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INTERNET-DRAFT                                              Clifford Neuman
                                                                  John Kohl
                                                              Theodore Ts'o
                                                              July 14, 2000
                                                   Expires January 14, 2001

The Kerberos Network Authentication Service (V5)


draft-ietf-cat-kerberos-revisions-06.txt

STATUS OF THIS MEMO

This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with all
provisions of Section 10 of RFC 2026. Internet-Drafts are working documents
of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working
groups. Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as
Internet-Drafts.

Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and
may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It
is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite
them other than as "work in progress."

The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt

The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

To learn the current status of any Internet-Draft, please check the
"1id-abstracts.txt" listing contained in the Internet-Drafts Shadow
Directories on ftp.ietf.org (US East Coast), nic.nordu.net (Europe),
ftp.isi.edu (US West Coast), or munnari.oz.au (Pacific Rim).

The distribution of this memo is unlimited. It is filed as
draft-ietf-cat-kerberos-revisions-06.txt, and expires January 14, 2001.
Please send comments to: krb-protocol@MIT.EDU

     This document is getting closer to a last call, but there are several
     issues to be discussed. Some, but not all of these issues, are
     highlighted in comments in the draft. We hope to resolve these issues
     on the mailing list for the Kerberos working group, leading up to and
     during the Pittsburgh IETF on a section by section basis, since this
     is a long document, and it has been difficult to consider it as a
     whole. Once sections are agreed to, it is out intent to issue the more
     formal WG and IETF last calls.

ABSTRACT

This document provides an overview and specification of Version 5 of the
Kerberos protocol, and updates RFC1510 to clarify aspects of the protocol
and its intended use that require more detailed or clearer explanation than
was provided in RFC1510. This document is intended to provide a detailed
description of the protocol, suitable for implementation, together with
descriptions of the appropriate use of protocol messages and fields within
those messages.

This document is not intended to describe Kerberos to the end user, system
administrator, or application developer. Higher level papers describing
Version 5 of the Kerberos system [NT94] and documenting version 4 [SNS88],
are available elsewhere.


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OVERVIEW

This INTERNET-DRAFT describes the concepts and model upon which the
Kerberos network authentication system is based. It also specifies Version
5 of the Kerberos protocol.

The motivations, goals, assumptions, and rationale behind most design
decisions are treated cursorily; they are more fully described in a paper
available in IEEE communications [NT94] and earlier in the Kerberos portion
of the Athena Technical Plan [MNSS87]. The protocols have been a proposed
standard and are being considered for advancement for draft standard
through the IETF standard process. Comments are encouraged on the
presentation, but only minor refinements to the protocol as implemented or
extensions that fit within current protocol framework will be considered at
this time.

Requests for addition to an electronic mailing list for discussion of
Kerberos, kerberos@MIT.EDU, may be addressed to kerberos-request@MIT.EDU.
This mailing list is gatewayed onto the Usenet as the group
comp.protocols.kerberos. Requests for further information, including
documents and code availability, may be sent to info-kerberos@MIT.EDU.

BACKGROUND

The Kerberos model is based in part on Needham and Schroeder's trusted
third-party authentication protocol [NS78] and on modifications suggested
by Denning and Sacco [DS81]. The original design and implementation of
Kerberos Versions 1 through 4 was the work of two former Project Athena
staff members, Steve Miller of Digital Equipment Corporation and Clifford
Neuman (now at the Information Sciences Institute of the University of
Southern California), along with Jerome Saltzer, Technical Director of
Project Athena, and Jeffrey Schiller, MIT Campus Network Manager. Many
other members of Project Athena have also contributed to the work on
Kerberos.

Version 5 of the Kerberos protocol (described in this document) has evolved
from Version 4 based on new requirements and desires for features not
available in Version 4. The design of Version 5 of the Kerberos protocol
was led by Clifford Neuman and John Kohl with much input from the
community. The development of the MIT reference implementation was led at
MIT by John Kohl and Theodore T'so, with help and contributed code from
many others. Since RFC1510 was issued, extensions and revisions to the
protocol have been proposed by many individuals. Some of these proposals
are reflected in this document. Where such changes involved significant
effort, the document cites the contribution of the proposer.

Reference implementations of both version 4 and version 5 of Kerberos are
publicly available and commercial implementations have been developed and
are widely used. Details on the differences between Kerberos Versions 4 and
5 can be found in [KNT92].

1. Introduction

Kerberos provides a means of verifying the identities of principals, (e.g.
a workstation user or a network server) on an open (unprotected) network.
This is accomplished without relying on assertions by the host operating
system, without basing trust on host addresses, without requiring physical
security of all the hosts on the network, and under the assumption that
packets traveling along the network can be read, modified, and inserted at
will[1]. Kerberos performs authentication under these conditions as a
trusted third-party authentication service by using conventional (shared
secret key [2] cryptography. Kerberos extensions have been proposed and
implemented that provide for the use of public key cryptography during
certain phases of the authentication protocol. These extensions provide for

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authentication of users registered with public key certification
authorities, and allow the system to provide certain benefits of public key
cryptography in situations where they are needed.

The basic Kerberos authentication process proceeds as follows: A client
sends a request to the authentication server (AS) requesting 'credentials'
for a given server. The AS responds with these credentials, encrypted in
the client's key. The credentials consist of 1) a 'ticket' for the server
and 2) a temporary encryption key (often called a "session key"). The
client transmits the ticket (which contains the client's identity and a
copy of the session key, all encrypted in the server's key) to the server.
The session key (now shared by the client and server) is used to
authenticate the client, and may optionally be used to authenticate the
server. It may also be used to encrypt further communication between the
two parties or to exchange a separate sub-session key to be used to encrypt
further communication.

Implementation of the basic protocol consists of one or more authentication
servers running on physically secure hosts. The authentication servers
maintain a database of principals (i.e., users and servers) and their
secret keys. Code libraries provide encryption and implement the Kerberos
protocol. In order to add authentication to its transactions, a typical
network application adds one or two calls to the Kerberos library directly
or through the Generic Security Services Application Programming Interface,
GSSAPI, described in separate document. These calls result in the
transmission of the necessary messages to achieve authentication.

The Kerberos protocol consists of several sub-protocols (or exchanges).
There are two basic methods by which a client can ask a Kerberos server for
credentials. In the first approach, the client sends a cleartext request
for a ticket for the desired server to the AS. The reply is sent encrypted
in the client's secret key. Usually this request is for a ticket-granting
ticket (TGT) which can later be used with the ticket-granting server (TGS).
In the second method, the client sends a request to the TGS. The client
uses the TGT to authenticate itself to the TGS in the same manner as if it
were contacting any other application server that requires Kerberos
authentication. The reply is encrypted in the session key from the TGT.
Though the protocol specification describes the AS and the TGS as separate
servers, they are implemented in practice as different protocol entry
points within a single Kerberos server.

Once obtained, credentials may be used to verify the identity of the
principals in a transaction, to ensure the integrity of messages exchanged
between them, or to preserve privacy of the messages. The application is
free to choose whatever protection may be necessary.

To verify the identities of the principals in a transaction, the client
transmits the ticket to the application server. Since the ticket is sent
"in the clear" (parts of it are encrypted, but this encryption doesn't
thwart replay) and might be intercepted and reused by an attacker,
additional information is sent to prove that the message originated with
the principal to whom the ticket was issued. This information (called the
authenticator) is encrypted in the session key, and includes a timestamp.
The timestamp proves that the message was recently generated and is not a
replay. Encrypting the authenticator in the session key proves that it was
generated by a party possessing the session key. Since no one except the
requesting principal and the server know the session key (it is never sent
over the network in the clear) this guarantees the identity of the client.

The integrity of the messages exchanged between principals can also be
guaranteed using the session key (passed in the ticket and contained in the
credentials). This approach provides detection of both replay attacks and
message stream modification attacks. It is accomplished by generating and
transmitting a collision-proof checksum (elsewhere called a hash or digest
function) of the client's message, keyed with the session key. Privacy and

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integrity of the messages exchanged between principals can be secured by
encrypting the data to be passed using the session key contained in the
ticket or the subsession key found in the authenticator.

The authentication exchanges mentioned above require read-only access to
the Kerberos database. Sometimes, however, the entries in the database must
be modified, such as when adding new principals or changing a principal's
key. This is done using a protocol between a client and a third Kerberos
server, the Kerberos Administration Server (KADM). There is also a protocol
for maintaining multiple copies of the Kerberos database. Neither of these
protocols are described in this document.

1.1. Cross-Realm Operation

The Kerberos protocol is designed to operate across organizational
boundaries. A client in one organization can be authenticated to a server
in another. Each organization wishing to run a Kerberos server establishes
its own 'realm'. The name of the realm in which a client is registered is
part of the client's name, and can be used by the end-service to decide
whether to honor a request.

By establishing 'inter-realm' keys, the administrators of two realms can
allow a client authenticated in the local realm to prove its identity to
servers in other realms[3]. The exchange of inter-realm keys (a separate
key may be used for each direction) registers the ticket-granting service
of each realm as a principal in the other realm. A client is then able to
obtain a ticket-granting ticket for the remote realm's ticket-granting
service from its local realm. When that ticket-granting ticket is used, the
remote ticket-granting service uses the inter-realm key (which usually
differs from its own normal TGS key) to decrypt the ticket-granting ticket,
and is thus certain that it was issued by the client's own TGS. Tickets
issued by the remote ticket-granting service will indicate to the
end-service that the client was authenticated from another realm.

A realm is said to communicate with another realm if the two realms share
an inter-realm key, or if the local realm shares an inter-realm key with an
intermediate realm that communicates with the remote realm. An
authentication path is the sequence of intermediate realms that are
transited in communicating from one realm to another.

Realms are typically organized hierarchically. Each realm shares a key with
its parent and a different key with each child. If an inter-realm key is
not directly shared by two realms, the hierarchical organization allows an
authentication path to be easily constructed. If a hierarchical
organization is not used, it may be necessary to consult a database in
order to construct an authentication path between realms.

Although realms are typically hierarchical, intermediate realms may be
bypassed to achieve cross-realm authentication through alternate
authentication paths (these might be established to make communication
between two realms more efficient). It is important for the end-service to
know which realms were transited when deciding how much faith to place in
the authentication process. To facilitate this decision, a field in each
ticket contains the names of the realms that were involved in
authenticating the client.

The application server is ultimately responsible for accepting or rejecting
authentication and should check the transited field. The application server
may choose to rely on the KDC for the application server's realm to check
the transited field. The application server's KDC will set the
TRANSITED-POLICY-CHECKED flag in this case. The KDC's for intermediate
realms may also check the transited field as they issue
ticket-granting-tickets for other realms, but they are encouraged not to do
so. A client may request that the KDC's not check the transited field by
setting the DISABLE-TRANSITED-CHECK flag. KDC's are encouraged but not
required to honor this flag.


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     [JBrezak] Should there be a section here on how clients determine what
     realm a service is in? Something like:

     The client may not immediately know what realm a particular service
     principal is in. There are 2 basic mechanisms that can be used to
     determine the realm of a service. The first requires that the client
     fully specify the service principal including the realm in the
     Kerberos protocol request. If the Kerberos server for the specified
     realm does not have a principal that exactly matches the service in
     the request, the Kerberos server will return an error indicating that
     the service principal was not found. Alternatively the client can make
     a request providing just the service principal name and requesting
     name canonicalization from the Kerberos server. The Kerberos server
     will attempt to locate a service principal in its database that best
     matches the request principal or provide a referral to another
     Kerberos realm that may be contain the requested service principal.

1.2. Authorization

As an authentication service, Kerberos provides a means of verifying the
identity of principals on a network. Authentication is usually useful
primarily as a first step in the process of authorization, determining
whether a client may use a service, which objects the client is allowed to
access, and the type of access allowed for each. Kerberos does not, by
itself, provide authorization. Possession of a client ticket for a service
provides only for authentication of the client to that service, and in the
absence of a separate authorization procedure, it should not be considered
by an application as authorizing the use of that service.

Such separate authorization methods may be implemented as application
specific access control functions and may be based on files such as the
application server, or on separately issued authorization credentials such
as those based on proxies [Neu93], or on other authorization services.
Separately authenticated authorization credentials may be embedded in a
tickets authorization data when encapsulated by the kdc-issued
authorization data element.

Applications should not be modified to accept the mere issuance of a
service ticket by the Kerberos server (even by a modified Kerberos server)
as granting authority to use the service, since such applications may
become vulnerable to the bypass of this authorization check in an
environment if they interoperate with other KDCs or where other options for
application authentication (e.g. the PKTAPP proposal) are provided.

1.3. Environmental assumptions

Kerberos imposes a few assumptions on the environment in which it can
properly function:

   * 'Denial of service' attacks are not solved with Kerberos. There are
     places in these protocols where an intruder can prevent an application
     from participating in the proper authentication steps. Detection and
     solution of such attacks (some of which can appear to be nnot-uncommon
     'normal' failure modes for the system) is usually best left to the
     human administrators and users.
   * Principals must keep their secret keys secret. If an intruder somehow
     steals a principal's key, it will be able to masquerade as that
     principal or impersonate any server to the legitimate principal.
   * 'Password guessing' attacks are not solved by Kerberos. If a user
     chooses a poor password, it is possible for an attacker to
     successfully mount an offline dictionary attack by repeatedly
     attempting to decrypt, with successive entries from a dictionary,
     messages obtained which are encrypted under a key derived from the
     user's password.

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   * Each host on the network must have a clock which is 'loosely
     synchronized' to the time of the other hosts; this synchronization is
     used to reduce the bookkeeping needs of application servers when they
     do replay detection. The degree of "looseness" can be configured on a
     per-server basis, but is typically on the order of 5 minutes. If the
     clocks are synchronized over the network, the clock synchronization
     protocol must itself be secured from network attackers.
   * Principal identifiers are not recycled on a short-term basis. A
     typical mode of access control will use access control lists (ACLs) to
     grant permissions to particular principals. If a stale ACL entry
     remains for a deleted principal and the principal identifier is
     reused, the new principal will inherit rights specified in the stale
     ACL entry. By not re-using principal identifiers, the danger of
     inadvertent access is removed.

1.4. Glossary of terms

Below is a list of terms used throughout this document.

Authentication
     Verifying the claimed identity of a principal.
Authentication header
     A record containing a Ticket and an Authenticator to be presented to a
     server as part of the authentication process.
Authentication path
     A sequence of intermediate realms transited in the authentication
     process when communicating from one realm to another.
Authenticator
     A record containing information that can be shown to have been
     recently generated using the session key known only by the client and
     server.
Authorization
     The process of determining whether a client may use a service, which
     objects the client is allowed to access, and the type of access
     allowed for each.
Capability
     A token that grants the bearer permission to access an object or
     service. In Kerberos, this might be a ticket whose use is restricted
     by the contents of the authorization data field, but which lists no
     network addresses, together with the session key necessary to use the
     ticket.
Ciphertext
     The output of an encryption function. Encryption transforms plaintext
     into ciphertext.
Client
     A process that makes use of a network service on behalf of a user.
     Note that in some cases a Server may itself be a client of some other
     server (e.g. a print server may be a client of a file server).
Credentials
     A ticket plus the secret session key necessary to successfully use
     that ticket in an authentication exchange.
KDC
     Key Distribution Center, a network service that supplies tickets and
     temporary session keys; or an instance of that service or the host on
     which it runs. The KDC services both initial ticket and
     ticket-granting ticket requests. The initial ticket portion is
     sometimes referred to as the Authentication Server (or service). The
     ticket-granting ticket portion is sometimes referred to as the
     ticket-granting server (or service).
Kerberos
     Aside from the 3-headed dog guarding Hades, the name given to Project
     Athena's authentication service, the protocol used by that service, or
     the code used to implement the authentication service.
Plaintext
     The input to an encryption function or the output of a decryption
     function. Decryption transforms ciphertext into plaintext.

