Network Working Group                                      Adrian Farrel
Internet Draft                                            Movaz Networks
Category: Informational
Expiration Date: April 2003                                 October 2002

        Applicability Statement for Restart Mechanisms for the
                    Label Distribution Protocol


Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026 [RFC2026].

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) systems will be used in core
   networks where system downtime must be kept to a minimum. Similarly,
   where MPLS is at the network edges (for example, in Provider Edge
   routers) system downtime must also be kept as small as possible.
   Many MPLS Label Switching Routers (LSRs) may, therefore, exploit
   Fault Tolerant (FT) hardware or software to provide high availability
   of the core networks.

   The details of how FT is achieved for the various components of an
   FT LSR, including the switching hardware and the TCP stack are
   implementation specific.  How the software module itself chooses to
   implement FT for the state created by the Label Distribution Protocol
   (LDP) is also implementation specific but there are several issues in
   the LDP specification in RFC 3036 "LDP Specification" that make it
   difficult to implement an FT LSR using the LDP protocols without some
   extensions to those protocols.

   Proposals have been made in "Fault Tolerance for the Label
   Distribution Protocol (LDP)" [LDP-FT] and "Graceful Restart Mechanism
   for LDP" [LDP-RESTART] to address these issues.

   This document gives guidance on when it is advisable to implement
   some form of LDP restart mechanism and which approach might be more
   suitable. The issues and extensions described here are equally
   applicable to RFC 3212, "Constraint-Based LSP Setup Using LDP"

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1. Requirements of an LDP FT System

   MPLS is a technology that will be used in core networks where system
   downtime must be kept to an absolute minimum. Similarly, where MPLS
   is at the network edges (for example, in PE routers in RFC2547)
   system downtime must also be kept as small as possible.

   Many MPLS LSRs may, therefore, exploit FT hardware or software to
   provide high availability (HA) of core networks.

   In order to provide HA, an MPLS system needs to be able to survive a
   variety of faults with minimal disruption to the Data Plane,
   including the following fault types:

   -  failure/hot-swap of the switching fabric in an LSR

   -  failure/hot-swap of a physical connection between LSRs

   -  failure of the TCP or LDP stack in an LSR

   -  software upgrade to the TCP or LDP stacks in an LSR.

   The first two examples of faults listed above may be confined to the
   Data Plane in which case such faults can be handled by providing
   redundancy in the Data Plane which is transparent to LDP operating in
   the Control Plane.  However, the failure of the switching fabric or a
   physical link may have repercussions in the Control Plane since
   signaling may be disrupted.

   The third example may be caused by a variety of events including
   processor or other hardware failure, and software failure.

   Any of the last three examples may impact the Control Plane and will
   require action in the Control Plane to recover.  Such action should
   be designed to avoid disrupting traffic in the Data Plane.  This is
   possible because many recent router architectures separate the
   Control and Data Planes such that forwarding can continue unaffected
   by recovery action in the Control Plane.

   In other scenarios, the Data and Control Planes may be impacted by a
   fault but the needs of HA require the coordinated recovery of the
   Data and Control Planes to state that existed before the fault.

   The provision of protection paths for MPLS LSP and the protection of
   links, IP routes or tunnels through the use of protection LSPs is
   outside the scope of this document. See [MPLS-RECOV] for further
   information on this subject.

2. General Considerations

   In order that the Data and Control Plane states may be successfully
   recovered after a fault, procedures are required to ensure that the
   state held on a pair of LDP peers (at least one of which was affected
   directly by the fault) are synchronized. Such procedures must be
   implemented in the Control Plane software modules on the peers using
   Control Plane protocols.

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   The required actions may be operate fully after the failure
   (reactive recovery) or may contain elements that operate before the
   fault in order to minimize the actions taken after the fault
   (proactive recovery). It is rarely feasible to implement actions that
   operate solely in advance of the failure and do not require any
   further processing after the failure (preventive recovery) - this is
   because of the dynamic nature of signaling protocols and the
   unpredictability of fault timing.

   Reactive recovery actions may include full re-signaling of state,
   re-synchronization of state between peers and synchronization based on

   Proactive recovery actions may include hand-shaking state transitions
   and checkpointing.

