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Versions: 00 01 02 03                                                   
Network Working Group                                        A. McMillan
Internet-Draft                                                  Morphoss
Intended status: Standards Track                                C. Daboo
Expires: December 30, 2013                                    Apple Inc.
                                                           June 28, 2013


                    Automated Service Configuration
              draft-daboo-aggregated-service-discovery-03

Abstract

   This specification describes how clients can retrieve configuration
   for multiple services with a minimum of user-provided information,
   and as short as possible sequence of queries, and with a minimum of
   overhead for administrators of the services.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on December 30, 2013.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.



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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Open Issues  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   3.  Conventions Used in This Document  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   4.  Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   5.  Automated Service Configuration Document Format  . . . . . . .  4
     5.1.  Extensions to the Document Format  . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     5.2.  Service names  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   6.  Finding the Automated Service Configuration Information  . . .  8
   7.  Handling multiple, alternative services  . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   8.  Internationalization Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   9.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   10. IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     10.1. Link Relation Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       10.1.1.  service-configuration Link Relation Registration  . . 10
   11. Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     12.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     12.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   Appendix A.  Change History (to be removed prior to
                publication as an RFC)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   Appendix B.  Example of multiple services  . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   Appendix C.  Example - multiple, alternative mail retrieval
                services  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   Appendix D.  Example - multiple links  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

























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1.  Introduction

   There are currently various systems in place for discovery and
   configuration of individual services, but the process can often
   require an extensive series of requests using different protocols to
   discover all of the details needed to set up the various client
   services which an individual might use to interact with an
   organisation or service provider.

   Consider Jason, a new employee at Example Enterprises.  Jason needs
   to configure his e-mail program to use IMAP [RFC3501] + TLS on port
   143 against mail.example.com, he needs to send mail on port 8557 via
   TLS+SMTP to smtp.example.com, his calendar is on port 8443 at
   https://caldav.example.com:8443/calendar/, and so forth.  Some of
   these things can be discovered relatively easily, with a combination
   of DNS queries (including SRV lookups, certificate checking, and http
   requests).  However, each protocol has its own requirements and
   settings and each has to be done separately.  Whilst the client can
   "hide" the multiple service setup from the user, the actual
   implementation often requires separate code and processes to manage,
   making it more complex that it needs to be.

   This specification defines a single protocol which will allow for
   retrieval of a variety of service configuration information in a
   single call, allowing developers to simplify the coding and user
   interface in client software, and in particular in multi-function
   client software such as a combined e-mail and calendar clients.
   Configuration is retrieved from a single document on a server,
   improving performance over per-service configuration mechanisms that
   require multiple network operations.  In addition, complex
   dependencies between different services can be easily represented, so
   that, for example, some services can be prioritized over others, or
   grouped together by "logical" function.  Further, rich information
   about each service can be included, such as details about required
   transport layer security or authentication.

   This protocol is intended to provide a simple one-way retrieval of
   configuration information, with the data flow from service provider
   to client, building on successful technologies such as HTTP and JSON
   to accomplish its goals.  As such it differs from other "client
   configuration" orientated protocols, such as ACAP [RFC2244], which
   have not had much deployment success due to complexity introduced by
   having a a two-way exchange of data, and the resulting need to keep
   multiple clients synchronized as changes occur.







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2.  Open Issues

   1.  Is it OK to embed certificate details for the actual services or
       a root certificate?

3.  Conventions Used in This Document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

4.  Overview

   The following outlines the steps a client carries out to setup
   multiple services for a user:

   1.  The client software is expected to capture a user identifier and
       domain name (possibly entered in the form of an email address)
       from the user, and possibly authentication information. e.g.,
       'cyrus@example.com'.

   2.  The client uses the WebFinger [I-D.ietf-appsawg-webfinger]
       protocol to request a link relation with the value "service-
       configuration", using the identifier supplied by the user,
       following any redirects and responding to any authentication
       challenges.

