to DSCP 2
   (0x02).

   A variation of this behaviour clears the top three bits of a DSCP,
   unless these have values 0b110 or 0b111 (corresponding to CS6 and
   CS7).  As a result, a DSCP value greater than 48 decimal (0x30) is
   less likely to be impacted by ToS precedence bleaching.

4.2.2.  Impact of ToS Precedence Remarking

   The IETF defined the ToS precedence field for IP packets in RFC1349
   [RFC1349].  This practice is now deprecated by RFC2474 [RFC2474], but
   practices based on ToS semantics have not yet been eliminated from
   Internet.

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0 0 1|x x x|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+


   Figure showing the ToS remarking pathology, based on Section 3 of
   RFC1349 [RFC1349].

   A less common behaviour, ToS precedence remarking /Remark-ToS/ sets
   the upper three bits of the DSCP field to a non-zero value
   corresponding to a CS PHB.  This behaviour is distinctive of non-
   DiffServ aware routers.

   If remarking occurs, packets are treated using the PHB specified for
   the resulting codepoint.  For example, the AF31 DSCP (0x1a) could be
   remarked to AF11 or AF21.

4.3.  Remarking to a Particular DSCP

   A network device might remark a packet's Diffserv field based on a
   local policy to avoid marking with a specific (set of) DSCPs,
   /remark/. This is sometimes performed using a Multi-Field (MF)
   classifier [RFC2475] [RFC3290] [RFC4594].  For example, a common



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   behaviour is to mark all traffic to a single DSCP, thus removing any
   traffic differentiation (see Section 4.1).  Bleaching is a specific
   example of this.

   In another example, some networks do not follow the recommendation in
   RFC2475 [RFC2475], and instead remark packets with an unknown or
   unexpected DSCP to the default class, CS0 (0x00) to ensure that
   appropriate DSCPs are used within a DiffServ domain.  (e.g., see
   [RFC8100]).

5.  Interpretation of the IP DSCP at Lower Layers

   Transmission systems and subnetworks can and do utilise the Diffserv
   field in an IP packet to select a lowe layer forwarding treatment.
   In many cases, this use is constrained by designs that utilise fewer
   than 6 bits to express the service class, and therefore infer
   mappings to a smaller L2 QoS field, for example, WiFi or Multi-
   Protocol Label Switching (MPLS).

5.1.  Mapping Specified for IEEE 802.11

   << This section is currently incomplete. >>

   A 3 bit Priority Code Point (PCP) is specified in the IEEE 802.1Q tag
   to mark Ethernet frames to one of eight priority values.  The value
   zero indicates the default best effort treatment, and the value one
   indicates a background traffic class.  The remaining values indicate
   increasing priority.  Internet control traffic can be marked as six,
   and network control is marked as seven.

   Section 6 of RFC 8325 RFC 8325 [RFC8325] provides a brief overview of
   IEEE 802.11 QoS.  The IEEE 802.11 standards [IEEE-802-11] provides
   MAC functions to support QoS in WLANs using Access Classes (AC).  The
   upstream User Priority (UP) in the 802.11 header has a 3-bit QoS
   value.  A DSCP can be mapped to the UP.  Most existing WiFi
   implementations [RFC8325] use a default mapping that utilizes the
   three most significant bits of the DiffServ Field to the 802.11 UP.
   This is then in turn mapped to the four WiFi Multimedia (WMM) Access
   Categories.

   RFC 8325 [RFC8325] proposes several recommendations for mapping a
   DSCP to an IEEE 802.11 UP for wired-to-wireless interconnection.  The
   DSCP value of a downstream IP packet can be used (e.g., the Control
   And Provisioning of Wireless Access Points (CAPWAP) protocol,
   RFC5415, maps an IP packet Diffserv field to the Diffserv field of
   outer IP headier in a CAPWAP tunnel).





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   Some current constraints of WiFi mapping are discussed in section 2
   of RFC 8325 [RFC8325].  A QoS profile can be used to limit the
   maximum DSCP value used for the upstream and downstream traffic.

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |x x x|. . .|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+


   Figure showing the DSCP bits commonly mapped to the UP in 802.11.

   This UP mapping can result in a DSCP remarking pathology.  In the
   upstream direction, some Access Points (APs) currently use a default
   UP-to-DSCP mapping RFC8325 [RFC8325], wherein DSCP values are derived
   from the layer 2 UP values by multiplying the UP values by eight
   (i.e., shifting the three UP bits to the left and adding three
   additional zeros to generate a 6 bit DSCP value).  This derived DSCP
   value is then used for QoS treatment between the wireless AP and the
   nearest classification and marking policy enforcement point (which
   may be the centralized wireless LAN controller, relatively deep
   within the network).  Alternatively, in the case where there is no
   other classification and marking policy enforcement point, then this
   derived DSCP value will be used on the remainder of the Internet
   path."  This remarking behaviour can result in the remarking /Reset-
   low/.

   RFC8325 [RFC8325] notes inconsistencies that can result from such
   remarking, and recommends how to perform this remarking.