3. Specific Issues with the LDP Protocol

   LDP uses TCP to provide reliable connections between LSRs over which
   to exchange protocol messages to distribute labels and to set up
   LSPs. A pair of LSRs that have such a connection are referred to as
   LDP peers.

   TCP enables LDP to assume reliable transfer of protocol messages.
   This means that some of the messages do not need to be acknowledged
   (for example, Label Release).

   LDP is defined such that if the TCP connection fails, the LSR should
   immediately tear down the LSPs associated with the session between
   the LDP peers, and release any labels and resources assigned to those

   It is notoriously hard to provide a Fault Tolerant implementation of
   TCP. To do so might involve making copies of all data sent and
   received. This is an issue familiar to implementers of other TCP
   applications such as BGP.

   During failover affecting the TCP or LDP stacks, therefore, the TCP
   connection may be lost.  Recovery from this position is made worse by
   the fact that LDP control messages may have been lost during the
   connection failure.  Since these messages are unconfirmed, it is
   possible that LSP or label state information will be lost.

   The solution to this problem must at the very least include a change
   to the basic requirements of LDP so that the failure of an LDP
   session does not require that associated LDP or forwarding state be
   torn down.

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   Any changes made to LDP in support of recovery processing must meet
   the following requirements:

   - offer backward-compatibility with LSRs that do not implement the
     extensions to LDP

   - preserve existing protocol rules described in [RFC3036] for
     handling unexpected duplicate messages and for processing
     unexpected messages referring to unknown LSPs/labels.

   Ideally, any solution applicable to LDP should be equally applicable
   to CR-LDP.

4. Summary of the Features of LDP FT

   LDP Fault Tolerance extensions are described in [LDP-FT].  This
   approach involves:

   - negotiation between LDP peers of the intent to support extensions
     to LDP that facilitate recovery from failover without loss of LSPs

   - selection of FT survival on a per LSP/label basis or for all labels
     on a session

   - sequence numbering of LDP messages to facilitate acknowledgement
     and checkpointing

   - acknowledgement of LDP messages to ensure that a full handshake is
     performed on those messages either frequently (such as per message)
     or less frequently as in checkpointing

   - solicitation of up-to-date acknowledgement (checkpointing) of
     previous LDP messages to ensure the current state is secured, with
     an additional option that allows an LDP partner to request that
     state is flushed in both directions if graceful shutdown is

   - a timer to control for how long LDP and forwarding state should
     be retained after LDP session failure before being discarded if
     LDP communications are not re-established

   - exchange of checkpointing information on LDP session recovery to
     establish what state has been retained by recovering LDP peers

   - re-issuing lost messages after failover to ensure that LSP/label
     state is correctly recovered after reconnection of the LDP session.

   The FT procedures in [LDP-FT] concentrate on the preservation of
   label state for labels exchanged between a pair of adjacent LSRs when
   the TCP connection between those LSRs is lost. There is no intention
   within these procedures to support end-to-end protection for LSPs.

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5. Summary of the Features of LDP Graceful Restart

   LDP graceful restart extensions are defined in [LDP-RESTART]. This
   approach involves:

   - negotiation between LDP peers of the intent to support extensions
     to LDP that facilitate recovery from failover without loss of LSPs

   - a mechanism whereby an LSR that restarts can relearn LDP state
     by resynchronization with its peers

   - use of the same mechanism to allow LSRs recovering from an LDP
     session failure to resynchronize LDP state with their peers
     provided that at least one of the LSRs has retained state across
     the failure or has itself resynchronized state with its peers

   - a timer to control for how long LDP and forwarding state should
     be retained after LDP session failure before being discarded if
     LDP communications are not re-established

   - a timer to control the length of the period during which
     resynchronization of state between adjacent peers should be

   The procedures in [LDP-RESTART] are applicable to all LSRs, both
   those with the ability to preserve forwarding state during LDP
   restart and those without. An LSRs that can not preserve its MPLS
   forwarding state across the LDP restart would impact MPLS traffic
   during restart, but by implementing a subset of the mechanisms in
   [LDP-RESTART] it can minimize the impact if their neighbor(s) are
   capable of preserving their forwarding state across the restart of
   their LDP sessions or control planes by implementing the mechanism
   in [LDP-RESTART].

