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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07                                       
Network File System Version 4                                 S. Faibish
Internet-Draft                                                  D. Black
Intended status: Informational                                P. Shilane
Expires: February 5, 2020                                      Dell EMC
                                                         August 05, 2019

    Support for Data Reduction Attributes in nfsv4 Version 2


   This document proposes extending NFSv4 operations to enable
   file extended attributes or xattr to be used in the protocol to
   provide information about the data reduction properties of files.
   New xattrs are proposed to allow the client application to
   communicate to the NFSv4 server data reduction attributes
   associated with files and directories using opaque metadata, not
   interpreted by the file system, but communicated to the Block
   Storage data reduction engines. Corresponding new file attributes
   are proposed to allow clients and client applications to query the
   server for data reduction xattr support and allow to get and set
   data reduction xattrs on files and directories. Such data reduction
   metadata is used as hints to the file server about what type of data
   reduction to apply. The proposed data reduction attributes include
   achievable ratios for compression and deduplication plus whether
   each data reduction technique applies to the file.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on February 5, 2020.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
     1.1  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2. Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3. Extended Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   4. File System Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   5. Namespaces  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   6  Differences with Named Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   7  Protocol Enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   8.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   9.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   10.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
        10.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
        10.2  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   Author's Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

1. Introduction

   Many NFS servers use expensive solid state media, e.g., NVMe SSDs,
   complemented by data reduction processing of files to reduce their
   size on the Block Storage via compression and deduplication, thereby
   optimizing media usage. This draft considers scenarios in which
   data reduction processing is performed in Block Storage for NFS
   servers, i.e., compression and deduplication processing occurs in
   the background or inline as a consequence of NFS files being
   written to the Block Storage. In these scenarios, the data reduction
   engines in Block Storage have limited information about how
   reducible (compressible and/or deduplicate-able) the data written
   to NFS is.

   There is additional strong interest to improve data reduction when
   using NVMe accessed media and exposing such data attributes to the
   Block Storage as xattrs over NFS is one means of providing this
   critical to Block Storage data reduction engines.

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   There is an expired draft for use of NVMe (over fabric) in accessing
   a pNFS SCSI Layout [3] which could be extended to communicate data
   reduction attributes to NVMe storage. The shortcoming of the current
   pNFS SCSI NVMe layout is that it has no information related to data
   reduction attributes. This document discusses potential use of NFSv4
   extended attributes as currently standardized in [2], for
   communicating additional data reduction metadata; a future version
   of this document will propose updates to the NFSv4 protocol to
   support this functionality.

   The purpose of this draft is to add xattrs that will allow
   applications to send richer metadata information to the NFS server
   in order to optimize Block Storage data reduction engine operations
   and improve data reduction for data stored by NFS

   Applications can handle files with different compression and
   deduplication characteristics and send this information to the data
   reduction engines. Current applications have defined data reduction
   characteristics and there are clear definitions for the typical
   compression and deduplication ratios of some types of data
   independent of the application that generated the data. For example
   electronic data analysis (EDA) has no single de facto standard file
   extension but generates application files with common compression
   and deduplication characteristics. Knowing that a file is compressed
   improves the latency and/or throughput of the NFS server by not
   attempting to further compress the files.  An additional example is
   that  NFS backup of files that are already stored on the Block
   Storage is likely to result in a very high deduplication ratio.

1.1  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [1].

   In this document, these words will appear with that interpretation
   only when in ALL CAPS. Lower case uses of these words are not to be
   interpreted as carrying RFC-2119 significance. We will refer to the
   block devices used by the NFS servers as "Block Storage".

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2. Use Cases

   Applications can use extended attributes to store metadata together
   with the files and directories. Metadata regarding data reduction
   attributes may be available from applications that use different
   types of files. This metadata may not be directly useful to the file
   system but is relevant to the compression and deduplication engines
   used by the Block Storage to improve data reduction. Use of data
   reduction metadata is not expected to significantly impact I/O
   latency or throughput (IOPS).

                         File Domain | Block Domain
          +-------------+            |          +-----------------+
          | NFS Server  |------------|--------->|Reduction Engine |
          +------+------+            |          +--------+--------+
                 ^                   |                   |
                 |                   |                   |
                 |                   |                   v
          +------+------+            |          +--------+--------+
          | NFS Client  |            |          | Block storage   |
          +------+------+            |          +-----------------+
                 ^                   |
                 |                   |
                 |                   |
          +------+------+            |
          | Application |            |
          +-------------+            |
                 Figure 1: Data Reduction Domains for NFSv4

   Figure 1 shows the NFSv4 server configuration, data flow and
   functionality domains with the data reduction engine in the Block
   domain and located above the Block Storage. This figure represents
   NFSv4 without parallel NFS (pNFS) support. In this structure the NFS
   server can communicate xattrs as metadata directly to the Reduction
   Engine via an extension to the interface to Block Storage.