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |x x x|0 0 0|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+


   Figure showing the DSCP bits commonly mapped to the UP in 802.11.

5.2.  Mappings Specified for MPLS

   In MPLS there are eight MPLS Traffic Classes (TCs), which restricts
   the number of different treatments (e.g., see [RFC5129]).  RFC 5127
   describes aggregation of DiffServ TCs [RFC5127], and introduces four
   DiffServ Treatment Aggregates.  Traffic marked with multiple DSCPs
   can be forwarded in a single MPLS TC.

   ITU-T Y.1566 [ITU-T-Y-1566] further defined a set of four common QoS
   classes and four auxiliary classes to which a DSCP may be mapped when
   interconnecting Ethernet, IP and MPLS networks.  RFC8100 [RFC8100]
   proposes four treatment aggregates for interconnection with four



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   defined DSCPs.  This was motivated by the requirements of MPLS
   network operators that use Short-Pipe tunnels, but can be applicable
   to other networks, both MPLS and non-MPLS.

   RFC8100 recommends preserving the notion of end-to-end service
   classes, and recommends that the original DSCP marking is not changed
   when treatment aggregates are used.  The key requirement is that the
   DSCP at the network ingress is restored at the network egress.  This
   is only feasible in general for a small number of DSCPs.  In this
   design, packets marked with other DSCPs can be re-marked (This can
   result in the /Remark/ behaviour) or dealt with via an additional
   agreement(s) among the operators of the interconnected networks.  Use
   of the MPLS Short Pipe Model favours re-marking unexpected DSCP
   values to zero in the absence of an additional agreement(s), as
   explained in RFC8100 [RFC8100].  This can result in the remarking:
   /Bleach/.

5.3.  Mapping Specified for Mobile Networks

   << This section on Standardized 5QI to QoS characteristics mapping is
   currently incomplete. >>

   [SA-5G].

   The GSM Association (GSMA) defines four traffic classes and seven
   associated DSCPs in their guidelines for IPX Provider networks GSMA
   IR.34 [GSMA-IR-34].  This was previously specified as the Inter-
   Service Provider IP Backbone Guidelines.

5.4.  Mappings Specified for Carrier Ethernet

   << This section on MEF mapping is currently incomplete.  >>

   {{Ref to MEF23.1}}

5.5.  Remarking as a Side-effect of Another Policy

   The result of applying a QoS policy (such as matching the IP address,
   or traffic reaching a rate limit) could also result in a packet being
   remarked to a different DSCP when it is not admitted to a service.
   Traffic marked with an EF and VA DSCP are often policed by such
   policies.

   Policies and L2 procedures can also result in remarking traffic as a
   side-effect of other functions (e.g. in response to DDos).






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6.  Considerations for DSCP Selection

   This section provides advice for the assignment of a new DSCP value.

   Diffserv domains can use the codepoints in Pool 2 for local or
   experimental use.

   New IETF assignments are normally made in Pool 1, but can also be
   made from Pool 3.

6.1.  Effect of Bleaching

   New DSCP assignments should consider the impact of bleaching, which
   can limit the ability to provide the expected treatment end-to-end.
   This is particularly important for cases where the codepoint is
   intended to result in lower than best effort treatment, as was the
   case when defining the LE PHB [RFC8622].  In this case, bleaching, or
   remarking to CS0 would result in elevating the lower effort traffic
   to the default class.  This is an example of priority inversion.

6.2.  Where the proposed DSCP > 0x07 (7)

   Although the IETF requires systems use DSCP marking semantics for the
   former ToS field, the current recommendation is that any new
   assignment where the codepoint is greater than 0x07 should consider
   the semantics associated with the resulting DSCP when ToS precedence
   bleaching is experienced.  For example, it may be desirable to avoid
   choosing a DSCP that may be remarked to LE, Lower Effort [RFC8622],
   which could otherwise potentially result in a priority inversion in
   the treatment.

6.3.  Where the proposed DSCP < 0x07 (7)

   ToS bleaching can unintentionally result in extra traffic aggregated
   to the same DSCP.  For example, after experiencing ToS bleaching, all
   traffic marked AF11, AF21, AF31 and AF41 would be aggregated with
   traffic marked with DSCP 2 (0x02), increasing the volume of traffic
   which receives the treatment associated with DSCP 2.  New DiffServ
   codepoint assignments should consider unexpected consequences arising
   from ToS bleaching.

7.  Acknowledgments

   The authors acknowledge the helpful discussions and analysis by Greg
   White and Thomas Fossati in a draft concerning NQB.  We look forward
   to further comments and review.





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8.  IANA Considerations

   This memo provides information to assist in considering new
   assignments the IANA DSCP registry (https://www.iana.org/assignments/
   dscp-registry/dscp-registry.xhtml).

   This memo includes no request to IANA.

9.  Security Considerations

   The security considerations are discussed in the security
   considerations of each cited RFC.

