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Versions: 00                                                            
   Internet Draft                                         Ilya Freytsis
                                                      Cetacean Networks
                                                         Robert Hancock
                                            Siemens/Roke Manor Research
                                                   Georgios Karagiannis
                                                          John Loughney
                                                     Sven Van den Bosch
   Document: draft-hancock-nsis-fw-00.txt
   Expires: December 2002                                     June 2002

               Next Steps in Signaling: A Framework Proposal

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026 [1].

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at


   The NSIS working group is considering protocol developments in
   signaling for resources for a traffic flow along its path in the
   network. The requirements for such signaling are being developed in a
   separate document [2]; This Internet Draft proposes a framework for
   such signaling. This initial version provides a model for describing
   the entities that take part in the signaling and the ways in which
   they can be used in different modes of operation. It also discusses
   the overall structure of such a signaling protocol. Finally, it
   considers the possible interactions of NSIS signaling with other
   protocols and functions, including security issues.

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Conventions used in this document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC-2119 [3].

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction...................................................3
     1.1 Scope of this Document .....................................3
   2. Terminology....................................................4
   3. Overall Framework Structure....................................5
     3.1 Basic Signaling Entities and Interfaces ....................5
     3.1.1   NSIS Entities ..........................................5
     3.1.2   Placement of NSIS entities .............................7
     3.2 Modes of Operation .........................................7
     3.2.1   In-Band and Out-of-Band Signaling ......................8
     3.2.2   Inter-domain and Intra-domain Signaling ................8
     3.2.3   End-to-End, Edge-to-Edge, and End-to-Edge ..............9
     3.2.4   Global and Local Operation .............................9
     3.2.5   Multicast versus Unicast ..............................10
     3.2.6   Sender versus Receiver Initiated Signaling ............10
     3.2.7   Uni-Directional and Bi-Directional Reservations .......11
     3.3 Basic Assumptions and Critical Issues .....................11
     3.3.1   Overview of Open Items and Critical Issues ............11
     3.3.2   NI, NF, NR functionality ..............................13
     3.3.3   NI, NF, NR relationship ...............................13
     3.3.4   NSIS Addressing .......................................13
     3.3.5   Service description ...................................14
     3.3.6   NSIS Acknowledgement and Notification Semantics .......14
   4. Protocol Components...........................................15
     4.1 Lower Layer Interfaces ....................................15
     4.2 Upper Layer Services ......................................16
     4.3 Protocol Structure ........................................17
     4.3.1   Internal Layering .....................................17
     4.3.2   Protocol Messages .....................................18
     4.4 State Management ..........................................19
     4.5 Identity Elements .........................................21
     4.5.1   Flow Identification ...................................21
     4.5.2   Reservation Identification ............................21
     4.5.3   Resource Type Identification ..........................22
   5. NSIS and other Functions and Protocols........................22
     5.1 Resource Management and Network Provisioning ..............22
     5.2 IP Routing ................................................25
     5.2.1   Load Sharing ..........................................25
     5.2.2   QoS Routing ...........................................26
     5.2.3   Route pinning .........................................26

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     5.2.4   Route changes .........................................27
     5.3 Mobility Support ..........................................28
     5.3.1   Addressing and Encapsulation ..........................28
     5.3.2   Localized Path Repair .................................29
     5.3.3   Reservation Update on the Unchanged Path ..............30
     5.3.4   Interaction with Mobility Signaling ...................30
     5.3.5   Interaction with Fast Handoff Support Protocols .......32
     5.4 Existing Resource Signaling Protocols .....................33
     5.5 Multi-Level NSIS Signaling ................................34
   6. Security and AAA Considerations...............................36
     6.1 Authentication ............................................36
     6.2 Authorization .............................................37
     6.3 Accounting ................................................39
     6.4 End-to-End vs. Peer-Session Protection ....................39
   Author's Addresses...............................................43
   Full Copyright Statement.........................................44

1. Introduction

   NSIS will work on signaling from an end point that follows a path
   through the net that is determined by layer 3 routing and is used to
   convey information to the devices the signals pass through - the
   signaling can, for example, install soft state in the devices it
   passes through. A signaling end point could be a device along the
   path, which signals for a data flow that passes through it.

   The intention is to allow for the NSIS protocol to be deployed in
   different parts of the Internet, for different needs, without
   requiring a complete end-to-end deployment.

   There is no requirement that the per-flow information be QoS related.
   NSIS should only worry about how to do the signaling - what the
   signaling conveys should be opaque to NSIS. This document discusses
   'where' the signaling takes place, with some discussion on 'how' the
   signaling can be done.

1.1 Scope of this Document

   The scope of this document is to provide a framework for where a NSIS
   protocol can be used and deployed. It is not intended that NSIS will
   provide an over-arching architecture for carrying out resource
   management in the Internet. It is not intended to be used as a
   protocol design document.

   The framework is not about what NSIS should do but how it should do
   it. It is not intended that this places requirements on a future NSIS

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   protocol. The document discusses important protocol considerations,
   such as mobility, security, interworking with resource management (in
   a broad sense). Discussions about existing signaling and resource
   protocols are assumed to be contained in a separate analysis

   The initial draft of this document is more about discussing the
   important issues and gaining some scoping on the problem space.
   Future revisions will have more concrete proposals.

   The purpose of this document is to develop the realms, domains and
   modes of operation where an NSIS protocol can be used; identify the
   relationship of an NSIS protocol to other protocols; and identify
   areas for future work.

2. Terminology

   Classifier - an entity which selects packets based on the content of
   packet headers according to defined rules.

   Interdomain traffic - Traffic that passes from one NSIS domain to

   NSIS Domain (ND) - Administrative domain where an NSIS protocol
   signals for a resource or set of resources.

   NSIS Entity (NE) - the function within a node which implements an
   NSIS protocol.

   NSIS Forwarder (NF) - NSIS Entity on the path between a NI and NR
   which may interact with local resource management function (RMF) for
   this purpose. NSIS Forwarder also propagates NSIS signaling further
   through the network.

   NSIS Initiator (NI) - NSIS Entity that initiates NSIS signaling for a
   network resource.

   NSIS Responder (NR) - NSIS Entity that terminates NSIS signaling and
   can optionally interact with applications as well.

   Peer session - signaling relationship between two adjacent NSIS
   entities (i.e. NEs with no other NEs between them).

   Resource - something of value in a network infrastructure to which
   rules or policy criteria are first applied before access is granted.
   Examples of resources include the buffers in a router and bandwidth
   on an interface.

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   Resource Management Function (RMF) - an abstract concept,
   representing the management of resources in a domain or a node.

   Service Level Agreement (SLA) - a service contract between a customer
   and a service provider that specifies the forwarding service a
   customer should receive.

   Traffic characteristic - a description of the temporal behavior or a
   description of the attributes of a given traffic flow or traffic

   Traffic flow - a stream of packets between two end-points that can be
   characterized in a certain way.

3. Overall Framework Structure

3.1 Basic Signaling Entities and Interfaces

3.1.1  NSIS Entities

   The NSIS protocol is intended to be used as a signaling control plane
   for the variety of network resources required for data traffic across
   the Internet. The most common examples are QoS resources, firewalls
   and NATs resources, etc. The NSIS signaling itself does not depend on
   the type of the network resources it is used for but the information
   it carries does. This section discusses the basic signaling entities
   of the protocol as well as interfaces between them.

   We can identify three different roles in the NSIS signaling for
   resources: initiator, forwarder and responder.

   The NSIS Initiator (NI) is an entity that initiates NSIS signaling
   (request) for the network resource. The NSIS initiator can be
   triggered by the different "sources" - applications, an instance of
   NSIS Forwarder, other protocols, network management etc. - that need
   network resources for a data flow. For the purpose of the NSIS
   discussion all these sources can be called applications. The NSIS
   initiator can provide feedback information to the triggering
   application in respect to the requested network resources. The NSIS
   initiator uses NSIS signaling to interact with other NSIS entities
   (NFs and NRs).

   The NSIS Forwarder (NF) is an entity that services NSIS resource
   requests from NSIS initiators and other NSIS forwarders. It may
   interact with local resource management function (RMF). How and if
   this interaction takes place depends on the deployed resource
   management mechanism and the specific role of the NF. The NSIS
   forwarder propagates NSIS signaling further through the network.

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   The NSIS Responder (NR) is an entity that terminates NSIS signaling
   and can optionally interact with applications as well e.g. for the
   purpose of notification when network resources get allocated etc.

   The signaling relationship between two NSIS entities (with no other
   NSIS entities between them) is called a 'Peer-session'. This concept
   might loosely be described as an 'NSIS hop'; however, there is no
   implication that it corresponds to a single IP hop.

   Figure 1 depicts simplified interactions/interfaces between NI, NFs
   and NR as well as applications and RMFs. Note that the NI and NR
   could also interact with an RMF; additionally, this could be modeled
   as co-location of NI&NF and NR&NF. This distinction should have no
   impact on the operation of the protocol. Also, there is no bar on
   placing an NI or NR in the interior of the network, to initiate and
   terminate NSIS signaling independently of the ultimate endpoints of
   the end to end flow, and NI and NR do not have to talk via
   intervening NFs. An example of NSIS being used in this way is given
   in section 5.5.

       +-----------+                                     +-----------+
       |Application|                                     |Application|
       +-----------+                                     +-----------+
             ^                                                 ^
             |                                                 |
             |                                                 |
             V                                                 V
           +----+   NSIS   +----+   NSIS    +----+   NSIS   +----+
           | NI |<========>| NF |<===...===>| NF |<========>| NR |
           +----+          +----+           +----+          +----+
                              ^                ^
                              |                |
                              |                |
                              V                V
                           +-----+          +-----+
                           | RMF |          | RMF |
                           +-----+          +-----+

            <========> = NSIS Peer-session

                  Figure 1: Basic NI/NF/NR Relationships

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3.1.2  Placement of NSIS entities

   The NI, NF and NR definitions do not make any assumptions about
   placements of NSIS signaling entities in respect to the particular
   part of the network or data-forwarding path.