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Principal
     A uniquely named client or server instance that participates in a
     network communication.
Principal identifier
     The name used to uniquely identify each different principal.
Seal
     To encipher a record containing several fields in such a way that the
     fields cannot be individually replaced without either knowledge of the
     encryption key or leaving evidence of tampering.
Secret key
     An encryption key shared by a principal and the KDC, distributed
     outside the bounds of the system, with a long lifetime. In the case of
     a human user's principal, the secret key is derived from a password.
Server
     A particular Principal which provides a resource to network clients.
     The server is sometimes refered to as the Application Server.
Service
     A resource provided to network clients; often provided by more than
     one server (for example, remote file service).
Session key
     A temporary encryption key used between two principals, with a
     lifetime limited to the duration of a single login "session".
Sub-session key
     A temporary encryption key used between two principals, selected and
     exchanged by the principals using the session key, and with a lifetime
     limited to the duration of a single association.
Ticket
     A record that helps a client authenticate itself to a server; it
     contains the client's identity, a session key, a timestamp, and other
     information, all sealed using the server's secret key. It only serves
     to authenticate a client when presented along with a fresh
     Authenticator.

2. Ticket flag uses and requests

Each Kerberos ticket contains a set of flags which are used to indicate
various attributes of that ticket. Most flags may be requested by a client
when the ticket is obtained; some are automatically turned on and off by a
Kerberos server as required. The following sections explain what the
various flags mean, and gives examples of reasons to use such a flag.

2.1. Initial and pre-authenticated tickets

The INITIAL flag indicates that a ticket was issued using the AS protocol
and not issued based on a ticket-granting ticket. Application servers that
want to require the demonstrated knowledge of a client's secret key (e.g. a
password-changing program) can insist that this flag be set in any tickets
they accept, and thus be assured that the client's key was recently
presented to the application client.

The PRE-AUTHENT and HW-AUTHENT flags provide addition information about the
initial authentication, regardless of whether the current ticket was issued
directly (in which case INITIAL will also be set) or issued on the basis of
a ticket-granting ticket (in which case the INITIAL flag is clear, but the
PRE-AUTHENT and HW-AUTHENT flags are carried forward from the
ticket-granting ticket).

2.2. Invalid tickets

The INVALID flag indicates that a ticket is invalid. Application servers
must reject tickets which have this flag set. A postdated ticket will
usually be issued in this form. Invalid tickets must be validated by the
KDC before use, by presenting them to the KDC in a TGS request with the
VALIDATE option specified. The KDC will only validate tickets after their
starttime has passed. The validation is required so that postdated tickets
which have been stolen before their starttime can be rendered permanently
invalid (through a hot-list mechanism) (see section 3.3.3.1).


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2.3. Renewable tickets

Applications may desire to hold tickets which can be valid for long periods
of time. However, this can expose their credentials to potential theft for
equally long periods, and those stolen credentials would be valid until the
expiration time of the ticket(s). Simply using short-lived tickets and
obtaining new ones periodically would require the client to have long-term
access to its secret key, an even greater risk. Renewable tickets can be
used to mitigate the consequences of theft. Renewable tickets have two
"expiration times": the first is when the current instance of the ticket
expires, and the second is the latest permissible value for an individual
expiration time. An application client must periodically (i.e. before it
expires) present a renewable ticket to the KDC, with the RENEW option set
in the KDC request. The KDC will issue a new ticket with a new session key
and a later expiration time. All other fields of the ticket are left
unmodified by the renewal process. When the latest permissible expiration
time arrives, the ticket expires permanently. At each renewal, the KDC may
consult a hot-list to determine if the ticket had been reported stolen
since its last renewal; it will refuse to renew such stolen tickets, and
thus the usable lifetime of stolen tickets is reduced.

The RENEWABLE flag in a ticket is normally only interpreted by the
ticket-granting service (discussed below in section 3.3). It can usually be
ignored by application servers. However, some particularly careful
application servers may wish to disallow renewable tickets.

If a renewable ticket is not renewed by its expiration time, the KDC will
not renew the ticket. The RENEWABLE flag is reset by default, but a client
may request it be set by setting the RENEWABLE option in the KRB_AS_REQ
message. If it is set, then the renew-till field in the ticket contains the
time after which the ticket may not be renewed.

2.4. Postdated tickets

Applications may occasionally need to obtain tickets for use much later,
e.g. a batch submission system would need tickets to be valid at the time
the batch job is serviced. However, it is dangerous to hold valid tickets
in a batch queue, since they will be on-line longer and more prone to
theft. Postdated tickets provide a way to obtain these tickets from the KDC
at job submission time, but to leave them "dormant" until they are
activated and validated by a further request of the KDC. If a ticket theft
were reported in the interim, the KDC would refuse to validate the ticket,
and the thief would be foiled.

The MAY-POSTDATE flag in a ticket is normally only interpreted by the
ticket-granting service. It can be ignored by application servers. This
flag must be set in a ticket-granting ticket in order to issue a postdated
ticket based on the presented ticket. It is reset by default; it may be
requested by a client by setting the ALLOW-POSTDATE option in the
KRB_AS_REQ message. This flag does not allow a client to obtain a postdated
ticket-granting ticket; postdated ticket-granting tickets can only by
obtained by requesting the postdating in the KRB_AS_REQ message. The life
(endtime-starttime) of a postdated ticket will be the remaining life of the
ticket-granting ticket at the time of the request, unless the RENEWABLE
option is also set, in which case it can be the full life
(endtime-starttime) of the ticket-granting ticket. The KDC may limit how
far in the future a ticket may be postdated.

The POSTDATED flag indicates that a ticket has been postdated. The
application server can check the authtime field in the ticket to see when
the original authentication occurred. Some services may choose to reject
postdated tickets, or they may only accept them within a certain period
after the original authentication. When the KDC issues a POSTDATED ticket,
it will also be marked as INVALID, so that the application client must
present the ticket to the KDC to be validated before use.


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2.5. Proxiable and proxy tickets

At times it may be necessary for a principal to allow a service to perform
an operation on its behalf. The service must be able to take on the
identity of the client, but only for a particular purpose. A principal can
allow a service to take on the principal's identity for a particular
purpose by granting it a proxy.

The process of granting a proxy using the proxy and proxiable flags is used
to provide credentials for use with specific services. Though conceptually
also a proxy, user's wishing to delegate their identity for ANY purpose
must use the ticket forwarding mechanism described in the next section to
forward a ticket granting ticket.

The PROXIABLE flag in a ticket is normally only interpreted by the
ticket-granting service. It can be ignored by application servers. When
set, this flag tells the ticket-granting server that it is OK to issue a
new ticket (but not a ticket-granting ticket) with a different network
address based on this ticket. This flag is set if requested by the client
on initial authentication. By default, the client will request that it be
set when requesting a ticket granting ticket, and reset when requesting any
other ticket.

This flag allows a client to pass a proxy to a server to perform a remote
request on its behalf, e.g. a print service client can give the print
server a proxy to access the client's files on a particular file server in
order to satisfy a print request.

In order to complicate the use of stolen credentials, Kerberos tickets are
usually valid from only those network addresses specifically included in
the ticket[4]. When granting a proxy, the client must specify the new
network address from which the proxy is to be used, or indicate that the
proxy is to be issued for use from any address.

The PROXY flag is set in a ticket by the TGS when it issues a proxy ticket.
Application servers may check this flag and at their option they may
require additional authentication from the agent presenting the proxy in
order to provide an audit trail.

2.6. Forwardable tickets

Authentication forwarding is an instance of a proxy where the service is
granted complete use of the client's identity. An example where it might be
used is when a user logs in to a remote system and wants authentication to
work from that system as if the login were local.

The FORWARDABLE flag in a ticket is normally only interpreted by the
ticket-granting service. It can be ignored by application servers. The
FORWARDABLE flag has an interpretation similar to that of the PROXIABLE
flag, except ticket-granting tickets may also be issued with different
network addresses. This flag is reset by default, but users may request
that it be set by setting the FORWARDABLE option in the AS request when
they request their initial ticket- granting ticket.

This flag allows for authentication forwarding without requiring the user
to enter a password again. If the flag is not set, then authentication
forwarding is not permitted, but the same result can still be achieved if
the user engages in the AS exchange specifying the requested network
addresses and supplies a password.

The FORWARDED flag is set by the TGS when a client presents a ticket with
the FORWARDABLE flag set and requests a forwarded ticket by specifying the
FORWARDED KDC option and supplying a set of addresses for the new ticket.
It is also set in all tickets issued based on tickets with the FORWARDED
flag set. Application servers may choose to process FORWARDED tickets
differently than non-FORWARDED tickets.


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2.7 Name canonicalization [JBrezak]

If a client does not have the full name information for a principal, it can
request that the Kerberos server attempt to lookup the name in its database
and return a canonical form of the requested principal or a referral to a
realm that has the requested principal in its namespace. Name
canonicalization allows a principal to have alternate names. Name
canonicalization must not be used to locate principal names supplied from
wildcards and is not a mechanism to be used to search a Kerberos database.

The CANONICALIZE flag in a ticket request is used to indicate to the
Kerberos server that the client will accept an alternative name to the
principal in the request or a referral to another realm. Both the AS and
TGS must be able to interpret requests with this flag.

By using this flag, the client can avoid extensive configuration needed to
map specific host names to a particular realm.

2.8. Other KDC options

There are two additional options which may be set in a client's request of
the KDC. The RENEWABLE-OK option indicates that the client will accept a
renewable ticket if a ticket with the requested life cannot otherwise be
provided. If a ticket with the requested life cannot be provided, then the
KDC may issue a renewable ticket with a renew-till equal to the the
requested endtime. The value of the renew-till field may still be adjusted
by site-determined limits or limits imposed by the individual principal or
server.

The ENC-TKT-IN-SKEY option is honored only by the ticket-granting service.
It indicates that the ticket to be issued for the end server is to be
encrypted in the session key from the a additional second ticket-granting
ticket provided with the request. See section 3.3.3 for specific details.

3. Message Exchanges

The following sections describe the interactions between network clients
and servers and the messages involved in those exchanges.

3.1. The Authentication Service Exchange

                          Summary
      Message direction       Message type    Section
      1. Client to Kerberos   KRB_AS_REQ      5.4.1
      2. Kerberos to client   KRB_AS_REP or   5.4.2
                              KRB_ERROR       5.9.1

The Authentication Service (AS) Exchange between the client and the
Kerberos Authentication Server is initiated by a client when it wishes to
obtain authentication credentials for a given server but currently holds no
credentials. In its basic form, the client's secret key is used for
encryption and decryption. This exchange is typically used at the
initiation of a login session to obtain credentials for a Ticket-Granting
Server which will subsequently be used to obtain credentials for other
servers (see section 3.3) without requiring further use of the client's
secret key. This exchange is also used to request credentials for services
which must not be mediated through the Ticket-Granting Service, but rather
require a principal's secret key, such as the password-changing service[5].
This exchange does not by itself provide any assurance of the the identity
of the user[6].

The exchange consists of two messages: KRB_AS_REQ from the client to
Kerberos, and KRB_AS_REP or KRB_ERROR in reply. The formats for these
messages are described in sections 5.4.1, 5.4.2, and 5.9.1.


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In the request, the client sends (in cleartext) its own identity and the
identity of the server for which it is requesting credentials. The
response, KRB_AS_REP, contains a ticket for the client to present to the
server, and a session key that will be shared by the client and the server.
The session key and additional information are encrypted in the client's
secret key. The KRB_AS_REP message contains information which can be used
to detect replays, and to associate it with the message to which it
replies. Various errors can occur; these are indicated by an error response
(KRB_ERROR) instead of the KRB_AS_REP response. The error message is not
encrypted. The KRB_ERROR message contains information which can be used to
associate it with the message to which it replies. The lack of encryption
in the KRB_ERROR message precludes the ability to detect replays,
fabrications, or modifications of such messages.

Without preautentication, the authentication server does not know whether
the client is actually the principal named in the request. It simply sends
a reply without knowing or caring whether they are the same. This is
acceptable because nobody but the principal whose identity was given in the
request will be able to use the reply. Its critical information is
encrypted in that principal's key. The initial request supports an optional
field that can be used to pass additional information that might be needed
for the initial exchange. This field may be used for preauthentication as
described in section [hl<>].

3.1.1. Generation of KRB_AS_REQ message

The client may specify a number of options in the initial request. Among
these options are whether pre-authentication is to be performed; whether
the requested ticket is to be renewable, proxiable, or forwardable; whether
it should be postdated or allow postdating of derivative tickets; whether
the client requests name-canonicalization; and whether a renewable ticket
will be accepted in lieu of a non-renewable ticket if the requested ticket
expiration date cannot be satisfied by a non-renewable ticket (due to
configuration constraints; see section 4). See section A.1 for pseudocode.

The client prepares the KRB_AS_REQ message and sends it to the KDC.

3.1.2. Receipt of KRB_AS_REQ message

If all goes well, processing the KRB_AS_REQ message will result in the
creation of a ticket for the client to present to the server. The format
for the ticket is described in section 5.3.1. The contents of the ticket
are determined as follows.

3.1.3. Generation of KRB_AS_REP message

The authentication server looks up the client and server principals named
in the KRB_AS_REQ in its database, extracting their respective keys.  If
the requested client principal named in the request is not found in its
database, then an error message with a KDC_ERR_C_PRINCIPAL_UNKNOWN is
returned. If the request had the CANONICALIZE option set, then the AS can
attempt to lookup the client principal name in an alternate database, if it
is found an error message with a KDC_ERR_WRONG_REALM error code and the
cname and crealm in the error message must contain the true client
principal name and realm.

If required, the server pre-authenticates the request, and if the
pre-authentication check fails, an error message with the code
KDC_ERR_PREAUTH_FAILED is returned. If the server cannot accommodate the
requested encryption type, an error message with code KDC_ERR_ETYPE_NOSUPP
is returned. Otherwise it generates a 'random' session key[7].


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If there are multiple encryption keys registered for a client in the
Kerberos database (or if the key registered supports multiple encryption
types; e.g. DES3-CBC-SHA1 and DES3-CBC-SHA1-KD), then the etype field from
the AS request is used by the KDC to select the encryption method to be
used for encrypting the response to the client. If there is more than one
supported, strong encryption type in the etype list, the first valid etype
for which an encryption key is available is used. The encryption method
used to respond to a TGS request is taken from the keytype of the session
key found in the ticket granting ticket.

     JBrezak - the behavior of PW-SALT, and ETYPE-INFO should be explained
     here; also about using keys that have different string-to-key
     functions like AFSsalt

When the etype field is present in a KDC request, whether an AS or TGS
request, the KDC will attempt to assign the type of the random session key
from the list of methods in the etype field. The KDC will select the
appropriate type using the list of methods provided together with
information from the Kerberos database indicating acceptable encryption
methods for the application server. The KDC will not issue tickets with a
weak session key encryption type.

If the requested start time is absent, indicates a time in the past, or is
within the window of acceptable clock skew for the KDC and the POSTDATE
option has not been specified, then the start time of the ticket is set to
the authentication server's current time. If it indicates a time in the
future beyond the acceptable clock skew, but the POSTDATED option has not
been specified then the error KDC_ERR_CANNOT_POSTDATE is returned.
Otherwise the requested start time is checked against the policy of the
local realm (the administrator might decide to prohibit certain types or
ranges of postdated tickets), and if acceptable, the ticket's start time is
set as requested and the INVALID flag is set in the new ticket. The
postdated ticket must be validated before use by presenting it to the KDC
after the start time has been reached.

The expiration time of the ticket will be set to the minimum of the
following:

   * The expiration time (endtime) requested in the KRB_AS_REQ message.
   * The ticket's start time plus the maximum allowable lifetime associated
     with the client principal (the authentication server's database
     includes a maximum ticket lifetime field in each principal's record;
     see section 4).
   * The ticket's start time plus the maximum allowable lifetime associated
     with the server principal.
   * The ticket's start time plus the maximum lifetime set by the policy of
     the local realm.

If the requested expiration time minus the start time (as determined above)
is less than a site-determined minimum lifetime, an error message with code
KDC_ERR_NEVER_VALID is returned. If the requested expiration time for the
ticket exceeds what was determined as above, and if the 'RENEWABLE-OK'
option was requested, then the 'RENEWABLE' flag is set in the new ticket,
and the renew-till value is set as if the 'RENEWABLE' option were requested
(the field and option names are described fully in section 5.4.1).

If the RENEWABLE option has been requested or if the RENEWABLE-OK option
has been set and a renewable ticket is to be issued, then the renew-till
field is set to the minimum of:

   * Its requested value.
   * The start time of the ticket plus the minimum of the two maximum
     renewable lifetimes associated with the principals' database entries.
   * The start time of the ticket plus the maximum renewable lifetime set
     by the policy of the local realm.


