Multi-Cost Application-Layer Traffic Optimization (ALTO)
draft-ietf-alto-multi-cost-10

Network Working Group                                     S. Randriamasy
Internet-Draft                                                  W. Roome
Intended status: Standards Track                         Nokia Bell Labs
Expires: October 27, 2017                                      N. Schwan
                                                      Thales Deutschland
                                                          April 25, 2017


                            Multi-Cost ALTO
                     draft-ietf-alto-multi-cost-09

Abstract

   The ALTO (Application Layer-Traffic Optimization) Protocol
   ([RFC7285]) defines several services that return various metrics
   describing the costs between network endpoints.

   This document defines a new service that allows an ALTO Client to
   retrieve several cost metrics in a single request for an ALTO
   Filtered Cost Map and Endpoint Cost Map.  In addition, it extends the
   constraints to further filter those maps by allowing a client to
   specify a logical combination of tests on several cost metrics.

Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on October 27, 2017.






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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Overview Of Approach  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.1.  Multi-Cost Data Format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.2.  Compatibility With Legacy ALTO Clients  . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.3.  Filtered Multi Cost Map Resources . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.4.  Endpoint Cost Service Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.5.  Full Cost Map Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.6.  Extended Constraint Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       3.6.1.  Extended constraint predicates  . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       3.6.2.  Extended logical combination of predicates  . . . . .   7
       3.6.3.  Testable Cost Types in constraints  . . . . . . . . .   8
       3.6.4.  Testable Cost Type Names in IRD capabilities  . . . .   9
       3.6.5.  Legacy ALTO Client issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   4.  Protocol Extensions for Multi-Cost ALTO Transactions  . . . .  11
     4.1.  Filtered Cost Map Extensions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       4.1.1.  Capabilities  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       4.1.2.  Accept Input Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       4.1.3.  Response  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     4.2.  Endpoint Cost Service Extensions  . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       4.2.1.  Capabilities  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       4.2.2.  Accept Input Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       4.2.3.  Response  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   5.  Examples  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     5.1.  Information Resource Directory  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     5.2.  Multi-Cost Filtered Cost Map: Example #1  . . . . . . . .  19
     5.3.  Multi-Cost Filtered Cost Map: Example #2  . . . . . . . .  20
     5.4.  Multi-Cost Filtered Cost Map: Example #3  . . . . . . . .  22
     5.5.  Multi-Cost Filtered Cost Map: Example #4  . . . . . . . .  23
     5.6.  Endpoint Cost Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
   6.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25



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   7.  Privacy And Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
   8.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
   9.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     9.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     9.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27

1.  Introduction

   IETF has defined ALTO services in [RFC7285] to provide guidance to
   overlay applications, which have to select one or several hosts from
   a set of candidates that are able to provide a desired resource.
   This guidance is based on parameters such as the topological
   distance, that affect performance of the data transmission between
   the hosts.  The purpose of ALTO is to improve Quality of Experience
   (QoE) in the application while reducing resource consumption in the
   underlying network infrastructure.  The ALTO protocol conveys a view
   of the Internet called a Network Map and composed of Provider defined
   locations spanning from subnets to several Autonomous Systems (AS).
   ALTO may also convey the Provider determined Costs between Network
   Map locations or between groups of individual endpoints.

   Current ALTO Cost Types provide values such as hopcount and
   administrative routing cost to reflect ISP routing preferences.
   Recently, new use cases have extended the usage scope of ALTO to
   Content Delivery Networks (CDN), Data Centers and applications that
   need additional information to select their endpoints or network
   locations.  Thus a multitude of new Cost Types that better reflect
   the requirements of these applications are expected to be specified.

   The ALTO protocol [RFC7285], which this document refers to as the
   base protocol, restricts ALTO Cost Maps and Endpoint Cost Services to
   only one Cost Type per ALTO request.  To retrieve information for
   several Cost Types, an ALTO Client must send several separate
   requests to the Server.

   It is far more efficient, in terms of Round Trip Time (RTT), traffic,
   and processing load on the ALTO Client and Server, to get all costs
   with a single query/response transaction.  One Cost Map reporting on
   N Cost Types is less bulky than N Cost Maps containing one Cost Type
   each.  This is valuable for both the storage of these maps and their
   transmission.  Additionally, for many emerging applications that need
   information on several Cost Types, having them gathered in one map
   will save time.  Another advantage is consistency: providing values
   for several Cost Types in one single batch is useful for ALTO Clients
   needing synchronized ALTO information updates.  This document defines
   how to retrieve multiple cost metrics in a single request for ALTO
   Filtered Cost Maps and Endpoint Cost Maps.  To ensure compatibility



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   with legacy ALTO Clients, only the Filtered Cost Map and Endpoint
   Cost Map services are extended to return Multi-Cost values.

   Along with multi-cost values queries, the filtering capabilities need
   to be extended to allow constraints on multiple metrics.  The base
   protocol allows an ALTO Client to provide optional constraint tests
   for a Filtered Cost Map or the Endpoint Cost Service, where the
   constraint tests are limited to the AND-combination of comparison
   tests on the value of the (single) requested Cost Type.  However,
   applications that are sensitive to several metrics and struggle with
   complicated network conditions may need to arbitrate between
   conflicting objectives such as routing cost and network performance.
   To this end, this document extends the base protocol with constraints
   that may test multiple metrics and may be combined with logical 'ORs'
   as well as logical 'ANDs'.  This allows an application to make
   requests such as: "select solutions with either (moderate "hopcount"
   AND high "routingcost") OR (higher "hopcount" AND moderate
   "routingcost")".

   This document is organized as follows: Section 2 defines terminology
   used in this document.  Section 3 gives a non-normative overview of
   the multi-cost extensions, and Section 4 gives their formal
   definitions.  Section 5 gives several complete examples.  The
   remaining sections describe the IANA and privacy considerations.