6. Applicability Considerations

   This section considers the applicability of fault tolerance schemes
   within LDP networks and considers issues that might lead to the
   choice of one method or another. Many of the points raised below
   should be viewed as implementation issues rather than specific
   drawbacks of either solution.

6.1 General Applicability

   The procedures described in [LDP-FT] and [LDP-RESTART] are intended
   to cover two distinct scenarios. In Session Failure the LDP peers at
   the ends of a session remain active, but the session fails and is
   restarted. Note that session failure does not imply failure of the
   data channel even when using an in-band control channel. In Node
   Failure the session fails because one of the peers has been restarted
   (or at least, the LDP component of the node has been restarted).
   These two scenarios have different implications for the ease of
   retention of LDP state within an individual LSR, and are described in
   sections below.

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   These techniques are only applicable in LDP networks where at least
   one LSR has the capability to retain LDP signaling state and the
   associated forwarding state across LDP session failure and recovery.
   In [LDP-RESTART] the LSRs retaining state do not need to be adjacent
   to the failed LSR or session.

   If traffic is not to be impacted, both LSRs at the ends of an LDP
   session must at least preserve forwarding state. Preserving LDP state
   is not a requirement to preserve traffic.

   [LDP-FT] requires that the LSRs at both ends of the session implement
   the procedures that is describes. Thus, either traffic is preserved
   and recovery resynchronizes state, or no traffic is preserved and the
   LSP fails.

   Further, to use the procedures of [LDP-FT] to recover state on a
   session both LSRs must have a mechanism for maintaining some
   session state and a way of auditing the forwarding state and the
   resynhcronized control state.

   [LDP-RESTART] is scoped to support preservation of traffic if both
   LSRs implement the procedures that it describes. Additionally, it
   functions if only one LSR on the failed session supports retention of
   forwarding state, and implements the mechanisms in the document - in
   this case traffic will be impacted by the session failure, but the
   forwarding state will be recovered on session recovery. Further, in
   the event of simultaneous failures, [LDP-RESTART] is capable of
   relearning and redistributing state across multiple LSRs by combining
   its mechanisms with the usual LDP message exchanges of [RFC 3036].

6.2 Session Failure

   In Session Failure an LDP session between two peers fails and is
   restarted. There is no restart of the LSRs at either end of the
   session and LDP continues to function on those nodes.

   In these cases, it is simple for LDP implementations to retain LDP
   state associated with the failed session and to associate the state
   with the new session when it is established. Housekeeping may be
   applied to determine that the failed session is not returning and to
   release the old LDP state. Both [LDP-FT] and [LDP-RESTART] handle
   this case.

   Applicability of  [LDP-FT] and [LDP-RESTART] to the Session Failure
   scenario should be considered with respect to the availability of the
   data plane.

   In some cases the failure of the LDP session may be independent of
   any failure of the physical (or virtual) link(s) between adjacent
   peers; for example, it might represent a failure of the TCP/IP stack.
   In these cases the data plane is not impacted and both [LDP-FT] and
   [LDP-RESTART] are applicable to preserve or restore LDP state.

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   LDP signaling may also operate out of band; that is, it may use
   different links from the data plane. In this case, a failure of the
   LDP session may be a result of a failure of the control channel, but
   there is no implied failure of the data plane. For this scenario
   [LDP-FT] and [LDP-RESTART] are both applicable to preserve or restore
   LDP state.

   In the case where the failure of the LDP session also implies the
   failure of the data plane it may be an implementation decision
   whether LDP peers retain forwarding state, and for how long. In such
   situations, if forwarding state is retained, and if the LDP session
   is re-established, both [LDP-FT] and [LDP-RESTART] are applicable to
   preserve or restore LDP state.

   When the data plane has been disrupted an objective of a recovery
   implementation might be to restore data traffic as quickly as

6.3 Controlled Session Failure

   In some circumstances the LSRs may know in advance that an LDP
   session is going fail - perhaps a link is going to be taken out of

   [RFC 3036] includes provision for controlled shutdown of a session.
   [LDP-FT] and [LDP-RESTART] allow resynchronization of LDP state upon
   re-establishment of the session.

   [LDP-FT] offers the facility to both checkpoint all state before the
   shut-down, and to quiesce the session so that no new state changes
   are attempted between the checkpoint and the shut-down. This means
   that on recovery, resynchronization is simple and fast.