   They can be located along the data path (hosts generating and
   receiving data flows, edge routers, intermediate routers etc.) but it
   may not be the only one desirable location.

   In some cases it is desired to be able to initiate and/or terminate
   NSIS signaling not from the end host that generates/receives the data
   flow but from the some other entities on the network that can be
   called application or service NSIS proxies. There could be various
   reasons for this: signaling in behalf of the end hosts that are not
   enabled with NSIS, consolidation of the customer accounting
   (authentication, authorization) in respect to consumed application
   and transport resources, security considerations, limitation of the
   physical connection between host and network etc. The proxy can
   communicate the relevant information to the host in the
   application/service specific, maybe compressed, form.

   Support for NSIS proxies affects the protocol in the following way:
   * The protocol should accommodate signaling with the scope of a
   single NSIS peer-session; the signaling could be propagated over
   multiple peer-sessions all the way toward the destination (end-to-
   * In the particular case where the proxy is not on the data path,
   NSIS might have to be extended to allow separated data and signaling
   paths, although this analysis is not initially in scope.

   The further discussion of these issues is given in sections 3.2.1 and

   As it can be seen from the usage cases presented in the NSIS
   requirements draft [2] the NSIS signaling procedures may depend on
   the part/type of the network where NSIS is used. In fact to satisfy
   sometimes-conflicting requirements in [2], different procedures and
   possibly different kinds of the NSIS protocol can be used on
   different parts/types of the network. Sections 3.2 and 5.5 provide
   more details on this topic.

3.2 Modes of Operation

   This section discusses several modes of NSIS protocol operation. Each
   mode of NSIS operation is briefly introduced and where needed
   analyzed and compared with other modes of NSIS operation.

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3.2.1  In-Band and Out-of-Band Signaling

   In-band signaling means that the path followed by the user data
   packets is the same as the path followed by signaling messages. In
   other words, the signaling and data paths are identical. Out-of-band
   signaling means that the path followed by signaling messages might be
   different from the path used by the user data packets.

   There are potentially significant differences in the way that the in
   and out of band signaling paradigms should be analyzed, for example
   in terms of scaling behavior, failure recovery, security properties,
   mechanism for NSIS peer discovery, and so on. These differences might
   or might not cause changes in the way that the NSIS protocol
   operates. The initial goal of NSIS and this framework is to
   concentrate mainly on the in-band case.

3.2.2  Inter-domain and Intra-domain Signaling

   Inter-domain NSIS signaling is where the NSIS signaling messages are
   originated in one NSIS domain and are terminated in another NSIS

   In the case of in-band signaling, inter-domain NSIS signaling can be
   used to signal NSIS information to the edge nodes of one or more NSIS

   In the case of out-of-band signaling, inter-domain NSIS signaling can
   be used to signal NSIS information to entities that are not on the
   data path (i.e., "out-of-band" NFs), and additionally to signal from
   off-path entities to on-path edge nodes .

   NSIS inter-domain signaling has to fulfill several requirements, such
   * Basic functionality, such as scalable, simple and fast signaling.
   Because different networks have different resource management
   characteristics, such as cost of bandwidth and performance, this
   basic functionality may differ from one NSIS domain to another.
   * All other requirements specified in [2].

   Intra-domain NSIS signaling is where the NSIS signaling messages are
   originated, processed and terminated within the same NSIS domain.
   Note that these messages could be handled within a local instance of
   NSIS signaling; another possibility could be to piggyback them on
   inter-domain NSIS messages.

   Intra-domain signaling can be used to signal NSIS information to the
   edge nodes (i.e., routers located at the border of the NSIS domain)

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   and to the interior nodes (i.e., routers located within the NSIS
   domain that are not edge nodes).

   The NSIS intra-domain signaling approach has to fulfill fewer
   requirements than inter-domain signaling. These are:
   * Basic functionality, such as scalable, simple and fast signaling.
   Due to the fact that different networks have different resource
   management characteristics, this basic functionality may differ from
   one NSIS domain to another.
   * Provides the necessary functionality to interact between inter-
   domain signaling and intra-domain signaling.

3.2.3  End-to-End, Edge-to-Edge, and End-to-Edge

   End-to-end: When used end-to-end, the NSIS protocol is initiated by
   an end host and is terminated by another end host. In this context,
   NSIS can be applied as needed within all of the NSIS domains between
   the end hosts. In the end-to-end path, NSIS may be used both for
   intra-domain NSIS signaling, as well as for inter-domain signaling.

   Edge-to-edge: In this scenario the NSIS protocol is initiated by an
   edge node of a NSIS domain and is terminated by another edge node of
   the same (or possibly different) NSIS domain. NSIS can be applied
   either within one single NSIS domain, which is denoted as edge-to-
   edge in a single domain, or within a concatenated number of NSIS
   domains, which is denoted as edge-to-edge in a multi-domain. When an
   appropriate security trust relation exists between two or more
   concatenated NSIS domains, these concatenated NSIS domains are
   considered, in terms of NSIS, to be a single, larger NSIS domain.

   End-to-edge: In this scenario the NSIS protocol is either initiated
   by an end host and is terminated by an edge node or is initiated by
   an edge node and is terminated by an end host. When using in-band
   signaling, the edge node may be a proxy that is located on a boundary
   node of a NSIS domain. If using out-of-band signaling, the edge node
   may be a proxy that is located on an out-of-band node that controls,
   or is associated with, a NSIS domain.

3.2.4  Global and Local Operation

   It is likely that the appropriate way to describe the resources NSIS
   is signaling for will vary from one part of the network to another.
   In particular, resource descriptions that are valid for inter-domain
   links will probably be different from those useful for intra-domain
   operation (and the latter will differ from one NSIS domain to

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   One way to describe this issue is to consider the resource
   description objects carried by NSIS as divided in globally-understood
   objects ("global objects") and locally-understood objects ("local
   objects"). The local objects are only applicable for intra-domain
   signaling, while the global objects are mainly used in inter-domain

   The purpose of this division is to provide additional flexibility in
   defining the objects carried by the NSIS protocol such that only
   those objects that are applicable in a particular setting are used.
   An example approach for reflecting the distinction in the signaling
   is that local objects could be put into separate local messages that
   are initiated and terminated within one single QoS (NSIS) domain
   and/or they could be "stacked" within the NSIS messages that are used
   for inter-domain signaling. These possibilities will be considered
   further during the protocol design activity.

3.2.5  Multicast versus Unicast

   Multicast support, compared to unicast support, would introduce a
   level of complexity into the NSIS protocol mainly related to:
   * complex state maintenance to support dynamic membership changes in
   the multicast groups, such as reservation state merging and
   * a state per flow has to be maintained that is used during backward

3.2.6  Sender versus Receiver Initiated Signaling

   A sender-initiated approach is when the sender of the data flow
   initiates and maintains the resource reservation used for that flow.
   In a receiver-initiated approach the receiver of the data flow
   initiates and maintains the resource reservation used for the data

   In the case of in-band signaling, in the sender initiated case, the
   sender of the data is the NSIS Initiator, while the receiver of the
   data is the NSIS Responder. In the receiver initiated case, receiver
   of the data is the NSIS Initiator, while the sender of the data is
   the NSIS Responder. In the case of out-band signaling, the mapping is
   not necessarily clear cut (for example, if the NI and NR are not
   located at the end systems themselves).

   The main differences between the sender-initiated and receiver-
   initiated approaches are the following:
   * Compared with the receiver-initiated approach, a sender using a
   sender-initiated approach can be informed faster when the reservation
   request is rejected. In other words, when using a sender-initiated

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   approach, the reservation request response time can be shorter in the
   case of an unsuccessful reservation than with a receiver-initiated
   * In a receiver-initiated approach, the signaling messages traveling
   from the receiver to the sender must be backward routed such that
   they follow exactly the same path as was followed by the signaling
   messages belonging to the same flow traveling from the sender to the
   receiver. This implies that a backward routing state per flow must be
   maintained. When using a sender-initiated approach, provided
   acknowledgements and notifications can be securely delivered to the
   sending node, backward routing is not necessary, and nodes do not
   have to maintain backward routing states.
   * In a sender-initiated approach, a mobile node can initiate a
   reservation as soon as it has moved to another roaming subnetwork. In
   a receiver-initiated approach, a mobile node has to inform the
   receiver about its handover procedure, thus allowing the receiver to
   initiate a reservation.

3.2.7  Uni-Directional and Bi-Directional Reservations

   It is possible that a resource will only be required for one
   direction of traffic, for example for a media stream with no feedback
   channel. Reservations for both directions of traffic may be required
   for other applications, for example a voice call. Therefore, the NSIS
   signaling protocol must allow for these uni-directional resource
   reservations and for bi-directional resource reservations is

   The most basic method for bi-directional reservations is based on
   combining two uni-directional reservations. This means that the
   signaling messages from the sender of the bi-directional reservation
   towards a receiver are able to follow a different path from messages
   traveling in the opposite direction, which is necessary for on-path
   signaling in the presence of asymmetric routing. (Other more
   integrated approaches may be possible in constrained network
   topologies.) The bi-directional reservations can, for example, be
   used to make the NSIS signaling procedure required after a handover
   procedure more efficient.

3.3 Basic Assumptions and Critical Issues

3.3.1  Overview of Open Items and Critical Issues

   Some of these issues are specific to another section of this
   document; for clarity and to provide an overview, these are
   summarized here. The subsequent subsections describe more generic
   assumptions and issues.

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   - the solution developed by NSIS must be sufficiently flexible and
   modular that it can be efficiently deployed and used with
   functionality appropriate to the part/type of the network. (Sections
   3.2.2 and 3.2.3.)