2.  Terminology

   o  ALTO transaction: A request/response exchange between an ALTO
      Client and an ALTO Server.

   o  Client: This term refers to an ALTO client, when used with a
      capital "C".

   o  Endpoint (EP): An endpoint is defined as in {2.1} of [RFC7285].
      It can be for example a peer, a CDN storage location, a physical
      server involved in a virtual server-supported application, a party
      in a resource sharing swarm such as a computation grid or an
      online multi-party game.

   o  Server: This term refers to an ALTO server, when used with a
      capital "S".

   References with curly brackets such as '{1.2.3}' are to sections in
   the ALTO protocol specification [RFC7285], to avoid overloading the
   document with citations of [RFC7285].






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3.  Overview Of Approach

   The following is a non-normative overview of the multi-cost
   extensions defined in this document.  It assumes the reader is
   familiar with Cost Map resources in the ALTO Protocol ([RFC7285]).

3.1.  Multi-Cost Data Format

   Formally, the cost entries in an ALTO Cost Map can be any type of
   JSON value (see the DstCosts object in {11.2.3.6}).  However, that
   section also says that an implementation may assume costs are JSON
   numbers, unless the implementation is using an extension which
   signals a different data type.

   Therefore this document extends the definition of a Cost Map to allow
   a cost to be an array of costs, one per metric, instead of just one
   number.  For example, here is a Cost Map with the "routingcost" and
   "hopcount" metrics.  Note that this is identical to a regular ALTO
   Cost Map, except that the values are arrays instead of numbers.  The
   multiple metrics are listed in member "multi-cost-types", indicating
   to the Client how to map values in the array to cost metrics.

   {
    "meta" : {
      "dependent-vtags" : [ ... ],
      "cost-type" : {},
      "multi-cost-types" : [
        {"cost-mode": "numerical", "cost-metric": "routingcost"},
        {"cost-mode": "numerical", "cost-metric": "hopcount"}
      ]
    }
    "cost-map" : {
      "PID1": { "PID1":[1,0],  "PID2":[5,23],  "PID3":[10,5] },
      ...
    }
   }

   Note also the presence of member '"cost-type" : {}' to maintain
   backwards compatibility with [RFC7285].

3.2.  Compatibility With Legacy ALTO Clients

   This document does not define any new media types.  Instead, as
   described below, it extends the specifications in the ALTO Server's
   Information Resource Directory (IRD) so that legacy Clients will not
   request array-valued Multi Cost Map resources.  This relies on the
   requirement that ALTO Clients MUST ignore unknown fields ({8.3.7}).




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3.3.  Filtered Multi Cost Map Resources

   This document extends the Filtered Cost Map service to allow the same
   resource to return either a single-valued Cost Map, as defined in
   [RFC7285], or an array-valued Multi Cost Map, as defined in this
   document.  An extended Filtered Cost Map resource has a new
   capability, "max-cost-types".  The value is the maximum number of
   cost types this resource can return for one request.  The existence
   of this capability means the resource understands the extensions in
   this document.

   For example, the following fragment from an IRD defines an extended
   Filtered Cost Map resource:

      "filtered-multicost-map" : {
        "uri" : "http://alto.example.com/multi/costmap/filtered",
        "media-types" : [ "application/alto-costmap+json" ],
        "accepts" : [ "application/alto-costmapfilter+json" ],
        "uses" : [ "my-default-network-map" ],
        "capabilities" : {
          "max-cost-types" : 2,
          "cost-type-names" : [ "num-routingcost",
                                "num-hopcount" ],
          ...
        }

   A legacy ALTO Client will ignore the "max-cost-types" capability, and
   will send a request with the input parameter "cost-type" describing
   the desired cost metric, as defined in [RFC7285].  The ALTO Server
   will return a single-valued legacy Cost Map.

   However, a multi-cost-aware ALTO Client will realize that this
   resource supports the multi-cost extensions, and can send a POST
   request with the new input parameter "multi-cost-types", whose value
   is an array of cost types.  Because the request has the "multi-cost-
   types" parameter (rather than the "cost-type" parameter defined in
   the base protocol), the Server realizes that the ALTO Client also
   supports the extensions in this document, and hence responds with a
   Multi Cost Map, with the costs in the order listed in "multi-cost-
   types".

3.4.  Endpoint Cost Service Resources

   Section {4.1.4} of [RFC7285] specifies that "The Endpoint Cost
   Service allows an ALTO Server to return costs directly amongst
   endpoints.", whereas the Filtered Cost Map Service returns costs
   amongst PIDs.  This document uses the technique described in




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   Section 3.3 to extend the Endpoint Cost Service to return array-
   valued costs to ALTO Clients who also are aware of these extensions.

3.5.  Full Cost Map Resources

   Section {11.3.2.3} of [RFC7285] requires a Filtered Cost Map to
   return the entire Cost Map if the ALTO Client omits the source and
   destination PIDs.  Hence a Multi-Cost aware ALTO Client can use an
   extended Filtered Cost Map resource to get a full Multi Cost Map.

   Full Cost Map resources are GET-mode requests.  The response for a
   Full Cost Map conveying multiple cost types would include a "meta"
   field that would itself include a "cost-type" field, that would list
   several values corresponding to the cost types of the cost map.  A
   legacy ALTO Client would not be able to understand this list.
   Neither would it be able to interpret the cost values array provided
   by a Multi-Cost full maps.

3.6.  Extended Constraint Tests

   [RFC7285] defines a simple constraint test capability for Filtered
   Cost Maps and Endpoint Cost Services.  If a resource supports
   constraints, the Server restricts the response to costs that satisfy
   a list of simple predicates provided by the ALTO Client.  For
   example, if the ALTO Client gives the constraints

        "constraints": ["ge 10", "le 20"]

   Then the Server only returns costs in the range [10,20].