   In general applications using block devices rely on SCSI protocols to
   access the data. Although SCSI protocols have a rich API, most
   communication between hosts and Block Storage, e.g., storage arrays,
   is in terms of blocks, not files. In contrast, applications use large
   files to read and write data to and from NFS servers. In general,
   NFS servers use NFS file systems that are stored on SCSI (or NVMe)
   devices provisioned from Block Storage, e.g., external storage
   arrays, as Block Storage but file metadata, e.g., file type and file
   size, is not transferred to the block array in a explicit manner.

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   An NFS Server might be able to infer data reduction characteristics
   based on the file type, e.g., a ".mp4" file can be expected to be an
   MP4 file that contains MPEG-4 content [7]. This is not sufficient
   due to file content variability, e.g., as a large variety of codecs
   are used to create MPEG-4 content whose compressibility may vary by
   codec. To go beyond the file type, the NFS Server could read the
   file contents to determine compressibility, but this is problematic
   due to complexity, e.g., the NFS Server may need to parse a
   significant amount of an MP4 file to obtain the information
   necessary to understand its compressibility characteristics. This
   may be impractical if the file is not written to the NFS Server
   sequentially, and moreover introduces an undesirable
   dependency on not only the MP4 file format, but also the set of
   supported codecs that it supports and individual codec
   characteristics. It is much better to have the application provide
   information on compressibility, as the application that generates
   an MP4 file has the information on the file's contents. A mechanism
   is needed to pass that information to the NFS Server; this document
   proposes using xattrs.

   So, although the xattrs are stored with the files, the current xattr
   specification [6] indicates that the file system does not understand
   the structure or content of these extended attributes. If the NFS
   server could extract the data reduction xattrs and pass their
   contents to the Block Storage functionality, the Block Storage
   reduction engines could parse that content and adapt its data
   reduction behavior accordingly.

                               File Domain |    Block Domain
          +-------------+                  |      +------------------+
          |             |------------------|----->|                  |
          | pNFS Server |          +-------|----->| Reduction Engine |
          |             |          |  +----|----->|                  |
          +------+------+          |  |    |      +---------+--------+
                 ^                 |  |    |                |
                 |                 |  |    |                |
                 |                 |  |    |                v
          +------+------+  NVMe    |  |    |       +--------+--------+
          | pNFS Client |----------+  |    |       | Block storage   |
          |             |-------------+    |       +-----------------+
          +------+------+  SCSI            |
                 ^                         |
                 |                         |
                 |                         |
          +------+------+                  |
          | Application |                  |
          +-------------+                  |
          Figure 2: Data Reduction Domains for pNFS over NVMe or SCSI

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   The current situation is that data reduction done in the block
   domain lacks critical information that could be provided by the
   applications in order to improve efficiency of data compression and

   Figure 2 shows another scenario with a pNFS Server and a block pNFS
   Client that accesses Block storage using either NVMe or SCSI
   over a network. In this scenario the pNFS Client could send data
   reduction attributes directly to the reduction engine above the
   Block storage layer if the block storage protocol (NVMe or SCSI in
   the figure) supports doing so. The assumption is that the
   application has additional information related to files types and
   typical compression and deduplication parameters associated to
   different file types, e.g., see the above discussion of MPEG-4
   content. The application can convey this information to the
   reduction engine to improve the reduction engine efficiency. If the
   application does not do so, then the user can also add data
   reduction characteristics for individual files towards improving
   data reduction efficiency without needing to change the storage
   array configuration.

   For this pNFS scenario the application enables sending
   data reduction parameters to the Block Device using extensions to
   the SCSI or NVMe protocols. The pNFS Client still needs to pass the
   data reduction xattrs to the pNFS Server because the pNFS Client is
   always allowed to fall back from a pNFS write to an NFS write via
   the NFS Server; this fallback is similar to the previous case where
   the NFS Server stores the data reduction xattrs associated with each

   For example a video application knows whether a file consists of
   compressed data or uncompressed data. The application writing the
   data to the pNFS client can set a file attribute that will indicate
   that a file is uncompressed and hence it is likely to be productive
   for the data reduction engine to reduce the file's size. The pNFS
   client passes that information via an xattr that hints that the
   file is compressible. The pNFS server will change the data reduction
   xattr and will transmit the xattr to the Block Storage as a hint
   that the data is uncompressed.  The pNFS client will stream the
   video using the pNFS NVMe data protocol and the compression engine
   in the Block Storage will compress the data blocks as long as the
   uncompressed hint is set in NVMe writes from the pNFS Client. If the
   xattr is changed to indicate that the data has been compressed, the
   compression engine does not compress the incoming blocks.

   A second example is related to encrypted files that can be neither
   compressed nor deduplicated in the absence of file copying. For this
   specific example we envision a not-deduplicatable hint.