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The flags field of the new ticket will have the following options set if
they have been requested and if the policy of the local realm allows:
FORWARDABLE, MAY-POSTDATE, POSTDATED, PROXIABLE, RENEWABLE. If the new
ticket is post-dated (the start time is in the future), its INVALID flag
will also be set.

If all of the above succeed, the server formats a KRB_AS_REP message (see
section 5.4.2), copying the addresses in the request into the caddr of the
response, placing any required pre-authentication data into the padata of
the response, and encrypts the ciphertext part in the client's key using
the requested encryption method, and sends it to the client. See section
A.2 for pseudocode.

3.1.4. Generation of KRB_ERROR message

Several errors can occur, and the Authentication Server responds by
returning an error message, KRB_ERROR, to the client, with the error-code
and e-text fields set to appropriate values. The error message contents and
details are described in Section 5.9.1.

3.1.5. Receipt of KRB_AS_REP message

If the reply message type is KRB_AS_REP, then the client verifies that the
cname and crealm fields in the cleartext portion of the reply match what it
requested. If any padata fields are present, they may be used to derive the
proper secret key to decrypt the message. The client decrypts the encrypted
part of the response using its secret key, verifies that the nonce in the
encrypted part matches the nonce it supplied in its request (to detect
replays). It also verifies that the sname and srealm in the response match
those in the request (or are otherwise expected values), and that the host
address field is also correct. It then stores the ticket, session key,
start and expiration times, and other information for later use. The
key-expiration field from the encrypted part of the response may be checked
to notify the user of impending key expiration (the client program could
then suggest remedial action, such as a password change). See section A.3
for pseudocode.

Proper decryption of the KRB_AS_REP message is not sufficient to verify the
identity of the user; the user and an attacker could cooperate to generate
a KRB_AS_REP format message which decrypts properly but is not from the
proper KDC. If the host wishes to verify the identity of the user, it must
require the user to present application credentials which can be verified
using a securely-stored secret key for the host. If those credentials can
be verified, then the identity of the user can be assured.

3.1.6. Receipt of KRB_ERROR message

If the reply message type is KRB_ERROR, then the client interprets it as an
error and performs whatever application-specific tasks are necessary to
recover. If the client set the CANONICALIZE option and a
KDC_ERR_WRONG_REALM error was returned, the AS request should be retried to
the realm and client principal name specified in the error message crealm
and cname field respectively.

3.2. The Client/Server Authentication Exchange

                             Summary
Message direction                         Message type    Section
Client to Application server              KRB_AP_REQ      5.5.1
[optional] Application server to client   KRB_AP_REP or   5.5.2
                                          KRB_ERROR       5.9.1

The client/server authentication (CS) exchange is used by network
applications to authenticate the client to the server and vice versa. The
client must have already acquired credentials for the server using the AS
or TGS exchange.


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3.2.1. The KRB_AP_REQ message

The KRB_AP_REQ contains authentication information which should be part of
the first message in an authenticated transaction. It contains a ticket, an
authenticator, and some additional bookkeeping information (see section
5.5.1 for the exact format). The ticket by itself is insufficient to
authenticate a client, since tickets are passed across the network in
cleartext[DS90], so the authenticator is used to prevent invalid replay of
tickets by proving to the server that the client knows the session key of
the ticket and thus is entitled to use the ticket. The KRB_AP_REQ message
is referred to elsewhere as the 'authentication header.'

3.2.2. Generation of a KRB_AP_REQ message

When a client wishes to initiate authentication to a server, it obtains
(either through a credentials cache, the AS exchange, or the TGS exchange)
a ticket and session key for the desired service. The client may re-use any
tickets it holds until they expire. To use a ticket the client constructs a
new Authenticator from the the system time, its name, and optionally an
application specific checksum, an initial sequence number to be used in
KRB_SAFE or KRB_PRIV messages, and/or a session subkey to be used in
negotiations for a session key unique to this particular session.
Authenticators may not be re-used and will be rejected if replayed to a
server[LGDSR87]. If a sequence number is to be included, it should be
randomly chosen so that even after many messages have been exchanged it is
not likely to collide with other sequence numbers in use.

The client may indicate a requirement of mutual authentication or the use
of a session-key based ticket by setting the appropriate flag(s) in the
ap-options field of the message.

The Authenticator is encrypted in the session key and combined with the
ticket to form the KRB_AP_REQ message which is then sent to the end server
along with any additional application-specific information. See section A.9
for pseudocode.

3.2.3. Receipt of KRB_AP_REQ message

Authentication is based on the server's current time of day (clocks must be
loosely synchronized), the authenticator, and the ticket. Several errors
are possible. If an error occurs, the server is expected to reply to the
client with a KRB_ERROR message. This message may be encapsulated in the
application protocol if its 'raw' form is not acceptable to the protocol.
The format of error messages is described in section 5.9.1.

The algorithm for verifying authentication information is as follows. If
the message type is not KRB_AP_REQ, the server returns the
KRB_AP_ERR_MSG_TYPE error. If the key version indicated by the Ticket in
the KRB_AP_REQ is not one the server can use (e.g., it indicates an old
key, and the server no longer possesses a copy of the old key), the
KRB_AP_ERR_BADKEYVER error is returned. If the USE-SESSION-KEY flag is set
in the ap-options field, it indicates to the server that the ticket is
encrypted in the session key from the server's ticket-granting ticket
rather than its secret key[10]. Since it is possible for the server to be
registered in multiple realms, with different keys in each, the srealm
field in the unencrypted portion of the ticket in the KRB_AP_REQ is used to
specify which secret key the server should use to decrypt that ticket. The
KRB_AP_ERR_NOKEY error code is returned if the server doesn't have the
proper key to decipher the ticket.

The ticket is decrypted using the version of the server's key specified by
the ticket. If the decryption routines detect a modification of the ticket
(each encryption system must provide safeguards to detect modified
ciphertext; see section 6), the KRB_AP_ERR_BAD_INTEGRITY error is returned
(chances are good that different keys were used to encrypt and decrypt).


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The authenticator is decrypted using the session key extracted from the
decrypted ticket. If decryption shows it to have been modified, the
KRB_AP_ERR_BAD_INTEGRITY error is returned. The name and realm of the
client from the ticket are compared against the same fields in the
authenticator. If they don't match, the KRB_AP_ERR_BADMATCH error is
returned (they might not match, for example, if the wrong session key was
used to encrypt the authenticator). The addresses in the ticket (if any)
are then searched for an address matching the operating-system reported
address of the client. If no match is found or the server insists on ticket
addresses but none are present in the ticket, the KRB_AP_ERR_BADADDR error
is returned.

If the local (server) time and the client time in the authenticator differ
by more than the allowable clock skew (e.g., 5 minutes), the
KRB_AP_ERR_SKEW error is returned. If the server name, along with the
client name, time and microsecond fields from the Authenticator match any
recently-seen such tuples, the KRB_AP_ERR_REPEAT error is returned[11]. The
server must remember any authenticator presented within the allowable clock
skew, so that a replay attempt is guaranteed to fail. If a server loses
track of any authenticator presented within the allowable clock skew, it
must reject all requests until the clock skew interval has passed. This
assures that any lost or re-played authenticators will fall outside the
allowable clock skew and can no longer be successfully replayed (If this is
not done, an attacker could conceivably record the ticket and authenticator
sent over the network to a server, then disable the client's host, pose as
the disabled host, and replay the ticket and authenticator to subvert the
authentication.). If a sequence number is provided in the authenticator,
the server saves it for later use in processing KRB_SAFE and/or KRB_PRIV
messages. If a subkey is present, the server either saves it for later use
or uses it to help generate its own choice for a subkey to be returned in a
KRB_AP_REP message.

The server computes the age of the ticket: local (server) time minus the
start time inside the Ticket. If the start time is later than the current
time by more than the allowable clock skew or if the INVALID flag is set in
the ticket, the KRB_AP_ERR_TKT_NYV error is returned. Otherwise, if the
current time is later than end time by more than the allowable clock skew,
the KRB_AP_ERR_TKT_EXPIRED error is returned.

If all these checks succeed without an error, the server is assured that
the client possesses the credentials of the principal named in the ticket
and thus, the client has been authenticated to the server. See section A.10
for pseudocode.

Passing these checks provides only authentication of the named principal;
it does not imply authorization to use the named service. Applications must
make a separate authorization decisions based upon the authenticated name
of the user, the requested operation, local acces control information such
as that contained in a .k5login or .k5users file, and possibly a separate
distributed authorization service.

3.2.4. Generation of a KRB_AP_REP message

Typically, a client's request will include both the authentication
information and its initial request in the same message, and the server
need not explicitly reply to the KRB_AP_REQ. However, if mutual
authentication (not only authenticating the client to the server, but also
the server to the client) is being performed, the KRB_AP_REQ message will

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have MUTUAL-REQUIRED set in its ap-options field, and a KRB_AP_REP message
is required in response. As with the error message, this message may be
encapsulated in the application protocol if its "raw" form is not
acceptable to the application's protocol. The timestamp and microsecond
field used in the reply must be the client's timestamp and microsecond
field (as provided in the authenticator)[12]. If a sequence number is to be
included, it should be randomly chosen as described above for the
authenticator. A subkey may be included if the server desires to negotiate
a different subkey. The KRB_AP_REP message is encrypted in the session key
extracted from the ticket. See section A.11 for pseudocode.

3.2.5. Receipt of KRB_AP_REP message

If a KRB_AP_REP message is returned, the client uses the session key from
the credentials obtained for the server[13] to decrypt the message, and
verifies that the timestamp and microsecond fields match those in the
Authenticator it sent to the server. If they match, then the client is
assured that the server is genuine. The sequence number and subkey (if
present) are retained for later use. See section A.12 for pseudocode.

3.2.6. Using the encryption key

After the KRB_AP_REQ/KRB_AP_REP exchange has occurred, the client and
server share an encryption key which can be used by the application. The
'true session key' to be used for KRB_PRIV, KRB_SAFE, or other
application-specific uses may be chosen by the application based on the
subkeys in the KRB_AP_REP message and the authenticator[14]. In some cases,
the use of this session key will be implicit in the protocol; in others the
method of use must be chosen from several alternatives. We leave the
protocol negotiations of how to use the key (e.g. selecting an encryption
or checksum type) to the application programmer; the Kerberos protocol does
not constrain the implementation options, but an example of how this might
be done follows.

One way that an application may choose to negotiate a key to be used for
subequent integrity and privacy protection is for the client to propose a
key in the subkey field of the authenticator. The server can then choose a
key using the proposed key from the client as input, returning the new
subkey in the subkey field of the application reply. This key could then be
used for subsequent communication. To make this example more concrete, if
the encryption method in use required a 56 bit key, and for whatever
reason, one of the parties was prevented from using a key with more than 40
unknown bits, this method would allow the the party which is prevented from
using more than 40 bits to either propose (if the client) an initial key
with a known quantity for 16 of those bits, or to mask 16 of the bits (if
the server) with the known quantity. The application implementor is warned,
however, that this is only an example, and that an analysis of the
particular crytosystem to be used, and the reasons for limiting the key
length, must be made before deciding whether it is acceptable to mask bits
of the key.

With both the one-way and mutual authentication exchanges, the peers should
take care not to send sensitive information to each other without proper
assurances. In particular, applications that require privacy or integrity
should use the KRB_AP_REP response from the server to client to assure both
client and server of their peer's identity. If an application protocol
requires privacy of its messages, it can use the KRB_PRIV message (section
3.5). The KRB_SAFE message (section 3.4) can be used to assure integrity.


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3.3. The Ticket-Granting Service (TGS) Exchange

                          Summary
      Message direction       Message type     Section
      1. Client to Kerberos   KRB_TGS_REQ      5.4.1
      2. Kerberos to client   KRB_TGS_REP or   5.4.2
                              KRB_ERROR        5.9.1

The TGS exchange between a client and the Kerberos Ticket-Granting Server
is initiated by a client when it wishes to obtain authentication
credentials for a given server (which might be registered in a remote
realm), when it wishes to renew or validate an existing ticket, or when it
wishes to obtain a proxy ticket. In the first case, the client must already
have acquired a ticket for the Ticket-Granting Service using the AS
exchange (the ticket-granting ticket is usually obtained when a client
initially authenticates to the system, such as when a user logs in). The
message format for the TGS exchange is almost identical to that for the AS
exchange. The primary difference is that encryption and decryption in the
TGS exchange does not take place under the client's key. Instead, the
session key from the ticket-granting ticket or renewable ticket, or
sub-session key from an Authenticator is used. As is the case for all
application servers, expired tickets are not accepted by the TGS, so once a
renewable or ticket-granting ticket expires, the client must use a separate
exchange to obtain valid tickets.

The TGS exchange consists of two messages: A request (KRB_TGS_REQ) from the
client to the Kerberos Ticket-Granting Server, and a reply (KRB_TGS_REP or
KRB_ERROR). The KRB_TGS_REQ message includes information authenticating the
client plus a request for credentials. The authentication information
consists of the authentication header (KRB_AP_REQ) which includes the
client's previously obtained ticket-granting, renewable, or invalid ticket.
In the ticket-granting ticket and proxy cases, the request may include one
or more of: a list of network addresses, a collection of typed
authorization data to be sealed in the ticket for authorization use by the
application server, or additional tickets (the use of which are described
later). The TGS reply (KRB_TGS_REP) contains the requested credentials,
encrypted in the session key from the ticket-granting ticket or renewable
ticket, or if present, in the sub-session key from the Authenticator (part
of the authentication header). The KRB_ERROR message contains an error code
and text explaining what went wrong. The KRB_ERROR message is not
encrypted. The KRB_TGS_REP message contains information which can be used
to detect replays, and to associate it with the message to which it
replies. The KRB_ERROR message also contains information which can be used
to associate it with the message to which it replies, but the lack of
encryption in the KRB_ERROR message precludes the ability to detect replays
or fabrications of such messages.

3.3.1. Generation of KRB_TGS_REQ message

Before sending a request to the ticket-granting service, the client must
determine in which realm the application server is registered[15], if it is
known. If the client does know the service principal name and realm and it
does not already possess a ticket-granting ticket for the appropriate
realm, then one must be obtained. This is first attempted by requesting a
ticket-granting ticket for the destination realm from a Kerberos server for
which the client does posess a ticket-granting ticket (using the
KRB_TGS_REQ message recursively). The Kerberos server may return a TGT for
the desired realm in which case one can proceed.

If the client does not know the realm of the service or the true service
principal name, then the CANONICALIZE option must be used in the request.
This will cause the TGS to locate the service principal based on the target
service name in the ticket and return the service principal name in the
response. Alternatively, the Kerberos server may return a TGT for a realm
which is 'closer' to the desired realm (further along the standard

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hierarchical path) or the realm that may contain the requested service
principal name in a request with the CANONCALIZE option set [JBrezak], in
which case this step must be repeated with a Kerberos server in the realm
specified in the returned TGT. If neither are returned, then the request
must be retried with a Kerberos server for a realm higher in the hierarchy.
This request will itself require a ticket-granting ticket for the higher
realm which must be obtained by recursively applying these directions.

Once the client obtains a ticket-granting ticket for the appropriate realm,
it determines which Kerberos servers serve that realm, and contacts one.
The list might be obtained through a configuration file or network service
or it may be generated from the name of the realm; as long as the secret
keys exchanged by realms are kept secret, only denial of service results
from using a false Kerberos server.

As in the AS exchange, the client may specify a number of options in the
KRB_TGS_REQ message. The client prepares the KRB_TGS_REQ message, providing
an authentication header as an element of the padata field, and including
the same fields as used in the KRB_AS_REQ message along with several
optional fields: the enc-authorization-data field for application server
use and additional tickets required by some options.

In preparing the authentication header, the client can select a sub-session
key under which the response from the Kerberos server will be
encrypted[16]. If the sub-session key is not specified, the session key
from the ticket-granting ticket will be used. If the enc-authorization-data
is present, it must be encrypted in the sub-session key, if present, from
the authenticator portion of the authentication header, or if not present,
using the session key from the ticket-granting ticket.

Once prepared, the message is sent to a Kerberos server for the destination
realm. See section A.5 for pseudocode.