   To be useful with multi-cost requests, the constraint tests require
   several extensions.

3.6.1.  Extended constraint predicates

   First, because a multi-cost request involves more than one cost
   metric, the simple predicates must be extended to specify the metric
   to test.  Therefore we extend the predicate syntax to "[##] op
   value", where "##" is the index of a cost metric in this multi-cost
   request.

3.6.2.  Extended logical combination of predicates

   Second, once multiple cost metrics are involved, the "AND" of simple
   predicates is no longer sufficient.  To be useful, Clients must be
   able to express "OR" tests.  Hence we add a new field, "or-
   constraints", to the Client request.  The value is an array of arrays




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   of simple predicates, and represents the OR of ANDs of those
   predicates.

   Thus, the following request tells the Server to limit its response to
   cost points with "routingcost" <= 100 AND "hopcount" <= 2, OR else
   "routingcost" <= 10 AND "hopcount" <= 6:

      {
        "multi-cost-types": [
            {"cost-metric": "routingcost", "cost-mode": "numerical"},
            {"cost-metric": "hopcount",    "cost-mode": "numerical"}
        ],
        "or-constraints": [
            ["[0] le 100", "[1] le 2"],
            ["[0] le 10",  "[1] le 6"]
        ],
        "pids": {...}
      }

   Note that a "constraints" parameter with the array of predicates [P1,
   P2, ...] is equivalent to an "or-constraints" parameter with one
   array of value [[P1, P2, ...]].  A Client is therefore allowed to
   express either "constraints" or "or-constraints" but not both.

3.6.3.  Testable Cost Types in constraints

   Finally, a Client may want to test a cost type whose actual value is
   irrelevant, as long as it satisfies the tests.  For example, a Client
   may want the value of the cost metric "routingcost" for all PID pairs
   that satisfy constraints on the metric "hopcount", without needing
   the actual value of "hopcount".

   To this end, we add a specific parameter named "testable-cost-types",
   that does not contain the same cost types as parameter "multi-cost-
   types".  The Client can express constraints only on cost types listed
   in "testable-cost-types".

   For example, the following request tells the Server to return just
   "routingcost" for those source and destination pairs for which
   "hopcount" is <= 6:











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      {
        "multi-cost-types": [
            {"cost-metric": "routingcost", "cost-mode": "numerical"},
        ],
        "testable-cost-types": [
            {"cost-metric": "hopcount", "cost-mode": "numerical"},
        ],
        "constraints": ["[0] le 6"],
        "pids": {...}
      }

3.6.4.  Testable Cost Type Names in IRD capabilities

   In [RFC7285], when a resource's capability "constraints" is true, the
   Server accepts constraints on all the cost types listed in the "cost-
   type-names" capability.  However, some ALTO Servers may not be
   willing to allow constraint tests on all available cost metrics.
   Therefore the Multi-Cost ALTO protocol extension defines the
   capability field "testable-cost-type-names".  Like "cost-type-names",
   it is an array of cost type names.  If present, that resource only
   allows constraint tests on the cost types in that list. "testable-
   cost-type-names" must be a subset of "cost-type-names".

3.6.5.  Legacy ALTO Client issues

   While a multi-cost-aware Client will recognize the "testable-cost-
   type-names" field, and will honor those restrictions, a legacy Client
   will not.  Hence, when "constraints" has the value 'true', a legacy
   client may send a request with a constraint test on any of the cost
   types listed in "cost-type-names".

   To avoid that problem, the "testable-cost-type-names" and "cost-
   constraints" fields are mutually exclusive: a resource may define one
   or the other capability, but MUST NOT define both.  Thus a resource
   that does not allow constraint tests on all cost metrics will set
   "testable-cost-type-names" to the testable metrics, and will set
   "cost-constraints" to "false".  A multi-cost-aware Client will
   recognize the "testable-cost-type-names" field, and will realize that
   its existence means the resource does allow (limited) constraint
   tests, while a legacy Client will think that resource does not allow
   constraint tests at all.  To allow legacy Clients to use constraint
   tests, the ALTO Server can define an additional resource with "cost-
   constraints" set to "true" and "cost-type-names" set to the metrics
   which can be tested.

   In the IRD example below, the resource "filtered-cost-map-extended"
   provides values for three metrics: "num-routingcost", "num-hopcount"
   and "num-bwscore".  The capability "testable-cost-type-names"



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   indicates that the Server only allows constraints on "routingcost"
   and "hopcount".  A multi-cost capable Client will see this
   capability, and will limit its constraint tests to those metrics.
   Because capability "cost-constraints" is false (by default), a legacy
   Client will not use constraint tests on this resource at all.

   The second resource, "filtered-multicost-map", is similar to the
   first, except that all the metrics it returns are testable.
   Therefore it sets "cost-constraints" to "true", and does not set the
   "testable-cost-type-names" field.  A legacy Client that needs a
   constraint test will use this resource rather than the first.  A
   multi-cost-aware Client that does not need to retrieve the "num-
   bwscore" metric may use either resource.

   Note that if a multi-cost Server specifies a "filtered-cost-map-
   extended", it will most likely not specify an "filtered-multicost-
   map" if the capabilities of the latter are covered by the
   capabilities of the former or unless the "filtered-multicost-map"
   ressource is also intended for legacy Clients.