   [LDP-RESTART] resynchronizes all state on recovery regardless of the
   nature of the shut-down.

6.4 Node Failure

   Node Failure describes events where a whole node is restarted or
   where the component responsible for LDP signaling is restarted. Such
   an event will be perceived by the LSR's peers as session failure, but
   the restarting node sees the restart as full re-initialization.

   The basic requirement is that forwarding state is retained otherwise
   the data plane will necessarily be interrupted. If forwarding state
   is not retained, it may be relearned from saved control state in
   either [LDP-FT] or [LDP-RESTART], or from adjacent LSRs in the case
   of [LDP-RESTART].

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   The ways to retain forwarding and control state are numerous and
   implementation specific, and it is not the purpose of this document
   to espouse one mechanism or another nor even to suggest how this
   might be done. If state has been preserved across the restart,
   synchronization with peers can be carried out as though recovering
   from Session Failure as in the previous section. Both [LDP-FT] and
   [LDP-RESTART] support this case.

   How much control state is retained is largely an implementation
   choice, but [LDP-FT] requires that at least small amount of per-
   session control state be retained, while [LDP-RESTART] does not have
   this requirement.

   It is also possible that the restarting LSR has not preserved any
   state. In this case [LDP-FT] is of no help. [LDP-RESTART] however
   allows the restarting LSR to relearn state from each adjacent peer
   through the processes for resynchronizing after Session Failure.
   Further, in the event of simultaneous failure of multiple adjacent
   nodes, the nodes at the edge of the failure zone can recover state
   from their active neighbors and distribute it to the other recovering
   LSRs without any failed LSR having to have saved state.

6.5 Controlled Node Failure

   In some cases (hardware repair, software upgrade, etc.) node failure
   may be predictable. In these cases all sessions with peers may be
   shutdown and existing state retention may be enhanced by special

   [LDP-FT] checkpointing and quiesce may be applied to all sessions
   so that state is up-to-date.

   As above, [LDP-RESTART] does not require that state is retained by
   the restarting node, but can utilize it if it is.

6.6 Speed of Recovery

   Speed of recovery is impacted by the amount of signaling required.

   If forwarding state is preserved on both LSRs on the failed session
   then the recovery time is constrained by the time to resynchronize
   the state between the two LSRs.

   [LDP-FT] may resynchronize very quickly. In a stable network this
   resolves to a handshake of a checkpoint. At the most,
   resynchronization involves this handshake plus an exchange of
   messages to handle state changes since the checkpoint was taken.
   Implementations that support only the periodic checkpointing subset
   of [LDP-FT] are more likely to have additional state to

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   [LDP-RESTART] must resynchronize state for all label mappings that
   have been retained. At the same time, resources that have be retained
   by a restarting upstream LSR but are not actually required because
   they have been released by the downstream LSR (perhaps because it was
   in the process of releasing the state) must be held for the full
   resynchronization time to ensure that they are not needed.

   The impact of recovery time will vary according to the use of the
   network. Both [LDP-FT] and [LDP-RESTART] allow advertisement of new
   labels while resynchronization is in progress. Issues to consider are
   re-availability of falsely retained resources and conflict between
   retained label mappings and newly advertised ones since this may
   cause incorrect forwarding of data - since labels are advertised
   from downstream, an LSR upstream of a failure may continue to
   forward data for one FEC on an old label while the recovering
   downstream LSR might re-assign that label to another FEC and
   advertise it. For this reason, restarting LSRs may choose to not
   advertise new labels until resynchronization with their peers has
   completed, or may decide to use special techniques to cover the short
   period of overlap between resynchronization and new LSP setup.

6.7 Scalability

   Scalability is largely the same issue as speed of recovery and is
   governed by the number of LSPs managed through the failed session(s).

   Note that there are limits to how small the resynchronization time in
   [LDP-RESTART] may be made given the capabilities of the LSRs, the
   throughput on the link between them, and the number of labels that
   must be resynchronized.

   Impact on normal operation should also be considered.

   [LDP-FT] requires acknowledgement of all messages. These
   acknowledgements may be deferred as for checkpointing described in
   section 6.4, or may be frequent. Although acknowledgements can be
   piggy-backed on other state messages, an option for frequent
   acknowledgement is to send a message solely for the purpose of
   acknowledging a state change message. Such an implementation would
   clearly be unwise in a busy network.