3.3.2. Receipt of KRB_TGS_REQ message

The KRB_TGS_REQ message is processed in a manner similar to the KRB_AS_REQ
message, but there are many additional checks to be performed. First, the
Kerberos server must determine which server the accompanying ticket is for
and it must select the appropriate key to decrypt it. For a normal
KRB_TGS_REQ message, it will be for the ticket granting service, and the
TGS's key will be used. If the TGT was issued by another realm, then the
appropriate inter-realm key must be used. If the accompanying ticket is not
a ticket granting ticket for the current realm, but is for an application
server in the current realm, the RENEW, VALIDATE, or PROXY options are
specified in the request, and the server for which a ticket is requested is
the server named in the accompanying ticket, then the KDC will decrypt the
ticket in the authentication header using the key of the server for which
it was issued. If no ticket can be found in the padata field, the
KDC_ERR_PADATA_TYPE_NOSUPP error is returned.

Once the accompanying ticket has been decrypted, the user-supplied checksum
in the Authenticator must be verified against the contents of the request,
and the message rejected if the checksums do not match (with an error code
of KRB_AP_ERR_MODIFIED) or if the checksum is not keyed or not
collision-proof (with an error code of KRB_AP_ERR_INAPP_CKSUM). If the
checksum type is not supported, the KDC_ERR_SUMTYPE_NOSUPP error is
returned. If the authorization-data are present, they are decrypted using
the sub-session key from the Authenticator.

If any of the decryptions indicate failed integrity checks, the
KRB_AP_ERR_BAD_INTEGRITY error is returned. If the CANONICALIZE option is
set in the KRB_TGS_REQ, then the requested service name may not be the true
principal name or the service may not be in the TGS realm.


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3.3.3. Generation of KRB_TGS_REP message

The KRB_TGS_REP message shares its format with the KRB_AS_REP
(KRB_KDC_REP), but with its type field set to KRB_TGS_REP. The detailed
specification is in section 5.4.2.

The response will include a ticket for the requested server. The Kerberos
database is queried to retrieve the record for the requested server
(including the key with which the ticket will be encrypted). If the request
is for a ticket granting ticket for a remote realm, and if no key is shared
with the requested realm, then the Kerberos server will select the realm
"closest" to the requested realm with which it does share a key, and use
that realm instead. If the CANONICALIZE option is set, the TGS may return a
ticket containing the server name of the true service principal. If the
requested server cannot be found in the TGS database, then a TGT for
another trusted realm may be returned instead of a ticket for the service.
This TGT is a referral mechanism to cause the client to retry the request
to the realm of the TGT. These are the only cases where the response for
the KDC will be for a different server than that requested by the client.

By default, the address field, the client's name and realm, the list of
transited realms, the time of initial authentication, the expiration time,
and the authorization data of the newly-issued ticket will be copied from
the ticket-granting ticket (TGT) or renewable ticket. If the transited
field needs to be updated, but the transited type is not supported, the
KDC_ERR_TRTYPE_NOSUPP error is returned.

If the request specifies an endtime, then the endtime of the new ticket is
set to the minimum of (a) that request, (b) the endtime from the TGT, and
(c) the starttime of the TGT plus the minimum of the maximum life for the
application server and the maximum life for the local realm (the maximum
life for the requesting principal was already applied when the TGT was
issued). If the new ticket is to be a renewal, then the endtime above is
replaced by the minimum of (a) the value of the renew_till field of the
ticket and (b) the starttime for the new ticket plus the life
(endtime-starttime) of the old ticket.

If the FORWARDED option has been requested, then the resulting ticket will
contain the addresses specified by the client. This option will only be
honored if the FORWARDABLE flag is set in the TGT. The PROXY option is
similar; the resulting ticket will contain the addresses specified by the
client. It will be honored only if the PROXIABLE flag in the TGT is set.
The PROXY option will not be honored on requests for additional
ticket-granting tickets.

If the requested start time is absent, indicates a time in the past, or is
within the window of acceptable clock skew for the KDC and the POSTDATE
option has not been specified, then the start time of the ticket is set to
the authentication server's current time. If it indicates a time in the
future beyond the acceptable clock skew, but the POSTDATED option has not
been specified or the MAY-POSTDATE flag is not set in the TGT, then the
error KDC_ERR_CANNOT_POSTDATE is returned. Otherwise, if the
ticket-granting ticket has the MAY-POSTDATE flag set, then the resulting
ticket will be postdated and the requested starttime is checked against the
policy of the local realm. If acceptable, the ticket's start time is set as
requested, and the INVALID flag is set. The postdated ticket must be
validated before use by presenting it to the KDC after the starttime has
been reached. However, in no case may the starttime, endtime, or renew-till
time of a newly-issued postdated ticket extend beyond the renew-till time
of the ticket-granting ticket.

If the ENC-TKT-IN-SKEY option has been specified and an additional ticket
has been included in the request, the KDC will decrypt the additional
ticket using the key for the server to which the additional ticket was
issued and verify that it is a ticket-granting ticket. If the name of the

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requested server is missing from the request, the name of the client in the
additional ticket will be used. Otherwise the name of the requested server
will be compared to the name of the client in the additional ticket and if
different, the request will be rejected. If the request succeeds, the
session key from the additional ticket will be used to encrypt the new
ticket that is issued instead of using the key of the server for which the
new ticket will be used[17].

If the name of the server in the ticket that is presented to the KDC as
part of the authentication header is not that of the ticket-granting server
itself, the server is registered in the realm of the KDC, and the RENEW
option is requested, then the KDC will verify that the RENEWABLE flag is
set in the ticket, that the INVALID flag is not set in the ticket, and that
the renew_till time is still in the future. If the VALIDATE option is
rqeuested, the KDC will check that the starttime has passed and the INVALID
flag is set. If the PROXY option is requested, then the KDC will check that
the PROXIABLE flag is set in the ticket. If the tests succeed, and the
ticket passes the hotlist check described in the next paragraph, the KDC
will issue the appropriate new ticket.

3.3.3.1. Checking for revoked tickets

Whenever a request is made to the ticket-granting server, the presented
ticket(s) is(are) checked against a hot-list of tickets which have been
canceled. This hot-list might be implemented by storing a range of issue
timestamps for 'suspect tickets'; if a presented ticket had an authtime in
that range, it would be rejected. In this way, a stolen ticket-granting
ticket or renewable ticket cannot be used to gain additional tickets
(renewals or otherwise) once the theft has been reported. Any normal ticket
obtained before it was reported stolen will still be valid (because they
require no interaction with the KDC), but only until their normal
expiration time.

The ciphertext part of the response in the KRB_TGS_REP message is encrypted
in the sub-session key from the Authenticator, if present, or the session
key key from the ticket-granting ticket. It is not encrypted using the
client's secret key. Furthermore, the client's key's expiration date and
the key version number fields are left out since these values are stored
along with the client's database record, and that record is not needed to
satisfy a request based on a ticket-granting ticket. See section A.6 for
pseudocode.

3.3.3.2. Encoding the transited field

If the identity of the server in the TGT that is presented to the KDC as
part of the authentication header is that of the ticket-granting service,
but the TGT was issued from another realm, the KDC will look up the
inter-realm key shared with that realm and use that key to decrypt the
ticket. If the ticket is valid, then the KDC will honor the request,
subject to the constraints outlined above in the section describing the AS
exchange. The realm part of the client's identity will be taken from the
ticket-granting ticket. The name of the realm that issued the
ticket-granting ticket will be added to the transited field of the ticket
to be issued. This is accomplished by reading the transited field from the
ticket-granting ticket (which is treated as an unordered set of realm
names), adding the new realm to the set, then constructing and writing out
its encoded (shorthand) form (this may involve a rearrangement of the
existing encoding).

Note that the ticket-granting service does not add the name of its own
realm. Instead, its responsibility is to add the name of the previous
realm. This prevents a malicious Kerberos server from intentionally leaving
out its own name (it could, however, omit other realms' names).


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The names of neither the local realm nor the principal's realm are to be
included in the transited field. They appear elsewhere in the ticket and
both are known to have taken part in authenticating the principal. Since
the endpoints are not included, both local and single-hop inter-realm
authentication result in a transited field that is empty.

Because the name of each realm transited is added to this field, it might
potentially be very long. To decrease the length of this field, its
contents are encoded. The initially supported encoding is optimized for the
normal case of inter-realm communication: a hierarchical arrangement of
realms using either domain or X.500 style realm names. This encoding
(called DOMAIN-X500-COMPRESS) is now described.

Realm names in the transited field are separated by a ",". The ",", "\",
trailing "."s, and leading spaces (" ") are special characters, and if they
are part of a realm name, they must be quoted in the transited field by
preced- ing them with a "\".

A realm name ending with a "." is interpreted as being prepended to the
previous realm. For example, we can encode traversal of EDU, MIT.EDU,
ATHENA.MIT.EDU, WASHINGTON.EDU, and CS.WASHINGTON.EDU as:

     "EDU,MIT.,ATHENA.,WASHINGTON.EDU,CS.".

Note that if ATHENA.MIT.EDU, or CS.WASHINGTON.EDU were end-points, that
they would not be included in this field, and we would have:

     "EDU,MIT.,WASHINGTON.EDU"

A realm name beginning with a "/" is interpreted as being appended to the
previous realm[18]. If it is to stand by itself, then it should be preceded
by a space (" "). For example, we can encode traversal of /COM/HP/APOLLO,
/COM/HP, /COM, and /COM/DEC as:

     "/COM,/HP,/APOLLO, /COM/DEC".

Like the example above, if /COM/HP/APOLLO and /COM/DEC are endpoints, they
they would not be included in this field, and we would have:

     "/COM,/HP"

A null subfield preceding or following a "," indicates that all realms
between the previous realm and the next realm have been traversed[19].
Thus, "," means that all realms along the path between the client and the
server have been traversed. ",EDU, /COM," means that that all realms from
the client's realm up to EDU (in a domain style hierarchy) have been
traversed, and that everything from /COM down to the server's realm in an
X.500 style has also been traversed. This could occur if the EDU realm in
one hierarchy shares an inter-realm key directly with the /COM realm in
another hierarchy.

3.3.4. Receipt of KRB_TGS_REP message

When the KRB_TGS_REP is received by the client, it is processed in the same
manner as the KRB_AS_REP processing described above. The primary difference
is that the ciphertext part of the response must be decrypted using the
session key from the ticket-granting ticket rather than the client's secret
key. The server name returned in the reply is the true principal name of
the service. See section A.7 for pseudocode.


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3.4. The KRB_SAFE Exchange

The KRB_SAFE message may be used by clients requiring the ability to detect
modifications of messages they exchange. It achieves this by including a
keyed collision-proof checksum of the user data and some control
information. The checksum is keyed with an encryption key (usually the last
key negotiated via subkeys, or the session key if no negotiation has
occured).

3.4.1. Generation of a KRB_SAFE message

When an application wishes to send a KRB_SAFE message, it collects its data
and the appropriate control information and computes a checksum over them.
The checksum algorithm should be a keyed one-way hash function (such as the
RSA- MD5-DES checksum algorithm specified in section 6.4.5, or the DES
MAC), generated using the sub-session key if present, or the session key.
Different algorithms may be selected by changing the checksum type in the
message. Unkeyed or non-collision-proof checksums are not suitable for this
use.

The control information for the KRB_SAFE message includes both a timestamp
and a sequence number. The designer of an application using the KRB_SAFE
message must choose at least one of the two mechanisms. This choice should
be based on the needs of the application protocol.

Sequence numbers are useful when all messages sent will be received by
one's peer. Connection state is presently required to maintain the session
key, so maintaining the next sequence number should not present an
additional problem.

If the application protocol is expected to tolerate lost messages without
them being resent, the use of the timestamp is the appropriate replay
detection mechanism. Using timestamps is also the appropriate mechanism for
multi-cast protocols where all of one's peers share a common sub-session
key, but some messages will be sent to a subset of one's peers.

After computing the checksum, the client then transmits the information and
checksum to the recipient in the message format specified in section 5.6.1.

3.4.2. Receipt of KRB_SAFE message

When an application receives a KRB_SAFE message, it verifies it as follows.
If any error occurs, an error code is reported for use by the application.

The message is first checked by verifying that the protocol version and
type fields match the current version and KRB_SAFE, respectively. A
mismatch generates a KRB_AP_ERR_BADVERSION or KRB_AP_ERR_MSG_TYPE error.
The application verifies that the checksum used is a collision-proof keyed
checksum, and if it is not, a KRB_AP_ERR_INAPP_CKSUM error is generated. If
the sender's address was included in the control information, the recipient
verifies that the operating system's report of the sender's address matches
the sender's address in the message, and (if a recipient address is
specified or the recipient requires an address) that one of the recipient's
addresses appears as the recipient's address in the message. A failed match
for either case generates a KRB_AP_ERR_BADADDR error. Then the timestamp
and usec and/or the sequence number fields are checked. If timestamp and
usec are expected and not present, or they are present but not current, the
KRB_AP_ERR_SKEW error is generated. If the server name, along with the
client name, time and microsecond fields from the Authenticator match any
recently-seen (sent or received[20] ) such tuples, the KRB_AP_ERR_REPEAT
error is generated. If an incorrect sequence number is included, or a
sequence number is expected but not present, the KRB_AP_ERR_BADORDER error
is generated. If neither a time-stamp and usec or a sequence number is
present, a KRB_AP_ERR_MODIFIED error is generated. Finally, the checksum is
computed over the data and control information, and if it doesn't match the
received checksum, a KRB_AP_ERR_MODIFIED error is generated.


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If all the checks succeed, the application is assured that the message was
generated by its peer and was not modi- fied in transit.

3.5. The KRB_PRIV Exchange

The KRB_PRIV message may be used by clients requiring confidentiality and
the ability to detect modifications of exchanged messages. It achieves this
by encrypting the messages and adding control information.

3.5.1. Generation of a KRB_PRIV message

When an application wishes to send a KRB_PRIV message, it collects its data
and the appropriate control information (specified in section 5.7.1) and
encrypts them under an encryption key (usually the last key negotiated via
subkeys, or the session key if no negotiation has occured). As part of the
control information, the client must choose to use either a timestamp or a
sequence number (or both); see the discussion in section 3.4.1 for
guidelines on which to use. After the user data and control information are
encrypted, the client transmits the ciphertext and some 'envelope'
information to the recipient.

3.5.2. Receipt of KRB_PRIV message

When an application receives a KRB_PRIV message, it verifies it as follows.
If any error occurs, an error code is reported for use by the application.

The message is first checked by verifying that the protocol version and
type fields match the current version and KRB_PRIV, respectively. A
mismatch generates a KRB_AP_ERR_BADVERSION or KRB_AP_ERR_MSG_TYPE error.
The application then decrypts the ciphertext and processes the resultant
plaintext. If decryption shows the data to have been modified, a
KRB_AP_ERR_BAD_INTEGRITY error is generated. If the sender's address was
included in the control information, the recipient verifies that the
operating system's report of the sender's address matches the sender's
address in the message, and (if a recipient address is specified or the
recipient requires an address) that one of the recipient's addresses
appears as the recipient's address in the message. A failed match for
either case generates a KRB_AP_ERR_BADADDR error. Then the timestamp and
usec and/or the sequence number fields are checked. If timestamp and usec
are expected and not present, or they are present but not current, the
KRB_AP_ERR_SKEW error is generated. If the server name, along with the
client name, time and microsecond fields from the Authenticator match any
recently-seen such tuples, the KRB_AP_ERR_REPEAT error is generated. If an
incorrect sequence number is included, or a sequence number is expected but
not present, the KRB_AP_ERR_BADORDER error is generated. If neither a
time-stamp and usec or a sequence number is present, a KRB_AP_ERR_MODIFIED
error is generated.

If all the checks succeed, the application can assume the message was
generated by its peer, and was securely transmitted (without intruders able
to see the unencrypted contents).

3.6. The KRB_CRED Exchange

The KRB_CRED message may be used by clients requiring the ability to send
Kerberos credentials from one host to another. It achieves this by sending
the tickets together with encrypted data containing the session keys and
other information associated with the tickets.


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3.6.1. Generation of a KRB_CRED message

When an application wishes to send a KRB_CRED message it first (using the
KRB_TGS exchange) obtains credentials to be sent to the remote host. It
then constructs a KRB_CRED message using the ticket or tickets so obtained,
placing the session key needed to use each ticket in the key field of the
corresponding KrbCredInfo sequence of the encrypted part of the the
KRB_CRED message.