   "filtered-cost-map-extended" : {
      "uri" : "http://alto.example.com/multi/extn/costmap/filtered",
      "media-types" : [ "application/alto-costmap+json" ],
      "accepts" : [ "application/alto-costmapfilter+json" ],
      "uses" : [ "my-default-network-map" ],
      "capabilities" : {
         "max-cost-types" : 3,
         "cost-type-names" : [ "num-routingcost",
                               "num-hopcount",
                               "num-bwscore"],
         "testable-cost-type-names" : [ "num-routingcost",
                                        "num-hopcount" ]
      }
   },

   "filtered-multicost-map" : {
      "uri" : "http://alto.example.com/multi/costmap/filtered",
      "media-types" : [ "application/alto-costmap+json" ],
      "accepts" : [ "application/alto-costmapfilter+json" ],
      "uses" : [ "my-default-network-map" ],
      "capabilities" : {
        "cost-constraints" : true,
        "max-cost-types" : 2,
        "cost-type-names" : [ "num-routingcost",
                              "num-hopcount"],
      }
   }



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4.  Protocol Extensions for Multi-Cost ALTO Transactions

   This section formally specifies the extensions to [RFC7285] to
   support Multi-Cost ALTO transactions.

   This document uses the notation rules specified in {8.2}.  In
   particular, an optional field is enclosed by [ ].  In the
   definitions, the JSON names of the fields are case sensitive.  An
   array is indicated by two numbers in angle brackets, <m..n>, where m
   indicates the minimal number of values and n is the maximum.  When
   this document uses * for n, it means no upper bound.

4.1.  Filtered Cost Map Extensions

   This document extends Filtered Cost Maps, as defined in {11.3.2} of
   [RFC7285], by adding new input parameters and capabilities, and by
   returning JSONArrays instead of JSONNumbers as the cost values.

   The media type (11.3.2.1}, HTTP method (11.3.2.2} and "uses"
   specifications (11.3.2.5} are unchanged.

4.1.1.  Capabilities

   The filtered cost map capabilities are extended with two new members:

   o  max-cost-types,

   o  testable-cost-type-names

   The capability "max-cost-types" indicates whether this resource
   supports the Multi-Cost ALTO extensions, and the capability
   "testable-cost-type-names" allows the resource to restrict constraint
   tests to a subset of the available cost types.  With these two
   additional members, the FilteredCostMapCapabilities object in
   {11.3.2.4} is structured as follows:

       object {
          JSONString cost-type-names<1..*>;
          [JSONBool cost-constraints;]
          [JSONNumber max-cost-types;]
          [JSONString testable-cost-type-names<1..*>;]
       } FilteredCostMapCapabilities;

   cost-type-names:  As defined in {11.3.2.4} of [RFC7285].

   cost-constraints:  As defined in {11.3.2.4} of [RFC7285].  Thus if
      "cost-constraints" is true, the resource MUST accept constraint
      tests on any cost type in "cost-type-names".  Note in addition



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      that if "cost-constraints" is "true", the "testable-cost-type-
      names" capability MUST NOT be present

   max-cost-types:  If present with value N greater than 0, this
      resource understands the multi-cost extensions in this document,
      and can return a Multi Cost Map with any combination of N or fewer
      cost types in the "cost-type-names" list.  If omitted, the default
      value is 0.

   testable-cost-type-names:  If present, the resource allows constraint
      tests, but only on the cost type names in this array.  Each name
      in "testable-cost-type-names" MUST also be in "cost-type-names".
      If "testable-cost-type-names" is present, the "cost-constraints"
      capability MUST NOT be true.

      As discussed in Section 3.6.4, this capability is useful when a
      Server is unable or unwilling to implement constraint tests on all
      cost types.  As discussed in Section 3.6.5, "testable-cost-type-
      names" and "cost-constraints" are mutually exclusive to prevent
      legacy Clients from issuing constraint tests on untestable cost
      types.

4.1.2.  Accept Input Parameters

   The ReqFilteredCostMap object in {11.3.2.3} of [RFC7285] is extended
   as follows:

       object {
          [CostType cost-type;]
          [CostType multi-cost-types<1..*>;]
          [CostType testable-cost-types<1..*>;]
          [JSONString constraints<0..*>;]
          [JSONString or-constraints<1..*><1..*>;]
          [PIDFilter pids];
       } ReqFilteredCostMap;


   cost-type:  As defined in {11.3.2.3} of [RFC7285], with the
      additional requirement that the Client MUST specify either "cost-
      type" or "multi-cost-types", but MUST NOT specify both.  Therefore
      this field is made optional.  When placing a single cost request
      as specified in [RFC7285], a Client MUST use "cost-type".

   multi-cost-types:  If present, the ALTO Server MUST return array-
      valued costs for the cost types in this list.  For each entry, the
      "cost-metric" and "cost-mode" fields MUST match one of the
      supported cost types indicated in member "cost-type-names" of this
      resource's "capabilities" field (Section 4.1.1).  The Client MUST



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      NOT use this field unless this resource's "max-cost-types"
      capability exists and has a value greater than 0.  This field MUST
      NOT have more than "max-cost-types" cost types.  The Client MUST
      specify either "cost-type" or "multi-cost-types", but MUST NOT
      specify both.

      Note that if "multi-cost-types" has one cost type, the values in
      the cost map will be arrays with one value.

   testable-cost-types:  A list of cost types used for extended
      constraint tests, as described for the "constraints" and "or-
      constraints" parameters.  These cost types must either be a subset
      of the cost types in the resource's "testable-cost-type-names"
      capability (Section 4.1.1), or else, if the resource's capability
      "cost-constraints" is true, a subset of the cost types in the
      resource's "cost-type-names" capability.

      If "testable-cost-types" is omitted, it is assumed to have the
      cost types in "multi-cost-types" or "cost-type".

      This feature is useful when a Client wants to test a cost type
      whose actual value is irrelevant, as long as it satisfies the
      tests.  For example, a Client may want the cost metric
      "routingcost" for those PID pairs whose "hopcount" is less than
      10.  The exact hopcount does not matter.

   constraints:  If this resource's "max-cost-types" capability
      (Section 4.1.1) has the value 0 (or is not defined), this
      parameter is as defined in {11.3.2.3} of [RFC7285]: an array of
      constraint tests related to each other by a logical AND.  In this
      case it MUST NOT be specified unless the resource's "cost-
      constraints" capability is "true".