   - the protocol developed by the NSIS working group will operate in-
   band (the signaling and data paths are identical). Considerations
   related to a potential out-of-band solution are part of this
   framework, because they are also needed in order to co-exist with
   existing solutions. The NSIS working group currently has no plans to
   develop an out-of-band signaling protocol. (Section 3.2.1.)

   - multicast support introduces a level of complexity into the NSIS
   protocol that is not needed in support of unicast applications.
   Therefore, a working assumption is be that the NSIS protocol should
   be optimized for unicast. (Section 3.2.5.)

   - the NSIS protocol can be used for setup of both uni-directional and
   bi-directional reservations. (Section 3.2.7.)

   - to function as part of a complete system, the NSIS protocol may
   need to be supported by extensions to other protocols. These
   extensions are still to be identified. (Section 4.2.)

   - the NSIS protocol could be constructed on the services offered by
   lower layer protocols, but the dividing line between NSIS and these
   lower layers is not fixed. Use of standard lower layer protocols may
   be difficult if 'end-to-end addressing' (see section 3.3.4) is used.
   (Section 4.3.1.)

   - it is commonly expected that a future resource signaling protocol
   would need to use abstract reservation identifiers. However, the
   precise properties needed of these identifiers are unclear, and
   enabling their secure use may be hard. (Sections 4.5.2 and 5.3.2.)

   - use of some routing techniques (e.g. load sharing or QoS routing),
   even in remote parts of the network, could be incompatible with naive
   use of end-to-end addressing. (Sections 5.2.1 and 5.2.2.)

   - the correct flow identification semantics need to be defined in the
   case where mobility encapsulations might make it ambiguous which
   addresses to use. (Section 5.3.1.)

   - the interactions between mobility and resource signaling during
   path updating need to be further analyzed, especially from the point
   of view of combined overall latency. (Section 5.3.2 and 5.3.3.)

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3.3.2  NI, NF, NR functionality

   The basic functions that can be fulfilled by an NSIS entity are
   request, accept, notify, modify and release of a reservation. At this
   point, it is not clear which responsibilities can be assumed by each
   of the NSIS entities. More in particular, it is not clear whether:
   - an NF can request, modify or release a reservation. If it cannot,
   it needs to notify the NI in order to perform these functions.
   - an NR can modify and release a reservation. Even if the NR can
   reject or accept the reservation with modification, it might still be
   required to notify the NI to signal the release or modification.

3.3.3  NI, NF, NR relationship

   An important open issue is related to the way in which NSIS entities
   maintain relations between each other. These relations could be
   purely local, where an NSIS entity only maintains relations with its
   direct neighbors. In that case, messages will be sent to and accepted
   from these neighbors only. Alternatively, the relations between NSIS
   entities could have a more global scope.

   The type of NSIS peering relations may have an impact on the
   complexity involved with protocol security. In case of inter-domain
   signaling, the security relations are likely to be built between
   neighboring NSIS entities only for scalability reasons. In that case,
   each NSIS entity will establish and maintain a security relation with
   each of its peers and accept only messages from these peers.
   Conversely, there may exist larger domains of NSIS entities that have
   a trust relationship (trusted domains). This may be the case for
   intra-domain signaling. In this case, an NE may accept messages from
   all other NSIS entities in the domain. Both alternatives need not be
   mutually exclusive. It is conceivable that different instances of the
   NSIS protocol (or different NSIS protocols) use the NSIS security
   model to a larger or lesser extent, provided that overall security is
   not impacted. A detailed analysis of NSIS threats is available from

   The NSIS peering relations may also have an impact on the required
   amount of state at each NSIS entity. When direct interaction with
   remote NSIS peers is not allowed, it may be required to keep track of
   the path that an NSIS message has followed through the network. This
   can be achieved by keeping per-flow state at the NSIS entities or by
   maintaining a record route object in the NSIS messages.

3.3.4  NSIS Addressing

   The are potentially two ways to establish a signaling connection by
   means of the NSIS protocol. On the one hand, the NSIS message could

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   be addressed to a neighboring NSIS entity (NE) that is known to be
   closer to the destination NE. On the other hand, the NSIS message
   could be addressed to the destination NE directly. We denote the
   latter approach as end-to-end addressing and the former as peer-
   session addressing.

   With peer-session addressing, an NE will determine the address of the
   next NE based on the payload of the NSIS message (and potentially
   also on the previous NE). This requires the address of the
   destination NE to be derivable from information present in the
   payload. This can be achieved through the availability of a local
   routing table or through participation in the routing protocol. Peer-
   session addressing inherently supports tunneling of NSIS signaling
   messages between NEs, and is equally applicable to on or off path

   In case of end-to-end addressing, the NSIS message will be sent with
   the address of the NR, which then necessarily needs to be on the data
   path. This requires (some of) the data-path entities to be upgraded
   (NSIS-aware) in order to be able to intercept the NSIS messages. The
   routing of the NSIS signaling follows exactly the same path as the
   data flow for which the reservation is requested.

3.3.5  Service description

   Although the service specific part of the NSIS message is outside of
   the scope of the NSIS working group, it may be necessary to make some
   assumptions about its content in order to determine whether similar
   functionality needs to be foreseen in the NSIS-specific part of the
   - It is assumed that the service description will handle pre-emption
   and survivability issues. These are seen as a part of the offered
   service and need not be present in the NSIS control layer.
   - It is assumed that some flow description information is part of the
   NSIS control layer (see section 4.3.1 and 4.5.1). This might be
   needed by service-unaware entities located at address boundaries. It
   is not clear to which level of complexity, the flow description needs
   to be available at this level.
   - It is not assumed that the content of the service description is
   independent of the NSIS control layer. It seems appropriate to allow
   the content of the service description to be dependent on the type of
   message that is sent (request/response/refresh).

3.3.6  NSIS Acknowledgement and Notification Semantics

   The semantics of the acknowledgement and notification messages are of
   particular importance. An NE sending a message can assume
   responsibility for the entire downstream chain of NEs, indicating for

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   instance the availability of reserved resources for the entire
   downstream path. Alternatively, the message could have a more local
   meaning, indicating for instance that a certain failure or
   degradation occurred at a particular NSIS entity.

4. Protocol Components

4.1 Lower Layer Interfaces

   Within a signaling entity, NSIS interacts with the 'lower layers' of
   the protocol stack for two nearly independent purposes: sending and
   receiving signaling messages; and configuring the operation of the
   lower layers themselves.

   For sending and receiving messages, this framework places the lower
   boundary of the NSIS protocol at the IP layer. (It is possible that
   NSIS could use a standard transport protocol above the IP layer to
   provide some of its functionality; this is discussed in section
   4.3.1.) The interface with the lower layers is therefore very simple:
   *) NSIS sends raw IP packets
   *) NSIS receives raw IP packets. In the case of peer-session
   addressing, they have been addressed directly to it. In the case of
   end-to-end addressing, this will be by intercepting packets that have
   been marked in some special way (by special protocol number or by
   some option interpreted within the IP layer, such as the Router Alert
   option [5] and [6].)

   NSIS needs to have some information about the link and IP layer
   configuration of the local networking stack. For example, NSIS needs
   to know about:
   *) [in general] how to select the outgoing interface for a signaling
   message, in case this needs to match the interface that will be used
   by the corresponding flow. This might be as simple as just allowing
   the IP layer to handle the message using its own routing table.
   *) [in the case of IPv6] what address scopes are associated with the
   interfaces that messages are sent and received on (to interpret
   scoped addresses in flow identification, if these are to be allowed).

   The way in which NSIS actually configures the lower layers to handle
   the flow depends on the particular NSIS application; for example, if
   NSIS is being used for QoS signaling, this might involve
   configuration of traffic classification and conditioning parameters,
   for example local packet queues, type of filters, type of scheduling,
   and so on. However, none of this is directly related to the NSIS
   protocol itself; therefore, this interaction is handled indirectly
   via a resource management function, as described in section 5.1.

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4.2 Upper Layer Services

   NSIS provides a signaling service, which can be used by multiple
   upper layers for several types of application. We describe this
   service here as an abstract set of capabilities. A later version of
   this framework could illustrate the use of these capabilities within
   a broader context (e.g. how NSIS signaling could be used within a
   complete set of message flows that signal a voice over IP call).

   We can loosely define the boundary between NSIS and these upper
   layers from three views:
   *) What basic control primitives are available at the interface;
   *) What information is exchanged within these primitives;
   *) What assumptions NSIS makes about operations carried out above the

   The set of control primitives required is quite small.
   At the initiating (NI) end:
   *) UL requests signaling for a new resource;
   *) UL requests modification or removal of an existing resource.
   *) UL receives progress indications (minimally, success or failure).
   At the responding (NR) end:
   *) Notification to UL that a resource has been set up.
   At either end:
   *) Notification to UL that something has changed about the available
   resource and other error conditions.
   This description is in terms of a 'hard state' interface, without
   explicit refresh messages between upper layers and NSIS, although
   this is an implementation issue. In any case, NSIS implementations
   will need to be able to detect conditions when ULs fail without
   issuing explicit resource removal requests.

   The information in the control primitives consists essentially of two
   parts. The first is the definition of the data flow for which the
   resource is being signaled. The format (e.g. socket id or packet
   fields or whatever) is an implementation issue; it has to be
   interpreted into a 'wire format' (as in section 4.5). Since NSIS
   could support both sender and receiver initiation, the flow
   definition must also state whether it is incoming or outgoing over a
   particular interface (this can be inferred when the initiator is
   colocated with the flow endpoint). The second part of the information
   exchanged is the service definition (e.g. QoS description in the case
   of a QoS request). This is opaque to NSIS, with the possible
   exception of identifying the resource type being signaled.

