M. Gahrns
 Internet Draft                                                  T. Hain
 Document: draft-hain-msword-template-03.txt                   Microsoft
 Expires: May 2001                                         November 2000
           Using Microsoft Word to create Internet Drafts and RFC's
 Status of this Memo
    This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance
    with all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.
    Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
    Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
    other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
    Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
    months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents
    at any time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as
    reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
    The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
    The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
    This document will describe the steps to configure the Microsoft
    Word application to produce documents in Internet Draft and RFC
 Table of Contents
    Status of this Memo................................................1
    Conventions used in this document..................................2
    Instructions for producing Internet drafts and RFCs................2
    Defining Microsoft Word Page Layout and Styles.....................3
    Positioning the document identifiers on the first page.............5
    Automatic reference numbering......................................5
    Final fixup: the CRLF program......................................7
    Formal Syntax.....................................................10
    Security Considerations...........................................10
    Author's Addresses................................................11
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                     Using Microsoft Word to create       November 2000
                       Internet Drafts and RFC's
    This document describes the steps to create a Microsoft Word 97 or
    later template to assist those producing Internet drafts. The
    resulting configuration allows for simple WYSIWYG editing of drafts
    and RFCs while producing output that is in accordance with IETF
    draft and RFC submission specifications. (72 Characters per line, 58
    lines per page, each line terminated by a CRLF, and each page
    followed by a LF, etc.) Using Word's text justification and table
    capabilities may facilitate creating ASCII stick drawings.
    While the authors happen to be employed by Microsoft at the time of
    this writing, this document is not a product of Microsoft and is
    Included is a detailed description of how the RFC Text and RFC
    Heading styles are defined. This should prove useful to those
    wishing to do further customization work or create a similar
    template for other versions of Microsoft Word.
    It also includes a description and the source of the CRLF.EXE
    program that is needed to create the final text file output. A pre-
    configured copy of the template in RTF format and the CRLF.EXE
    program, can also be found at ftp://ftp.ietf.org/internet-drafts
 Conventions used in this document
    In this document the steps for walking a pull-down tree are indented
    on subsequent lines. This allows abbreviation rather than a barrage
    of 'then click' or 'select' strings in a paragraph form. Example:
       About Microsoft Word
 Instructions for producing Internet drafts and RFCs
    1) The "auto-formatting" Microsoft Word does can result in some
    undesired characters when creating the IETF standardized format.
    (E.g. it will insert special characters for quotation marks, add
    special formatting when creating lists, etc.)  To avoid this, turn
    off "auto formatting"
    On the property pages 'AutoFormat' and 'AutoFormat As You Type',
    turn off all of the auto formatting options.
    2) Two special styles need to be defined: RFC Heading and RFC Text.
    If you choose automatic reference numbering or table of contents
    (defined below), the style for Endnote Reference, Endnote Text, and
    TOC need to be modified.  The entire draft must be written using
    these styles for the spacing to come out correctly.  *** Do not use
    bold, underlining, italics, etc., or you will loose the WYSIWYG
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                       Internet Drafts and RFC's
    editing feature since these settings affect the number of characters
    that can occur on a line. When the resulting Internet draft is saved
    as plain text, all that formatting will be lost anyway. ***
    3) Print the document to the Generic Text Printer, and save the
    output to file.  If you do not have the Generic Text Printer driver
    installed, install it from the Control Panel. (Printers, Add
    Printer, local/My Computer, any LPT port (you will be printing to a
    file), select Generic, Generic/Text Only from the combo box). When
    you print to a file a pop-up will ask for the file name.
    4) Run the CRLF program to automatically add carriage returns.
              Usage is CRLF <source> <destination>
    Where <source> is the name of the file produced by printing to the
    generic text printer, and <destination> is the name of the text
    draft you are producing. Example: crlf draft-00.prn draft-00.txt
 Defining Microsoft Word Page Layout and Styles
    These are settings used to define the RFC Text and RFC Heading
    styles. Note: the menu options to set these are enclosed in
    parenthesis and are listed for Microsoft Word 97.  They may differ
    slightly for other versions of Microsoft Word.
    1) Set measurement units to points.
             Measurement units = points
    2) Set margins as follows: (File, Page Setup, Margins)
    Top:         24 pts
    Bottom:      0 pts
    Left:        0 pts
    Right:       93.6 pts
    Gutter:      0 pts
    Header:      0 pts
    Footer:      0 pts
    The right margin is what determines 72 characters per line. Using 12
    pt font, 10 chars/inch, 72 chars = 7.2".  Using paper that is 8.5"
    wide. 8.5" - 7.2" = 1.3" = 93.6 pts   If you get "one or more
    margins are outside the printable area" message, select Ignore.
    This seems to depend on the printer you currently have selected.
    3) Set paper size as follows:
       Page Setup
          Paper Size
                 Width:  612 pt (8.5")
                 Height: 696 pt (12pt * 58 lines per page)
    The height of the paper is what determines 58 lines per page.