Other information associated with each ticket and obtained during the
KRB_TGS exchange is also placed in the corresponding KrbCredInfo sequence
in the encrypted part of the KRB_CRED message. The current time and, if
specifically required by the application the nonce, s-address, and
r-address fields, are placed in the encrypted part of the KRB_CRED message
which is then encrypted under an encryption key previosuly exchanged in the
KRB_AP exchange (usually the last key negotiated via subkeys, or the
session key if no negotiation has occured).

3.6.2. Receipt of KRB_CRED message

When an application receives a KRB_CRED message, it verifies it. If any
error occurs, an error code is reported for use by the application. The
message is verified by checking that the protocol version and type fields
match the current version and KRB_CRED, respectively. A mismatch generates
a KRB_AP_ERR_BADVERSION or KRB_AP_ERR_MSG_TYPE error. The application then
decrypts the ciphertext and processes the resultant plaintext. If
decryption shows the data to have been modified, a KRB_AP_ERR_BAD_INTEGRITY
error is generated.

If present or required, the recipient verifies that the operating system's
report of the sender's address matches the sender's address in the message,
and that one of the recipient's addresses appears as the recipient's
address in the message. A failed match for either case generates a
KRB_AP_ERR_BADADDR error. The timestamp and usec fields (and the nonce
field if required) are checked next. If the timestamp and usec are not
present, or they are present but not current, the KRB_AP_ERR_SKEW error is
generated.

If all the checks succeed, the application stores each of the new tickets
in its ticket cache together with the session key and other information in
the corresponding KrbCredInfo sequence from the encrypted part of the
KRB_CRED message.

4. The Kerberos Database

The Kerberos server must have access to a database containing the principal
identifiers and secret keys of principals to be authenticated[21].

4.1. Database contents

A database entry should contain at least the following fields:

Field                Value

name                 Principal's identifier
key                  Principal's secret key
p_kvno               Principal's key version
max_life             Maximum lifetime for Tickets
max_renewable_life   Maximum total lifetime for renewable Tickets

The name field is an encoding of the principal's identifier. The key field
contains an encryption key. This key is the principal's secret key. (The
key can be encrypted before storage under a Kerberos "master key" to
protect it in case the database is compromised but the master key is not.
In that case, an extra field must be added to indicate the master key

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version used, see below.) The p_kvno field is the key version number of the
principal's secret key. The max_life field contains the maximum allowable
lifetime (endtime - starttime) for any Ticket issued for this principal.
The max_renewable_life field contains the maximum allowable total lifetime
for any renewable Ticket issued for this principal. (See section 3.1 for a
description of how these lifetimes are used in determining the lifetime of
a given Ticket.)

A server may provide KDC service to several realms, as long as the database
representation provides a mechanism to distinguish between principal
records with identifiers which differ only in the realm name.

When an application server's key changes, if the change is routine (i.e.
not the result of disclosure of the old key), the old key should be
retained by the server until all tickets that had been issued using that
key have expired. Because of this, it is possible for several keys to be
active for a single principal. Ciphertext encrypted in a principal's key is
always tagged with the version of the key that was used for encryption, to
help the recipient find the proper key for decryption.

When more than one key is active for a particular principal, the principal
will have more than one record in the Kerberos database. The keys and key
version numbers will differ between the records (the rest of the fields may
or may not be the same). Whenever Kerberos issues a ticket, or responds to
a request for initial authentication, the most recent key (known by the
Kerberos server) will be used for encryption. This is the key with the
highest key version number.

4.2. Additional fields

Project Athena's KDC implementation uses additional fields in its database:

Field        Value

K_kvno       Kerberos' key version
expiration   Expiration date for entry
attributes   Bit field of attributes
mod_date     Timestamp of last modification
mod_name     Modifying principal's identifier

The K_kvno field indicates the key version of the Kerberos master key under
which the principal's secret key is encrypted.

After an entry's expiration date has passed, the KDC will return an error
to any client attempting to gain tickets as or for the principal. (A
database may want to maintain two expiration dates: one for the principal,
and one for the principal's current key. This allows password aging to work
independently of the principal's expiration date. However, due to the
limited space in the responses, the KDC must combine the key expiration and
principal expiration date into a single value called 'key_exp', which is
used as a hint to the user to take administrative action.)

The attributes field is a bitfield used to govern the operations involving
the principal. This field might be useful in conjunction with user
registration procedures, for site-specific policy implementations (Project
Athena currently uses it for their user registration process controlled by
the system-wide database service, Moira [LGDSR87]), to identify whether a
principal can play the role of a client or server or both, to note whether
a server is appropriate trusted to recieve credentials delegated by a
client, or to identify the 'string to key' conversion algorithm used for a
principal's key[22]. Other bits are used to indicate that certain ticket
options should not be allowed in tickets encrypted under a principal's key
(one bit each): Disallow issuing postdated tickets, disallow issuing
forwardable tickets, disallow issuing tickets based on TGT authentication,
disallow issuing renewable tickets, disallow issuing proxiable tickets, and
disallow issuing tickets for which the principal is the server.


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The mod_date field contains the time of last modification of the entry, and
the mod_name field contains the name of the principal which last modified
the entry.

4.3. Frequently Changing Fields

Some KDC implementations may wish to maintain the last time that a request
was made by a particular principal. Information that might be maintained
includes the time of the last request, the time of the last request for a
ticket-granting ticket, the time of the last use of a ticket-granting
ticket, or other times. This information can then be returned to the user
in the last-req field (see section 5.2).

Other frequently changing information that can be maintained is the latest
expiration time for any tickets that have been issued using each key. This
field would be used to indicate how long old keys must remain valid to
allow the continued use of outstanding tickets.

4.4. Site Constants

The KDC implementation should have the following configurable constants or
options, to allow an administrator to make and enforce policy decisions:

   * The minimum supported lifetime (used to determine whether the
     KDC_ERR_NEVER_VALID error should be returned). This constant should
     reflect reasonable expectations of round-trip time to the KDC,
     encryption/decryption time, and processing time by the client and
     target server, and it should allow for a minimum 'useful' lifetime.
   * The maximum allowable total (renewable) lifetime of a ticket
     (renew_till - starttime).
   * The maximum allowable lifetime of a ticket (endtime - starttime).
   * Whether to allow the issue of tickets with empty address fields
     (including the ability to specify that such tickets may only be issued
     if the request specifies some authorization_data).
   * Whether proxiable, forwardable, renewable or post-datable tickets are
     to be issued.

5. Message Specifications

The following sections describe the exact contents and encoding of protocol
messages and objects. The ASN.1 base definitions are presented in the first
subsection. The remaining subsections specify the protocol objects (tickets
and authenticators) and messages. Specification of encryption and checksum
techniques, and the fields related to them, appear in section 6.

Optional field in ASN.1 sequences

For optional integer value and date fields in ASN.1 sequences where a
default value has been specified, certain default values will not be
allowed in the encoding because these values will always be represented
through defaulting by the absence of the optional field. For example, one
will not send a microsecond zero value because one must make sure that
there is only one way to encode this value.

Additional fields in ASN.1 sequences

Implementations receiving Kerberos messages with additional fields present
in ASN.1 sequences should carry the those fields through, unmodified, when
the message is forwarded. Implementations should not drop such fields if
the sequence is reencoded.

5.1. ASN.1 Distinguished Encoding Representation

All uses of ASN.1 in Kerberos shall use the Distinguished Encoding
Representation of the data elements as described in the X.509
specification, section 8.7 [X509-88].


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5.2. ASN.1 Base Definitions

The following ASN.1 base definitions are used in the rest of this section.
Note that since the underscore character (_) is not permitted in ASN.1
names, the hyphen (-) is used in its place for the purposes of ASN.1 names.

Realm ::=           GeneralString
PrincipalName ::=   SEQUENCE {
                    name-type[0]     INTEGER,
                    name-string[1]   SEQUENCE OF GeneralString
}

Kerberos realms are encoded as GeneralStrings. Realms shall not contain a
character with the code 0 (the ASCII NUL). Most realms will usually consist
of several components separated by periods (.), in the style of Internet
Domain Names, or separated by slashes (/) in the style of X.500 names.
Acceptable forms for realm names are specified in section 7. A
PrincipalName is a typed sequence of components consisting of the following
sub-fields:

name-type
     This field specifies the type of name that follows. Pre-defined values
     for this field are specified in section 7.2. The name-type should be
     treated as a hint. Ignoring the name type, no two names can be the
     same (i.e. at least one of the components, or the realm, must be
     different). This constraint may be eliminated in the future.
name-string
     This field encodes a sequence of components that form a name, each
     component encoded as a GeneralString. Taken together, a PrincipalName
     and a Realm form a principal identifier. Most PrincipalNames will have
     only a few components (typically one or two).

KerberosTime ::=   GeneralizedTime
                   -- Specifying UTC time zone (Z)

The timestamps used in Kerberos are encoded as GeneralizedTimes. An
encoding shall specify the UTC time zone (Z) and shall not include any
fractional portions of the seconds. It further shall not include any
separators. Example: The only valid format for UTC time 6 minutes, 27
seconds after 9 pm on 6 November 1985 is 19851106210627Z.

HostAddress ::=     SEQUENCE  {
                    addr-type[0]             INTEGER,
                    address[1]               OCTET STRING
}

HostAddresses ::=   SEQUENCE OF HostAddress

The host adddress encodings consists of two fields:

addr-type
     This field specifies the type of address that follows. Pre-defined
     values for this field are specified in section 8.1.
address
     This field encodes a single address of type addr-type.

The two forms differ slightly. HostAddress contains exactly one address;
HostAddresses contains a sequence of possibly many addresses.

AuthorizationData ::=   SEQUENCE OF SEQUENCE {
                        ad-type[0]               INTEGER,
                        ad-data[1]               OCTET STRING
}


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ad-data
     This field contains authorization data to be interpreted according to
     the value of the corresponding ad-type field.
ad-type
     This field specifies the format for the ad-data subfield. All negative
     values are reserved for local use. Non-negative values are reserved
     for registered use.

Each sequence of type and data is refered to as an authorization element.
Elements may be application specific, however, there is a common set of
recursive elements that should be understood by all implementations. These
elements contain other elements embedded within them, and the
interpretation of the encapsulating element determines which of the
embedded elements must be interpreted, and which may be ignored.
Definitions for these common elements may be found in Appendix B.

TicketExtensions ::= SEQUENCE OF SEQUENCE {
           te-type[0]       INTEGER,
           te-data[1]       OCTET STRING
}



te-data
     This field contains opaque data that must be caried with the ticket to
     support extensions to the Kerberos protocol including but not limited
     to some forms of inter-realm key exchange and plaintext authorization
     data. See appendix C for some common uses of this field.
te-type
     This field specifies the format for the te-data subfield. All negative
     values are reserved for local use. Non-negative values are reserved
     for registered use.

APOptions ::=   BIT STRING
                  -- reserved(0),
                  -- use-session-key(1),
                  -- mutual-required(2)

TicketFlags ::= BIT STRING
                  -- reserved(0),
                  -- forwardable(1),
                  -- forwarded(2),
                  -- proxiable(3),
                  -- proxy(4),
                  -- may-postdate(5),
                  -- postdated(6),
                  -- invalid(7),
                  -- renewable(8),
                  -- initial(9),
                  -- pre-authent(10),
                  -- hw-authent(11),
                  -- transited-policy-checked(12),
                  -- ok-as-delegate(13)

KDCOptions ::=   BIT STRING io
                  -- reserved(0),
                  -- forwardable(1),
                  -- forwarded(2),
                  -- proxiable(3),
                  -- proxy(4),
                  -- allow-postdate(5),
                  -- postdated(6),
                  -- unused7(7),
                  -- renewable(8),
                  -- unused9(9),

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                  -- unused10(10),
                  -- unused11(11),
                  -- unused12(12),
                  -- unused13(13),
                  -- requestanonymous(14),
                  -- canonicalize(15),
                  -- disable-transited-check(26),
                  -- renewable-ok(27),
                  -- enc-tkt-in-skey(28),
                  -- renew(30),
                  -- validate(31)

ASN.1 Bit strings have a length and a value. When used in Kerberos for the
APOptions, TicketFlags, and KDCOptions, the length of the bit string on
generated values should be the smallest number of bits needed to include
the highest order bit that is set (1), but in no case less than 32 bits.
The ASN.1 representation of the bit strings uses unnamed bits, with the
meaning of the individual bits defined by the comments in the specification
above. Implementations should accept values of bit strings of any length
and treat the value of flags corresponding to bits beyond the end of the
bit string as if the bit were reset (0). Comparison of bit strings of
different length should treat the smaller string as if it were padded with
zeros beyond the high order bits to the length of the longer string[23].

LastReq ::=   SEQUENCE OF SEQUENCE {
               lr-type[0]               INTEGER,
               lr-value[1]              KerberosTime
}

lr-type
     This field indicates how the following lr-value field is to be
     interpreted. Negative values indicate that the information pertains
     only to the responding server. Non-negative values pertain to all
     servers for the realm. If the lr-type field is zero (0), then no
     information is conveyed by the lr-value subfield. If the absolute
     value of the lr-type field is one (1), then the lr-value subfield is
     the time of last initial request for a TGT. If it is two (2), then the
     lr-value subfield is the time of last initial request. If it is three
     (3), then the lr-value subfield is the time of issue for the newest
     ticket-granting ticket used. If it is four (4), then the lr-value
     subfield is the time of the last renewal. If it is five (5), then the
     lr-value subfield is the time of last request (of any type). If it is
     (6), then the lr-value subfield is the time when the password will
     expire.
lr-value
     This field contains the time of the last request. the time must be
     interpreted according to the contents of the accompanying lr-type
     subfield.

See section 6 for the definitions of Checksum, ChecksumType, EncryptedData,
EncryptionKey, EncryptionType, and KeyType.

5.3. Tickets and Authenticators

This section describes the format and encryption parameters for tickets and
authenticators. When a ticket or authenticator is included in a protocol
message it is treated as an opaque object.


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5.3.1. Tickets

A ticket is a record that helps a client authenticate to a service. A
Ticket contains the following information:

Ticket ::=        [APPLICATION 1] SEQUENCE {
                  tkt-vno[0]                   INTEGER,
                  realm[1]                     Realm,
                  sname[2]                     PrincipalName,
                  enc-part[3]                  EncryptedData,
                  extensions[4]                TicketExtensions OPTIONAL
}

-- Encrypted part of ticket
EncTicketPart ::= [APPLICATION 3] SEQUENCE {
                  flags[0]                     TicketFlags,
                  key[1]                       EncryptionKey,
                  crealm[2]                    Realm,
                  cname[3]                     PrincipalName,
                  transited[4]                 TransitedEncoding,
                  authtime[5]                  KerberosTime,
                  starttime[6]                 KerberosTime OPTIONAL,
                  endtime[7]                   KerberosTime,
                  renew-till[8]                KerberosTime OPTIONAL,
                  caddr[9]                     HostAddresses OPTIONAL,
                  authorization-data[10]       AuthorizationData OPTIONAL
}
-- encoded Transited field
TransitedEncoding ::=   SEQUENCE {
                        tr-type[0]             INTEGER, -- must be
registered
                        contents[1]            OCTET STRING
}

The encoding of EncTicketPart is encrypted in the key shared by Kerberos
and the end server (the server's secret key). See section 6 for the format
of the ciphertext.

tkt-vno
     This field specifies the version number for the ticket format. This
     document describes version number 5.
realm
     This field specifies the realm that issued a ticket. It also serves to
     identify the realm part of the server's principal identifier. Since a
     Kerberos server can only issue tickets for servers within its realm,
     the two will always be identical.
sname
     This field specifies all components of the name part of the server's
     identity, including those parts that identify a specific instance of a
     service.
enc-part
     This field holds the encrypted encoding of the EncTicketPart sequence.
extensions
     This optional field contains a sequence of extentions that may be used
     to carry information that must be carried with the ticket to support
     several extensions, including but not limited to plaintext
     authorization data, tokens for exchanging inter-realm keys, and other
     information that must be associated with a ticket for use by the
     application server. See Appendix C for definitions of some common
     extensions.

     Note that some older versions of Kerberos did not support this field.
     Because this is an optional field it will not break older clients, but
     older clients might strip this field from the ticket before sending it
     to the application server. This limits the usefulness of this ticket
     field to environments where the ticket will not be parsed and
     reconstructed by these older Kerberos clients.


