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Versions: 00 01 02                                                      
INTERNET-DRAFT                                    Donald E. Eastlake 3rd
Expires: 19 September 1996                                     CyberCash
                                                           20 March 1996



                       Universal Payment Preamble
                       --------- ------- --------





Status of This Document

   This draft, file name draft-eastlake-universal-payment-02.txt, is
   intended to be become a Proposed Standard RFC.  Distribution of this
   document is unlimited. Comments should be sent to the author or to
   the <ietf-pay@imc.com> and <jepi-payments@commerce.net> mailing
   lists.

   This document is an Internet-Draft.  Internet-Drafts are working
   documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas,
   and its working groups.  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
   months.  Internet-Drafts may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by
   other documents at any time.  It is not appropriate to use Internet-
   Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as a
   ``working draft'' or ``work in progress.''

   To learn the current status of any Internet-Draft, please check the
   1id-abstracts.txt listing contained in the Internet-Drafts Shadow
   Directories on ds.internic.net (East USA), ftp.isi.edu (West USA),
   nic.nordu.net (North Europe), ftp.nis.garr.it (South Europe),
   munnari.oz.au (Pacific Rim), or ftp.is.co.za (Africa).


















D. Eastlake                                                     [Page 1]


INTERNET-DRAFT         Universal Payment Preamble          20 March 1996


Abstract

   The Internet is becoming an increasingly commercial arena in which
   payments are rendered for goods and services. To support such
   commerce, numerous incompatible Internet payment protocols have been
   adopted by a variety of organizations.  There appears to be little
   prospect of merger or abandonment of many of these protocols.

   A unified payment syntax is presented for parties to negotiate
   payment alternatives at any point in shopping, until a final hand-off
   to a particular chosen payment system.



Acknowledgements

   The contributions of the following persons to this draft are
   gratefully acknowledged:

      Ali Bahreman <ali@eit.com>
      Brian Boesch <boesch@cybercash.com>
      Randy Bush <randy@psg.com>
      Steve Crocker <crocker@cybercash.com>
      Rohit Khare <khare@w3.org>
      Pieter van der Linden <vdl@GCTech.fr>
      Bill Melton <melton@cybercash.com>
      Jim Miller <jmiller@w3.org>
      Paul-Andre Pays <pays@gctech.edelweb.fr>
























D. Eastlake                                                     [Page 2]


INTERNET-DRAFT         Universal Payment Preamble          20 March 1996


Table of Contents

      Status of This Document....................................1

      Abstract...................................................2
      Acknowledgements...........................................2

      Table of Contents..........................................3

      1. Introduction............................................4
      1.1 The Universal Payment Preamble Solution................4

      2. The Universal Payment Preamble..........................6
      2.1. The Universal Payment PEP Headers.....................6
      2.2 Special UPP Protocol Parameters........................7
      2.3 The Initiation Message.................................8
      2.4 UPP Header and Message Integrity.......................9

      3. Examples...............................................10
      3.1 Minimal UPP Example...................................10
      3.2 More Generous UPP Example.............................10
      3.3 Complex UPP Example...................................11

      4. Anticipated Effects of Universal Payment Preamble......14

      5. Security Considerations................................15
      References................................................15

      Author's Address..........................................16
      Expiration and File Name..................................16

      Appendix A: Card Brands...................................17




















D. Eastlake                                                     [Page 3]


INTERNET-DRAFT         Universal Payment Preamble          20 March 1996


1. Introduction

   The Internet is becoming an increasingly commercial arena in which
   payments are rendered for goods and services.  This commerce can take
   a variety of forms from interactiny with a vendor via a World Wide
   Web browser to ordering by email from a CD-ROM catalog.  Typically
   the shopping or selection phase is followed by a payment phase and
   then usually by a fulfillment or delivery phase.

   To provide general privacy and security to all three phases, there
   are a variety of IETF standardized protocols, such as MOSS or IPSEC,
   and other protocols, such as S-HTPP, PGP, and SSL.  Some people use
   such general secure channel or secure message systems for payments.
   However, the payments phase is especially sensitive because it deals
   with "real money", thus providing a strong incentive to crackers, and
   is also especially complex.  Frequently payment involves three or
   more parties such as a customer, merchant, and bank or payment
   system, with structured and interlocking messages that incorporate
   fields best encrypted for parties other than their initial recipient.
   For these reasons a number of specialized payment protocols have been
   adopted.