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                       Internet Drafts and RFC's
    4) Set headers/footers to be different for the first page.
       Page Setup
    5) Define a RFC Heading Style.
    RFC Heading: Heading1 + Font:  Courier New, 12pt, Not Bold, Line
    spacing exactly 12pt., Space before 0 pt after 0 pt, Level 1
    NOTE: Line Spacing Exactly 12pt is very important. Set this through
    Format: Paragraph
    6) Define a RFC Text Style.
    RFC Text: Normal+Font: Courier New, 12pt, Indent: Left 21.6pt, Line
    Spacing Exactly 12 pt.
    Line Spacing and indent are set through Format, Paragraph.  This
    leaves a 3 character left indent for the RFC text
    7) Fix the Header Style.
    Header:  Normal+Font: Courier New, 12pt, Line Spacing Exactly 12 pt,
    Clear the tabs previously defined, and add Tabs 252 pt Centered, 504
    pt Right Flush
    8) Fix the Footer Style.
    Footer:  Normal+Font: Courier New, 12pt, Line Spacing Exactly 12 pt,
    Tabs 252 pt Centered, 504 pt Right Flush
    9) Define your headers and footers for the first page.
          (on first page)
    Header: No Header
    Footer:  Carriage Return
    AuthorName <tab> <tab> <page number field>
    10) Define subsequent headers and footers.
          (on second page)
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                       Internet Drafts and RFC's
    Header: <tab> Title <tab> Month, Year
    Footer:  Carriage Return
    AuthorName <tab> Category & Expiration <tab> <page number field>
    11) Fix the Table-of-contents Styles. Repeat for each level.
    TOC1: RFC text +, Automatically update
    TOC2: RFC text + Indent: Left 0.14", Automatically update
    TOC3: RFC text + Indent: Left 0.28", Automatically update
 Positioning the document identifiers on the first page
    The 'Table' tool can be used to assist with justification of the
    document identifiers on the first page. Each cell in the table
    maintains its own justification characteristics, so getting left and
    right justification on the same line is simplified. On the Toolbar
    select the icon that looks like a grid with a dark bar across the
    top. This will pop-up a table array. Drag the mouse across to select
    the number of rows and columns (for the opening header 4 rows x 2
    columns, unless there are several authors). Select the table that
    was just inserted by click-and-hold in the left margin, and then
    clear the boarders.
       Borders and Shading
    Select the cells on the right (position the cursor just above the
    top cell, when the cursor becomes an arrow pointing down, click) and
    set justification right. (The default is to take justification from
    the line it is being positioned on, so the left column shouldn't
    need changing.)
    Move the center divider to the right if necessary for the document
    title. Select the left column of cells, then position the cursor
    over the dividing line. When it changes to parallel bars with
    right/left arrows, click-and-hold, then drag the line as necessary.
 Automatic reference numbering
    To support automatic updates of reference numbers, make the
    following changes. (Requires the document to be a single section
    prior to the Reference heading.)
    1) Insert a section break on the line after Reference heading.
         Section Break
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                       Internet Drafts and RFC's
    2) Format the style of the Endnote References and Text.
          Endnote reference
             Based on 'underlying paragraph'
             Format Font
                  clear the check box for 'superscript'
          Endnote text
             Based on 'RFC text'
             Format Paragraph
                   Left    .3
                   Hanging .3
    3) Set up the location of the references, and number style.
            Place at 'End of section'
            Numeric style '1,2,3'
    4) Select the location for the first reference. Between the user
    typed [ ] characters insert an endnote.
       Footnote (endnote will already be selected, as will auto 1,2,3)
    When the endnote is inserted the lower pane will appear. Type in the
    text for the reference. The first time a reference is inserted the
    Endnote Separator should be cleared (the continuation separator may
    need it as well). Find the pull down just above the reference text,
    and change it to each of the options to make sure all but the 'All
    Endnotes' are cleared.
    Endnote Separator
       Select and delete any text
    The reference number in the text and the endnote table will
    automatically track as changes are made. If the endnote window is
    closed and changes need to be made, select
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                       Internet Drafts and RFC's
 Final fixup: the CRLF program
    Each line needs to be terminated by a CRLF, but when printing your
    document to the Generic Text Printer driver, some blank lines will
    be terminated only with a line feed. Consider a traditional text
    line printer, printing a line of text, followed by 3 blank lines.
    The output would look as follows:
    Line of Text<CR><LF><LF><LF>.
    This was done because there was no need to move the print carriage
    head for the blank lines, only line feeds were necessary.
    CRLF.EXE is a Win16/32 program to fix up the output from the various
    versions of the Generic Text Printer driver so that each line is
    terminated by a CRLF.  An extra line that makes the first page be 59
    lines, instead of the required 58 is also removed.
    Following example provides source for a CRLF fixup program.