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     If it is known that the client will strip this field from the ticket,
     as an interim measure the KDC may append this field to the end of the
     enc-part of the ticket and append a traler indicating the lenght of
     the appended extensions field. (this paragraph is open for discussion,
     including the form of the traler).
flags
     This field indicates which of various options were used or requested
     when the ticket was issued. It is a bit-field, where the selected
     options are indicated by the bit being set (1), and the unselected
     options and reserved fields being reset (0). Bit 0 is the most
     significant bit. The encoding of the bits is specified in section 5.2.
     The flags are described in more detail above in section 2. The
     meanings of the flags are:

          Bit(s)      Name         Description

          0           RESERVED
                                   Reserved for future  expansion  of  this
                                   field.

          1           FORWARDABLE
                                   The FORWARDABLE flag  is  normally  only
                                   interpreted  by  the  TGS,  and  can  be
                                   ignored by end servers.  When set,  this
                                   flag  tells  the  ticket-granting server
                                   that it is OK to  issue  a  new  ticket-
                                   granting ticket with a different network
                                   address based on the presented ticket.

          2           FORWARDED
                                   When set, this flag indicates  that  the
                                   ticket  has either been forwarded or was
                                   issued based on authentication involving
                                   a forwarded ticket-granting ticket.

          3           PROXIABLE
                                   The  PROXIABLE  flag  is  normally  only
                                   interpreted  by  the  TGS,  and  can  be
                                   ignored by end servers.   The  PROXIABLE
                                   flag  has an interpretation identical to
                                   that of  the  FORWARDABLE  flag,  except
                                   that   the   PROXIABLE  flag  tells  the
                                   ticket-granting server  that  only  non-
                                   ticket-granting  tickets  may  be issued
                                   with different network addresses.

          4           PROXY
                                   When set, this  flag  indicates  that  a
                                   ticket is a proxy.

          5           MAY-POSTDATE
                                   The MAY-POSTDATE flag is  normally  only
                                   interpreted  by  the  TGS,  and  can  be
                                   ignored by end servers.  This flag tells
                                   the  ticket-granting server that a post-
                                   dated ticket may be issued based on this
                                   ticket-granting ticket.

          6           POSTDATED
                                   This flag indicates that this ticket has
                                   been  postdated.   The  end-service  can
                                   check the authtime field to see when the
                                   original authentication occurred.


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          7           INVALID
                                   This flag indicates  that  a  ticket  is
                                   invalid, and it must be validated by the
                                   KDC  before  use.   Application  servers
                                   must reject tickets which have this flag
                                   set.

          8           RENEWABLE
                                   The  RENEWABLE  flag  is  normally  only
                                   interpreted  by the TGS, and can usually
                                   be ignored by end servers (some particu-
                                   larly careful servers may wish to disal-
                                   low  renewable  tickets).   A  renewable
                                   ticket  can be used to obtain a replace-
                                   ment ticket  that  expires  at  a  later
                                   date.

          9           INITIAL
                                   This flag indicates that this ticket was
                                   issued  using  the  AS protocol, and not
                                   issued  based   on   a   ticket-granting
                                   ticket.

          10          PRE-AUTHENT
                                   This flag indicates that during  initial
                                   authentication, the client was authenti-
                                   cated by the KDC  before  a  ticket  was
                                   issued.    The   strength  of  the  pre-
                                   authentication method is not  indicated,
                                   but is acceptable to the KDC.

          11          HW-AUTHENT
                                   This flag indicates  that  the  protocol
                                   employed   for   initial  authentication
                                   required the use of hardware expected to
                                   be possessed solely by the named client.
                                   The hardware  authentication  method  is
                                   selected  by the KDC and the strength of
                                   the method is not indicated.

          12           TRANSITED   This flag indicates that the KDC for the
                  POLICY-CHECKED   realm has checked the transited field
                                   against a realm defined policy for
                                   trusted certifiers.  If this flag is
                                   reset (0), then the application server
                                   must check the transited field itself,
                                   and if unable to do so it must reject
                                   the authentication.  If the flag is set
                                   (1) then the application server may skip
                                   its own validation of the transited
                                   field, relying on the validation
                                   performed by the KDC.  At its option the
                                   application server may still apply its
                                   own validation based on a separate
                                   policy for acceptance.

          13      OK-AS-DELEGATE   This flag indicates that the server (not
                                   the client) specified in the ticket has
                                   been determined by policy of the realm
                                   to be a suitable recipient of
                                   delegation.  A client can use the
                                   presence of this flag to help it make a
                                   decision whether to delegate credentials
                                   (either grant a proxy or a forwarded
                                   ticket granting ticket) to this server.

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                                   The client is free to ignore the value
                                   of this flag.  When setting this flag,
                                   an administrator should consider the
                                   Security and placement of the server on
                                   which the service will run, as well as
                                   whether the service requires the use of
                                   delegated credentials.

          14          ANONYMOUS
                                   This flag indicates that  the  principal
                                   named in the ticket is a generic princi-
                                   pal for the realm and does not  identify
                                   the  individual  using  the ticket.  The
                                   purpose  of  the  ticket  is   only   to
                                   securely  distribute  a session key, and
                                   not to identify  the  user.   Subsequent
                                   requests  using the same ticket and ses-
                                   sion may be  considered  as  originating
                                   from  the  same  user, but requests with
                                   the same username but a different ticket
                                   are  likely  to originate from different
                                   users.

          15-31       RESERVED
                                   Reserved for future use.

key
     This field exists in the ticket and the KDC response and is used to
     pass the session key from Kerberos to the application server and the
     client. The field's encoding is described in section 6.2.
crealm
     This field contains the name of the realm in which the client is
     registered and in which initial authentication took place.
cname
     This field contains the name part of the client's principal
     identifier.
transited
     This field lists the names of the Kerberos realms that took part in
     authenticating the user to whom this ticket was issued. It does not
     specify the order in which the realms were transited. See section
     3.3.3.2 for details on how this field encodes the traversed realms.
     When the names of CA's are to be embedded inthe transited field (as
     specified for some extentions to the protocol), the X.500 names of the
     CA's should be mapped into items in the transited field using the
     mapping defined by RFC2253.
authtime
     This field indicates the time of initial authentication for the named
     principal. It is the time of issue for the original ticket on which
     this ticket is based. It is included in the ticket to provide
     additional information to the end service, and to provide the
     necessary information for implementation of a `hot list' service at
     the KDC. An end service that is particularly paranoid could refuse to
     accept tickets for which the initial authentication occurred "too far"
     in the past. This field is also returned as part of the response from
     the KDC. When returned as part of the response to initial
     authentication (KRB_AS_REP), this is the current time on the Kerberos
     server[24].
starttime
     This field in the ticket specifies the time after which the ticket is
     valid. Together with endtime, this field specifies the life of the
     ticket. If it is absent from the ticket, its value should be treated
     as that of the authtime field.

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endtime
     This field contains the time after which the ticket will not be
     honored (its expiration time). Note that individual services may place
     their own limits on the life of a ticket and may reject tickets which
     have not yet expired. As such, this is really an upper bound on the
     expiration time for the ticket.
renew-till
     This field is only present in tickets that have the RENEWABLE flag set
     in the flags field. It indicates the maximum endtime that may be
     included in a renewal. It can be thought of as the absolute expiration
     time for the ticket, including all renewals.
caddr
     This field in a ticket contains zero (if omitted) or more (if present)
     host addresses. These are the addresses from which the ticket can be
     used. If there are no addresses, the ticket can be used from any
     location. The decision by the KDC to issue or by the end server to
     accept zero-address tickets is a policy decision and is left to the
     Kerberos and end-service administrators; they may refuse to issue or
     accept such tickets. The suggested and default policy, however, is
     that such tickets will only be issued or accepted when additional
     information that can be used to restrict the use of the ticket is
     included in the authorization_data field. Such a ticket is a
     capability.

     Network addresses are included in the ticket to make it harder for an
     attacker to use stolen credentials. Because the session key is not
     sent over the network in cleartext, credentials can't be stolen simply
     by listening to the network; an attacker has to gain access to the
     session key (perhaps through operating system security breaches or a
     careless user's unattended session) to make use of stolen tickets.

     It is important to note that the network address from which a
     connection is received cannot be reliably determined. Even if it could
     be, an attacker who has compromised the client's workstation could use
     the credentials from there. Including the network addresses only makes
     it more difficult, not impossible, for an attacker to walk off with
     stolen credentials and then use them from a "safe" location.
authorization-data
     The authorization-data field is used to pass authorization data from
     the principal on whose behalf a ticket was issued to the application
     service. If no authorization data is included, this field will be left
     out. Experience has shown that the name of this field is confusing,
     and that a better name for this field would be restrictions.
     Unfortunately, it is not possible to change the name of this field at
     this time.

     This field contains restrictions on any authority obtained on the
     basis of authentication using the ticket. It is possible for any
     principal in posession of credentials to add entries to the
     authorization data field since these entries further restrict what can
     be done with the ticket. Such additions can be made by specifying the
     additional entries when a new ticket is obtained during the TGS
     exchange, or they may be added during chained delegation using the
     authorization data field of the authenticator.

     Because entries may be added to this field by the holder of
     credentials, except when an entry is separately authenticated by
     encapulation in the kdc-issued element, it is not allowable for the
     presence of an entry in the authorization data field of a ticket to
     amplify the priveleges one would obtain from using a ticket.

     The data in this field may be specific to the end service; the field
     will contain the names of service specific objects, and the rights to
     those objects. The format for this field is described in section 5.2.
     Although Kerberos is not concerned with the format of the contents of
     the sub-fields, it does carry type information (ad-type).


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     By using the authorization_data field, a principal is able to issue a
     proxy that is valid for a specific purpose. For example, a client
     wishing to print a file can obtain a file server proxy to be passed to
     the print server. By specifying the name of the file in the
     authorization_data field, the file server knows that the print server
     can only use the client's rights when accessing the particular file to
     be printed.

     A separate service providing authorization or certifying group
     membership may be built using the authorization-data field. In this
     case, the entity granting authorization (not the authorized entity),
     may obtain a ticket in its own name (e.g. the ticket is issued in the
     name of a privelege server), and this entity adds restrictions on its
     own authority and delegates the restricted authority through a proxy
     to the client. The client would then present this authorization
     credential to the application server separately from the
     authentication exchange. Alternatively, such authorization credentials
     may be embedded in the ticket authenticating the authorized entity,
     when the authorization is separately authenticated using the
     kdc-issued authorization data element (see B.4).

     Similarly, if one specifies the authorization-data field of a proxy
     and leaves the host addresses blank, the resulting ticket and session
     key can be treated as a capability. See [Neu93] for some suggested
     uses of this field.

     The authorization-data field is optional and does not have to be
     included in a ticket.

5.3.2. Authenticators

An authenticator is a record sent with a ticket to a server to certify the
client's knowledge of the encryption key in the ticket, to help the server
detect replays, and to help choose a "true session key" to use with the
particular session. The encoding is encrypted in the ticket's session key
shared by the client and the server:

-- Unencrypted authenticator
Authenticator ::= [APPLICATION 2] SEQUENCE  {
                  authenticator-vno[0]          INTEGER,
                  crealm[1]                     Realm,
                  cname[2]                      PrincipalName,
                  cksum[3]                      Checksum OPTIONAL,
                  cusec[4]                      INTEGER,
                  ctime[5]                      KerberosTime,
                  subkey[6]                     EncryptionKey OPTIONAL,
                  seq-number[7]                 INTEGER OPTIONAL,
                  authorization-data[8]         AuthorizationData OPTIONAL
}


authenticator-vno
     This field specifies the version number for the format of the
     authenticator. This document specifies version 5.
crealm and cname
     These fields are the same as those described for the ticket in section
     5.3.1.
cksum
     This field contains a checksum of the the applica- tion data that
     accompanies the KRB_AP_REQ.
cusec
     This field contains the microsecond part of the client's timestamp.
     Its value (before encryption) ranges from 0 to 999999. It often
     appears along with ctime. The two fields are used together to specify
     a reasonably accurate timestamp.

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ctime
     This field contains the current time on the client's host.
subkey
     This field contains the client's choice for an encryption key which is
     to be used to protect this specific application session. Unless an
     application specifies otherwise, if this field is left out the session
     key from the ticket will be used.
seq-number
     This optional field includes the initial sequence number to be used by
     the KRB_PRIV or KRB_SAFE messages when sequence numbers are used to
     detect replays (It may also be used by application specific messages).
     When included in the authenticator this field specifies the initial
     sequence number for messages from the client to the server. When
     included in the AP-REP message, the initial sequence number is that
     for messages from the server to the client. When used in KRB_PRIV or
     KRB_SAFE messages, it is incremented by one after each message is
     sent. Sequence numbers fall in the range of 0 through 2^32 - 1 and
     wrap to zero following the value 2^32 - 1.

     For sequence numbers to adequately support the detection of replays
     they should be non-repeating, even across connection boundaries. The
     initial sequence number should be random and uniformly distributed
     across the full space of possible sequence numbers, so that it cannot
     be guessed by an attacker and so that it and the successive sequence
     numbers do not repeat other sequences.
authorization-data
     This field is the same as described for the ticket in section 5.3.1.
     It is optional and will only appear when additional restrictions are
     to be placed on the use of a ticket, beyond those carried in the
     ticket itself.

5.4. Specifications for the AS and TGS exchanges

This section specifies the format of the messages used in the exchange
between the client and the Kerberos server. The format of possible error
messages appears in section 5.9.1.

5.4.1. KRB_KDC_REQ definition

The KRB_KDC_REQ message has no type of its own. Instead, its type is one of
KRB_AS_REQ or KRB_TGS_REQ depending on whether the request is for an
initial ticket or an additional ticket. In either case, the message is sent
from the client to the Authentication Server to request credentials for a
service.

The message fields are:

AS-REQ ::=         [APPLICATION 10] KDC-REQ
TGS-REQ ::=        [APPLICATION 12] KDC-REQ

KDC-REQ ::=        SEQUENCE {
                   pvno[1]            INTEGER,
                   msg-type[2]        INTEGER,
                   padata[3]          SEQUENCE OF PA-DATA OPTIONAL,
                   req-body[4]        KDC-REQ-BODY
}

PA-DATA ::=        SEQUENCE {
                   padata-type[1]     INTEGER,
                   padata-value[2]    OCTET STRING,
                                      -- might be encoded AP-REQ
}


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KDC-REQ-BODY ::=   SEQUENCE {
                    kdc-options[0]         KDCOptions,
                    cname[1]               PrincipalName OPTIONAL,
                                           -- Used only in AS-REQ
                    realm[2]               Realm, -- Server's realm
                                           -- Also client's in AS-REQ
                    sname[3]               PrincipalName OPTIONAL,
                    from[4]                KerberosTime OPTIONAL,
                    till[5]                KerberosTime OPTIONAL,
                    rtime[6]               KerberosTime OPTIONAL,
                    nonce[7]               INTEGER,
                    etype[8]               SEQUENCE OF INTEGER,
                                           -- EncryptionType,
                                           -- in preference order
                    addresses[9]           HostAddresses OPTIONAL,
                enc-authorization-data[10] EncryptedData OPTIONAL,
                                           -- Encrypted AuthorizationData
                                           -- encoding
                    additional-tickets[11] SEQUENCE OF Ticket OPTIONAL
}

The fields in this message are:

pvno
     This field is included in each message, and specifies the protocol
     version number. This document specifies protocol version 5.
msg-type
     This field indicates the type of a protocol message. It will almost
     always be the same as the application identifier associated with a
     message. It is included to make the identifier more readily accessible
     to the application. For the KDC-REQ message, this type will be
     KRB_AS_REQ or KRB_TGS_REQ.
padata
     The padata (pre-authentication data) field contains a sequence of
     authentication information which may be needed before credentials can
     be issued or decrypted. In the case of requests for additional tickets
     (KRB_TGS_REQ), this field will include an element with padata-type of
     PA-TGS-REQ and data of an authentication header (ticket-granting
     ticket and authenticator). The checksum in the authenticator (which
     must be collision-proof) is to be computed over the KDC-REQ-BODY
     encoding. In most requests for initial authentication (KRB_AS_REQ) and
     most replies (KDC-REP), the padata field will be left out.