   As examples of payment protocols, there is the SET standard being
   developed by MasterCard and VISA, the CyberCash system [RFC 1898],
   GCtech's GlodeID, CMU's NetBill, and many more.

   The Universal Payment Preamble provides three capabilities: (1)
   negotiation of payment service, (2) exchanage of payment related
   identification information, and (3) initiation of the specific
   payment system.  The payment service and initiation information are
   sufficient to smoothly bridge from shopping to payment and, if
   appropriate, from payment back to other customer - vendor
   interaction.



1.1 The Universal Payment Preamble Solution

   A high level overview of the Universal Payment Preamble solution to
   this problem is as follows:

   Shopping proceeds in a free-form way constrained only by the desires
   of the customer and vendor.  Some information closely related to
   shopping but not closely tied to payment is made available via
   changes in HTML so that certain specially named fields can be semi-
   automatically filled in with such information as shipping address.
   This includes such items as shipping address, customer name,
   telephone number, and email address.  [The field names and HTML
   changes will be documented elsewhere.] If desired, UPP information
   may be exchanged before or during the shopping process.  This might


D. Eastlake                                                     [Page 4]


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   be done so the customer is assured they can pay by a means they want
   to use or so that a merchant can condition their offer based on
   information about the customer.  After the order has been decided on,
   the definitive order and remaining payment options are transmitted
   from the party knowing them to the other in a initiation message.
   The party receiving this message chooses the payment option (in
   general choosing transport protocol, payment system, payment type,
   etc. to the extent these have not been decided by earlier
   negotiation) and proceeds using the selected payment system if any of
   those presented are acceptable.










































D. Eastlake                                                     [Page 5]


INTERNET-DRAFT         Universal Payment Preamble          20 March 1996


2. The Universal Payment Preamble

   The Universal Payment Preamble is so called because it exchanges
   information that needs to be resolved before a particular payment
   system is entered and provides an initiation message to enter the
   payment protocol.  It is expected that it will frequently be used in
   conjunction with the profile protocol [draft-eastlake-pep-profile-
   00.txt] which can exchange ancillary information that may be
   important to some payment systems.

   Information is exchanged using the Protocol Extension Protocol
   [draft-khare-http-pep-*.txt] headers.  Familiarity with PEP is
   assumed in this draft.



2.1. The Universal Payment PEP Headers

   Each payment system is considered to be a PEP protocol extension,
   identified by a URL, and in addition there exists the
   http://pep.w3.org/UPP protocol.  Each payment system as well as the
   umbrella UPP protocol should register itself as handling its own
   protocol and also handling the UPP protocol.  (Some payment systems
   may also wish to register for the Profile protocol.  See draft-
   eastlake-pep-profile-00.txt.)

   UPP headers can be exchanged before or during shopping to narrow the
   field of payment methods and gain some assurance that there is some
   acceptable method available.  This will occur via PEP headers using
   the payment system and UPP protocols.

   Each individual payment service will have a proprietary protocol
   compatible with the "generic" UPP Protocol.  Compatibility is largely
   defined by the parameters defined in section 2.2 below that lists the
   names of common parameters and the encoding to be used for their
   values.  In addition, it implies an agreement about a "style" of
   negotiation: the payee agrees not to take irrevocable action based
   solely on the use of the UPP and specific payment protocol
   negotiation.  Rather, it takes place in the proprietary protocol that
   starts at the end of the negotiation phase.  Payment security is
   attained to the extent it is provided by this proprietary protocol.

   When a merchant says "I request UPP, optionally", it is asking the
   customer to generate a list of the clients' offered payment systems
   (or vice versa if the customer makes this request).  The server
   demands payment by requesting 'UPP, strength=required.' This forces
   the client to respond with one or more 'armed' payment initiators
   (i.e. with all parameters for chosen payment system(s) filled in).
   If the negotiation process has not narrowed down to a single payment
   system, the browser/UPP module may pop up a notification toolbar or


D. Eastlake                                                     [Page 6]


INTERNET-DRAFT         Universal Payment Preamble          20 March 1996


   automatically choose or leave it to the server to either choose or
   force a choice by using an HTML form.