   We have a basic design goal not to duplicate functionality that is
   already present in (or most naturally part of) existing signaling
   protocols which could be used by the upper layers. Therefore NSIS

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   (implicitly) assumes that certain procedures are carried out
   'externally'. The main aspects of this are:
   *) Negotiation of service configuration (e.g. discovering what
   services are available to be requested);
   *) Agreement to use NSIS for signaling, and coordination of which end
   will be the initiator;
   *) (Potentially) discovery of the NSIS peer to be signaled with,
   especially if this is not directly on the data path. See also the
   security discussion in section 6.
   Actually providing these functions might require enhancements to
   these other protocols. These are still to be identified.

4.3 Protocol Structure

4.3.1  Internal Layering

   We can model the NSIS protocol as consisting of three layers, as
   shown in Figure 2. This is initially just a way of grouping
   associated functionality, and does not mean that all these layers
   could necessarily operate or even be implemented independently.

                    |///// Service Description //////|
                    |/////   (Opaque to NSIS)  //////|
                    |/////    (Section 4.2)    //////|
                    |                                |
                    |      NSIS Control Layer        |
                    |                                |
                    |                                |
                    |  Generic Signaling Transport  |
                    |            Protocol            |
                    |                                |
                    .     Interface to IP Layer      .
                    .         (Section 4.1)          .

                      Figure 2: NSIS Layer Structure

   The lower layer interface (to IP) has been described in section 4.1.
   The service description information is essentially the same as
   provided by the upper layers, as described in section 4.2. It isn't
   clear if the service description can be independent of the lower
   parts of the protocol or whether different descriptions would be

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   valid at different stages of protocol operation. This depends on the
   particular service, and therefore to make NSIS service independent we
   must allow that the service description part may be explicitly
   dependent on the 'NSIS' fields which lie below. This is similar to
   the ALSP/CSTP coupling described in [7].

   The distinction between the 'NSIS layer' and the 'Generic Signaling'
   layer is not functionally clear cut, but one of convenience. In
   *) The 'generic' layer provides (at most) functionality which might
   be available from existing protocols, such as SCTP [8] or IPSec [9].
   An extreme case could be the binding update messages of mobility
   signaling (section 5.3.4).
   *) The 'NSIS' layer provides (at least) functionality which is
   somehow specific to path-directed signaling.

   Functionality reasonable to re-use from existing signaling protocols
   might include reliability and re-ordering protection, dead peer
   detection (keepalive), multihoming support, payload multiplexing
   (piggybacking), and security services, such as establish a security
   context and carrying out key exchange.

   Functionality which would probably have to be in the NSIS layer would
   include flow and reservation identification, some error handling,
   demultiplexing between different resource types, as well as the basic
   NSIS messages. More details on the messages are in section 4.3.2 and
   the identifier aspects in section 4.5.

   The choice of using functionality from an existing protocol or re-
   specifying it as part of NSIS is for further analysis. It probably
   depends on the function in question, and in the end might be left
   flexible to allow optimization to local circumstances. (For example,
   Diameter allows the use of IPSec for security services, but also
   includes its own CMS application as an alternative.) Whichever
   approach is taken, the combination of NSIS and supporting transport
   protocol must provide a uniform protocol capability to the service

4.3.2  Protocol Messages

   The NSIS specific part protocol will include a set of messages to
   carry out particular operations along the signaling path. Initial
   work for RSVP concentrated on the particular case of QoS reservation
   signaling, although in principle, the necessary basic messages could
   depend on the resource type NSIS is being used for. However, the
   implication of the analysis in [7] is that this message set
   generalizes to a wide variety of signaling scenarios, and so we use
   it as a starting point. A very similar set was generated in [10].

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   | Name  |Direction|                  Semantics                  |
   |       |         |                                             |
   |Request| I-->R   |     Create a new reservation for a flow     |
   |Modify | I-->R   |        Modify an existing reservation       |
   |       |(&R-->I?)|                                             |
   |Release| I-->R & |  Delete (tear down) an existing reservation |
   |       |  R-->I  |                                             |
   |Accept/| R-->I   |  Confirm (possibly modified?) or reject a   |
   | Reject|         |             reservation request             |
   |Notify | I-->R & |     Report an event detected within the     |
   |       |  R-->I  |  network (e.g. congestion condition or end  |
   |       |         |                of condition)                |
   |Refresh| I-->R   |      State management (see section 4.4)     |

   Note that the 'direction' column in this table only indicates the
   'orientation' of the message. The messages can be originated and
   absorbed at NF nodes as well as the NI or NR; an example might be NFs
   at the edge of a domain exchanging NSIS messages to set up resources
   for a flow across a it.

   Note the working assumption that responder as well as the initiator
   can release a reservation (comparable to rejecting it in the first
   place). It is left open if the responder can modify a reservation,
   during or after setup. This seems mainly a matter of assumptions
   about authorization, and the possibilities might depend on resource
   type specifics.

   The table also explicitly includes a refresh message. This does
   nothing to a reservation except extend its lifetime, and is one
   possible state management mechanism for NSIS. This is considered in
   more detail in section 4.4.

4.4 State Management

   The prime purpose of NSIS is to manage state information along the
   path taken by a data flow. There two critical issues to be considered
   in building a robust protocol to handle this problem:
   *) The protocol must be scalable. It should minimize the state
   storage demands that it makes on intermediate nodes; in particular,

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   storage of state per 'micro' flow is likely to be impossible except
   at the very edge of the network.
   *) The protocol must be robust against failure and other conditions,
   which imply that the stored state has to be moved or removed.

   The total amount of state that has to be stored depends both on NSIS
   and on the resource type it is being used to signal for. The resource
   type might require per flow or lower granularity state; examples of
   each for the case of QoS would be IntServ or RMD (per 'class' state)
   respectively. The NSIS protocol should not overburden an application
   that was otherwise lightweight in state requirement. However,
   depending on design details, it might require storage of per-flow
   state including reverse path peer addressing, simply for sending NSIS
   messages themselves.

   There are several robustness problems, which roughly align with the
   'layers' of the NSIS protocols of Figure 2, that can be handled by
   the soft state principle. (Independence of these layers therefore
   implies the danger of duplication of functionality.) This relies on
   periodic refresh of the state information with the current context,
   relying on invalid state being timed out. Soft state can be used
   either as the primary mechanism to handle the problem, or sometimes
   as a backup to some other approach.

   *) At the lowest level, soft state can be used to detect dead NSIS
   peers - loss of several periodic messages implies termination of the
   signaling. (The same inference can be made e.g. if failure is
   detected at the link layer.) The assumption is then that the
   corresponding reservation should be automatically deleted, and the
   deletion propagated along the remainder of the path.

   *) At the next level, in the event of a routing change (for example
   caused by network changes or end host mobility), reservation state
   should be removed from the old path and added to the new one. This
   will be handled automatically by periodic messaging, provided that
   the entities on the new path accept a Refresh message to install a
   new reservation. (A partial alternative is to have a routing-aware
   NSIS implementation, if the route change takes place at an NSIS-aware

   *) At the highest level, a particular resource type might have timing
   limits associated with a particular reservation (e.g. credit limited
   network access). Periodic re-authorized requests can be used as part
   of the time control.

   All of these can be handled with a single soft state mechanism,
   although it may be hard to choose a single refresh interval and
   message loss threshold appropriate for all of them. Even where

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   alternative approaches are possible, for example using knowledge of
   the fact that a routing change has occurred to trigger an explicit
   NSIS release message, it seems that a soft state mechanism is always
   necessary as a backup.

4.5 Identity Elements

   NSIS will carry certain identifiers within the NSIS layer. The most
   significant identifier needs seem to be the following.

4.5.1  Flow Identification

   The flow identification is a method of identifying a flow in a unique
   way. All packets and/or messages that are associated with the same
   flow will be identified by the same flow identifier. In principle, it
   could be a combination of the following information (note that this
   is not an exclusive list of information that could be used for flow
   *) source IP address;
   *) destination IP address;
   *) protocol identifier and higher layer (port) addressing;
   *) flow label (typical for IPv6);
   *) SPI field for IPSec encapsulated traffic;
   *) DSCP/TOS field

   We've assumed here that the flow identification is not hidden within
   the service definition, but is explicit as part of the basic NSIS
   protocol. The justification for this is that it might be valuable to
   be able to do NSIS processing even at a node which was unaware of the
   specific resource type and service definitions in question; this
   would be a case of an NSIS forwarder with no interface to any
   resource management function. An example scenario would be NSIS
   messages passing through an addressing boundary where the flow
   identification had to be re-written.

   The very flexibility possible in flow classification is a possible
   source of difficulties: when wildcards or ranges are included, it is
   probably unreasonable to assume a standard classification capability
   in routers; on the other hand, negotiating this capability would be a
   significant protocol complexity.

4.5.2  Reservation Identification

   There are several circumstances where it is important to be able to
   refer to a reservation independently of whatever other information is
   associated with it. The prime example is a mobility-induced address
   change (handover) which required the flow identifier associated with
   a reservation to be rewritten without installing a totally new

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   reservation (see section 5.3.1 for some security and scoping
   implications of this use). The same capability could also be used to
   simplify refresh or release messages in some circumstances, and might
   be useful within the protocol to resolve reservation collisions
   (where both sender and receiver initiate for the same flow).

   A reservation identifier performs these roles. It is open how the
   reservation identifier space should be defined and managed, and what
   the scope of the identifier should be (only peer-peer, or end-end,
   when interpreted in conjunction with some of the addressing
   information). Some of the necessary identifier functions, especially
   to do with local operation of NSIS, may also be provided by lower
   layer signaling transport protocols.

4.5.3  Resource Type Identification

   Since NSIS can be used to support several uses, there is a need to
   identify which resource type a particular NSIS invocation is being
   used to signal for, and this needs to be done outside the (opaque)
   service description:
   *) processing incoming request messages at a responder - the NSIS
   layer should be able to demultiplex these towards the appropriate
   upper layer;
   *) processing general NSIS messages at an NSIS aware intermediate
   node - if the node does not handle the specific resource type, it
   should be able to make a forwarding decision without having to parse
   the service description.

