Human Rights Protocol Considerations Research Group           D. Gillmor
Internet-Draft                                                      ACLU
Intended status: Informational                              N. ten Oever
Expires: January 6, 2016                                       Article19
                                                                A. Doria
                                                           July 05, 2015

             Human Rights Protocol Considerations Glossary


   This document presents a glossary of terms used to map between
   concepts common in human rights discussions and engineering
   discussions.  It is intended to facilitate work by the proposed Human
   Rights Protocol Considerations research group, as well as other
   authors within the IETF.

Status of This Memo

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 6, 2016.

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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
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   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Glossary  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   4.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   5.  Research Group Information  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   6.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     6.1.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     6.2.  URIs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8

1.  Introduction

   "There's a freedom about the Internet: As long as we accept the
      rules of sending packets around, we can send packets containing
      anything to anywhere."


   The Human Rights Protocol Consideration Proposed Research Group aims
   to research whether standards and protocols can enable, strengthen or
   threaten human rights, as defined in the Universal Declaration of
   Human Rights [UDHR] and the International Covenant ons Civil and
   Political Rights [ICCPR], specifically, but not limited to the right
   to freedom of expression and the right to freedom of assembly.

   Comunications between people working on human rights and engineers
   working on Internet protocols can be improved with a shared

   This document aims to provide a shared vocabulary to facilitate
   understanding of the intersection between human rights and Internet
   protocol design.

   Discussion on this draft at: //

   This document builds on the previous IDs published within the
   framework of the proposed hrpc research group [ID]

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2.  Glossary

   In the analysis of existing RFCs central design and technical
   concepts have been found which impact human rights.  This is an
   initial glossary of concepts that could bridge human rights discourse
   and technical vocabulary.  These definitions should be improved and
   further aligned with existing RFCs.

   Accessibility  Full Internet Connectivity as described in [RFC4084]
      to provide unfettered access to the Internet

      The design of protocols, services or implementation that provide
      an enabling environment for people with disabilities.

      The ability to receive information available on the Internet

   Anonymity  The fact of not being identified

   Authenticity  The act of confirming the truth of an attribute of a
      single piece of data or entity.

   Confidentiality  The non-disclosure of information to any unintended
      person or host or party

   Connectivity  The extent to which a device or network is able to
      reach other devices or networks to exchange data.  The Internet is
      the tool for providing global connectivity [RFC1958].

   Content-agnosticism  Treating network traffic identically regardless
      of content.

   Debugging:  Debugging is a methodical process of finding and reducing
      the number of bugs, or defects, or malfunctions in a protocol or
      its implementation, thus making it behave as expected and analyse
      the consequences that might have emanated from the error.
      Debugging tends to be harder when various subsystems are tightly
      coupled, as changes in one may cause bugs to emerge in another.

      The process through which people troubleshoot a technical issue,
      which may include inspection of program source code or device
      configurations.  Can also include tracing or monitoring packet

   Decentralized  Opportunity for implementation or deployment of
      standards, protocols or systems without a single point of control.

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   Distributed  A distributed architecture is a system in which not all
      processes reside in a single computer.

   End-to-End  The principal of extending characteristics of a protocol
      or system as far as possible within the system.  For example, end-
      to-end instant message encryption would conceal communications
      from one user's instant messaging application through any
      intermediate devices and servers all the way to the recipient's
      instant messaging application.  If the message was decrypted at
      any intermediate point-for example at a service provider-then the
      property of end-to-end encryption would not be present.

      One of the key architectural guidelines of the Internet is the
      end-to-end principle in the papers by Saltzer, Reed, and Clark
      [Saltzer] [Clark].  The end-to-end principle was originally
      articulated as a question of where best not to put functions in a
      communication system.  Yet, in the ensuing years, it has evolved
      to address concerns of maintaining openness, increasing
      reliability and robustness, and preserving the properties of user
      choice and ease of new service development as discussed by
      Blumenthal and Clark in [Blumenthal]; concerns that were not part
      of the original articulation of the end-to-end principle.

   Federation  The possibility of connecting autonomous systems into a
      single distributed system.

   Integrity  Maintenance and assurance of the accuracy and consistency
      of data to ensure it has not been (intentionally or
      unintentionally) altered

   Inter-operable  A property of a documented standard or protocol which
      allows different independent implementations to work with each
      other without any restricted negotiation, access or functionality.

   Internationalization  The practice of the adaptation and facilitation
      of protocols, standards, and implementation to different languages
      and scripts.

   Open standards  Conform [RFC2606]: Various national and international
      standards bodies, such as ANSI, ISO, IEEE, and ITU-T, develop a
      variety of protocol and service specifications that are similar to
      Technical Specifications defined here.  National and international
      groups also publish "implementors' agreements" that are analogous
      to Applicability Statements, capturing a body of implementation-
      specific detail concerned with the practical application of their
      standards.  All of these are considered to be "open external
      standards" for the purposes of the Internet Standards Process.