   Requesting the UPP protocol is the same as asking the other party
   which payment services it has that it is willing to reveal.
   Requiring the UPP protocol is requiring the other party to tender a
   specific payment.  Asserting a UPP protocol means that a protocol
   instance message is payment.



2.2 Special UPP Protocol Parameters

   The following PEP parameters, if they appear in a params bag for a
   payment system, have the form and meaning indicated:

   account:  This parameter is used to provide information about the
      account number to be used at the customer or merchant.  Usually
      this number is meaningful only for the particular payment system
      but account type information, such as card brand, may be given to
      indicate choices.  For example "{params ... {account-type {AX}
      {MC} {VI}} ...}" to indicate that American Express, MasterCard and
      VISA are acceptable (vendor) or providable (customer).  [brand-ids
      may need to be BINs or something more complex than this...]

   amount:  This is the cost of the order thus far.  It consists of a
      list of bags with the ISO 4217 currency code as the first item and
      optionally an amount as the second.  For example "{params ...
      {amount {usd} {gbp}} ...}" to indicate that US dollars and pounds
      Sterling are acceptable (vendor) or providable (customer) or
      "{params {amount {frf 1234}}}" to indicate a precise amount in
      French francs. A cost with amount(s) is usually transferred with
      or before the initiation message if payment of an amount is
      required.

   transport:  This is the URL to which the initial payment service
      specific message should be sent.  Normally this field occurs only
      in the headers on the initiation message.  For example
      "{http://paycompany.com/paysys {params ... {transport
      http://merchant.com:8000/buy}} ...}" or {http://cashco.com/cash
      {params {transport mailto://mailorder@merchant.com}}}".

   success:  This is the URL to continue at after successful execution
      of the payment protocol.  Normally this field occurs only in the
      headers on the initiation message.

   failure:  This is the URL to continue at after failure of the payment
      protocol.  Normally this field occurs only in the headers on the
      initiation message.



D. Eastlake                                                     [Page 7]


INTERNET-DRAFT         Universal Payment Preamble          20 March 1996


   cancel:  This is the URL to continue at if the payment protocol is
      cancelled.  Normally this field occurs only in the headers on the
      initiation message.



2.3 The Initiation Message

   There is a sharp transistion from the shopping phase, which may
   include payment system negotiation as above.  This is usually
   signalled by the MIME type of a message, typically
   "application/paysys" where "paysys" is the name of the payment system
   being invoked.  With UPP, in principle this payment system specific
   MIME type is not required as this message will also have a UPP header
   demanding use of the UPP protocol.  But it is better pracrice to use
   the MIME type to ensure transition to the payment system without
   relying on the other parties UPP capabilities.  The exact form nad
   body content of the initiation message depend on the payment system
   and the transport medium that it is sent over.

   In almost all cases, the shopping dialog between the customer and the
   merchant will have resulted in the creation of an "order" and pricing
   information.  This order and pricing information is frequently only
   present at the merchant or the customer as of the end of the shopping
   dialog.  For example, if the customer has been interacting via a
   browser with a merchant's web service, the order (or shopping basket
   or whatever other term you like) and price has been accumulated at
   the merchant.  If the customer has been interacting with a local CD-
   ROM catalog or the like, then the order and pricing will have been
   accumulated at the customer.  The initiation message is sent from the
   party with knowledge of the ordering information to the part without
   that knowledge.  In addition, the message can announce the available
   combinations of payment services, payment types (credit, cash, etc.),
   and the like if this has not been previously determined by UPP header
   exchange.

   The header of the initiation message will contain an instance of the
   selected payment protocol requiring the other party to follow that
   payment protocol or indicate an error.  The body of the initiation
   message will normally include the "order".  This is the accumulated
   description of the good and services that have been ordered.

   In addition, the goods and services order (GSO) must ultimately be
   cryptographically signed and compared in most payment protocols. To
   this end, it is essential that the GSO be conveyed exactly because
   the hash and signatures will not work if there is any change.
   However, some payment systems have their own out of band solution to
   this problem.