      If this resource's "max-cost-types" capability has a value greater
      than 0, then this parameter is an array of extended constraint
      predicates as defined below and related to each other by a logical
      AND.  In this case, it MAY be specified if the resource allows
      constraint tests (the resource's "cost-constraints" capability is
      "true" or its "testable-cost-type-names" capability is not empty).

      This parameter MUST NOT be specified if the "or-constraints"
      parameter is specified.

      An extended constraint predicate consists of two or three entities
      separated by white space: (1) an optional cost type index, of the
      form "[#]", with default value "[0]", (2) a required operator, and
      (3) a required target value.  The operator and target value are as
      defined in {11.3.2.3} of [RFC7285].  The cost type index, i,



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      specifies the cost type to test.  If the "testable-cost-type"
      parameter is present, the test applies to the i'th cost type in
      "testable-cost-types", starting with index 0.  Otherwise if the
      "multi-cost-types" parameter is present, the test applies to the
      i'th cost type in that array.  If neither parameters are present,
      the test applies to the cost type in the "cost-type" parameter, in
      which case the index MUST be 0.  Regardless of how the tested cost
      type is selected, it MUST be in the resource's "testable-cost-
      type-names" capability, or, if not present, in the "cost-type-
      names" capability.

      As an example, suppose "multi-cost-types" has the single element
      "routingcost", "testable-cost-types" has the single element
      "hopcount", and "constraints" has the single element "[0] le 5".
      This is equivalent to the database query "SELECT and provide
      routingcost WHERE hopcount <= 5".

      Note that the index is optional, so a constraint test as defined
      in {11.3.2.3}, such as "le 10", is equivalent to "[0] le 10".
      Thus legacy constraint tests are also legal extended constraint
      tests.

      Note that a "constraints" parameter with the array of extended
      predicates [P1, P2, ...] is equivalent to an "or-constraints"
      parameter as defined below, with the value [[P1, P2, ...]].

   or-constraints:  A JSONArray of JSONArrays of JSONStrings, where each
      string is an extended constraint predicate as defined above.  The
      "or-constraint" tests are interpreted as the logical OR of ANDs of
      predicates.  That is, the ALTO Server should return a cost point
      only if it satisfies all constraints in any one of the sub-arrays.

      This parameter MAY be specified if this resource's "max-cost-
      types" capability is defined with a value greater than 0
      (Section 4.1.1), and if the resource allows constraint tests (the
      resource's "cost-constraints" capability is "true" or its
      "testable-cost-type-names" capability is not empty).  Otherwise
      this parameter MUST NOT be specified.

      This parameter MUST NOT be specified if the "constraints"
      parameter is specified.

      This parameter MUST NOT contain any empty array of AND predicates.
      An empty array would be equivalent to a constraint that is always
      "true".  An OR combination including such a constraint would be
      always "true" and thus useless.





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      As an example, suppose "multi-cost-types" has the two elements
      "routingcost" and "bandwidthscore", and "testable-cost-types" has
      the two elements "routingcost" and "hopcount", and "or-
      constraints" has the two elements ["[0] le 100", "[1] le 2"] and
      ["[0] le 10", "[1] le 6"].  This is equivalent to the words:
      "SELECT and provide routingcost and bandwidthscore WHERE
      ("routingcost" <= 100 AND "hopcount" <= 2) OR ("routingcost" <= 10
      AND "hopcount" <= 6)".

      Note that if the "max-cost-types" capability has a value greater
      than 0, a Client MAY use the "or-constraints" parameter together
      with the "cost-type" parameter.  That is, if the Client and Server
      are both aware of the extensions in this document, a Client MAY
      use an "OR" test for a single-valued cost request.

   pids:  As defined in {11.3.2.3} of [RFC7285].

4.1.3.  Response

   If the Client specifies the "cost-type" input parameter, the response
   is exactly as defined in {11.2.3.6} of [RFC7285].  If the Client
   provides the "multi-cost-types" instead, then the response is changed
   as follows:

   o  In "meta", the value of field "cost-type" will be ignored by the
      receiver and set to {}. Instead, the field "multi-cost-types" is
      added with the same value as the "multi-cost-types" input
      parameter.

   o  The costs are JSONArrays, instead of JSONNumbers.  All arrays have
      the same cardinality as the "multi-cost-types" input parameter,
      and contain the cost type values in that order.  If a cost type is
      not available for a particular source and destination, the ALTO
      Server MUST use the JSON "null" value for that array element.  If
      none of the cost types are available for a particular source and
      destination, the ALTO Server MAY omit the entry for that source
      and destination.

4.2.  Endpoint Cost Service Extensions

   This document extends the Endpoint Cost Service, as defined in
   {11.5.1} of [RFC7285], by adding new input parameters and
   capabilities, and by returning JSONArrays instead of JSONNumbers as
   the cost values.

   The media type {11.5.1.1}, HTTP method {11.5.1.2} and "uses"
   specifications {11.5.1.5} are unchanged.




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4.2.1.  Capabilities

   The extensions to the Endpoint Cost Service capabilities are
   identical to the extensions to the Filtered Cost Map (see
   Section 4.1.1).