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   Openness  The quality of the unfiltered Internet that allows for free
      access to other hosts

   Permissionless innovation  The freedom and ability of to freely
      create and deploy new protocols on top of the communications
      constructs that currently exist

   Privacy  Please see [RFC6973]

   Reliable  Reliability ensures that a protocol will execute its
      function consistently and error resistant as described and
      function without unexpected result.  A system that is reliable
      degenerates gracefully and will have a documented way to announce
      degradation.  It also has mechanisms to recover from failure
      gracefully, and if applicable, allow for partial healing.

   Resilience  The maintaining of dependability and performance in the
      face of unanticipated changes and circumstances.

   Robust  The resistance of protocols and their implementations to
      errors, and to involuntary, legal or malicious attempts to disrupt
      its mode of operations.

   Scalable  The ability to handle increased or decreased workloads
      predictably within defined expectations.  There should be a clear
      definition of its scope and applicability.  The limits of a
      systems scalability should be defined.

   Stateless / stateful   In computing, a stateless protocol is a
      communications protocol that treats each request as an independent
      transaction that is unrelated to any previous request so that the
      communication consists of independent pairs of request and
      response.  A stateless protocol does not require the server to
      retain session information or status about each communications
      partner for the duration of multiple requests.  In contrast, a
      protocol which requires keeping of the internal state on the
      server is known as a stateful protocol.  [WP-Stateless]

   Transparent:  "transparency" refers to the original Internet concept
      of a single universal logical addressing scheme, and the
      mechanisms by which packets may flow from source to destination
      essentially unaltered.  [RFC2775]

   The combination of content agnosticism, connectivity, security,
   privacy (as defined in [RFC6973], and open standards are the
   technical principles that underlay freedom of expression on the

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     (  ( End-to-End      )               )
    (  (  Interoperability )               )
   (   (  Resilience       )  Connectivity  )
   (   (  Reliability      )                )   = freedom of expression
   (    ( Robustness      )                 )
   (              Privacy                   )
   (              Security                  )
    (             Content agnosticism      )
     (        Open Standards              )

   The combination of reliability, confidentiality, integrity,
   anonymity, and authenticity is what makes up security on the Internet

                ( Reliability    )
   security =  (  Confidentiality )
               (  Integrity       )
               (  Authenticity    )
                ( Anonymity      )

3.  Security Considerations

   As this draft concerns a research document, there are no security

4.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no actions for IANA.

5.  Research Group Information

   The discussion list for the IRTF Human Rights Protocol Considerations
   proposed working group is located at the e-mail address
   [1].  Information on the group and information on how to subscribe to
   the list is at

   Archives of the list can be found at:

6.  References

6.1.  Informative References

              Berners-Lee, T. and M. Fischetti, "Weaving the Web,",
              HarperCollins p 208, 1999.

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              Blumenthal, M. and D. Clark, "Rethinking the design of the
              Internet: The end-to-end arguments vs. the brave new
              world", ACM Transactions on Internet Technology, Vol. 1,
              No. 1, August 2001, pp 70-109. , 2001.

   [Clark]    Clark, D., "The Design Philosophy of the DARPA Internet
              Protocols", Proc SIGCOMM 88, ACM CCR Vol 18, Number 4,
              August 1988, pp. 106-114. , 1988.

   [ICCPR]    United Nations General Assembly, "International Covenant
              on Civil and Political Rights", 1976,

   [ID]       ten Oever, N., Doria, A., and J. Varon, "Proposal for
              research on human rights protocol considerations", 2015,

   [RFC1958]  Carpenter, B., "Architectural Principles of the Internet",
              RFC 1958, June 1996.

   [RFC2606]  Eastlake, D. and A. Panitz, "Reserved Top Level DNS
              Names", BCP 32, RFC 2606, June 1999.

   [RFC2775]  Carpenter, B., "Internet Transparency", RFC 2775, February

   [RFC3724]  Kempf, J., Austein, R., and IAB, "The Rise of the Middle
              and the Future of End-to-End: Reflections on the Evolution
              of the Internet Architecture", RFC 3724, March 2004.

   [RFC4084]  Klensin, J., "Terminology for Describing Internet
              Connectivity", BCP 104, RFC 4084, May 2005.

   [RFC6973]  Cooper, A., Tschofenig, H., Aboba, B., Peterson, J.,
              Morris, J., Hansen, M., and R. Smith, "Privacy
              Considerations for Internet Protocols", RFC 6973, July

   [Saltzer]  Saltzer, J., Reed, D., and D. Clark, "End-to-End Arguments
              in System Design", ACM TOCS, Vol 2, Number 4, November
              1984, pp 277-288. , 1984.

   [UDHR]     United Nations General Assembly, "The Universal
              Declaration of Human Rights", 1948,

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              "Debugging", n.d., <

              "Stateless protocol", n.d.,

6.2.  URIs


Authors' Addresses

   Daniel Kahn Gillmor


   Niels ten Oever


   Avri Doria


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