   In email and World Wide Web transmissions, the content-transfer-


D. Eastlake                                                     [Page 8]


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   encoding field defines the encoding of the body of the message and
   the content-type field defines the type. If the type of the body/GSO
   is text/plain with sufficiently short lines, then the encoding may be
   omitted.  (It is recommended that any hashes calculated be on the
   text with all whitespace ignored, but this is the realm of individual
   payment protocols.) If the body/GSO is anything other than text/plain
   or there is any question of it being corrupted by a gateway, then the
   content-transfer-encoding should be be base64 to preserve the
   integrity of the message.

   However transmitted, the GSO need not be machine parsable and in fact
   is simply a representation of the order for the records of the
   customer and the vendor.  It would normally contain a description of
   the goods and/or services ordered and some information on delivery.
   Except perhaps if the customer were some automated process, the order
   should be easy for a person to understand.  It might also include an
   order number, dates, prices, and the like but these would not
   generally be extractable from the order.  For example, although text
   would be more common, the order might be a synthesized digitized
   voice reciting the information (this might be particularly useful for
   a blind customer) or an image of a completed illustrated order form.

   WARNING: Since the order is what the customer is buying as a matter
   of record, it is essential that it be complete unto itself. External
   references are invalid in the sense that they can not be depended on
   later in showing what the order was.  Thus an external MIME reference
   is prohibited as the order (or as part of the order if it is
   multipart), external references to images or otherwise are prohibited
   if the order or part of a multipart order is type text/HTML, etc.



2.4 UPP Header and Message Integrity

   Since one of the purposes of the UPP is to negotiate between payment
   protocols, most of which have different security and signature
   schemes, no explicit security is provided in the UPP.  If security of
   the UPP is desired, the customer and merchant need to communicate
   inside some security enveloping, such as IPSEC, MOSS, SHTTP, PGP, or
   SSL from the start.  If such security is not used, a UPP relevant
   field or message could be modified in flight or spoofed; however,
   later steps within the payment protocol chosen will normally catch
   such a problem, reducing it to more of an interference or denial of
   service threat.








D. Eastlake                                                     [Page 9]


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3. Examples

   Three examples are given below.  The first is a minimum UPP example
   where neither party reveals much, the second is an example of a
   richer basic UPP example including some use of the Profile protocol,
   and the third is a relatively complex example illustrating the
   effects of policy at the customer and vendor ends.



3.1 Minimal UPP Example

   This is a web example with a minimum of negotiation and in which the
   customer does not reveal anything about their identity.

   ====================================
   GET /catalog
   Protocol-request: {http://pep.w3.org/UPP}

   Above the customer asks the merchant to give back catalog data and to
   indicate whatever payment systems it will tell a putative stranger
   about.

   ====================================
   206 Uses PEP
   Protocol-request: {http://cybercash.com/Pay {for /} },
      {http://gctec.com/GlobeID  {params {affiliate Kleline Cyttybank
      Mitsushami } {for /}}

   The merchant's server indicates that it accepts 1. CyberCash for all
   URLs 2. GlobeID protocol for all URLs, and, using GlobeID private
   parameters, it is affiliated with the services operated in France by
   Kleline S.A., in Japan by Mistushami and in the Netherlands by
   Cyttybank. The body of this message would be the HTML catalog and the
   customer would proceed to shop and the customer knows they can pay by
   either Globe ID or CyberCash.



3.2 More Generous UPP Example

   The GlobeID system has many parameters that it can securely certify
   once one is in the proprietary payment system.  In this example, many
   of these are passed during PEP negotiation as "hints".

   The price or amount is not included in this negotiation because the
   knowledge or selection of other parameters is frequently required to
   set this value (eg. custom duties, VAT, special discount when using a
   given instrument, or special discount because the customer is buying
   in the same shop for the third time in the same month and because


D. Eastlake                                                    [Page 10]


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   GCTech system tends to present the amount to be paid (not the price)
   in the last step when everything is known in a certified way because
   the offer is non-repudiable and notarized within the GlobeID system.
   (This is only an example and it is possible to present a price to the
   customer with PEP when payment is via GloveID.  This is basicly up to
   the merchant.)

