ICNRG                                                       N.T. Dinh
Internet Draft                                                 Y. Kim
Intended status: Standards Track                   Soongsil University
Expires: June 9, 2013                                 January 14, 2013

          ICN Wireless Sensor and Actor Network BaseLine Scenarios


   This document presents scenarios for information centric wireless
   sensor and actor networks. The scenarios selected for inclusion in
   this first draft aim to exercise a variety of aspects in wireless
   sensor and actor network that an ICN solution could address.

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Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ................................................ 2
   2. Naming Scheme ............................................... 3
   3. In-network Auto-configuration................................ 3
   4. Distributed Virtual Information Sharing Model................ 4
   5. Distributed Information Filter............................... 4
   6. Information-based prioritized routing and Aggregation........ 4
   7. Semantic Coordination and Collaboration...................... 5
   8. Security Considerations...................................... 6
   9. IANA Considerations ......................................... 6
   10. Acknowledgments ............................................ 6
   11. References ................................................. 6
   11.1. Normative References...................................... 6
   11.2.Informative References..................................... 6

1. Introduction

   Wireless sensor and actor networks (WSANs) consist of resource-
   constrained nodes which operate in low power and lossy network
   environment. Therefore, resource optimization is a very important
   factor in design of WSANs' operations. Current TCP/IP model does not
   fit well in this environment, so a need of 6LoWPAN is highlighted in
   [RFC4919]. This draft exploits ICN approach in WSANs (ICWSANs) and
   illustrates the obtained benefits.

   For example, Dinh and Kim [ICWSAN] consider a functional oriented
   naming scheme for information objects/entities and illustrate the
   ICN benefits through scenarios in this category, including an in-
   network auto-configuration, a distributed virtual information
   sharing model, a content-based distributed information filter, a
   content-based routing and data aggregation, and a semantic
   cooperative distributed approach for WSANs.

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2. Naming Scheme

   In comparison to the Internet, a WSAN node produces and needs a few
   types of information. For example, a temperature sensor may produce
   only temperature sensing data or a notification about an over-
   threshold temperature event. Types of information have a closely
   relationship with their producers' functions (e.g. temperature data
   or temperature event in a relationship with the temperature sensor).
   In this way, naming schemes applied for each piece of information in
   [CCN] and other ICN proposals are not efficient in WSANs. A
   functional-oriented naming scheme is proposed in ICWSANs. A name in
   ICWSANs includes an information category prefix and information ID.
   The first part expresses a real-world functional category name of a
   type of sensor or actor. The latter part expresses the detail
   information (e.g. ID, security code) which makes the name persistent
   and unique. The naming scheme is proposed for both information
   naming and node's naming, which are associated in the relationship
   with node's function. For example, a temperature sensor could be
   named as tempSen:xxx and its temperature information could be named
   as temp:xxx, or a temperature sink node could also be named as
   tempSink:xxx ("temp" is a category prefix for multiple types of
   sensor, actor, and sink nodes which are related to the temperature
   category). By this way, the scalability issue of the naming scheme
   in ICWSANs may not be as critical as other Internet's ICN proposals.
   In the other hand, by exploiting the functional category-certifying,
   ICWSANs could improve the network performance and reduce
   communication overhead in WSANs, especially in group communication.
   Hashing or other security functions could also apply on the name.

3. In-network Auto-configuration

   In low power and lossy environment as WSANs, the WSAN system
   dynamically adapts to change in network topology due to node
   failures, environmental condition change, and new deployed nodes.
   Therefore, auto-configuration design is important for such a large
   scale network with limited resource nodes. Furthermore, the
   connectivity from a node to the sink node could not guarantee all
   the time because of sleep/wakeup intermediate node and low link
   quality. In ICWSAN, an in-network auto-configuration is proposed to
   reduce the configuration overhead. In particularly, when a new node
   is deployed, configuration information could be retrieved from the
   previously deployed nodes (with cached configuration information)
   without a need to send a configuration information request to sink
   node, or manually by user (e.g. a new temperature deployed node may
   retrieve configuration information from the nearest temperature node
   which is deployed previously). The new node then processes the
   configuration information for all the information needed to fully

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   join to the existing network and start its operation. The in-network
   auto-configuration requires only one alive neighbor node is enough
   to execute auto-configuration for the newly deployed node while
   optimizing number of forwarding requests to minimize the
   configuration overhead by sharing information.