   3.  The client retrieves a JSON [RFC4627] document conforming to the
       format described in Section 5 from the target of the link
       relation returned in Step #2.  The client parses this document to
       extract information about the available services.  At that point
       it can either present a list of services to the user, so that
       they can decide exactly what they want setup, or it can
       automatically setup services for all those it supports.

5.  Automated Service Configuration Document Format

   The automated service configuration document is an JSON [RFC4627]
   document.  The document contains a single object with two members
   representing two pieces of information: overall service provider
   information (e.g., name, icon "badge", contact information), and a
   list of each service supported.  Each service will contain some
   information common to each type of service, and then information
   specific to each service.

   The JSON document format is defined here using the syntax in
   [I-D.newton-json-content-rules].  An example of such an automated
   service configuration document for some common services is shown in



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   Appendix B.

   JSON Content Rules for the JSON document returned for a
   "capabilities" action request.

   ; root object

   root {
     provider,
     entries
   }

   ; ----- provider -----

   ; Contains information describing the service provider, that can be
   ; used by clients to "group" individual services together under a
   ; common name or section when presenting details to the user.
   provider "provider" {
     provider_name,
     ?description,
     ?image,
     ?contact,
     ?manage,
     ?password_reset,
     ?ttl
   }

   ; The name for the service provider.
   provider_name "name" : string

   ; The description of the service provider.
   description "description" : string

   ; A URI for an image that can be used as an "icon" for the service
   ; provider. The URI SHOULD be an http or https URI and clients
   ; SHOULD use standard HTTP Accept header behavior to request an
   ; appropriate image format from the server (see Section 14.1 of
   ; [RFC2616]). The image SHOULD NOT exceed a size of 128 x 128
   ; pixels.
   image "image" : uri

   ; Contact information for the service provider.
   contact "contact" {
     email / (?email, uri)
   }

   ; An email address that can be used to contact the service
   ; provider.



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   email "email" : email

   ; A URI for a webpage providing information about the service
   ; provider.
   url "url" : uri

   ; A URI for a webpage where a user can manage details of their
   ; account.
   ; e.g., a place where users can go to add additional (possibly
   ; payment required) services.
   manage "manage" : uri

   ; A URI for a webpage where a user can change their account
   ; password.
   password_reset "password-reset" : uri

   ; The minimum interval in seconds which clients SHOULD wait
   ; before re-fetching the document to check for changes.
   ttl "ttl" : integer

   ; ----- entries -----

   ; List of services.
   entries "entries" [ *entry ]

   entry {
     name,
     service,
     ?(group, priority),
     uri / (host, ?port),
     ?tls,
     ?auth,
   }

   ; A description for the service.
   name "name" : string

   ; The service type. See below for details of the value used.
   service "service" : string

   ; Identifies the nature of the service to allow similar services to
   ; be grouped together.
   group "group" : string

   ; Identifies the nature of the service to allow similar services to
   ; be grouped together.
   priority "priority" : integer 1




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   ; The URI used to contact the server providing the service.
   uri "uri" : uri

   ; The hostname of the server providing the service.
   host "host" : string

   ; The network port number of the server providing the service.
   port "port" : integer 0..65535

   ; Provides detail of transport layer security to be used with the
   ; service.
   tls "tls" {
     ?required,
     ?at_start,
     ?certificates
   }

   ; Indicates that clients MUST use transport layer security when
   ; connecting to the server providing the service.
   required "required" : boolean

   ; Indicates that clients MUST initiate TLS immediately upon
   ; connecting to the server rather than using an "in-protocol"
   ; upgrade mechanism.
   at_start "at-start" : boolean

   ; List of certificates.
   certificates "certificates" [ *certificate ]

   ; Details about the TLS certificate the server will use. Clients
   ; MAY use the specified certificate information to validate any TLS
   ; connection to the server, otherwise existing rules for the target
   ; protocol are used.
   certificate "certificate" {
     cert_name /
     fingerprint /
     public_key
   }