   ====================================
   GET /catalog
   Protocol-request: {http://pep.w3.org/UPP}

   the merchant response can be

   ====================================
   206 Uses PEP
   Protocol-request: {http://cybercash.com/Pay {for /} },
      {http://gctec.com/GlobeID  {params {affiliate Kleline Cyttybank
      Mitsushami } {amount} {b2b}} {http://pep.w3.org/Profile {params
      {residence-country} {delivery-country} {str opt}}
   Protocol: {http://pep.w3.org/Profile {params {language FR NL} {amount
      {USD} {FRF} {NLG}} {residence-country {FR}} {delivery-country
      "ANY"} }}

   The merchant asks for a variety of identification information from
   the customer, including the GlobeID proprietary b2b (business-to-
   business) parameter.  The merchant optionally asserts that it is
   French, can delivery anywhere, and can accept payment in US dollars,
   French francs, and Netherlands guilders.

   Shopping proceeds and the customer eventually indicates how they will
   pay via a message with the following headers:

   ====================================
   POST /buy
   Protocol: {http://gctec.com/GlobeID  {params {affiliate Kleline}
      {account (Cid) 1234567} {amount {FRF} {NLG}  {b2b TRUE}}
      {http://pep.w3.org/Profile {params {residence-country FR}
      {delivery-country US}}}

   The customer gives their GloveID CiD (account), affiliate, indicates
   that this is a business to business transaction by a French resident
   entity for delivery in the US with payment to be in French francs or
   Netherlands guilders.



3.3 Complex UPP Example

   This is a moderately complex example using both the UPP and Profile
   protocols.  Assume the Merchant has CyberCash, FooCharge, and SET for


D. Eastlake                                                    [Page 11]


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   AmEx installed but is only willing to process AmEx charges over $20.

   Assume the Customer has SET for MasterCard and VISA which they only
   use for charges over $10 but is their preferred method when
   available, GlobeID which they use for hard goods, CyberCash persona
   #3 which they only use for charges over $30 and FooCharge id #7 which
   they only use for charges under $45.

   Note that while these policies affect each parties requests and
   responses, the policies as such never appear on the wire.

   ====================================
   Get /catalog
   Protocol-request: {http://aba.com/SET {params {account {MC} {VI} }}},
      {http://pep.w3.org/Profile {params {residence-country} {age}}{str
      req}}
   Protocol: {http://pep.w3.org/Profile {params {age 12}}}

   The default strength is optional and the default scope is origin.
   This is the initial request to the merchant to see their catalog.
   Because SET is preferred by the customer, they offer it and they also
   demand that the merchant state their country and age. The customer
   also states that their age is 12.  To avoid sending out the MC/VI
   option in essentially every request, the customer might not do that
   until they got a Protocol-request from the merchant optionally
   specifying the UPP protocol.)

   ====================================
   206 Uses PEP
   Protocol-request: {http://cybercash.com/Pay {for /}},
      {http://foocharge.com/Pay {for /}}, {http://aba.com/SET {params
      {acct {AX} }}}, {http://aba.com/SET {params {acct {MC} {VI}} {str
      ref}}}
   Protocol: {http://pep.w3.org/Profile {params {country bd} {age 69}}}

   = HTML for catalog

   The merchant indicates what payment systems it can accept and refuses
   the one offered by the customer.  In addition, it answers the
   customer Profile demand.

   ===================================


   User asks to see summary of order...

   ====================================
   206 Uses PEP
   Protocol-request: {http://cybercash.com/Pay {params {amount {usd 33}
      {bdr 4162}}}, {http://foocharge.com/Pay {params {amount {usd 35}


D. Eastlake                                                    [Page 12]


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      {bdr 4262} }}}, {http://aba.com/SET {params {account {AX}} {amount
      {usd 34} {bdr 4200} }}}, {http://pep.w3.org/UPP {str req} {for
      /Pay}}

   = HTML - shopping cart contents
   = amend-order-button cancel-button pay-button

   When the user gets a page with a button/anchor on it the activation
   of which indicates they are willing to pay, that page has all the
   merchant available payment options that have not yet been refused by
   the customer and demands the use of the UPP protocol in the response
   if the response is to the URL indicating that the payment button has
   been hit (/Pay in this case).