   Resource type identifiers would probably require an IANA registry.

5. NSIS and other Functions and Protocols

5.1 Resource Management and Network Provisioning

   It is a requirement for the NSIS protocol to be independent of
   resource allocation and management techniques that may be used in the
   network. As such, we need to define the interaction between NSIS and
   what we will call the Resource Management Function (RMF). The RMF is
   responsible for all network provisioning and resource allocation

   In its resource provisioning role, the RMF can act as a client
   towards the NSIS protocol, as a particular "application" triggering
   an NI for resources in the network. This situation is depicted in
   Figure 3 and Figure 4.

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                      +----------| RMF |-----------+
                     /           +-----+            \
                    / COPS                           \
                   /                                  \
                  /                                    \
               +----+   NSIS     +-----+    NSIS     +----+
               | NI |------------| NF  |-------------| NR |
               +----+            +-----+             +----+

               Figure 3: Centralized RMF as a client to NSIS

                +----+            +----+             +----+
                |RMF |            |RMF |             |RMF |
                +----+            +----+             +----+
                +----+   NSIS     +----+    NSIS     +----+
                | NI |------------| NF |-------------| NR |
                +----+            +----+             +----+

               Figure 4: Distributed RMF as a client to NSIS

   When the RMF is distributed in the network, a protocol for
   communication with the NI, NF, NR may not be required. In this case
   the RMF is providing traffic classification and conditioning
   functions; an example of such functionality is described in [11].

   Conversely, the RMF can be a server to an NI, NF or NR controlling a
   complete domain. In the centralized case, it would be natural to
   formalize the relation between the nodes containing NEs and the
   central RMF as a Service Level Agreement (SLA). In order to shield
   the NE from (resource specific) SLA aspects, we would model the
   interaction as being via some kind of local 'proxy' the RMF. This
   situation is depicted schematically in Figure 5. Figure 6 shows the
   corresponding distributed case. Note that the functional split
   between the NE and RMF is the same in each case; in other words the
   same NSIS functionality supports both scenarios.

   In case of centralized RMF, the SLA or its technical part, the
   Service Level Specification (SLS) [12] specifies the resource
   guarantees that the RMF needs to provide. These guarantees apply
   between one or more ingress and egress points of the network. The SLS
   also specifies the availability and reliability of the service. In
   the case of QoS signaling, it may refer to a bandwidth service with
   certain performance guarantees regarding delay, jitter or packet

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             +----+   NSIS     +------+    NSIS     +----+
             | NI |------------|  NF  |-------------| NR |
             +----+            +------+             +----+
                               | pRMF |
                                  | SLA
                               |  RMF |

               Figure 5: Centralized RMF as a server to NSIS

               +----+   NSIS     +-----+    NSIS     +----+
               | NI |------------| NF  |-------------| NR |
               +----+            +-----+             +----+
               +----+            +-----+             +----+
               |RMF |            | RMF |             |RMF |
               +----+            +-----+             +----+

               Figure 6: Distributed RMF as a server to NSIS

   The decoupling of NSIS signaling and network management by means of
   an SLS has some attractive properties:
   - It allows a Network Provider to easily share the use of its
   infrastructure between several Service Providers using NSIS signaling
   to provide their service.
   - It allows a clear separation between resource provisioning and
   management and reservation signaling and admission control.
   - It relieves the NF from several tasks, making it potentially more
   scalable in the core of the network.

   The resource management system can perform either per-flow or per-
   class admission control decisions based on the requested QoS
   information and on the reservation state it keeps regarding active
   flows (or classes). Keeping per-flow state may be required for
   policing, accounting/billing and explicit reservation teardown. Per-
   flow based functions can be mandatory in some parts of the network,
   e.g., end host to first hop router, or at the edge of the network or
   at the boundary of a network domain. Conveniently, this is also where
   the processing needed to maintain per-flow state will remain
   manageable. In the core, this approach may not scale very well and
   per-class state may be used as an alternative that is very scalable
   and allows for a lightweight processing of signaling messages. With
   per-class state, however, we lose the ability to directly notify the
   NE in case of unsolicited network events because the affected flows

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   cannot be identified. Instead, the situation needs to be detected
   from the response to a refresh message which in turn mandates the use
   of soft-state with separate messages or message structure for
   requests and refreshes.

   The RMF can execute its network provisioning functions according to
   its internal policies. In the easiest case, it may run an
   overprovisioned network with only monitoring capabilities in order to
   follow up on the delivered performance. In more complex scenarios, it
   may use a whole array of network optimization tools in order to
   deliver and maintain service quality according to the SLS.

5.2 IP Routing

   Several situations may occur when routing diverges from standard
   layer 3 routing. These are summarized in the sections below.

5.2.1  Load Sharing

   Load sharing or load balancing is a network optimization technique
   that exploits the existence of multiple paths to the same destination
   in order to obtain benefits in terms of protection, resource
   efficiency or network stability. The significance of load sharing in
   the context of NSIS is that, if the load sharing mechanism in use
   will forward packets on any basis other than source and destination
   address, routing of NSIS messages using end-to-end addressing does
   not guarantee that the messages will follow the data path. In this
   section, we briefly survey what standard methods have been used for
   load sharing within standard routing protocols.

   In OSPF, load balancing can be used between equal cost paths [13] or
   unequal cost paths. An example of the latter approach is Optimized
   Multi Path (OMP). OMP discovers multiple paths, not necessarily equal
   cost paths, to any destinations in the network, but based on the load
   reported from a particular path, it determines which fraction of the
   traffic to direct to the given path. Incoming packets are subject to
   a (source, destination address) hash computation, and effective load
   sharing is accomplished by means of adjusting the hash thresholds.

   BGP [14][15] advertises the routes chosen by the BGP decision process
   to other BGP speakers. In the basic specification, routes with the
   same Network Layer reachability information (NLRI) as previously
   advertised routes implicitly replace the original advertisement,
   which means that multiple paths for the same prefix cannot exist.
   Recently, however, a new mechanism was defined that will allow the
   advertisement of multiple paths for the same prefix without the new
   paths implicitly replacing any previous ones [16]. The essence of the

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   mechanism is that each path is identified by an arbitrary identifier
   in addition to its prefix.

   The distribution of traffic over the available path may be done per
   destination, per message in a round-robin fashion or with a
   predefined hashing function. The determination of the hashing image
   may take into account the source/destination IP address, QoS
   information such as the DSCP or protocol ID. When the routing
   decision is no longer based on the destination address only, however,
   there is a risk that data plane messages and control plane messages
   will not follow the same route.

5.2.2  QoS Routing

   The are several proposals for the introduction of QoS awareness in
   the routing protocols. All of these essentially lead to the existence
   of multiple paths (with different QoS) towards the same destination.
   As such, they also contain an inherent risk for a divergence between
   control plane and data plane, similar to the load sharing case.

   For intra-domain traffic, the difference in routing may result from a
   QoS-aware traffic engineering scheme, that e.g. maps incoming traffic
   to LSPs based on multi-field classification. In BGP, several
   techniques for including QoS information in the routing decision are
   currently proposed. A first proposal is based on a newly defined BGP-
   4 attribute, the QoS_NLRI attribute [17]. The QoS_NLRI attribute is
   an optional transitive attribute that can be used to advertise a QoS
   route to a peer or to provide QoS information in along with the
   Network Layer Reachability Information (NLRI) in a single BGP update.
   A second proposal is based on controlled redistribution of AS routes
   [18]. It defines a new extended community (the redistribution
   extended community) that allows a router to influence how a specific
   route should be redistributed towards a specified set of eBGP
   speakers. The types of redistribution communities may result in a
   specific route not being announced to a specified set of eBGP
   speakers, that it should not be exported or that the route should be
   prepended n times.

5.2.3  Route pinning

   Route pinning refers to the independence of the path taken by certain
   data packets from reachability changes caused by routing updates from
   an Interior Gateway Protocol (OSPF, IS-IS) or an Exterior Gateway
   Protocol (BGP). This independence may for instance be caused by the
   configuration of static LSPs or by the establishment of explicitly
   routed LSPs by means of a signaling protocol (RSVP-TE or CR-LDP). If
   the NSIS signaling messages follow standard Layer 3 routing, this may
   cause a divergence between control plane and data plane. If

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   reservations are made on the control plane, this may result in
   sending data along an unreserved path while maintaining a reservation
   on a path that is not used.

5.2.4  Route changes

   In this section, we will explore the expected interworking between a
   signaling for resource BGP routing updates, although the same applies
   for any source of routing updates. The normal operation of the NSIS
   protocol will lead to the situation depicted in Figure 7, where the
   reserved resources match the data path.

                    reserved +----+  reserved  +----+
                     ------->| NF |----------->| NF |
                             +----+            +----+
                                data path

                 Figure 7: Normal NSIS protocol operation

   A route change (triggered by a BGP routing update for instance) can
   occur while such a reservation is in place. In case of RSVP, the
   route change will be installed immediately and any data that is sent
   will be forwarded on the new path. This situation is depicted Figure

                           BGP route update
                    reserved +----+  reserved  +----+
                     ------->| NF |----------->| NF |
                             +----+            +----+
                     ========== |
                             || |           +----+
                             || +---------->| NF |
                             ||             +----+
                               data path

                          Figure 8: Route Change

   Resource reservation on the new path will only be started once the
   next control message is routed along the new path. This means that
   there is a certain time interval during which resources are not
   reserved on (part of) the data path. To minimize this time interval
   several techniques could be considered. As an example, RSVP [19] has
   the concept of local repair, where the router may be triggered by a
   route change. In that case the RSVP node can start sending PATH

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   messages directly after the route has been changed. Note that this
   option may not be available for NSIS if no per-flow state is kept in
   the NF.