   [LDP-RESTART] has no impact on normal operations.

6.8 Rate of Change of LDP State

   Some networks do not show a high degree of change over time, such as
   those using targeted LDP sessions; others change the LDP forwarding
   state frequently, perhaps reacting to changes in routing information
   on LDP discovery sessions.

   Rate of change of LDP state exchanged over an LDP session depends
   on the application for which the LDP session is being used. LDP
   sessions used for exchanging <FEC, label> bindings for establishing
   hop by hop LSPs will typically exchange state reacting to IGP
   changes. Such exchanges could be frequent. On the other hand

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   LDP sessions established for exchanging MPLS Layer 2 VPN FECs
   will typically exhibit a smaller rate of state exchange.

   In [LDP-FT] two options exist. The first uses a frequent (up to per-
   message) acknowledgement system which is most likely to be applicable
   in a more dynamic system where it is desirable to preserve the
   maximum amount of state over a failure to reduce the level of
   resynchronization required and to speed the recovery time.

   The second option in [LDP-FT] uses a less-frequent acknowledgement
   scheme known as checkpointing. This is particularly suitable to
   networks where changes are infrequent or bursty.

   [LDP-RESTART] resynchronizes all state on recovery regardless of the
   rate of change of the network before the failure. This consideration
   is thus not relevant to the choice of [LDP-RESTART].

6.9 Label Distribution Modes

   Both [LDP-FT] and [LDP-RESTART] are suitable for use with Downstream
   Unsolicited label distribution.

   [LDP-RESTART] describes Downstream-On-Demand as an area for future
   study and is therefore not applicable for a network in which this
   label distribution mode is used. It is possible that future
   examination of this issue will reveal that once a label has been
   distributed in either distribution mode, it can be redistributed
   by [LDP-RESTART] upon session recovery.

   [LDP-FT] is suitable for use in a network that uses Downstream-On-
   Demand label distribution.

   Note that even in networks configured to utilize Downstream
   Unsolicited label distribution, there may be occasions when the
   use of Downstream-On-Deman distribution is desirable. The use of
   the Label Request message is not prohibited in a Downstream
   Unsolicited label distribution LDP network.

6.10 Implementation Complexity

   Implementation complexity has consequences for the implementer and
   also for the deployer since complex software is more error prone and
   harder to manage.

   [LDP-FT] is a more complex solution than [LDP-RESTART]. In
   particular, [LDP-RESTART] does not require any modification to the
   normal signaling and processing of LDP state changing messages.

   [LDP-FT] implementations may be simplified by implementing only
   the checkpointing subest of the functionality.

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6.11 Implementation Robustness

   In addition to the implication for robustness associated with
   complexity of the solutions, consideration should be given to the
   effects of state preservation on robustness.

   If state has become incorrect for whatever reason then state
   preservation may retain incorrect state. In extreme cases it may be
   that the incorrect state is the cause of the failure in which case
   preserving that state would be bad.

   When state is preserved, the precise amount that is retained is an
   implementation issue. The basic requirement is that forwarding state
   is retained (to preserve the data path) and that that state can be
   accessed by the LDP software component.

   In both solutions, if the forwarding state is incorrect and is
   retained, it will continue to be incorrect. Both solutions have a
   mechanism to housekeep and free unwanted state after
   resynchronization is complete. [LDP-RESTART] may be better at
   eradicating incorrect forwarding state because it replays all
   messages exchanges that caused the state to be populated.

   In [LDP-RESTART] no more data than the forwarding state needs to have
   been saved by the recovering node. All LDP state may be relearned by
   message exchanges with peers. Whether those exchanges may cause the
   same incorrect state to arise on the recovering node is an obvious

   In [LDP-FT] the forwarding state must be supplemented by a small
   amount of state specific to the protocol extensions. LDP state may
   be retained directly or reconstructed from the forwarding state. The
   same issues apply when reconstructing state but are mitigated by the
   fact that this is likely a different code path. Errors in the
   retained state specific to the protocol extensions will persist.