   ====================================
   GET /Pay
   Protocol-request:  {http://cybercash.com/Pay {params {amount {usd 35}
      }},{http://foocharge.com/Pay {params {amount {bdr 4262} }}

   This is what happens with no user interaction at the customer and
   circumstances such that more than one payment system would work.  The
   amount options may be narrowed to the most advantageous but otherwise
   all the options are given back.  More likely, the options would be
   presented to the user who would, in this case choose between
   CyberCash and foocharge or possibly cancelling.

   ====================================
   206 Uses PEP
   Protocol: {http://foocharge.com/Pay {params {amount {bdr 4262} }
      {proprietary foo} {transport URL} {success URL} {Failure URL}}}
   Content-type: application/foocharge

   = body of message = = includes GSO =



















D. Eastlake                                                    [Page 13]


INTERNET-DRAFT         Universal Payment Preamble          20 March 1996


4. Anticipated Effects of Universal Payment Preamble

   While the introduction of yet another protocol has the potential to
   further disrupt the progress in Internet payments, the Universal
   Payment Preamble described here is intended to provide a minimal
   layering that enables a customer to use a multipayment wallet and to
   easily move from payment to payment.

   Without a Universal Payment Preamble, shoppers and merchants will be
   forced into dealing with a large number of relatively confusing
   choices early in the purchasing process. The merchant must provide
   multiple payment buttons (depending on protocol) and then handle each
   separately.

   This is not practical.  Any form of impediment to the customer will
   discourage a number of buyers. The introduction of the Universal
   Payment Preamble allows merchants to shop for payment systems that
   are appropriate to their customer base and needs. Adding payment
   systems will be painless for the customer as only choices appropriate
   to the customer need be displayed on the screen.

   The long term effects of this approach will be to more effectively
   allow different payment systems to compete in an open market.





























D. Eastlake                                                    [Page 14]


INTERNET-DRAFT         Universal Payment Preamble          20 March 1996


5. Security Considerations

   The Universal Payment Preamble provides no security features.

   It is intended to segue into a payment protocol selected by the
   customer and merchant and it is assumed that this payment protocol
   will provide adequate security.  If security of (1) the Universal
   Payment Preamble headers/messages, (2) any dialog preceding those
   messages, or (3) any fulfillment dialog after the payment protocol is
   desired, then an appropriate channel or message security protocol
   such as IPSEC, MOSS, SHTTP, PGP, SSL, etc. should be used.



References

   draft-khare-pep-*.txt

   [RFC 1898] - CyberCash

   [RFC 1521] - N. Borenstein, N. Freed, "MIME  (Multipurpose Internet
   Mail Extensions) Part One:  Mechanisms for Specifying and Describing
   the Format of Internet Message Bodies", 09/23/1993.

   [RFC 1522] - K. Moore, "MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions)
   Part Two: Message Header Extensions for Non-ASCII Text", 09/23/1993.

   [PGP]

   [SET]






















D. Eastlake                                                    [Page 15]


INTERNET-DRAFT         Universal Payment Preamble          20 March 1996


Author's Address

   Donald E. Eastlake 3rd
   CyberCash, Inc.
   318 Acton Street
   Carlisle, MA 01741 USA

   Telephone:   +1 508-287-4877
                +1 508-371-7148 (fax)
                +1 703 620-4200 (main office, Reston, Virginia, USA)
   email:       dee@cybercash.com



Expiration and File Name

   This draft expires 14 September 1996.

   Its file name is draft-eastlake-universal-payment-02.txt.

































D. Eastlake                                                    [Page 16]


INTERNET-DRAFT         Universal Payment Preamble          20 March 1996


Appendix A: Card Brands

   [The world is more complex than indicated below.  For example,
   although any VISA card issued outside of Brazil can be used inside
   Brazil and vice versa, there are three different varieties of VISA
   card within Brazil each of which may only be used within Brazil by
   merchants approved to take that VISA subtype...]

   Since there is no standard code for Major International card brands
   (cards with numbers as defined in ISO xxxx), the following codes are
   adopted for use in UPP headers account-type bag field.  Additional
   codes may be registered with IANA.

   Code     Long Name

   AX       American Express
   DC       Diner's Club
   DS       Discover
   JB       Japan Bank Card
   MC       MasterCard
   VI       VISA































D. Eastlake                                                    [Page 17]