     This field may also contain information needed by certain extensions
     to the Kerberos protocol. For example, it might be used to initially
     verify the identity of a client before any response is returned. When
     this field is used to authenticate or pre-authenticate a request, it
     should contain a keyed checksum over the KDC-REQ-BODY to bind the
     pre-authentication data to rest of the request. The KDC, as a matter
     of policy, may decide whether to honor a KDC-REQ which includes any
     pre-authentication data that does not contain the checksum field.
     PA-ENC-TIMESTAMP defines a pre-authentication data type that is used
     for authenticating a client by way of an encrypted timestamp. This is
     accomplished with a padata field with padata-type equal to
     PA-ENC-TIMESTAMP and padata-value defined as follows (query: the
     checksum is new in this definition. If the optional field will break
     things we can keep the old PA-ENC-TS-ENC, and define a new alternate
     form that includes the checksum). :


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          padata-type     ::= PA-ENC-TIMESTAMP
          padata-value    ::= EncryptedData -- PA-ENC-TS-ENC

          PA-ENC-TS-ENC   ::= SEQUENCE {
                          patimestamp[0]     KerberosTime, -- client's time
                          pausec[1]          INTEGER OPTIONAL,
                          pachecksum[2]      checksum OPTIONAL
                                             -- keyed checksum of
KDC-REQ-BODY
          }

     with patimestamp containing the client's time and pausec containing
     the microseconds which may be omitted if a client will not generate
     more than one request per second. The ciphertext (padata-value)
     consists of the PA-ENC-TS-ENC sequence, encrypted using the client's
     secret key.

     [use-specified-kvno item is here for discussion and may be removed] It
     may also be used by the client to specify the version of a key that is
     being used for accompanying preauthentication, and/or which should be
     used to encrypt the reply from the KDC.

     PA-USE-SPECIFIED-KVNO  ::=  Integer

     The KDC should only accept and abide by the value of the
     use-specified-kvno preauthentication data field when the specified key
     is still valid and until use of a new key is confirmed. This situation
     is likely to occur primarily during the period during which an updated
     key is propagating to other KDC's in a realm.

     The padata field can also contain information needed to help the KDC
     or the client select the key needed for generating or decrypting the
     response. This form of the padata is useful for supporting the use of
     certain token cards with Kerberos. The details of such extensions are
     specified in separate documents. See [Pat92] for additional uses of
     this field.
padata-type
     The padata-type element of the padata field indicates the way that the
     padata-value element is to be interpreted. Negative values of
     padata-type are reserved for unregistered use; non-negative values are
     used for a registered interpretation of the element type.
req-body
     This field is a placeholder delimiting the extent of the remaining
     fields. If a checksum is to be calculated over the request, it is
     calculated over an encoding of the KDC-REQ-BODY sequence which is
     enclosed within the req-body field.
kdc-options
     This field appears in the KRB_AS_REQ and KRB_TGS_REQ requests to the
     KDC and indicates the flags that the client wants set on the tickets
     as well as other information that is to modify the behavior of the
     KDC. Where appropriate, the name of an option may be the same as the
     flag that is set by that option. Although in most case, the bit in the
     options field will be the same as that in the flags field, this is not
     guaranteed, so it is not acceptable to simply copy the options field
     to the flags field. There are various checks that must be made before
     honoring an option anyway.

     The kdc_options field is a bit-field, where the selected options are
     indicated by the bit being set (1), and the unselected options and
     reserved fields being reset (0). The encoding of the bits is specified
     in section 5.2. The options are described in more detail above in
     section 2. The meanings of the options are:


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        Bit(s)    Name                Description
         0        RESERVED
                                      Reserved for future  expansion  of
this
                                      field.

         1        FORWARDABLE
                                      The FORWARDABLE  option  indicates
that
                                      the  ticket  to be issued is to have
its
                                      forwardable flag set.  It  may  only
be
                                      set on the initial request, or in a
sub-
                                      sequent request if  the
ticket-granting
                                      ticket on which it is based is also
for-
                                      wardable.

         2        FORWARDED
                                      The FORWARDED option is  only
specified
                                      in  a  request  to  the
ticket-granting
                                      server and will only be honored  if
the
                                      ticket-granting  ticket  in  the
request
                                      has  its  FORWARDABLE  bit  set.
This
                                      option  indicates that this is a
request
                                      for forwarding.  The address(es) of
the
                                      host  from which the resulting ticket
is
                                      to  be  valid  are   included   in
the
                                      addresses field of the request.

         3        PROXIABLE
                                      The PROXIABLE option indicates that
the
                                      ticket to be issued is to have its
prox-
                                      iable flag set.  It may only be  set
on
                                      the  initial request, or in a
subsequent
                                      request if the ticket-granting ticket
on
                                      which it is based is also proxiable.

         4        PROXY
                                      The PROXY option indicates that this
is
                                      a request for a proxy.  This option
will
                                      only be honored if  the
ticket-granting
                                      ticket  in the request has its
PROXIABLE
                                      bit set.  The address(es)  of  the
host
                                      from which the resulting ticket is to
be
                                       valid  are  included  in  the
addresses
                                      field of the request.

         5        ALLOW-POSTDATE
                                      The ALLOW-POSTDATE option indicates
that
                                      the  ticket  to be issued is to have
its
                                      MAY-POSTDATE flag set.  It may  only
be
                                      set on the initial request, or in a
sub-
                                      sequent request if  the
ticket-granting
                                      ticket on which it is based also has
its
                                      MAY-POSTDATE flag set.

         6        POSTDATED
                                      The POSTDATED option indicates that
this
                                      is  a  request  for  a postdated
ticket.
                                      This option will only be honored if
the
                                      ticket-granting  ticket  on  which it
is
                                      based has  its  MAY-POSTDATE  flag
set.
                                      The  resulting ticket will also have
its
                                      INVALID flag set, and that flag  may
be
                                      reset by a subsequent request to the
KDC
                                      after the starttime in  the  ticket
has
                                      been reached.


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         7        UNUSED
                                      This option is presently unused.

         8        RENEWABLE
                                      The RENEWABLE option indicates that
the
                                      ticket  to  be  issued  is  to  have
its
                                      RENEWABLE flag set.  It may only be
set
                                      on  the  initial  request,  or  when
the
                                      ticket-granting  ticket  on  which
the
                                      request  is based is also renewable.
If
                                      this option is requested, then the
rtime
                                      field   in   the  request  contains
the
                                      desired absolute expiration time for
the
                                      ticket.

         9       RESERVED
                                      Reserved for PK-Cross

         10-13     UNUSED
                                      These options are presently unused.

         14       REQUEST-ANONYMOUS
                                      The REQUEST-ANONYMOUS  option
indicates
                                      that  the  ticket to be issued is not
to
                                      identify  the  user  to  which  it
was
                                      issued.  Instead, the principal
identif-
                                      ier is to be generic,  as  specified
by
                                      the  policy  of  the realm (e.g.
usually
                                      anonymous@realm).  The  purpose  of
the
                                      ticket  is only to securely distribute
a
                                      session key, and  not  to  identify
the
                                      user.   The ANONYMOUS flag on the
ticket
                                      to be returned should be  set.   If
the
                                      local  realms  policy  does  not
permit
                                      anonymous credentials, the request is
to
                                      be rejected.

         15      CANONICALIZE
                                      The CANONICALIZE option indicates that
                                      the client will accept the return of a
                                      true server name instead of the name
                                      specified in the request. In addition
                                      the client will be able to process
                                      any TGT referrals that will direct
                                      the client to another realm to locate
                                      the requested server. If a KDC does
                                      not support name- canonicalization,
                                      the option is ignored and the
                                      appropriate
                                      KDC_ERR_C_PRINCIPAL_UNKNOWN or
                                      KDC_ERR_S_PRINCIPAL_UNKNOWN error is
                                      returned. [JBrezak]

         16-25    RESERVED
                                      Reserved for future use.

         26       DISABLE-TRANSITED-CHECK
                                      By default the KDC will check the
                                      transited field of a ticket-granting-
                                      ticket against the policy of the local
                                      realm before it will issue derivative
                                      tickets based on the ticket granting
                                      ticket.  If this flag is set in the
                                      request, checking of the transited
field
                                      is disabled.  Tickets issued without
the

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                                      performance of this check will be
noted
                                      by the reset (0) value of the
                                      TRANSITED-POLICY-CHECKED flag,
                                      indicating to the application server
                                      that the tranisted field must be
checked
                                      locally.  KDC's are encouraged but not
                                      required to honor the
                                      DISABLE-TRANSITED-CHECK option.

         27       RENEWABLE-OK
                                      The RENEWABLE-OK option indicates that
a
                                      renewable ticket will be acceptable if
a
                                      ticket with the  requested  life
cannot
                                      otherwise be provided.  If a ticket
with
                                      the requested life cannot  be
provided,
                                      then  a  renewable  ticket may be
issued
                                      with  a  renew-till  equal  to  the
the
                                      requested  endtime.   The  value  of
the
                                      renew-till field may still be limited
by
                                      local  limits, or limits selected by
the
                                      individual principal or server.

         28       ENC-TKT-IN-SKEY
                                      This option is used only by the
ticket-
                                      granting  service.   The
ENC-TKT-IN-SKEY
                                      option indicates that the ticket for
the
                                      end  server  is  to  be encrypted in
the
                                      session key from the additional
ticket-
                                      granting ticket provided.

         29       RESERVED
                                      Reserved for future use.

         30       RENEW
                                      This option is used only by the
ticket-
                                      granting   service.   The  RENEW
option
                                      indicates that the  present  request
is
                                      for  a  renewal.  The ticket provided
is
                                      encrypted in  the  secret  key  for
the
                                      server  on  which  it  is  valid.
This
                                      option  will  only  be  honored  if
the
                                      ticket  to  be renewed has its
RENEWABLE
                                      flag set and if the time in  its
renew-
                                      till  field  has not passed.  The
ticket
                                      to be renewed is passed  in  the
padata
                                      field  as  part  of  the
authentication
                                      header.

         31       VALIDATE
                                      This option is used only by the
ticket-
                                      granting  service.   The VALIDATE
option
                                      indicates that the request is  to
vali-
                                      date  a  postdated ticket.  It will
only
                                      be honored if the  ticket  presented
is
                                      postdated,  presently  has  its
INVALID
                                      flag set, and would be otherwise
usable
                                      at  this time.  A ticket cannot be
vali-
                                      dated before its starttime.  The
ticket
                                      presented for validation is encrypted
in
                                      the key of the server for  which  it
is
                                      valid  and is passed in the padata
field
                                      as part of the authentication header.


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cname and sname
     These fields are the same as those described for the ticket in section
     5.3.1. sname may only be absent when the ENC-TKT-IN-SKEY option is
     specified. If absent, the name of the server is taken from the name of
     the client in the ticket passed as additional-tickets.
enc-authorization-data
     The enc-authorization-data, if present (and it can only be present in
     the TGS_REQ form), is an encoding of the desired authorization-data
     encrypted under the sub-session key if present in the Authenticator,
     or alternatively from the session key in the ticket-granting ticket,
     both from the padata field in the KRB_AP_REQ.
realm
     This field specifies the realm part of the server's principal
     identifier. In the AS exchange, this is also the realm part of the
     client's principal identifier. If the CANONICALIZE option is set, the
     realm is used as a hint to the KDC for its database lookup.
from
     This field is included in the KRB_AS_REQ and KRB_TGS_REQ ticket
     requests when the requested ticket is to be postdated. It specifies
     the desired start time for the requested ticket. If this field is
     omitted then the KDC should use the current time instead.
till
     This field contains the expiration date requested by the client in a
     ticket request. It is optional and if omitted the requested ticket is
     to have the maximum endtime permitted according to KDC policy for the
     parties to the authentication exchange as limited by expiration date
     of the ticket granting ticket or other preauthentication credentials.
rtime
     This field is the requested renew-till time sent from a client to the
     KDC in a ticket request. It is optional.
nonce
     This field is part of the KDC request and response. It it intended to
     hold a random number generated by the client. If the same number is
     included in the encrypted response from the KDC, it provides evidence
     that the response is fresh and has not been replayed by an attacker.
     Nonces must never be re-used. Ideally, it should be generated
     randomly, but if the correct time is known, it may suffice[25].
etype
     This field specifies the desired encryption algorithm to be used in
     the response.
addresses
     This field is included in the initial request for tickets, and
     optionally included in requests for additional tickets from the
     ticket-granting server. It specifies the addresses from which the
     requested ticket is to be valid. Normally it includes the addresses
     for the client's host. If a proxy is requested, this field will
     contain other addresses. The contents of this field are usually copied
     by the KDC into the caddr field of the resulting ticket.
additional-tickets
     Additional tickets may be optionally included in a request to the
     ticket-granting server. If the ENC-TKT-IN-SKEY option has been
     specified, then the session key from the additional ticket will be
     used in place of the server's key to encrypt the new ticket. When he
     ENC-TKT-IN-SKEY option is used for user-to-user authentication, this
     addional ticket may be a TGT issued by the local realm or an
     inter-realm TGT issued for the current KDC's realm by a remote KDC. If
     more than one option which requires additional tickets has been
     specified, then the additional tickets are used in the order specified
     by the ordering of the options bits (see kdc-options, above).

The application code will be either ten (10) or twelve (12) depending on
whether the request is for an initial ticket (AS-REQ) or for an additional
ticket (TGS-REQ).


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The optional fields (addresses, authorization-data and additional-tickets)
are only included if necessary to perform the operation specified in the
kdc-options field.

It should be noted that in KRB_TGS_REQ, the protocol version number appears
twice and two different message types appear: the KRB_TGS_REQ message
contains these fields as does the authentication header (KRB_AP_REQ) that
is passed in the padata field.

5.4.2. KRB_KDC_REP definition

The KRB_KDC_REP message format is used for the reply from the KDC for
either an initial (AS) request or a subsequent (TGS) request. There is no
message type for KRB_KDC_REP. Instead, the type will be either KRB_AS_REP
or KRB_TGS_REP. The key used to encrypt the ciphertext part of the reply
depends on the message type. For KRB_AS_REP, the ciphertext is encrypted in
the client's secret key, and the client's key version number is included in
the key version number for the encrypted data. For KRB_TGS_REP, the
ciphertext is encrypted in the sub-session key from the Authenticator, or
if absent, the session key from the ticket-granting ticket used in the
request. In that case, no version number will be present in the
EncryptedData sequence.

The KRB_KDC_REP message contains the following fields:

AS-REP ::=    [APPLICATION 11] KDC-REP
TGS-REP ::=   [APPLICATION 13] KDC-REP

KDC-REP ::=   SEQUENCE {
              pvno[0]                    INTEGER,
              msg-type[1]                INTEGER,
              padata[2]                  SEQUENCE OF PA-DATA OPTIONAL,
              crealm[3]                  Realm,
              cname[4]                   PrincipalName,
              ticket[5]                  Ticket,
              enc-part[6]                EncryptedData
}

EncASRepPart ::=    [APPLICATION 25[27]] EncKDCRepPart
EncTGSRepPart ::=   [APPLICATION 26] EncKDCRepPart

EncKDCRepPart ::=   SEQUENCE {
                    key[0]               EncryptionKey,
                    last-req[1]          LastReq,
                    nonce[2]             INTEGER,
                    key-expiration[3]    KerberosTime OPTIONAL,
                    flags[4]             TicketFlags,
                    authtime[5]          KerberosTime,
                    starttime[6]         KerberosTime OPTIONAL,
                    endtime[7]           KerberosTime,
                    renew-till[8]        KerberosTime OPTIONAL,
                    srealm[9]            Realm,
                    sname[10]            PrincipalName,
                    caddr[11]            HostAddresses OPTIONAL
}

pvno and msg-type
     These fields are described above in section 5.4.1. msg-type is either
     KRB_AS_REP or KRB_TGS_REP.