4. Distributed Virtual Information Sharing Model

   The information sharing model also could execute in a distributed
   virtual way; particularly, in a heterogeneous WSANs with multiple
   types of sensors and actors, multiple separately virtual groups
   could be created semantically to support inter-operate among nodes
   without a requirement of a complex group's member addresses
   management or centralized control(e.g. temperature sensors with the
   same name prefix "temp" in an area could form a virtual group while
   fired actors with the name prefix "fire-xxx" also form as another
   group). The sharing rules could be determined based on the category
   prefix of the information. The distributed virtual model is very
   useful in case of configuration, data collection, and inter-
   operation; for example, an interest request could be sent to collect
   only temperature sensing information or a configuration
   message is sent to only humidity sensors (only humidity sensors
   should process this message).

5. Distributed Information Filter

   An information-based distributed information filter approach is
   proposed to support the distributed virtual sharing model where a
   node receives and processes an information object only if it is
   interested in this information; if not, it could forward or simply
   discard messages, even broadcast messages. ICWSAN could enable this
   technique because the network layer could understand what
   information is carried, what that means and distributes the
   information to nodes that need this information. Uninterested/error
   information objects are discarded from the network layer where
   disallow the communication/processing, hence the error is never
   propagated to application level. In contrast, TCP/IP network layer
   delivers all the indistinguishable packets equally. Therefore, the
   information-based distributed filer is desired to reduce failure in
   resource-constrained nodes like sensors.

6. Information-based prioritized routing and Aggregation

   Routing in WSANs is tightly coupled to the requirement of sensing
   task as well as application. ICWSAN designs a content-based routing
   which is closer to the application semantics to optimize the data
   transport and information aggregation. The content becomes

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   transparently from the view point of clients, service discovery and
   routing, thus reduce overhead in HTTP-CoAP translation process at
   proxy nodes. In ICWSAN, information can be recognized in the
   network layer which is valuable to implement a content-based
   prioritized routing policy to meet different requirements of
   information dissemination (e.g. an emergency event type or a
   periodic sensing report). The content based aggregation help improve
   the quality of information while minimizing the communication (e.g.
   temperature data could be recognized and aggregate together before
   sending to a temperature sink node or an actor node).

7. Semantic Coordination and Collaboration

   One of the main ideas of ICWSAN is to base sensors/actors
   collaboration decision on content which is to build cooperative
   distributed WSAN environments where autonomous objects (including
   information objects and network entities) can be discovered,
   queried, coordinated automatically without a need of a central
   control. ICWSAN implements a high-level abstraction for integration
   of sensor networks with actors (e.g. mobile robots, vehicles).
   Sensors could execute cooperative sensing, processing, and
   organizing themselves to produce and retrieve the information
   required by sink/actor node while minimizing the number of
   transmitted messages. For example, in a heterogeneous wireless
   sensor and actor network environment with multiple types of sensor,
   actor and sink nodes existing in the same space, a temperature
   sensor could self-coordinate to report its sensing data to a
   temperature sink node (not another type of sink node) without a need
   of sink node discovery; or a fire fighter (e.g. actors or robots)
   could express its interest with a key word "temp-xxx" to collect
   temperature data from any or all temperature in a fired area without
   care of specific address of each node; the actors could also self-
   coordinate to collaborate together to extinguish fires. In
   addition, cooperative caching ensures sharing sensing information
   among nodes to not only reduce number of communications but also
   support indirect query in case of sleeping node; for instant, when a
   node wakes up, it could retrieve configuration/notification message
   cached in neighbor nodes; in other hand, a node also could
   disseminate its sensing information to be cached in its neighbors
   and fall to a sleep mode; a request for the sensing data from this
   node could be retrieved indirectly from a cache holder or
   asynchronously by interest message caching.

   Scenarios in this category include opened topics which are also
   discussed for future works.

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8. Security Considerations

9. IANA Considerations

10. Acknowledgments

11. References

11.1. Normative References
11.2. Informative References

   [RFC4919] N., Kushalnagar., Montenegro, G., and C. Schumacher," IPv6
         over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks
         (6LoWPANs):Overview, Assumptions, Problem Statement, and
         Goals", RFC4919, February 2007.
   [ICWSAN] Ngoc-Thanh Dinh and Younghan Kim, "Potential of
         Information-Centric Wireless Sensor and Actor Networking,"
         Proc. COMMANTEL, January 2013

   [CCN] Jacobson, V. et al., "Networking Named Content", Proc. CoNEXT.
         ACM, 2009.

Authors' Addresses

   Ngoc-Thanh Dinh
   Soongsil University
   HuyngnamEnginerring Building 424,SoongsilUniv,Sangdo-do,Dongjak-Gu,
   Seoul, Korea 156-743

   Phone: 00828200841
   Email: ngocthanhdinh@dcn.ssu.ac.kr

   Younghan Kim
   Soongsil University
   HuyngnamEnginerring Building 424,SoongsilUniv,Sangdo-do,Dongjak-Gu,
   Seoul, Korea 156-743

   Phone: 00828200841
   Email: younghak@ssu.ac.kr

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