4.2.2.  Accept Input Parameters

   The ReqEndpointCostMap object in {11.5.1.3} of [RFC7285] is extended
   as follows:

       object {
          [CostType cost-type;]
          [CostType multi-cost-types<1..*>;]
          [CostType testable-cost-types<1..*>;]
          [JSONString constraints<0..*>;]
          [JSONString or-constraints<1..*><1..*>;]
          EndpointFilter endpoints;
       } ReqEndpointCostMap;


   cost-type:  As defined in {11.5.1.3} of [RFC7285], with the
      additional requirement that the Client MUST specify either "cost-
      type" or "multi-cost-types", but MUST NOT specify both.

   multi-cost-types:  If present, the ALTO Server MUST return array-
      valued costs for the cost types in this list.  For each entry, the
      "cost-metric" and "cost-mode" fields MUST match one of the
      supported cost types indicated in this resource's "capabilities"
      field (Section 4.2.1).  The Client MUST NOT use this field unless
      this resource's "max-cost-types" capability exists and has a value
      greater than 0.  This field MUST NOT have more than "max-cost-
      types" cost types.  The Client MUST specify either "cost-type" or
      "multi-cost-types", but MUST NOT specify both.

      Note that if "multi-cost-types" has one cost type, the values in
      the cost map will be arrays with one value.

   testable-cost-types, constraints, or-constraints:  Defined
      equivalently to the corresponding input parameters for an extended
      Filtered Cost Map (Section 4.1.2).

   endpoints:  As defined in {11.5.1.3} of [RFC7285].








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4.2.3.  Response

   The extensions to the Endpoint Cost Service response are similar to
   the extensions to the Filtered Cost Map response (Section 4.1.3).
   Specifically, if the Client specifies the "cost-type" input
   parameter, the response is exactly as defined in {11.5.1.6} of
   [RFC7285].  If the Client provides the "multi-cost-types" instead,
   then the response is changed as follows:

   o  In "meta", the value of field "cost-type" will be ignored by the
      receiver and set to {}. Instead, the field "multi-cost-types" is
      added with the same value as the "multi-cost-types" input
      parameter.

   o  The costs are JSONArrays, instead of JSONNumbers.  All arrays have
      the same cardinality as the "multi-cost-types" input parameter,
      and contain the cost type values in that order.  If a cost type is
      not available for a particular source and destination, the ALTO
      Server MUST use the JSON "null" value for that array element.  If
      none of the cost types are available for a particular source and
      destination, the ALTO Server MAY omit the entry for that source
      and destination.

5.  Examples

   This section provides examples of Multi-Cost ALTO transactions.  It
   uses cost metrics, in addition to the mandatory legacy 'routingcost',
   that are deliberately irrelevant and not registered at the IANA.

5.1.  Information Resource Directory

   The following is an example of an ALTO Server's Information Resource
   Directory.  In addition to Network and Cost Map resources, it defines
   two Filtered Cost Map and an Endpoint Cost Service, which all
   understand the multi-cost extensions.

   GET /directory HTTP/1.1
   Host: alto.example.com
   Accept: application/alto-directory+json,application/alto-error+json


   HTTP/1.1 200 OK
   Content-Length: 2704
   Content-Type: application/alto-directory+json

   {
     "meta" : {
       "default-alto-network-map" : "my-default-network-map",



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       "cost-types" : {
         "num-routing" : {
           "cost-mode" : "numerical",
           "cost-metric" : "routingcost"
         },
         "num-shoesize" : {
           "cost-mode" : "numerical",
           "cost-metric" : "shoesize"
         },
         "num-scenery" : {
           "cost-mode" : "numerical",
           "cost-metric" : "sceneryrate"
         }
       }
     },
     "resources" : {
       "my-default-network-map" : {
         "uri" : "http://alto.example.com/networkmap",
         "media-type" : "application/alto-networkmap+json"
       },
       "numerical-routing-cost-map" : {
         "uri" : "http://alto.example.com/costmap/num-routing",
         "media-types" : [ "application/alto-costmap+json" ],
         "uses" : [ "my-default-network-map" ],
         "capabilities" : {
           "cost-type-names" : [ "num-routing" ]
         }
       },
       "numerical-shoesize-cost-map" : {
         "uri" : "http://alto.example.com/costmap/num-shoesize",
         "media-types" : [ "application/alto-costmap+json" ],
         "uses" : [ "my-default-network-map" ],
         "capabilities" : {
           "cost-type-names" : [ "num-shoesize" ]
         }
       },
       "filtered-multicost-map" : {
         "uri" : "http://alto.example.com/multi/costmap/filtered",
         "media-types" : [ "application/alto-costmap+json" ],
         "accepts" : [ "application/alto-costmapfilter+json" ],
         "uses" : [ "my-default-network-map" ],
         "capabilities" : {
           "cost-constraints" : true,
           "max-cost-types" : 2,
           "cost-type-names" : [ "num-routingcost",
                                 "num-shoesize" ]
         }
       },



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       "filtered-cost-map-extended" : {
         "uri" : "http://alto.example.com/multi/extn/costmap/filtered",
         "media-types" : [ "application/alto-costmap+json" ],
         "accepts" : [ "application/alto-costmapfilter+json" ],
         "uses" : [ "my-default-network-map" ],
         "capabilities" : {
           "max-cost-types" : 3,
           "cost-type-names" : [ "num-routingcost",
                                 "num-shoesize",
                                 "num-scenery"],
           "testable-cost-type-names" : [ "num-routingcost",
                                          "num-shoesize" ]
         }
       },
       "endpoint-multicost-map" : {
         "uri" : "http://alto.example.com/multi/endpointcost/lookup",
         "media-types" : [ "application/alto-endpointcost+json" ],
         "accepts" : [ "application/alto-endpointcostparams+json" ],
         "uses" : [ "my-default-network-map" ],
         "capabilities" : {
           "cost-constraints" : true,
           "max-cost-types" : 2,
           "cost-type-names" : [ "num-routingcost",
                                 "num-shoesize" ]
         }
       }
     }
   }

5.2.  Multi-Cost Filtered Cost Map: Example #1

   This example illustrates a simple multi-cost ALTO transaction.  The
   ALTO Server provides two Cost Types, "routingcost" and "shoesize",
   both in "numerical" mode.  The Client wants the entire Multi-Cost
   Map.  The Server does not know the value of "routingcost" between
   PID2 and PID3, and hence returns the value 'null' for "routingcost"
   between PID2 and PID3.