   ; The name of the certificate.
   cert_name "name" : string

   ; The fingerprint of the certificate.
   fingerprint "fingerprint" : string

   ; The fingerprint of the certificate.
   public_key "public-key" : string




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   ; List of authentication methods to use in server preferred order.
   ; If the protocol supports SASL [RFC4422] then this is a list of
   ; SASL authentication mechanisms, otherwise it is a protocol
   ; specific list of names. In either case, clients MUST NOT use
   ; a mechanism that is not advertised in this list.
   auth "auth" [ *string ]


5.1.  Extensions to the Document Format

   Additional members can be added to the JSON document root, "provider"
   or "entries" objects with the following rules:

   1.  Standards based members MUST be defined in an RFC and registered
       with IANA.  TBD - precise details of this and IANA registry
       setup.

   2.  Member names that include a prefix of the form "{...}", where the
       contents of the curly braces is a vendor id, are considered to be
       vendor specific private extensions which do not require
       registration.  TBD nature of vendor id.

   Clients SHOULD ignore all extension member elements that they are
   unable to process.

5.2.  Service names

   The "service" member in the "entry" object is used to convey an
   identifier for the type of service being described.  This can have
   one of two forms:

   1.  An identifier from the IANA ports registry defining a service
       type.

   2.  Identifiers that include a prefix of the form "{...}", where the
       contents of the curly braces is a vendor id, are considered to be
       vendor specific private service type.  TBD nature of vendor id.

6.  Finding the Automated Service Configuration Information

   This specification makes use of the WebFinger
   [I-D.ietf-appsawg-webfinger] protocol to allow a client to find a
   link to the automated service configuration document corresponding to
   an identifier supplied by a user.  This specification registers the
   "service-configuration" link relation type for use with WebFinger, to
   identify the links for automated service configuration documents.
   When the client makes a WebFinger request, it SHOULD use the "rel"
   query parameter, defined in Section 4.3 of



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   [I-D.ietf-appsawg-webfinger], to ensure the relevant link relations
   are returned.  The URI referenced by the links MUST be an HTTPS
   [RFC2818] URI, and MUST point to a resource that the client can use
   to retrieve the automated service configuration document for the
   site.

   Servers can return multiple "service-configuration" links in the
   webfinger response.  Clients SHOULD treat each link as separate,
   complementary services available to the user.

   When requesting automated service configuration documents, clients
   MUST include a URI query parameter "id" set to the user identifier
   entered by the user.  Clients MUST handle HTTP redirects on the link
   URI, but MUST NOT allow a redirect to an insecure URI.  When
   responding to the request, the server MUST tailor the automated
   service configuration document for the user making the request and
   MUST require HTTP authentication by that user before returning the
   document.

   Clients SHOULD cache the document for a period of time no less than
   the value of the "ttl" member in the "provider" object, or for a
   minimum of 24 hours of no "ttl" member is present.

7.  Handling multiple, alternative services

   The "group" and "priority" members of an entry provide a way for a
   service provider to distinguish multiple services of the same type,
   as well as allow the client to select the most appropriate service
   when several alternatives exist.

   For example, consider the case of a service provider supporting two
   separate email retrieval services, one the "primary" account, and the
   other for "internal" messaging only.  It is expected that clients
   configure accounts for both services.  Each service also offers
   either IMAP [RFC3501] or POP3 [RFC1939] as an email retrieval
   protocol.  In this case the automated service configuration document
   would contain four entry items: two describing an IMAP service and
   two describing a POP3 service.  Each entry would contain a "group"
   member that groups one IMAP and one POP3 service together for each of
   the "primary" and "internal" account groups.  Each entry would also
   contain a "priority" member indicating the service providers
   preference for clients to use either IMAP or POP3.  An example of
   such an automated service configuration document is shown in
   Appendix C.