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   In this scenario the NFS client sets the deduplication hint to
   advise to the data reduction engine that deduplication should be
   enabled for the file. Alternatively if a new file is being written
   that is not based on modifying an existing file the deduplication
   hint is set to indicate that deduplication should be disabled.

   Another use case involves compressed video files and images that are
   written by video applications.  As such files are already compressed,
   further attempts to compress them are likely to be pointless, and
   may negatively impact the performance of the NFS Server.

   An additional scenario involves metadata at the start (header) of
   the file; an application that did not generate the file may
   nonetheless be able access the metadata section in the file and set
   extended file attributes based on compression and deduplication
   found in the file header. The NFS server doesn't have visibility
   into metadata included in file headers and cannot send file header
   content to the data reduction engine as separate metadata. Only the
   user application can access and parse the header and add xattr when
   the file is written to the NFS server.

   Additional examples of known data reduction attributes is implemented
   in benchmarks such as SPECsfs that is using predefined data reduction
   attributes. SPECsfs workloads [8] have DR/CR (Deduplication
   Ratio/Compression Ratio) characteristics that were collected from
   actual user data. They are as follows:

        EDA                     DR/CR=50%/50%
        SWBUILD                 DR/CR=0/80%
        VDI                     DR/CR=55%/70%
        DB                      DR/CR=0/50%
        VDA                     DR/CR=0/0
        IT infrastucture        DR/CR=30%/50%
        Oracle DW               DR/CR=15%/70%
        Oracle OLTP             DR/CR=0%/65%
        Exchange 2010           DR/CR=15%/35%
        Geoseismic              DR/CR=3%/40%

   Another scenario involves placing files with the same known data
   reduction characteristics in same directory, where the user or an
   application sets data reduction xattrs the attributes on the
   directory that are intended to apply to all files in the directory
   and possibly also sub-directories. In this case the NFS Server uses
   the data reduction xattrs on the directory to inform the data
   reduction engine of the data reduction characteristics of blocks in
   all files in that directory.

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3  Extended Attributes

   Extended attributes, also called xattrs [6], are a means to associate
   opaque metadata with file system objects, e.g., files and
   directories. Extended attributes are especially useful when they
   add information that is not, or cannot be, present in the
   associated object itself. User-space applications can arbitrarily
   create, read from, and write these attributes.

   As extended attributes are file system-agnostic
   applications do not need to be concerned about how the attributes
   are stored internally on the underlying file system. All major
   operating systems provide various flavors of extended attributes.
   Many user space tools allow xattrs to be included in attributes that
   need to be preserved when files and directories are updated, moved
   or copied.

   The proposed data reduction attributes are opaque to the file system
   but can be used by the data reduction engines in the Block Storage
   reduction engine to increase the data reduction and server operations
   by viewing the xattrs as hints from the client application regarding
   file compression and deduplication characteristics. The Block Storage
   will parse these attributes and change the data reduction methods
   according to these hints with no need for the file system to know
   about the data reduction methods used.

   Extended attributes have long been considered unsuitable for
   portability because they are inadequately defined and not formally
   documented by any standard (such as POSIX). However, evidence
   suggests that xattrs are widely deployed and their support in modern
   disk-based file systems is fairly universal. What is different
   in the new usecase is that the opaque metadata can be received and
   understood by the data reduction engines. The extended attributes
   can be 0 or 100 where 0 means "don't do this" hint and 100 is a "do
   this, but can't predict how much reduction will actually result"
   hint. They can also take on a percentage value, e.g., from the
   SPECsfs data shown above.

   Any regular file or directory may have a set of extended attributes,
   each consisting of a key and associated value [6]. As currently
   specified, the NFS client or server MUST NOT interpret the contents
   of the key or value.  This document proposed to remove that
   restriction in support of data reduction xattrs.

   The data reduction attributes can be provided by the extended
   attributes supported by most modern file systems and can be
   retrieved from the local file systems on the client and added to the
   NFS extended attributes when files are moved from local file system
   attributes of the files to the xattrs in NFS.

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4  File System Support

   In Linux, ext3, ext4, JFS, XFS, Btrfs, among other file systems
   support extended attributes. The getfattr and setfattr utilities can
   be used to retrieve and set xattrs. The names of the extended
   attributes must be prefixed by the name of the category and a dot;
   hence these categories are generally qualified as name spaces.
   In the NTFS file system, extended attributes are one of several
   supported "file streams" [5].

   Xattrs can be retrieved and set through system calls, [6], or shell
   commands and generally supported by user-space tools that preserve
   other file attributes. For example, the "rsync" remote copy program
   will correctly preserve extended attributes between Linux/ext4
   and OSX/hfs by stripping off the Linux-specific "user." prefix.

