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Versions: 00                                                            
Network Working Group                                        M. Horowitz
<draft-ietf-cat-kerb-key-derivation-00.txt>             Cygnus Solutions
Internet-Draft                                            November, 1996


                     Key Derivation for Kerberos V5

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft.  Internet-Drafts are working
   documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas,
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   Distribution of this memo is unlimited.  Please send comments to the
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Abstract

   In the Kerberos protocol [RFC1510], cryptographic keys are used in a
   number of places.  In order to minimize the effect of compromising a
   key, it is desirable to use a different key for each of these places.
   Key derivation [Horowitz96] can be used to construct different keys
   for each operation from the keys transported on the network.  For
   this to be possible, a small change to the specification is
   necessary.


Overview

   Under RFC1510 as stated, key derivation could be specified as a set
   of encryption types which share the same key type.  The constant for
   each derivation would be a function of the encryption type.  However,
   it is generally accepted that, for interoperability, key types and
   encryption types must map one-to-one onto each other.  (RFC 1510 is
   being revised to address this issue.)  Therefore, to use key
   derivcation with Kerberos V5 requires a small change to the
   specification.

   For each place where a key is used in Kerberos, a ``key usage'' must
   be specified for that purpose.  The key, key usage, and
   encryption/checksum type together describe the transformation from
   plaintext to ciphertext, or plaintext to checksum.  For backward



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Internet Draft       Key Derivation for Kerberos V5       November, 1996


   compatibility, old encryption types would be defined independently of
   the key usage.


Key Usage Values

   This is a complete list of places keys are used in the kerberos
   protocol, with key usage values and RFC 1510 section numbers:

      1.  AS-REQ PA-ENC-TIMESTAMP padata timestamp, encrypted with the
          client key (section 5.4.1)
      2.  AS-REP Ticket and TGS-REP Ticket (includes tgs session key or
          application session key), encrypted with the service key
          (section 5.4.2)
      3.  AS-REP encrypted part (includes tgs session key or application
          session key), encrypted with the client key (section 5.4.2)

      4.  TGS-REQ KDC-REQ-BODY AuthorizationData, encrypted with the tgs
          session key (section 5.4.1)
      5.  TGS-REQ KDC-REQ-BODY AuthorizationData, encrypted with the tgs
          authenticator subkey (section 5.4.1)
      6.  TGS-REQ PA-TGS-REQ padata AP-REQ Authenticator cksum, keyed
          with the tgs session key (sections 5.3.2, 5.4.1)
      7.  TGS-REQ PA-TGS-REQ padata AP-REQ Authenticator (includes tgs
          authenticator subkey), encrypted with the tgs session key
          (section 5.3.2)
      8.  TGS-REP encrypted part (includes application session key),
          encrypted with the tgs session key (section 5.4.2)
      9.  TGS-REP encrypted part (includes application session key),
          encrypted with the tgs authenticator subkey (section 5.4.2)

      10. AP-REQ Authenticator cksum, keyed with the application session
          key (section 5.3.2)
      11. AP-REQ Authenticator (includes application authenticator
          subkey), encrypted with the application session key (section
          5.3.2)
      12. AP-REP encrypted part (includes application session subkey),
          encrypted with the application session key (section 5.5.2)

      13. KRB-PRIV encrypted part, encrypted with a key chosen by the
          application (section 5.7.1)
      14. KRB-CRED encrypted part, encrypted with a key chosen by the
          application (section 5.6.1)
      15. KRB-SAVE cksum, keyed with a key chosen by the application
          (section 5.8.1)

      16. Data which is defined in some specification outside of
          Kerberos to be encrypted using an RFC1510 encryption type.
      17. Data which is defined in some specification outside of
          Kerberos to be checksummed using an RFC1510 checksum type.

   A few of these key usages need a little clarification.  A service
   which receives an AP-REQ has no way to know if the enclosed Ticket
   was part of an AS-REP or TGS-REP.  Therefore, key usage 2 must always



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Internet Draft       Key Derivation for Kerberos V5       November, 1996


   be used for generating a Ticket, whether it is in response to an AS-
   REQ or TGS-REQ.

   There might exist other documents which define protocols in terms of
   the RFC1510 encryption types or checksum types.  Such documents would
   not know about key usages.  In order that these documents continue to
   be meaningful until they are updated, key usages 16 and 17 must be
   used to derive keys for encryption and checksums, respectively.  New
   protocols defined in terms of the Kerberos encryption and checksum
   types should use their own key usages.  Key usages may be registered
   with IANA to avoid conflicts.  Key usages shall be unsigned 32 bit
   integers.  Zero is not permitted.


Defining Cryptosystems Using Key Derivation

   Kerberos requires that the ciphertext component of EncryptedData be
   tamper-resistant as well as confidential.  This implies encryption
   and integrity functions, which must each use their own separate keys.
   So, for each key usage, two keys must be generated, one for
   encryption (Ke), and one for integrity (Ki):

      Ke = DK(protocol key, key usage | 0xAA)
      Ki = DK(protocol key, key usage | 0x55)

   where the key usage is represented as a 32 bit integer in network
   byte order.  The ciphertest must be generated from the plaintext as
   follows:

      ciphertext = E(Ke, confounder | length | plaintext | padding) |
                   H(Ki, confounder | length | plaintext | padding)

   The confounder and padding are specific to the encryption algorithm
   E.

   When generating a checksum only, there is no need for a confounder or
   padding.  Again, a new key (Kc) must be used.  Checksums must be
   generated from the plaintext as follows:

      Kc = DK(protocol key, key usage | 0x99)

      MAC = H(Kc, length | plaintext)

   Note that each enctype is described by an encryption algorithm E and
   a keyed hash algorithm H, and each checksum type is described by a
   keyed hash algorithm H.  HMAC, with an appropriate hash, is
   recommended for use as H.


Security Considerations

   This entire document addresses shortcomings in the use of
   cryptographic keys in Kerberos V5.




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Internet Draft       Key Derivation for Kerberos V5       November, 1996


Acknowledgements

   I would like to thank Uri Blumenthal, Sam Hartman, and Bill
   Sommerfeld for their contributions to this document.


References

   [Horowitz96] Horowitz, M., "Key Derivation for Authentication,
      Integrity, and Privacy", draft-horowitz-key-derivation-00.txt,
      November 1996.  [RFC1510] Kohl, J. and Neuman, C., "The Kerberos
      Network Authentication Service (V5)", RFC 1510, September 1993.


Author's Address

   Marc Horowitz
   Cygnus Solutions
   955 Massachusetts Avenue
   Cambridge, MA 02139

   Phone: +1 617 354 7688
   Email: marc@cygnus.com


































Horowitz                                                        [Page 4]