6.12 Interoperability and Backward Compatibility

   It is important that new additions to LDP interoperate with existing
   implementations at least in provision of the existing levels of

   Both [LDP-FT] and [LDP-RESTART] do this through rules for handling
   the absence of the FT optional negotiation object during session

   Additionally, [LDP-RESTART] is able to perform limited recovery (that
   is, redistribution of state) even when only one of the participating
   LSRs supports the procedures. This may offer considerable advantages
   in interoperation with legacy implementations.

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6.13 Interaction With Other Label Distribution Mechanisms

   Many LDP LSRs also run other label distribution mechanisms. These
   include management interfaces for configuration of static label
   mappings, other distinct instances of LDP, and other label
   distribution protocols. The last example includes traffic engineering
   label distribution protocol that are used to construct tunnels
   through which LDP LSPs are established.

   As with re-use of individual labels by LDP within a restarting LDP
   system, care must be taken to prevent labels that need to be retained
   by a restarting LDP session or protocol component from being used by
   another label distribution mechanism since that might compromise
   data security amongst other things.

   It is a matter for implementations to avoid this issue through the
   use of techniques such as a common label management component or
   segmented label spaces.

6.14 Applicability to CR-LDP

   CR-LDP [RFC 3212] utilizes Downstream-On-Demand label distribution.
   [LDP-RESTART] describes Downstream-On-Demand as an area for future
   study and is therefore not applicable for CR-LDP. [LDP-FT] is
   suitable for use in a network entirely based on CR-LDP or in one
   that is mixed between LDP and CR-LDP.

7. Security Considerations

   This document is informational and introduces no new security

   The security considerations pertaining to the original LDP protocol
   [RFC3036] remain relevant.

   [LDP-RESTART] introduces the possibility of additional denial-of-
   service attacks. All of these attacks may be countered by use of an
   authentication scheme between LDP peers, such as the MD5-based scheme
   outlined in [LDP].

   In MPLS, a data mis-delivery security issue can arise if an LSR
   continues to use labels after expiration of the session that first
   caused them to be used. Both [LDP-FT] and [LDP-RESTART] are open to
   this issue.

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8. Intellectual Property Considerations

   Parts of [LDP-FT] are the subject of a patent application by
   Data Connection Ltd.

   Parts of [LDP-RESTART] are the subject of patent applications by
   Juniper Networks and Redback Networks.

   In all cases, the parties have indicated that if technology is
   adopted as a standard they agree to license, on reasonable and non-
   discriminatory terms, any patent rights they obtain covering such
   technology to the extent necessary to comply with the standard.

9. References

9.1 Normative References

   [RFC2026]      Bradner, S., "The Internet Standards Process --
                  Revision 3", BCP 9, RFC 2026, October 1996.

   [RFC2119]      Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
                  Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3036]      Andersson, L., et. al., LDP Specification, RFC 3036,
                  January 2001.

   [LDP-FT]       Farrel, A., et al., Fault Tolerance for the Label
                  Distribution Protocol (LDP), draft-ietf-mpls-ldp-
                  ft-06.txt, September 2002, work in progress.

   [LDP-RESTART]  Leelanivas, M., et al., Graceful Restart Mechanism for
                  LDP, draft-ietf-ldp-restart-05.txt, September 2002,
                  work in progress.

9.2 Informational References

   [MPLS-RECOV]   Sharma, Hellstrand, et al., Framework for MPLS-based
                  Recovery, draft-ietf-mpls-recovery-frmwrk-07.txt,
                  September 2002, work in progress.

   [RFC3212]      Jamoussi, B., et. al., Constraint-Based LSP Setup
                  using LDP, RFC 3212, January 2002.

10. Acknowledgements

   The author would like to thank the authors of [LDP-FT] and
   [LDP-RESTART] for their work on fault tolerance of LDP.
   Many thanks to Yakov Rekhter, Rahul Aggarwal, Manoj Leelanivas
   and Andrew Malis for their considered input to this applicability

Farrel, et al.                                                 [Page 13]

draft-farrel-mpls-ldp-restart-applicy-01.txt                October 2002

11. Author Information

   Adrian Farrel
   Movaz Networks, Inc.
   7926 Jones Branch Drive, Suite 615
   McLean, VA 22102
   Phone:  +1 703-847-1867

12.   Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (c) The Internet Society (2002).
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   This document and the information contained herein is
   provided on an "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND

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