   It is not guaranteed that the new path will be able to provide the
   same guarantees that were available on the old path. Therefore, in a
   more desirable scenario, the NF should wait until resources have been
   reserved on the new path before installing the route change. The
   route change procedure then consists of the following steps:
   1. NF receives a route announcement,
   2. Refresh messages are forwarded along the current path,
   3. A copy of the refresh message is remarked as request and send
   along the new path that was announced,
   4. When the NF has been acknowledged about the reservations on the
   new path the route will be installed and the traffic will flow along
   the new path.

   Another example related to route changes is denoted as severe
   congestion and is explained in [20]. This solution adapts to a route
   change, when a route change creates a congestion on the new routed

5.3 Mobility Support

   The interactions between mobility and resource signaling protocols
   have been quite extensively analyzed in recent years, primarily in
   the context of RSVP and Mobile IP interaction (e.g. [21]), but also
   in the context of other types of network (e.g. [22]). This analysis
   work has shown that some difficulties in the interactions are quite
   deep seated in the detailed design of these protocols; however, the
   problems and their possible solutions fall under five broad headings.
   The main issue is to limit the period after handovers during which
   the resource state has not been installed on the path, in particular
   the new part of the path.

   We can use this work as the starting point for considering the
   framework aspects of a new resource signaling protocol like NSIS,
   which will need to interwork with mobility signaling, e.g., Mobile
   IP, or mobility paradigms using micromobility, or application layer

5.3.1  Addressing and Encapsulation

   A mobility solution typically involves address reallocation on
   handover  (unless a network supports per host routing) and may
   involve special  packet formats (e.g. the routing header and Home
   Address option of MIPv6).  Since NSIS may depend on end system
   addresses for forwarding signaling  messages and defining flows

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   (section 4.5.1), the special implications of  mobility for addressing
   need to be considered. Examples of possible approaches that could be
   used to solve the addressing and encapsulation problem are as
   *) Use a filter definition based on low level IP addresses (e.g. the
   Care  of Address) and other 'standard' fields in the IP header. This
   makes least  demands on the packet classification engines within the
   network. However,  it means that even on a part of the flow path
   which is unchanged, the  reservation will need to be modified to
   reflect the changed flow  identification (see section 5.3.3).
   *) Use a flow definition that does not change (e.g. based on Home
   Address); this is the approach assumed in [23]. This simplifies the
   problem of reservation update, at the likely cost of considerably
   complicating the flow identification requirements.

   In the first approach, to prevent double reservation, NSIS nodes need
   to be able to recognize that a reservation with the new flow
   identifier is to be correlated with an existing one. The reservation
   identifier (section 4.5.2) was introduced for exactly this purpose.
   Note that this would require the reservation identifier to have
   (secure) end to end significance. (An additional optimization here
   would be use a local mobility management scheme to localize the
   visibility of the address change.)

   The feasibility and performance of this approach needs to be
   assessed, including a detailed analysis of the signaling scenarios
   after a handover. However, given the high impact of requiring more
   sophisticated packet classifiers, initially it still seems more
   plausible than the second approach. This implies that the NSIS
   initiator should define flows in terms of real (care of) addresses
   rather than virtual (home) addresses. Thus, it would have detailed
   access to lower layer interface configuration (cf. section 4.1),
   rather than operating as a pure application level daemon as is
   commonplace with current RSVP implementations.

5.3.2  Localized Path Repair

   In any mobility approach, a handover will cause at least some changes
   in  the path of upstream and downstream packets. NSIS needs to
   install new  state on the new path, and remove it on the old.
   Provided that some  NSIS node on the joined path - the crossover
   router - can recognize  this situation (which again depends on
   reservation identification), state installation and teardown can be
   done locally between it and  the mobile node. (This may have
   implications for which entities are  allowed to generate which
   message types, see section 4.3.2). It seems  that the basic NSIS
   framework already contains the fundamental components necessary for

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   A critical point here is the signaling that is used to discover the
   crossover router. This is a generalization of the problem of finding
   next-NSIS-hop nodes: it requires extending the new path over several
   hops until it intersects the old one. This is easy for uplink traffic
   (where the mobile is the sender), but much harder for downlink
   traffic  without signaling via the correspondent. There is no reason
   for the  crossover routers for uplink and downlink flows to be the
   same, even  for the same correspondent. The problem is discussed
   further in [24].

5.3.3  Reservation Update on the Unchanged Path

   On the path between the crossover router(s) and the correspondent, it
   is necessary to avoid, if possible, double reservations, but rather
   to update the reservation state to reflect new flow identification
   (if this is needed, which is the default assumption of section
   5.3.1). Examples of approaches that could be used to solve this
   problem are the following:
      *) Use a reservation state definition that does not change even if
   the flow definition changes (see Section 4.5.2). In this case this
   problem is solved.
      *) Use signaling all the way to the correspondent node (receiver
   end host), accepting the additional latency that this might impose.
      *) Use an NSIS-capable crossover router that manages this
   reservation update autonomously (more efficiently than the end
   nodes), with similar considerations to the local path repair case.

5.3.4  Interaction with Mobility Signaling

   In existing work on mobility protocol and resource signaling protocol
   interactions, several framework proposals describing the protocol
   interactions have been made. Usually they have taken existing
   protocols (Mobile IP and RSVP respectively) as the starting point; it
   should be noted that an NSIS protocol might operate in quite a
   different way. In this section, we provide an overview of how these
   proposals would be reflected in framework of NSIS. The mobility
   aspects are described using Mobile IP terminology, but are generally
   applicable to other network layer mobility solutions. The purpose of
   this overview is not to select or priorities any particular approach,
   but simply to point out how they would fit into our framework and
   point out any major issues with them.

   We can consider that two signaling processes are active: mobility
   signaling (e.g. Binding updates or local micromobility signals) and
   NSIS. The discussion so far considered how NSIS should operate. There
   is still a question of how the interactions between the NSIS and
   mobility signaling should be considered.

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   The basic case of totally independent specification and
   implementation seems likely to lead to ambiguities and even
   interoperability problems (see [23]). At least, the addressing and
   encapsulation issues for mobility solutions that use virtual links or
   their equivalents need to be specified in an implementation-neutral

   A type of 'loose' integration is to have independent protocol
   definitions, but to define how they trigger each other - in
   particular, how the mobility protocol triggers NSIS to send
   refresh/modify/tear messages. A pair of implementations could use
   these triggers to improve performance, primarily reducing latency.
   (Existing RSVP modification consider the closer interaction of making
   the RSVP implementation mobility-routing aware, e.g. so it is able to
   localize refresh signaling; this would be a self contained aspect of
   NSIS.) This information could be developed for NSIS by analyzing
   message flows for various mobility signaling scenarios as was done in

   An even tighter level of integration is to consider a single protocol
   carrying both mobility and resource information. Logically, there are
   two cases:
   1. Carry mobility routing information (a 'mobility object') in the
   resource messages, as is done in [23]. (The prime purpose in this
   approach is to enable crossover router discovery.)
   2. Carry resource signaling in the mobility messages, typically as a
   new extension header. This was proposed in [25] and followed up in
   [26]; [27] also anticipates this approach. In our framework, we could
   consider this a special case of NSIS layering, with the mobility
   protocol playing the role of the signaling transport (as in 4.3.1).
   The usefulness of this class of approach depends on a tradeoff
   between specification simplicity and performance. Simulation work is
   under way to compare the performance of the two approaches in the
   case of RSVP and micromobility protocols.

   Other modes of interaction might also be possible. The critical point
   with all these models is that the general solutions developed by NSIS
   should not depend fundamentally on the choice of any particular
   mobility protocol. Especially if it has interdomain scope, tight
   integration would have major deployment issues; loose integration
   could require NSIS implementations to hook into multiple different
   mobility protocols. Therefore, any integrated solution should be
   considered out of scope of initial NSIS development, and even in the
   long term is probably only applicable if it can be localized within a
   particular part of the network.

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5.3.5  Interaction with Fast Handoff Support Protocols

   In the context of mobility between different access routers, it is
   common to consider performance optimizations in two areas: selection
   of the optimal access router to handover to, and transfer of state
   information between the access routers to avoid having to regenerate
   it in the new access router after handover. The seamoby working group
   is developing solutions for these protocols for pure IP based
   networks (CARD and CT respectively); other networks, which use NSIS
   for resource signaling within the network, may use different types of

   In this section, we consider how NSIS should interact with these
   functions, however they are implemented. Detailed solutions are not
   proposed, but the way in which interaction these functions is seen
   within the NSIS framework is described. NSIS should be able to
   operate independently of these protocols. However, significant
   performance gains could be achieved if they could be made to
   cooperate. In addition, the resource signaling aspects of these
   protocols could profitably use a common set of resource types and
   definitions with NSIS to avoid a proliferation of incompatible
   service models (also since at any given node, these protocols will
   probably interface to common resource management functions).

   The question arises, what the mode of interaction should be:
   independent operation, NSIS triggering access router discovery and
   state transfer, or vice versa. The questions for the two cases seem
   to be independent.

   For access router discovery, a typical model of operation is that the
   mobile carries out an information gathering exercise about a range of
   capabilities. In addition, where those capabilities relate purely to
   the AR and mobile, there is no role for NSIS (its special
   functionality is not relevant). However, considering resource
   aspects, one aspect of the AR 'capability' is resource availability
   on the path between it and the correspondent, and NSIS should be able
   to fulfill this part. Indeed, this is effectively precisely the
   application considered in [26], where it is a sort of special case of
   resource signaling during handover.

   Therefore, a possible model of access router discovery/NSIS
   relationship is that some entity in a candidate AR triggers NSIS
   using resource and reservation information (including reservation id)
   from the current AR to find out about what would be available on the
   new path. Note that this should be a query rather than an actual
   reservation; this semantic could be included either in the service
   definition or NSIS itself.