   When a client retrieves and processes such a document, it would first
   group services based on the SD:application value.  For each group, it
   iterates over the list of entries in the group, ordered by SD:



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   priority values, and configures an account for the first one it finds
   with an SD:service that it supports.

8.  Internationalization Considerations

   Some elements of the automated service configuration document can
   contain human readable text that clients might choose to present to a
   user.  Clients SHOULD use the Accept-Language header behavior
   described in Section 14.4 of [RFC2616] to ensure the server can
   return a document suitable for the user's chosen language.  Servers
   SHOULD support variations of the automated service configuration
   document based on language, returning the appropriate variation in
   response to client requests.

9.  Security Considerations

   When using WebFinger to discover a server hosting the automated
   service configuration document, a malicious attacker with access to
   the DNS server data, or able to get spoofed answers cached in a
   recursive resolver, can potentially cause clients to connect to a
   server hosting a bogus automated service configuration document with
   service data chosen by the attacker.  In the absence of a secure DNS
   option, clients SHOULD check that the target FQDN returned in the
   link relation URI record matches the original service domain that was
   queried.  If the target FQDN is not in the queried domain, clients
   SHOULD verify with the user that the link URI target FQDN is suitable
   for use before executing any connections to the host.

   HTTP requests for the automated service configuration document MUST
   be performed via TLS.  Clients MUST use the procedure outlined in
   Section 4.3 of [RFC6125] to verify the service.

10.  IANA Considerations

10.1.  Link Relation Registration

   This document defines a "service-configuration" link relation type
   using the registration procedure and template from Section 6.2 of
   [RFC5988].

10.1.1.  service-configuration Link Relation Registration

   Relation Name:  service-configuration

   Description:  Refers to an automated service configuration document






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   Reference:  This RFC.

11.  Acknowledgments

   The authors would like to thank the following individuals for
   contributing their ideas and providing feedback for writing this
   specification: Andrew Biggs, Mike Douglass, Joe Hildebrand, Paul
   Jones, Markus Lanthaler, Matt Miller, Stepan Potys, and Peter Saint-
   Andre

   The authors would also like to thank CalConnect, The Calendaring and
   Scheduling Consortium, for advice with this specification.

12.  References

12.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.ietf-appsawg-webfinger]     Jones, P., Salgueiro, G., and J.
                                    Smarr, "WebFinger",
                                    draft-ietf-appsawg-webfinger-14
                                    (work in progress), May 2013.

   [I-D.newton-json-content-rules]  Newton, A., "A Language for Rules
                                    Describing JSON Content",
                                    draft-newton-json-content-rules-01
                                    (work in progress), January 2013.

   [RFC2119]                        Bradner, S., "Key words for use in
                                    RFCs to Indicate Requirement
                                    Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
                                    March 1997.

   [RFC2616]                        Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J.,
                                    Frystyk, H., Masinter, L., Leach,
                                    P., and T. Berners-Lee, "Hypertext
                                    Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1",
                                    RFC 2616, June 1999.

   [RFC2818]                        Rescorla, E., "HTTP Over TLS",
                                    RFC 2818, May 2000.

   [RFC4422]                        Melnikov, A. and K. Zeilenga,
                                    "Simple Authentication and Security
                                    Layer (SASL)", RFC 4422, June 2006.

   [RFC4627]                        Crockford, D., "The application/json
                                    Media Type for JavaScript Object
                                    Notation (JSON)", RFC 4627,



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                                    July 2006.

   [RFC5988]                        Nottingham, M., "Web Linking",
                                    RFC 5988, October 2010.

   [RFC6125]                        Saint-Andre, P. and J. Hodges,
                                    "Representation and Verification of
                                    Domain-Based Application Service
                                    Identity within Internet Public Key
                                    Infrastructure Using X.509 (PKIX)
                                    Certificates in the Context of
                                    Transport Layer Security (TLS)",
                                    RFC 6125, March 2011.