       * CRLF.C - Sample source code to format documents produced by
       * the MS Word IETF template so that they comply to IETF draft
       * and RFC guidelines
       #include <stdio.h>
       #include <io.h>
       #include <fcntl.h>
       #include <sys/types.h>
       #include <sys/stat.h>
       #include <memory.h>
       #include <string.h>
       #include <stdlib.h>
       #define CR 13
       #define LF 10
       #define FF 12
       #define TRUE 1
       #define FALSE 0
       typedef int BOOL;
       int main(int argc, char *argv[])
            int fSrc, fDest;
            int iNumBytesRead;
            char cr = CR;
            char lf = LF;
                 char ff = FF;
            unsigned char buff[3];
            BOOL bPrecedingCR = FALSE;
            BOOL FirstCol = TRUE;
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                       Internet Drafts and RFC's
            if(argc != 3)
                    printf("    crlf <srcfile> <dstfile>\n\n");
                    return 0;
            fSrc = _open(argv[1], _O_RDONLY | _O_BINARY);
            fDest = _open(argv[2], _O_CREAT | _O_RDWR | _O_BINARY |
              _O_TRUNC, _S_IREAD | _S_IWRITE);
            if(fSrc == -1)
                    printf("Could not open file (%s) for reading.\n",
                    printf( strerror(errno));
                    return 0;
            if(fDest == -1)
                    printf("Count not open file (%s) for writing.\n",
                    printf( strerror(errno));
                    return 0;
            // Using the MS Word with the generic text printer, an extra
            // CR LF starts the file.  Skip over these first 2 bytes,
            // otherwise the first page will have 59 lines instead of 58
            iNumBytesRead = _read(fSrc, buff, 2);
            // Prepare to parse through the file
            iNumBytesRead = _read(fSrc, buff, 1);
            while(iNumBytesRead > 0)
                         if (buff[0] == LF && bPrecedingCR == FALSE)
                                 // Found a LF without a preceding CR
                                 // Inject a CR to precede the LF
                                 if (FirstCol == TRUE)
                                 //only write CR if in the first col
                                         _write(fDest, &cr, 1);
                                         _write(fDest, &(buff[0]), 1);
                                 //ignore the random LF
                         else if ( buff[0] == CR )
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                       Internet Drafts and RFC's
                         // Track whether we will have a preceding
                         // CR for the next byte we read
                                 bPrecedingCR = TRUE;
                                 FirstCol = TRUE;
                                 _write(fDest, &(buff[0]), 1);
                                 bPrecedingCR = FALSE;
                                 FirstCol = FALSE;
                                 _write(fDest, &(buff[0]), 1);
                         // Read next byte
                         iNumBytesRead = _read(fSrc, &buff[0], 1);
                 return 0;
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                       Internet Drafts and RFC's
    Known problems
    If you try to print the draft you are working on from within
    Microsoft Word to an actual printer (not to a file using the Generic
    Text printer driver), you may receive an error message indicating
    the margins are outside of the printable area of the printer.  If
    you continue printing, the first 2 characters of each heading will
    be truncated.  It is recommended you produce a printed copy of the
    draft you are working on by using the CRLF program to produce a text
    file, and then redirect it to a printer (so that you do not need to
    deal with other programs like NOTEPAD, etc. adding their own
    margins.) Example:
    - Print to a file using the generic text printer
    - CRLF draft.prn draft.txt
    - NET USE lpt1 <\\printername\sharename>
    - TYPE draft.txt > LPT1
    As an alternative, if the final draft.txt file is opened with Word,
    setting all 4 margins to .65" will position it on the page.
       Page Setup
          Top    .65
          Bottom .65
          Left   .65
          Right  .65
    The Underscore character
    If you use the underscore character "_" within the RFC Text and RFC
    Heading style, it will not be displayed on most screens.  (It
    appears as a blank space.)  It will print correctly and will appear
    as an underscore character in the final draft output.
 Formal Syntax
    The formal definition of RFC format is defined in RFC-2223 [1] and
    Internet Draft instructions are available at [2].
 Security Considerations
    Caution is advised when opening any document that may contain a
    macro virus. The template files originally provided to the Internet-
    drafts & RFC editors did not contain any macros, and unless tampered
    with should not now. If there are concerns about using the template
    doc file, the instructions provided here will allow creation of one
    from scratch. Further details about Microsoft Word macro virus
    concerns are available at: http://www.microsoft.com/ . To find the
    current documents, search for 'macro virus'.
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                       Internet Drafts and RFC's
    1  RFC 2223 J. Postel, J. Reynolds, " Instructions to RFC Authors",
       RFC 2223, October 1997
    2  http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-guidelines.txt
 Author's Addresses
    Mike Gahrns
    One Microsoft Way            Phone:  1-425-936-9833
    Redmond, Wa. USA             Email:  mikega@microsoft.com
    Tony Hain
    One Microsoft Way            Phone:  1-425-703-6619
    Redmond, Wa. USA             Email:  tonyhain@microsoft.com
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