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   The case of state transfer is more complex. There are two obvious
   options, corresponding to whether one transfer just resource state or
   NSIS state as well:
   1. "State transfer triggering NSIS": A state transfer process passes
   the 'raw' resource state to the new AR. This triggers a new instance
   of NSIS to request that resource.
   2. "NSIS using state transfer": NSIS transfers its own state
   information from the old to the new AR. It can then carry out the
   same update signaling as though it was a single 'virtual AR' which
   had just had a topology change towards the correspondent. (This is
   essentially the conceptual model of [21].)

   The first model is simpler, and maybe more in line with the basic
   state transfer expectation; however, it seems hard to avoid double
   reservations since the two NSIS protocol instances are not
   coordinated. Therefore, the second model seems more appropriate. An
   advantage of the 'virtual AR' model is that it ensures that the
   impact of the interaction is limited to the NSIS instances at ARs
   themselves, since the rest of the network must be able to handle a
   topology change anyway.

   Note that there is an open issue of who is responsible between the
   mobile and AR to decide that the state transfer procedures have not
   happened for whatever reason - e.g. because they were not even
   implemented - and take recovery action to have the mobile refresh
   reservations promptly. It appears this has to be an NSIS
   responsibility in the AR, and probably requires a custom notification
   message for this circumstance.

5.4 Existing Resource Signaling Protocols

   It is hoped that an NSIS protocol could eventually achieve widespread
   use for resource signaling. However, it is bound to have to inter-
   operate with existing resource signaling protocols at least during
   transition and possibly long term. The prime example here is RSVP,
   although other proprietary or domain specific protocols (e.g.
   bandwidth broker related) may also be considered. A related issue is
   that NSIS will be only one part of a resource control solution: it
   will always need to interwork with other resource-related protocols
   (e.g. COPS).

   Analyzing the constraints on NSIS that come from these requirements
   is hard before further refinement of the framework has been carried
   out and critical assumptions pinned down. However, we can identify
   various modes of interoperation, and the attributes of the framework
   that will make them easy.

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   Firstly, we should allow for NSIS to be used over a 'long range', in
   conjunction with a different protocol locally (e.g. intra-domain);
   or, the two roles could be reversed. This is actually very similar to
   the case of use of NSIS layered over itself (section 5.5). In the
   case where the 'inter-layer' interaction is mediated via resource
   management, the same should approach should work with non-NSIS
   protocols. What needs to be validated here is whether NSIS layering
   requires the exchange of NSIS specific information between the

   A second issue is that NSIS should be able to be deployed within an
   environment without radical changes to supporting resource (or AAA)
   related protocols. The main issue here is that NSIS should be
   flexible in its ability to support different service definitions (and
   possibly flow classifications). This is already one of the main goals
   of the framework presented here.

   The final point is that it should be possible to use NSIS over one
   network region, concatenated with another protocol over an adjacent
   region. The main issue here, apart from the flexible service and flow
   capabilities already mentioned, is that NSIS should be adaptable in
   what signaling paths (e.g. to interwork with both on- and off-path
   solutions), and in initiation paradigms (e.g. to interwork with
   sender and receiver initiated solutions).

5.5 Multi-Level NSIS Signaling

   This section describes a way of separating the NSIS signaling
   protocol into more than one hierarchical level. In this section three
   levels of hierarchy are considered (see Figure 9); however, the
   approach is quite general to more (or fewer) levels: the important
   issue is the use of NSIS at more than one level at all.

   The lowest hierarchical level ("level 1") provides basic resource
   management functionality related to scalable, simple and fast soft
   state maintenance and to transport functions, such as reliable
   delivery of signaling messages, congestion control notification and
   load sharing adaptation.  Soft state that is maintained by this level
   is usually per traffic class based.

   The second hierarchical level ("level 2") is more complex than level
   1 as regards soft state maintenance.  Soft state maintained by this
   hierarchical level is usually per flow. Note that this level, like
   level 1, also supports transport functions.  When an NSIS edge-to-
   edge multi-domain protocol is used, level 2 stretches beyond domain
   boundaries and is applied on all the edges of the domains that are
   included in the multidomain region.

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   The third hierarchical level ("level 3") includes a set of upper-
   level signaling functions that are specific to particular signaling
   applications. Such functions could, for example, be security, policy,
   billing, etc.

   As shown in Figure 9, the three hierarchical levels might be applied
   on different NSIS entities.

   This three-level architecture for NSIS signaling can be provided by

    * a single end-to-end NSIS protocol that supports all three
   hierarchical levels

    * two independent NSIS protocols:  Level 3 is supported by an end-
   to-end NSIS protocol, and levels 1 and 2 are supported by another
   edge-to-edge NSIS protocol.

   |-----|   |-------|                           |-------|   |-----|
   |level|<--| level |<--------------------------| level |<->|level|
   |  3  |<--|   3   |                           |   3   |<->|  3  |
   |-----|   |-------|                           |-------|   |-----|
   |     |   |       |                           |       |   |     |
   |     |   |-------|                           |-------|   |     |
   |     |   | level |<------------------------->| level |   |     |
   |     |   |   2   |                           |   2   |   |     |
   |     |   |-------|                           |-------|   |     |
   |     |   |       |                           |       |   |     |
   |-----|   |-------|   |-------|   |-------|   |-------|   |-----|
   |level|<->| level |<->| level |<->| level |<->| level |<->|level|
   |  1  |<->|   1   |<->|   1   |<->|   1   |<->|   1   |<->|  1  |
   |-----|   |       |   |
              -------     -------|   |-------|   |-------|   |-----|
     NI         NF          NF          NF          NF         NR
              (edge)     (interior)  (interior)   (edge)

           Figure 9: Three level architecture for NSIS signaling

    * NI (NSIS Initiator): can be an end-host or a proxy and
      can process and use the "level 1" and "level 3" protocol

    * NR (NSIS Responder): can be an end-host or a proxy and
      can process and use the "level 1" and "level 3" protocol

    * NF (NSIS Forwarder) (edge): can be a Diffserv edge,
      MPLS edge, etc.  It can process and use the "level 3",
      "level 2" and "level 1" protocol components.  Usually,

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      "level 2" provides an interworking between "level 1" and
      "level 3" protocol components.

    * NF (interior): can be any router within a domain.  It can
      process and use only the "level 1" protocol component.
      The "level 3" and "level 2" protocol components are not
      processed (used or checked);

   The hierarchical level separation can be provided by supporting a
   hierarchical object structure. In other words, the NSIS protocol
   objects should be structured and positioned within the NSIS messages
   in a hierarchical way, i.e., first the "level 1" objects, then the
   "level 2" objects and finally the "level 3" objects.

6. Security and AAA Considerations

   A framework is meant to create boundaries for a later protocol and to
   describe the interaction between the protocol and its environment.
   Security issues usually turn out to have impacts in the interaction
   of these protocols and must therefore be appropriately addressed in
   such a framework. This section describes these general security
   issues, and in particular considers the interactions between NSIS and
   authentication, authorization and accounting. Together with
   authentication the protection of the signaling messages is addressed
   - namely replay and integrity protection.

   An initial analysis of the major security threats that apply in the
   typical of scenario where NSIS is expected to be used is given in
   [4]; these threats are described at the overall scenario level, in
   terms of the impact on users and networks. However, in any given
   scenario, NSIS will be just one protocol or component of the overall
   solution. Ultimately, the framework will need to what aspects of
   these threats need to be handled by NSIS compared to the other
   components. Currently, we can only make initial scoping assumptions
   of this sort.

6.1 Authentication

   Authentication (and key establishment) for a signaling protocol
   should be seen as a two-phase process. The first-phase is usually
   more performance intensive because of a larger number of roundtrips,
   denial of service protection, cross-realm handling, interaction with
   other protocols and the likely larger cryptographic computation
   associated with it. As stated in section 4.3, this functionality
   could be provided externally to NSIS, e.g. by reusing a standard
   transport protocol which already included this functionality. At the
   end of this phase it should be possible to create or derive security
   associations that are usable for the protection of the NSIS signaling

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   messages themselves. The functionality required here relates to
   (data origin) authentication (including integrity and replay
   protection) of individual signaling messages. Key establishment,
   rekeying, synchronization issues are issue that may be addressed here
   depending on the specific method. In any case the protection applied
   to each signaling message must be fast and efficient.

   When using cryptography to protect signaling messages, it is obvious
   that a node must be able to select the appropriate security
   association in order to be able to apply signaling message
   protection. This should just be a general point about endpoint
   identity issues. Hence the identity identifier must be available to
   the transmitting node. Regarding identities there is a need to
   support different identity types to enable the flexible usage of
   several signaling initiators and receivers. Supporting static
   configuration and dynamic learning of these identities should be

6.2 Authorization

   Authorization information can be seen in an abstract form as "Can the
   resource requestor be trusted to pay for the reservation?". This
   abstraction is supported by the fact that reservations require some
   form of incentive to use some 'default' resource (or vice versa -
   penalty for not reserving too many resources). In general, the
   semantics of the authorisation will depend on the type of resource
   (QoS, firewall configuration etc.) that NSIS is being used to signal
   for. The implication of this is that NSIS will not directly make
   authorisation decisions; instead, the authorisation information must
   be fed into the resource management function (section 5.1) which
   actually decides the allocation (or rejection) of the request.

   Some negotiation needs to take place to determine which node will
   take responsibility for authorising a resource request, the
   implication being that the same node will ultimately be accounted to
   for it. Such a negotiation needs to be flexible enough to support
   most currently deployed schemes (e.g. reverse charging, etc.) while
   keeping efficiency and simplicity in mind. This negotiation might be
   executed before starting resource signaling (assumed in section 4.2),
   although it could also be part of the NSIS signaling messages (as in
   some proposals dealing with charging and RSVP). Since information
   needs to be sent to the networks, some information needs to be
   included to provide the network with the necessary information to
   start the authorisation process. Hence fully opaque objects might not
   always be the proper choice.