12.2.  Informative References

   [RFC1939]                        Myers, J. and M. Rose, "Post Office
                                    Protocol - Version 3", STD 53,
                                    RFC 1939, May 1996.

   [RFC2244]                        Newman, C. and J. Myers, "ACAP --
                                    Application Configuration Access
                                    Protocol", RFC 2244, November 1997.

   [RFC3501]                        Crispin, M., "INTERNET MESSAGE
                                    ACCESS PROTOCOL - VERSION 4rev1",
                                    RFC 3501, March 2003.

Appendix A.  Change History (to be removed prior to publication as an
             RFC)

   Changes in -03:

   1.  Fix examples to properly show request/response headers.

   2.  Title change.

   3.  Added text to the Introduction to differentiate this from other
       protocols.

   4.  Switched to WebFinger instead of SRV.

   Changes in -02:

   1.  Switched to JSON document format.

   Changes in -01:




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   1.  Renamed various elements for clarity.

   2.  Added an SD:manage element.

   3.  Added a section on handling of multiple, alternative services,
       together with a second appendix example.

Appendix B.  Example of multiple services

   First comes the WebFinger request to retrieve the appropriate link
   relation.

   >> Request <<

   GET /.well-known/webfinger?
     resource=acct:cyrus@example.com&
     rel=service-configuration HTTP/1.1
   Host:example.com:443
   Authorization: basic QmFzZTY0IGlzIGVhc3kgdG8gZGVjb2Rl

   >> Response <<

   HTTP/1.1 200 OK
   Date: Wed, 20 Feb 2013 09:32:12 GMT
   Content-Type: application/jrd+json
   Content-Length: xxx

   {
     "subject" : "acct:cyrus@example.com",
     "links" :
     [
       {
         "rel" : "service-configuration",
         "type" : "application/json",
         "href" : "https://example.com/service-config"
       }
     ]
   }

   Next is the retrieval of the automated service configuration document
   using the URI from the WebFinger link relation.

   >> Request <<

   GET /service-config?id=cyrus@example.com HTTP/1.1
   Host:example.com:443
   Authorization: basic QmFzZTY0IGlzIGVhc3kgdG8gZGVjb2Rl




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   >> Response <<

   HTTP/1.1 200 OK
   Date: Wed, 20 Feb 2013 09:32:12 GMT
   Content-Type: application/json
   Content-Length: xxx

   {
     "provider" : {
       "name" : "Super-duper ISP",
       "description" : "Super-duper ISP is the home for all your data.",
       "contact" : {
         "email" : "superduper@example.com",
         "uri" : "http://www.example.com"
       },
       "manage" : "http://www.example.com/myaccount.html",
       "ttl" : 2592000
     },

     "entries" : [
       {
         "name" : "Corporate Mail",
         "service" : "imap",
         "group" : "mail-access-1",
         "priority" : 2,
         "uri" : "imap:imap.example.com",
         "tls" : {
           "required" : true
         },
         "auth" : ["CRAM-MD5"]
       },

       {
         "name" : "Corporate Mail",
         "service" : "pop3",
         "group" : "mail-access-1",
         "priority" : 1,
         "host" : "mail.example.com",
         "port" : 110,
         "tls" : {
           "required" : true
         },
         "auth" : ["CRAM-MD5"]
       },

       {
         "name" : "Corporate Mail",
         "service" : "submission",



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         "host" : "mail.example.com",
         "port" : 587,
         "tls" : {
           "required" : true
         },
         "auth" : ["CRAM-MD5"]
       },

       {
         "name" : "Corporate Calendar",
         "service" : "caldav",
         "uri" : "https://calendar.example.com",
         "tls" : {
           "required" : true,
           "at-start" : true
         },
         "auth" : ["Digest"]
       },

       {
         "name" : "Corporate Contacts",
         "service" : "carddav",
         "uri" : "https://contacts.example.com",
         "tls" : {
           "required" : true,
           "at-start" : true
         },
         "auth" : ["Digest"]
       }
     ]
   }

Appendix C.  Example - multiple, alternative mail retrieval services

   First comes the WebFinger request to retrieve the appropriate link
   relation.