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   POST /multi/costmap/filtered" HTTP/1.1
   Host: alto.example.com
   Accept: application/alto-costmap+json,application/alto-error+json
   Content-Type: application/alto-costmapfilter+json
   Content-Length: 206

   {
     "multi-cost-types": [
       {"cost-mode": "numerical", "cost-metric": "routingcost"},
       {"cost-mode": "numerical", "cost-metric": "shoesize"}
     ],
     "pids" : {
       "srcs" : [ ],
       "dsts" : [ ]
     }
   }

   HTTP/1.1 200 OK
   Content-Type: application/alto-costmap+json
   Content-Length: 549

   {
    "meta" : {
      "dependent-vtags" : [
        {"resource-id": "my-default-network-map",
         "tag": "3ee2cb7e8d63d9fab71b9b34cbf764436315542e"
        }
      ],
      "cost-type" : {},
      "multi-cost-types" : [
        {"cost-mode": "numerical", "cost-metric": "routingcost"},
        {"cost-mode": "numerical", "cost-metric": "shoesize"}
      ]
    }
    "cost-map" : {
      "PID1": { "PID1":[1,0],   "PID2":[4,3],    "PID3":[10,2]   },
      "PID2": { "PID1":[15,5],  "PID2":[1,0],    "PID3":[null,9] },
      "PID3": { "PID1":[20,12], "PID2":[null,1], "PID3":[1,0]    }
    }
   }

5.3.  Multi-Cost Filtered Cost Map: Example #2

   This example uses constraints to restrict the returned source/
   destination PID pairs to those with "routingcost" between 5 and 10,
   or "shoesize" equal to 0.





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   POST /multi/costmap/filtered HTTP/1.1
   Host: alto.example.com
   Accept: application/alto-costmap+json,application/alto-error+json
   Content-Type: application/alto-costmapfilter+json
   Content-Length: 333

   {
     "multi-cost-types" : [
       {"cost-mode": "numerical", "cost-metric": "routingcost"},
       {"cost-mode": "numerical", "cost-metric": "shoesize"}
     ],
     "or-constraints" : [ ["[0] ge 5", "[0] le 10"],
                          ["[1] eq 0"] ]
     "pids" : {
       "srcs" : [ "PID1", "PID2" ],
       "dsts" : [ "PID1", "PID2", "PID3" ]
     }
   }


   HTTP/1.1 200 OK
   Content-Type: application/alto-costmap+json
   Content-Length: 461

   {
     "meta" : {
       "dependent-vtags" : [
         {"resource-id": "my-default-network-map",
          "tag": "3ee2cb7e8d63d9fab71b9b34cbf764436315542e"
         }
       ],
       "cost-type" : {},
       "multi-cost-types" : [
         {"cost-mode": "numerical", "cost-metric": "routingcost"},
         {"cost-mode": "numerical", "cost-metric": "shoesize"}
       ]
     }
     "cost-map" : {
       "PID1": { "PID1": [1,0], "PID3": [10,5] },
       "PID2": { "PID2": [1,0]                 }
     }
   }









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5.4.  Multi-Cost Filtered Cost Map: Example #3

   This example uses extended constraints to limit the response to cost
   points with ("routingcost" <= 10 and "shoesize" <= 2), or else
   ("routingcost" <= 3 and "shoesize" <= 6).  Unlike the previous
   example, the Client is only interested in the "routingcost" cost
   type, and uses the "cost-type" parameter instead of "multi-cost-
   types" to tell the Server to return scalar costs instead of array
   costs.

   In this example, "[0]" means the constraint applies to "routingcost"
   because that is the first cost type in the "testable-cost-types"
   parameter.  (If "testable-cost-types" is omitted, it is assumed to be
   the same as "multi-cost-types".)  The choice of using an index to
   refer to cost types aims at minimizing the length of the expression
   of constraints, especially for those combining several OR and AND
   expressions.  It was also the shortest path from the constraints
   design in [RFC7285].

   POST /multi/multicostmap/filtered HTTP/1.1
   Host: alto.example.com
   Accept: application/alto-costmap+json,application/alto-error+json
   Content-Type: application/alto-costmapfilter+json
   Content-Length: 390

   {
     "cost-type" : {
       "cost-mode": "numerical", "cost-metric": "routingcost"
     },
     "testable-cost-types" : [
       {"cost-mode": "numerical", "cost-metric": "routingcost"},
       {"cost-mode": "numerical", "cost-metric": "shoesize"}
     ],
     "or-constraints": [
            ["[0] le 10", "[1] le 2"],
            ["[0] le 3",  "[1] le 6"]
     ],
     "pids" : {
       "srcs" : [ ],
       "dsts" : [ ]
     }
   }









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   HTTP/1.1 200 OK
   Content-Type: application/alto-costmap+json
   Content-Length: 368

   {
     "meta" : {
       "dependent-vtags" : [
         {"resource-id": "my-default-network-map",
          "tag": "3ee2cb7e8d63d9fab71b9b34cbf764436315542e"
         }
       ],
       "cost-type" : {
         "cost-mode": "numerical", "cost-metric": "routingcost"
       }
     }
     "cost-map" : {
       "PID1": { "PID1": 1, "PID3": 10 },
       "PID2": { "PID2": 1 },
       "PID3": { "PID3": 1 }
     }
   }


5.5.  Multi-Cost Filtered Cost Map: Example #4

   This example uses extended constraints to limit the response to cost
   points with ("routingcost" <= 10 and "shoesize" <= 2), or else
   ("routingcost" <= 3 and "shoesize" <= 6).  In this example, the
   Client is interested in the "routingcost" and "sceneryrate" cost
   metrics, but not in the "shoesize" metric:

   POST /multi/extn/costmap/filtered HTTP/1.1
   Host: alto.example.com
   Accept: application/alto-costmap+json,application/alto-error+json
   Content-Type: application/alto-costmapfilter+json
   Content-Length: 461

   {
     "multi-cost-types" : [
       {"cost-mode": "numerical", "cost-metric": "routingcost"},
       {"cost-mode": "numerical", "cost-metric": "sceneryrate"}
     ],
     "testable-cost-types" : [
       {"cost-mode": "numerical", "cost-metric": "routingcost"},
       {"cost-mode": "numerical", "cost-metric": "shoesize"}
     ],
     "or-constraints": [
            ["[0] le 10", "[1] le 2"],



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            ["[0] le 3",  "[1] le 6"]
     ],
     "pids" : {
       "srcs" : [ ],
       "dsts" : [ ]
     }
   }


   HTTP/1.1 200 OK
   Content-Type: application/alto-costmap+json
   Content-Length: 481

   {
     "meta" : {
       "dependent-vtags" : [
         {"resource-id": "my-default-network-map",
          "tag": "3ee2cb7e8d63d9fab71b9b34cbf764436315542e"
         }
       ],
       "cost-type" : {},
       "multi-cost-types" : [
         {"cost-mode": "numerical", "cost-metric": "routingcost"},
         {"cost-mode": "numerical", "cost-metric": "sceneryrate"}
       ]
     }
     "cost-map" : {
       "PID1": { "PID1": [1,16] "PID3": [10,19] },
       "PID2": { "PID2": [1,8] },
       "PID3": { "PID3": [1,19] }
     }
   }

5.6.  Endpoint Cost Service

   This example uses the Endpoint Cost Service to retrieve the
   "routingcost" and "shoesize" for selected endpoints, limiting the
   response to costs with either low shoesize and reasonable routingcost
   (shoesize <= 2 and routingcost <= 10), or else low routingcost and
   reasonable shoesize (routingcost <= 3 and shoesize <= 6).

   POST /multi/endpointcost/lookup HTTP/1.1
   Host: alto.example.com
   Accept: application/alto-endpointcost+json,
           application/alto-error+json
   Content-Type: application/alto-endpoincostparams+json
   Content-Length: 455




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   {
     "multi-cost-types" : [
       {"cost-mode": "numerical", "cost-metric": "routingcost"},
       {"cost-mode": "numerical", "cost-metric": "shoesize"}
     ],
     "or-constraints": [
            ["[0] le 10", "[1] le 2"],
            ["[0] le 3",  "[1] le 6"]
     ],
     "endpoints" : {
       "srcs": [ "ipv4:192.0.2.2", "ipv6:2001:db8::1:0 ],
       "dsts": [
         "ipv4:192.0.2.89",
         "ipv4:198.51.100.34",
         "ipv4:203.0.113.45",
         "ipv6:2001:db8::10"
       ]
     }
   }

   HTTP/1.1 200 OK
   Content-Length: 419
   Content-Type: application/alto-endpointcost+json

   {
     "meta" : {
       "multi-cost-types" : [
         {"cost-mode": "numerical", "cost-metric": "routingcost"},
         {"cost-mode": "numerical", "cost-metric": "shoesize"}
       ]
     }
     "endpoint-cost-map" : {
       "ipv4:192.0.2.2": {
         "ipv4:192.0.2.89":    [15, 5],
         "ipv4:203.0.113.45":  [4, 23]
       }
       "ipv6:2001:db8::1:0": {
         "ipv4:198.51.100.34": [16, 5],
         "ipv6:2001:db8::10":  [10, 2]
       }
     }
   }

6.  IANA Considerations

   This document does not define any new media types or introduce any
   new IANA considerations.




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7.  Privacy And Security Considerations

   This document does not introduce any privacy or security issues not
   already present in the ALTO protocol.

   The Multi-Cost optimization even tends to reduce the on the wire data
   exchange volume, compared to multiple single cost ALTO transactions.
   Likewise, the risk related to massive Multi-Cost requests is
   moderated by the fact that Multi-Cost constraints additionally filter
   ALTO Server responses and thus reduce their volume.

   Note that, because queries for multiple metrics represent a stronger
   fingerprinting signal than queries for a single metric,
   implementations of this protocol may leak more information about the
   ALTO client than would occur with a succession of individual queries.
   Though, in many cases it would already be possible to link those
   queries by using the source IP address or other existing information.

8.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Richard Alimi, Fred Baker, Dhruv
   Dhodi, Vijay Gurbani, Dave Mac Dysan, Young Lee, Richard Yang, for
   fruitful discussions and feedback on this document and previous
   versions.  Gao Kai, Hans Seidel, Richard Yang, Qiao Xiang and Wang
   Xin provided substantial review feedback and suggestions to the
   protocol design.

9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC7285]  Almi, R., Penno, R., Yang, Y., Kiesel, S., Previdi, S.,
              Roome, W., Shalunov, S., and R. Woundy, "Application-Layer
              Traffic Optimization (ALTO) Protocol", RFC 7285, September
              2014.

9.2.  Informative References

   [RFC5693]  "Application Layer Traffic Optimization (ALTO) Problem
              Statement", October 2009.

   [RFC6708]  "Application-Layer Traffic Optimization (ALTO)
              Requirements", February 2012.



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Authors' Addresses

   Sabine Randriamasy
   Nokia Bell Labs
   Route de Villejust
   NOZAY  91460
   FRANCE

   Email: Sabine.Randriamasy@nokia-bell-labs.com


   Wendy Roome
   Nokia Bell Labs
   124 Burlington Rd
   Murray Hill, NJ  07974
   USA

   Email: ietf@wdroome.com


   Nico Schwan
   Thales Deutschland
   Lorenzstrasse 10
   Stuttgart  70435
   Germany

   Email: nico.schwan@thalesgroup.com
























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