5  Namespaces

   Operating systems may define multiple "namespaces" in which xattrs
   can be set. Namespaces are more than organizational classes; the
   operating system may enforce different data reduction policies and
   allow different reduction characteristics depending on the namespace.

6  Differences with Named Attributes

   RFC5661 defines named attributes as opaque byte streams that are
   associated with a directory or file and referred to by a string name
   [4]. Named attributes are intended to be used by client applications
   as a method to associate application-specific data with a regular
   file or directory. In that sense, xattrs are similar in concept and
   use to named attributes, but there are subtle differences. Named
   attributes are only visible to the NFS layer and not to the
   application while extended attributes are accessible to the
   application layer and can be modified by users. File systems
   typically define individual xattr "get" and "set" operations. Xattrs
   generally have size limits ranging from a few bytes to several
   kilobytes; the maximum supported size is not universally defined
   and is usually restricted by the file system.

   There are no clear indications on how xattrs can be mapped to any
   existing recommended or optional file attributes defined in RFC 5661
   [2]; as a result, most NFS client implementations ignore
   application-specified xattrs. This results in data loss if one
   copies, over the NFS protocol, a file with data reduction related
   xattrs from one file system to another that also supports xattrs.
   Although different data reduction engines achieve different levels
   of reduction these attributes are used by the reduction engines to
   increase the reduction todifferent levels for different algorithms.

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   While it should be possible to write guidance about how a client can
   use the named attribute mechanism to act like xattrs, such as carving
   out some namespace and specifying locking primitives to enforce
   atomicity constraints on individual get/set operations, this is
   problematic for data reduction attributes that are specific to
   specific applications and file types and not defined by the user.
   As such there will be mechanisms that will detect the reduction
   attributes from the application or from local file system xattrs.

   The different implementations of the protocol would have to address
   these attributes based on additional guidance such as reserving
   named some portion of named attribute namespace for xattr-like

7  Protocol Enhancements

   This section proposes extensions to the NFSv4 protocol operations to
   allow data reduction xattrs to be queried and modified by clients.
   A new attribute is added to bitmap4 data type to allow xattr support
   to be queried. This follows the guidelines specified in [2] with
   respect to minor versioning. We propose to add 2 bits that will
   be passed to the reduction engine and used to activate/deactivate
   the compression and/or the deduplication operations. All the current
   NFSv4 xattr operations are not changed but we will add 4 new
   to be queried and set. The protocol detailes will be provided in the
   next version of the draft.

8.  IANA Considerations

   All IANA considerations are covered in [4].

9.  Security Considerations

   The additions to the NFS protocol for supporting extended attributes
   do not alter the security considerations of the NFSv4.1 protocol [4].

   Data reduction hints may enable attacks on Block Storage resources
   that support the NFS Server.  Hinting at more data reduction than is
   possible may cause excessive data reduction processing, and hinting
   at less data reduction than is possible, including hinting not to
   perform any data reduction, may result in consumption of more
   potentially expensive storage capacity.  A future version of this
   draft will discuss what to do about these possible resource attacks.

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10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [1]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
        Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [2]  Shepler, S., Ed., Eisler, M., Ed., and D. Noveck, Ed., "Network
        File System (NFS) Version 4 Minor Version 1 External Data
        Representation Standard (XDR) Description", RFC 5662, January

   [4]  Shepler, S., Ed., Eisler, M., Ed., and D. Noveck, Ed., "Network
        File System (NFS) Version 4 Minor Version 1 Protocol", RFC 5661,
        January 2010.

10.2  Informative References

   [3]  C. Hellwig, "Using the Parallel NFS (pNFS) SCSI Layout
        with NVMe", June 2017,
              ... nvme-00

   [5]  http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/CommonExtendedAttributes,
        "Guidelines for extended attributes".

   [6]  M. Naik, M. Eshel, "File System Extended Attributes in NFSv4"

   [7]  ISO/IEC 14496-14 "Information technology - Coding of audio-
        visual objects - Part 14: MP4 file format"

   [8]  SPEC SFS 2014 SP2 User's Guide,

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   This draft has attempted to capture the latest industry trends of
   adding data reduction attributes needed to increase efficiency of
   newest flash NVMe technology for file servers. New protocols were
   proposed specific for NVMe media and we were inspired by new drafts
   proposed by Christoph Hellwig.

Author's Address

   Sorin Faibish
   Dell EMC
   228 South Street
   Hopkinton, MA  01774
   United States of America

   Phone: +1 508-249-5745
   Email: faibish.sorin@dell.com

   Philip Shilane
   Dell EMC
   228 South Street
   Hopkinton, MA 01774
   United States of America

   Phone: +1 908-286-7977
   Email: philip.shilane@dell.com

   David Black
   176 South Street
   Hopkinton, MA  01748
   United States of America

   Phone: +1 774-350-9323
   Email: david.black@dell.com

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