10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC2474]  Nichols, K., Blake, S., Baker, F., and D. Black,
              "Definition of the Differentiated Services Field (DS
              Field) in the IPv4 and IPv6 Headers", RFC 2474,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2474, December 1998,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2474>.

   [RFC2475]  Blake, S., Black, D., Carlson, M., Davies, E., Wang, Z.,
              and W. Weiss, "An Architecture for Differentiated
              Services", RFC 2475, DOI 10.17487/RFC2475, December 1998,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2475>.

   [RFC3290]  Bernet, Y., Blake, S., Grossman, D., and A. Smith, "An
              Informal Management Model for Diffserv Routers", RFC 3290,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3290, May 2002,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3290>.

   [RFC4594]  Babiarz, J., Chan, K., and F. Baker, "Configuration
              Guidelines for DiffServ Service Classes", RFC 4594,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4594, August 2006,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4594>.

   [RFC5129]  Davie, B., Briscoe, B., and J. Tay, "Explicit Congestion
              Marking in MPLS", RFC 5129, DOI 10.17487/RFC5129, January
              2008, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5129>.





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   [RFC8100]  Geib, R., Ed. and D. Black, "Diffserv-Interconnection
              Classes and Practice", RFC 8100, DOI 10.17487/RFC8100,
              March 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8100>.

   [RFC8436]  Fairhurst, G., "Update to IANA Registration Procedures for
              Pool 3 Values in the Differentiated Services Field
              Codepoints (DSCP) Registry", RFC 8436,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8436, August 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8436>.

10.2.  Informative References

   [Barik]    Barik, R., Welzl, M., Elmokashfi, A., Dreibholz, T., and
              S. Gjessing, "Can WebRTC QoS Work? A DSCP Measurement
              Study", ITC 30, September 2018.

   [Custura]  Custura, A., Venne, A., and G. Fairhurst, "Exploring DSCP
              modification pathologies in mobile edge networks", TMA ,
              2017.

   [GSMA-IR-34]
              GSM Association, "IR.34 Guidelines for IPX Provider
              networks (Previously Inter-Service Provider IP Backbone
              Guidelines)", IR 34, 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-tsvwg-nqb]
              White, G. and T. Fossati, "A Non-Queue-Building Per-Hop
              Behavior (NQB PHB) for Differentiated Services", draft-
              ietf-tsvwg-nqb-03 (work in progress), November 2020.

   [I-D.learmonth-rfc1226-bis]
              Learmonth, I., "Internet Protocol Encapsulation of AX.25
              Frames", draft-learmonth-rfc1226-bis-03 (work in
              progress), May 2020.

   [IEEE-802-11]
              IEEE, "Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and
              Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications", IEEE 802.11, 2007.

   [ITU-T-Y-1566]
              ITU-T, "Quality of Service Mapping and Interconnection
              Between Ethernet, Internet Protocol and Multiprotocol
              Label Switching Networks", ITU-T Y.1566, 2012.

   [RFC1349]  Almquist, P., "Type of Service in the Internet Protocol
              Suite", RFC 1349, DOI 10.17487/RFC1349, July 1992,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1349>.




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   [RFC5127]  Chan, K., Babiarz, J., and F. Baker, "Aggregation of
              Diffserv Service Classes", RFC 5127, DOI 10.17487/RFC5127,
              February 2008, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5127>.

   [RFC5160]  Levis, P. and M. Boucadair, "Considerations of Provider-
              to-Provider Agreements for Internet-Scale Quality of
              Service (QoS)", RFC 5160, DOI 10.17487/RFC5160, March
              2008, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5160>.

   [RFC8126]  Cotton, M., Leiba, B., and T. Narten, "Guidelines for
              Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26,
              RFC 8126, DOI 10.17487/RFC8126, June 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8126>.

   [RFC8325]  Szigeti, T., Henry, J., and F. Baker, "Mapping Diffserv to
              IEEE 802.11", RFC 8325, DOI 10.17487/RFC8325, February
              2018, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8325>.

   [RFC8622]  Bless, R., "A Lower-Effort Per-Hop Behavior (LE PHB) for
              Differentiated Services", RFC 8622, DOI 10.17487/RFC8622,
              June 2019, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8622>.

   [SA-5G]    3GPP, "System Architecture for 5G", TS 23.501, 2019.

Appendix A.  Revision Notes

   Note to RFC-Editor: please remove this entire section prior to
   publication.

   o  Individual draft -00

Authors' Addresses

   Ana Custura
   University of Aberdeen
   School of Engineering
   Fraser Noble Building
   Aberdeen  AB24 3UE
   UK

   Email: ana@erg.abdn.ac.uk










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   Godred Fairhurst
   University of Aberdeen
   School of Engineering
   Fraser Noble Building
   Aberdeen  AB24 3UE
   UK

   Email: gorry@erg.abdn.ac.uk


   Raffaello Secchi
   University of Aberdeen
   School of Engineering
   Fraser Noble Building
   Aberdeen  AB24 3UE
   UK

   Email: r.secchi@abdn.ac.uk

































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