   It is not clear if 'initiation' of a reservation is related to
   willingness to accept authorisation responsibility. (Current

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   practices tend to assume that flow originators are responsible.) In
   any case, it seems unlikely that a domain will make a cost-incurring
   request of a peer domain without already having received a matching
   request from the peer in the other direction - in other words,
   requests must propagate between domains in the same direction as
   authorisation responsibility. If this argument is correct, and if
   NSIS initiation and authorisation responsibility are decoupled, it
   must be possible for the authorisation responsibility to propagate
   both in the direction initiator->responder and vice versa. Also, if
   both [flow] sender and receiver initiation are possible, service
   descriptions must include information about the authorisation policy
   to be applied, which must be imposed consistently along the whole
   path. These issues should be analyzed to determine if 1, 2 or 4
   alternative scenarios are possible and realistic.

   A second question is that of which entities actually authorise which.
   One end user must ultimately get authorisation for the request (this
   may or may not be assumed to be the NSIS initiator, see below). There
   are then two possible models for how this authorisation is done
   throughout the path.

   The first model assumes that each network along the path is able to
   authenticate and authorise the user directly. The implication for a
   signaling protocol is that the user credentials cannot be removed
   after the first hop and have to be further included in the message
   when forwarded to other networks. Every node along the path is then
   able to verify the user and to provide policy based admission

   The second model assumes that the user credentials are removed at the
   first hop. The first network knows the user identity requesting the
   resources but does not include this information further along the
   path. The first network can therefore be seen as acting on behalf of
   the originator to take responsibility to enable further reservations
   to be done along the path i.e. in particular to the next network
   only. This procedure is then applied in a hop-by-hop basis.

   Note that both models are independent on whether a traditional
   subscription based approach or an alternative means of payment (such
   as pre-pay on on-line charging by the visited network) is used. These
   issues only have an impact for the transmission of accounting records
   and for a requirement to execute an online verification whether a
   user still has sufficient credits/funds; therefore, these details do
   not affect NSIS operation.

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6.3 Accounting

   It is obvious that accounting/charging is an important part for the
   success and the acceptance of a resource signaling protocol. Most of
   the thinking in this area is derived from the specific case of
   signaling for QoS; however, we make an initial working assumption
   that the same paradigms should apply to signaling for any type of
   resource for which accounting is necessary. We can only refer to QoS
   as an example. We make the general assumption here that accounting
   records are generated by the resource management function based
   entirely on traffic measurements and processed in accordance with the
   authorisation information that was used in deciding to grant the
   request in the first place.

   Therefore, NSIS plays no further part in this activity; the
   accounting records are transmitted using the AAA infrastructure, and
   charging and billing for the overall service is carried out at some
   higher layer. This would include feedback to applications (and users)
   about total session cost (of which the network resource cost might be
   only a part). An open issue is whether a query (without actually
   making a reservation) to the network should also generate a
   chargeable event; this could be considered as an aspect of the
   service definition.

6.4 End-to-End vs. Peer-Session Protection

   It is reasonable to assume that peer-session security (with chain-of-
   trust) is used for most signaling environments relevant to NSIS.
   Especially the separation of signaling into different network parts
   (intra-domain within the access network, end-node to access network,
   intra-domain, and so on) and new proposals regarding mobility and
   proxy support show that the traditionally end-to-end signaling nature
   is not applicable in every environment (or possibly only in a minor
   number of environments). End-to-end security in a signaling protocol
   is actually problematic for two reasons:

   a) Even if the messages use the address of the end-host (to support
   routing) if in path signaling is used then still the messages have to
   be interpreted and modified along the path.

   b) The only property that can be achieved by using end-to-end
   security is that one end-host can be assured that the other end-host
   included some parameters (possibly resource parameters) that have not
   been modified along the path. Nodes along the path usually do not
   have the possibility to cryptographically verify the protected
   message parts. If the two end-points negotiate which side has to pay
   for the reservation (or possibly how much and other parameters)
   within the signaling protocol then there is a need to protect this

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   information. This leads to the question which protocols are executed
   before the signaling message exchange starts. If resource parameters
   and payment/charging related information are already exchanged
   beforehand as part of a separate protocol (possibly SIP) then there
   is little need to protect (and possibly retransmit) this information
   at the NSIS level basis. In most cases an opaque token to link the
   different protocols may be sufficient.

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                 NSIS Signaling Framework: A Proposal        June 2002


   1  Bradner, S., "The Internet Standards Process -- Revision 3", BCP
      9, RFC 2026, October 1996.

   2  Brunner, M., "Requirements for QoS Signaling Protocols", draft-
      ietf-nsis-req-02.txt (work in progress), May 2002

   3  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
      Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997

   4  Tschofenig, H., "NSIS Threats", draft-tschofenig-nsis-threats-
      00.txt (work in progress), May 2002

   5  Katz, D., "IP Router Alert Option", RFC 2113, February 1997

   6  Partridge, C., A. Jackson, "IPv6 Router Alert Option", RFC 2711,
      October 1999

   7  Braden, R., "A Two-Level Architecture for Internet Signaling",
      draft-braden-2level-signal-arch-00.txt (work in progress),
      November 2001

   8  Stewart, R. et al., "Stream Control Transmission Protocol", RFC
      2960, October 2000

   9  Kent, S., R. Atkinson, "Security Architecture for the Internet
      Protocol", RFC 2401, November 1998

   10 Westberg, L., et al., "Framework for Edge-to-Edge NSIS Signaling",
      draft-westberg-nsis-edge-edge-framework-00.txt (work in progress),
      May 2002

   11 Blake, S., et al., "An Architecture for Differentiated Services",
      RFC2475, December 1998

   12 Goderis, D., et al. "Service Level Specification Semantics and
      Parameters", draft-tequila-sls-02.txt (work in progress), February

   13 Apostolopoulos, G., et al., "QoS Routing Mechanisms and OSPF
      Extensions", RFC 2676, August 1999

   14 Rekhter, Y. and T. Li, "A Border Gateway Protocol 4 (BGP-4)", RFC
      1771, March 1995

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                 NSIS Signaling Framework: A Proposal        June 2002

   15 Rekhter, Y. and T. Li, "A Border Gateway Protocol 4 (BGP-4)",
      draft-ietf-idr-bgp4-17.txt (work in progress), January 2002

   16 Walton, D., D. Cook, A. Retana and J. Scudder, "Advertisement of
      Multiple Paths in BGP", draft-walton-bgp-add-paths-00.txt (work in
      progress), May 2002

   17 Cristallo, G., C. Jacquenet, "Providing Quality-of-Service
      Indication by the BGP-4 Protocol: the QoS_NLRI Attribute", draft-
      jacquenet-qos-nlri-04.txt (work in progress), March 2002

   18 Bonaventure, O., S. De Cnodder, J. Haas, B. Quoitin and R. White,
      "Controlling the redistribution of BGP Routes", draft-bonaventure-
      bgp-redistribution-02.txt (work in progress), February 2002

   19 Braden, R. et al., "Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) --
      Version 1 Functional Specification", RFC 2205, September 1997

   20 Westberg, L., M. Jacobsson, G. Karagiannis, S. Oosthoek, D.
      Partain, V. Rexhepi, R. Szabo, P. Wallentin, "Resource Management
      in Diffserv (RMD) Framework", draft-westberg-rmd-framework-01.txt
      (work in progress), February 2002

   21 Thomas, M., "Analysis of Mobile IP and RSVP Interactions", draft-
      thomas-seamoby-rsvp-analysis-00.txt (work in progress), February

   22 Partain, D. et al., "Resource Reservation Issues in Cellular Radio
      Access Networks", draft-westberg-rmd-cellular-issues-01.txt (work
      in progress), June 2002

   23 Shen, C. et al., "An Interoperation Framework for Using RSVP in
      Mobile IPv6 Networks", draft-shen-rsvp-mobileipv6-interop-00.txt
      (work in progress), July 2001

   24 Manner, J., et al., "Localized RSVP", draft-manner-lrsvp-00.txt
      (work in progress), May 2002

   25 Chaskar, H. and R. Koodli, "A Framework for QoS Support in Mobile
      IPv6", draft-chaskar-mobileip-qos-01.txt (work in progress), March

   26 Fu, X., et al, "QoS-Conditionalized Binding Update in Mobile
      IPv6", draft-tkn-nsis-qosbinding-mipv6-00.txt (work in progress),
      January 2002

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                 NSIS Signaling Framework: A Proposal        June 2002

   27 Kan, Z., "Two-plane and Three-tier QoS Framework for Mobile IPv6
      Networks", draft-kan-qos-framework-00.txt (work in progress),
      April 2002


   The authors would like to thank Anders Bergsten, Maarten Buchli and
   Hannes Tschofenig for significant contributions in particular areas
   of this draft. In addition, the authors would like to acknowledge
   Marcus Brunner, Danny Goderis, Eleanor Hepworth, Cornelia Kappler,
   Hans De Neve, David Partain, Vlora Rexhepi, and Lars Westberg for
   insights and inputs during this and previous framework activities.

Author's Addresses

   Ilya Freytsis
   Cetacean Networks Inc.
   100 Arboretum Drive
   Portsmouth, NH 03801
   email: ifreytsis@cetacean.com

   Robert Hancock
   Roke Manor Research
   Old Salisbury Lane
   SO51 0ZN
   United Kingdom
   email: robert.hancock@roke.co.uk

   Georgios Karagiannis
   Ericsson EuroLab Netherlands B.V.
   Institutenweg 25
   P.O.Box 645
   7500 AP Enschede
   The Netherlands
   email: Georgios.Karagiannis@eln.ericsson.se

   John Loughney
   Nokia Research Center
   11-13 Italahdenkatu
   00180 Helsinki
   email: john.loughney@nokia.com

Hancock et al.         Expires - December 2002               [Page 43]

                 NSIS Signaling Framework: A Proposal        June 2002

   Sven Van den Bosch
   Francis Wellesplein 1
   B-2018 Antwerpen
   email: sven.van_den_bosch@alcatel.be

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