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   >> Request <<

   GET /.well-known/webfinger?
     resource=acct:cyrus@example.com&
     rel=service-configuration HTTP/1.1
   Host:example.com:443
   Authorization: basic QmFzZTY0IGlzIGVhc3kgdG8gZGVjb2Rl

   >> Response <<

   HTTP/1.1 200 OK
   Date: Wed, 20 Feb 2013 09:32:12 GMT
   Content-Type: application/jrd+json
   Content-Length: xxx

   {
     "subject" : "acct:cyrus@example.com",
     "links" :
     [
       {
         "rel" : "service-configuration",
         "type" : "application/json",
         "href" : "https://example.com/service-config"
       }
     ]
   }

   Next is the retrieval of the automated service configuration document
   using the URI from the WebFinger link relation.  This example shows
   two different email services: "Primary Mail" (which has both IMAP4
   and POP3 services available), and "Internal Mail" (which additionally
   has a private "webmail" service available).  An extension member is
   also specified for the "webmail" service.

   >> Request <<

   GET /service-config?id=cyrus@example.com HTTP/1.1
   Host:example.com:443
   Authorization: basic QmFzZTY0IGlzIGVhc3kgdG8gZGVjb2Rl

   >> Response <<

   HTTP/1.1 200 OK
   Date: Wed, 20 Feb 2013 09:32:12 GMT
   Content-Type: application/json
   Content-Length: xxx

   {



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     "provider" : {
       "name" : "Mail Agrregator ISP",
       "description" : "Primary and internal email services.",
       "contact" : {
         "email" : "emails@example.com",
         "uri" : "http://www.example.com"
       },
       "manage" : "http://www.example.com/myaccount.html",
       "ttl" : 2592000
     },

     "entries" : [
       {
         "name" : "Primary Mail",
         "service" : "imap",
         "group" : "primary",
         "priority" : 2,
         "uri" : "imap:mail.example.com",
         "tls" : {
           "required" : true
         },
         "auth" : ["CRAM-MD5"]
       },

       {
         "name" : "Primary Mail",
         "service" : "pop3",
         "group" : "primary",
         "priority" : 1,
         "host" : "mail.example.com",
         "port" : 110,
         "tls" : {
           "required" : true
         },
         "auth" : ["CRAM-MD5"]
       },

       {
         "name" : "Internal Mail",
         "service" : "imap",
         "group" : "internal",
         "priority" : 2,
         "uri" : "imap:int.example.com",
         "tls" : {
           "required" : true
         },
         "auth" : ["CRAM-MD5"]
       },



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       {
         "name" : "Internal Mail",
         "service" : "pop3",
         "group" : "internal",
         "priority" : 1,
         "host" : "int.example.com",
         "port" : 110,
         "tls" : {
           "required" : true
         },
         "auth" : ["CRAM-MD5"]
       }

       {
         "name" : "Internal Mail",
         "service" : "{example.com}webmail",
         "group" : "internal",
         "priority" : 1,
         "uri" : "https://int.example.com/webmail",
         "{example.com}bookmark": "https://int.example.com/webmail"
       }
     ]
   }

Appendix D.  Example - multiple links

   TODO: example of webfinger returning multiple "service-configuration"
   links.

Authors' Addresses

   Andrew McMillan
   Morphoss Ltd
   6 Karoro Place
   Porirua  5024
   New Zealand

   EMail: andrew@morphoss.com
   URI:   http://www.morphoss.com/












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   Cyrus Daboo
   Apple Inc.
   1 Infinite Loop
   Cupertino, CA  95014
   USA

   EMail: cyrus@daboo.name
   URI:   http://www.apple.com/











































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