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padata
     This field is described in detail in section 5.4.1. One possible use
     for this field is to encode an alternate "mix-in" string to be used
     with a string-to-key algorithm (such as is described in section
     6.3.2). This ability is useful to ease transitions if a realm name
     needs to change (e.g. when a company is acquired); in such a case all
     existing password-derived entries in the KDC database would be flagged
     as needing a special mix-in string until the next password change.
crealm, cname, srealm and sname
     These fields are the same as those described for the ticket in section
     5.3.1.
ticket
     The newly-issued ticket, from section 5.3.1.
enc-part
     This field is a place holder for the ciphertext and related
     information that forms the encrypted part of a message. The
     description of the encrypted part of the message follows each
     appearance of this field. The encrypted part is encoded as described
     in section 6.1.
key
     This field is the same as described for the ticket in section 5.3.1.
last-req
     This field is returned by the KDC and specifies the time(s) of the
     last request by a principal. Depending on what information is
     available, this might be the last time that a request for a
     ticket-granting ticket was made, or the last time that a request based
     on a ticket-granting ticket was successful. It also might cover all
     servers for a realm, or just the particular server. Some
     implementations may display this information to the user to aid in
     discovering unauthorized use of one's identity. It is similar in
     spirit to the last login time displayed when logging into timesharing
     systems.
nonce
     This field is described above in section 5.4.1.
key-expiration
     The key-expiration field is part of the response from the KDC and
     specifies the time that the client's secret key is due to expire. The
     expiration might be the result of password aging or an account
     expiration. This field will usually be left out of the TGS reply since
     the response to the TGS request is encrypted in a session key and no
     client information need be retrieved from the KDC database. It is up
     to the application client (usually the login program) to take
     appropriate action (such as notifying the user) if the expiration time
     is imminent.
flags, authtime, starttime, endtime, renew-till and caddr
     These fields are duplicates of those found in the encrypted portion of
     the attached ticket (see section 5.3.1), provided so the client may
     verify they match the intended request and to assist in proper ticket
     caching. If the message is of type KRB_TGS_REP, the caddr field will
     only be filled in if the request was for a proxy or forwarded ticket,
     or if the user is substituting a subset of the addresses from the
     ticket granting ticket. If the client-requested addresses are not
     present or not used, then the addresses contained in the ticket will
     be the same as those included in the ticket-granting ticket.

5.5. Client/Server (CS) message specifications

This section specifies the format of the messages used for the
authentication of the client to the application server.


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5.5.1. KRB_AP_REQ definition

The KRB_AP_REQ message contains the Kerberos protocol version number, the
message type KRB_AP_REQ, an options field to indicate any options in use,
and the ticket and authenticator themselves. The KRB_AP_REQ message is
often referred to as the 'authentication header'.

AP-REQ ::=      [APPLICATION 14] SEQUENCE {
                pvno[0]                       INTEGER,
                msg-type[1]                   INTEGER,
                ap-options[2]                 APOptions,
                ticket[3]                     Ticket,
                authenticator[4]              EncryptedData
}

APOptions ::=   BIT STRING {
                reserved(0),
                use-session-key(1),
                mutual-required(2)
}



pvno and msg-type
     These fields are described above in section 5.4.1. msg-type is
     KRB_AP_REQ.
ap-options
     This field appears in the application request (KRB_AP_REQ) and affects
     the way the request is processed. It is a bit-field, where the
     selected options are indicated by the bit being set (1), and the
     unselected options and reserved fields being reset (0). The encoding
     of the bits is specified in section 5.2. The meanings of the options
     are:

          Bit(s)   Name              Description

          0        RESERVED
                                     Reserved for future  expansion  of  this
                                     field.

          1        USE-SESSION-KEY
                                     The  USE-SESSION-KEY  option   indicates
                                     that the ticket the client is presenting
                                     to a server is encrypted in the  session
                                     key  from  the  server's ticket-granting
                                     ticket.  When this option is not  speci-
                                     fied,  the  ticket  is  encrypted in the
                                     server's secret key.

          2        MUTUAL-REQUIRED
                                     The  MUTUAL-REQUIRED  option  tells  the
                                     server  that  the client requires mutual
                                     authentication, and that it must respond
                                     with a KRB_AP_REP message.

          3-31     RESERVED
                                     Reserved for future use.

ticket
     This field is a ticket authenticating the client to the server.
authenticator
     This contains the authenticator, which includes the client's choice of
     a subkey. Its encoding is described in section 5.3.2.


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5.5.2. KRB_AP_REP definition

The KRB_AP_REP message contains the Kerberos protocol version number, the
message type, and an encrypted time- stamp. The message is sent in in
response to an application request (KRB_AP_REQ) where the mutual
authentication option has been selected in the ap-options field.

AP-REP ::=         [APPLICATION 15] SEQUENCE {
                   pvno[0]                           INTEGER,
                   msg-type[1]                       INTEGER,
                   enc-part[2]                       EncryptedData
}

EncAPRepPart ::=   [APPLICATION 27[29]] SEQUENCE {
                   ctime[0]                          KerberosTime,
                   cusec[1]                          INTEGER,
                   subkey[2]                         EncryptionKey OPTIONAL,
                   seq-number[3]                     INTEGER OPTIONAL
}

The encoded EncAPRepPart is encrypted in the shared session key of the
ticket. The optional subkey field can be used in an application-arranged
negotiation to choose a per association session key.

pvno and msg-type
     These fields are described above in section 5.4.1. msg-type is
     KRB_AP_REP.
enc-part
     This field is described above in section 5.4.2.
ctime
     This field contains the current time on the client's host.
cusec
     This field contains the microsecond part of the client's timestamp.
subkey
     This field contains an encryption key which is to be used to protect
     this specific application session. See section 3.2.6 for specifics on
     how this field is used to negotiate a key. Unless an application
     specifies otherwise, if this field is left out, the sub-session key
     from the authenticator, or if also left out, the session key from the
     ticket will be used.

5.5.3. Error message reply

If an error occurs while processing the application request, the KRB_ERROR
message will be sent in response. See section 5.9.1 for the format of the
error message. The cname and crealm fields may be left out if the server
cannot determine their appropriate values from the corresponding KRB_AP_REQ
message. If the authenticator was decipherable, the ctime and cusec fields
will contain the values from it.

5.6. KRB_SAFE message specification

This section specifies the format of a message that can be used by either
side (client or server) of an application to send a tamper-proof message to
its peer. It presumes that a session key has previously been exchanged (for
example, by using the KRB_AP_REQ/KRB_AP_REP messages).


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5.6.1. KRB_SAFE definition

The KRB_SAFE message contains user data along with a collision-proof
checksum keyed with the last encryption key negotiated via subkeys, or the
session key if no negotiation has occured. The message fields are:

KRB-SAFE ::=        [APPLICATION 20] SEQUENCE {
                    pvno[0]                       INTEGER,
                    msg-type[1]                   INTEGER,
                    safe-body[2]                  KRB-SAFE-BODY,
                    cksum[3]                      Checksum
}

KRB-SAFE-BODY ::=   SEQUENCE {
                    user-data[0]                  OCTET STRING,
                    timestamp[1]                  KerberosTime OPTIONAL,
                    usec[2]                       INTEGER OPTIONAL,
                    seq-number[3]                 INTEGER OPTIONAL,
                    s-address[4]                  HostAddress OPTIONAL,
                    r-address[5]                  HostAddress OPTIONAL
}

pvno and msg-type
     These fields are described above in section 5.4.1. msg-type is
     KRB_SAFE.
safe-body
     This field is a placeholder for the body of the KRB-SAFE message.
cksum
     This field contains the checksum of the application data. Checksum
     details are described in section 6.4. The checksum is computed over
     the encoding of the KRB-SAFE sequence. First, the cksum is zeroed and
     the checksum is computed over the encoding of the KRB-SAFE sequence,
     then the checksum is set to the result of that computation, and
     finally the KRB-SAFE sequence is encoded again.
user-data
     This field is part of the KRB_SAFE and KRB_PRIV messages and contain
     the application specific data that is being passed from the sender to
     the recipient.
timestamp
     This field is part of the KRB_SAFE and KRB_PRIV messages. Its contents
     are the current time as known by the sender of the message. By
     checking the timestamp, the recipient of the message is able to make
     sure that it was recently generated, and is not a replay.
usec
     This field is part of the KRB_SAFE and KRB_PRIV headers. It contains
     the microsecond part of the timestamp.
seq-number
     This field is described above in section 5.3.2.
s-address
     This field specifies the address in use by the sender of the message.
     It may be omitted if not required by the application protocol. The
     application designer considering omission of this field is warned,
     that the inclusion of this address prevents some kinds of replay
     attacks (e.g., reflection attacks) and that it is only acceptable to
     omit this address if there is sufficient information in the integrity
     protected part of the application message for the recipient to
     unambiguously determine if it was the intended recipient.
r-address
     This field specifies the address in use by the recipient of the
     message. It may be omitted for some uses (such as broadcast
     protocols), but the recipient may arbitrarily reject such messages.
     This field along with s-address can be used to help detect messages
     which have been incorrectly or maliciously delivered to the wrong
     recipient.


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5.7. KRB_PRIV message specification

This section specifies the format of a message that can be used by either
side (client or server) of an application to securely and privately send a
message to its peer. It presumes that a session key has previously been
exchanged (for example, by using the KRB_AP_REQ/KRB_AP_REP messages).

5.7.1. KRB_PRIV definition

The KRB_PRIV message contains user data encrypted in the Session Key. The
message fields are:

KRB-PRIV ::=         [APPLICATION 21] SEQUENCE {
                     pvno[0]                           INTEGER,
                     msg-type[1]                       INTEGER,
                     enc-part[3]                       EncryptedData
}

EncKrbPrivPart ::=   [APPLICATION 28[31]] SEQUENCE {
                     user-data[0]        OCTET STRING,
                     timestamp[1]        KerberosTime OPTIONAL,
                     usec[2]             INTEGER OPTIONAL,
                     seq-number[3]       INTEGER OPTIONAL,
                     s-address[4]        HostAddress OPTIONAL, -- sender's
addr
                     r-address[5]        HostAddress OPTIONAL -- recip's
addr
}

pvno and msg-type
     These fields are described above in section 5.4.1. msg-type is
     KRB_PRIV.
enc-part
     This field holds an encoding of the EncKrbPrivPart sequence encrypted
     under the session key[32]. This encrypted encoding is used for the
     enc-part field of the KRB-PRIV message. See section 6 for the format
     of the ciphertext.
user-data, timestamp, usec, s-address and r-address
     These fields are described above in section 5.6.1.
seq-number
     This field is described above in section 5.3.2.

5.8. KRB_CRED message specification

This section specifies the format of a message that can be used to send
Kerberos credentials from one principal to another. It is presented here to
encourage a common mechanism to be used by applications when forwarding
tickets or providing proxies to subordinate servers. It presumes that a
session key has already been exchanged perhaps by using the
KRB_AP_REQ/KRB_AP_REP messages.

5.8.1. KRB_CRED definition

The KRB_CRED message contains a sequence of tickets to be sent and
information needed to use the tickets, including the session key from each.
The information needed to use the tickets is encrypted under an encryption
key previously exchanged or transferred alongside the KRB_CRED message. The
message fields are:

KRB-CRED         ::= [APPLICATION 22]   SEQUENCE {
                 pvno[0]                INTEGER,
                 msg-type[1]            INTEGER, -- KRB_CRED
                 tickets[2]             SEQUENCE OF Ticket,
                 enc-part[3]            EncryptedData
}


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EncKrbCredPart   ::= [APPLICATION 29]   SEQUENCE {
                 ticket-info[0]         SEQUENCE OF KrbCredInfo,
                 nonce[1]               INTEGER OPTIONAL,
                 timestamp[2]           KerberosTime OPTIONAL,
                 usec[3]                INTEGER OPTIONAL,
                 s-address[4]           HostAddress OPTIONAL,
                 r-address[5]           HostAddress OPTIONAL
}

KrbCredInfo      ::=                    SEQUENCE {
                 key[0]                 EncryptionKey,
                 prealm[1]              Realm OPTIONAL,
                 pname[2]               PrincipalName OPTIONAL,
                 flags[3]               TicketFlags OPTIONAL,
                 authtime[4]            KerberosTime OPTIONAL,
                 starttime[5]           KerberosTime OPTIONAL,
                 endtime[6]             KerberosTime OPTIONAL
                 renew-till[7]          KerberosTime OPTIONAL,
                 srealm[8]              Realm OPTIONAL,
                 sname[9]               PrincipalName OPTIONAL,
                 caddr[10]              HostAddresses OPTIONAL
}

pvno and msg-type
     These fields are described above in section 5.4.1. msg-type is
     KRB_CRED.
tickets
     These are the tickets obtained from the KDC specifically for use by
     the intended recipient. Successive tickets are paired with the
     corresponding KrbCredInfo sequence from the enc-part of the KRB-CRED
     message.
enc-part
     This field holds an encoding of the EncKrbCredPart sequence encrypted
     under the session key shared between the sender and the intended
     recipient. This encrypted encoding is used for the enc-part field of
     the KRB-CRED message. See section 6 for the format of the ciphertext.
nonce
     If practical, an application may require the inclusion of a nonce
     generated by the recipient of the message. If the same value is
     included as the nonce in the message, it provides evidence that the
     message is fresh and has not been replayed by an attacker. A nonce
     must never be re-used; it should be generated randomly by the
     recipient of the message and provided to the sender of the message in
     an application specific manner.
timestamp and usec
     These fields specify the time that the KRB-CRED message was generated.
     The time is used to provide assurance that the message is fresh.
s-address and r-address
     These fields are described above in section 5.6.1. They are used
     optionally to provide additional assurance of the integrity of the
     KRB-CRED message.
key
     This field exists in the corresponding ticket passed by the KRB-CRED
     message and is used to pass the session key from the sender to the
     intended recipient. The field's encoding is described in section 6.2.

The following fields are optional. If present, they can be associated with
the credentials in the remote ticket file. If left out, then it is assumed
that the recipient of the credentials already knows their value.

prealm and pname
     The name and realm of the delegated principal identity.
flags, authtime, starttime, endtime, renew-till, srealm, sname, and caddr
     These fields contain the values of the correspond- ing fields from the
     ticket found in the ticket field. Descriptions of the fields are
     identical to the descriptions in the KDC-REP message.


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5.9. Error message specification

This section specifies the format for the KRB_ERROR message. The fields
included in the message are intended to return as much information as
possible about an error. It is not expected that all the information
required by the fields will be available for all types of errors. If the
appropriate information is not available when the message is composed, the
corresponding field will be left out of the message.

Note that since the KRB_ERROR message is only optionally integrity
protected, it is quite possible for an intruder to synthesize or modify
such a message. In particular, this means that unless appropriate integrity
protection mechanisms have been applied to the KRB_ERROR message, the
client should not use any fields in this message for security-critical
purposes, such as setting a system clock or generating a fresh
authenticator. The message can be useful, however, for advising a user on
the reason for some failure.

5.9.1. KRB_ERROR definition

The KRB_ERROR message consists of the following fields:

KRB-ERROR ::=   [APPLICATION 30] SEQUENCE {
                pvno[0]                       INTEGER,
                msg-type[1]                   INTEGER,
                ctime[2]                      KerberosTime OPTIONAL,
                cusec[3]                      INTEGER OPTIONAL,
                stime[4]                      KerberosTime,
                susec[5]                      INTEGER,
                error-code[6]                 INTEGER,
                crealm[7]                     Realm OPTIONAL,
                cname[8]                      PrincipalName OPTIONAL,
                realm[9]                      Realm, -- Correct realm
                sname[10]                     PrincipalName, -- Correct name
                e-text[11]                    GeneralString OPTIONAL,
                e-data[12]                    OCTET STRING OPTIONAL,
                e-cksum[13]                   Checksum OPTIONAL,
}



pvno and msg-type
     These fields are described above in section 5.4.1. msg-type is
     KRB_ERROR.
ctime
     This field is described above in section 5.4.1.
cusec
     This field is described above in section 5.5.2.
stime
     This field contains the current time on the server. It is of type
     KerberosTime.
susec
     This field contains the microsecond part of the server's timestamp.
     Its value ranges from 0 to 999999. It appears along with stime. The
     two fields are used in conjunction to specify a reasonably accurate
     timestamp.
error-code
     This field contains the error code returned by Kerberos or the server
     when a request fails. To interpret the value of this field see the
     list of error codes in section 8. Implementations are encouraged to
     provide for national language support in the display of error
     messages.
crealm, cname, srealm and sname
     These fields are described above in section 5.3.1.

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e-text
     This field contains additional text to help explain the error code
     associated with the failed request (for example, it might include a
     principal name which was unknown).
e-data
     This field contains additional data about the error for use by the
     application to help it recover from or handle the error. If present,
     this field will contain the encoding of a sequence of TypedData
     (TYPED-DATA below), unless the errorcode is KDC_ERR_PREAUTH_REQUIRED,
     in which case it will contain the encoding of a sequence of of padata
     fields (METHOD-DATA below), each corresponding to an acceptable
     pre-authentication method and optionally containing data for the
     method:

     TYPED-DATA   ::=   SEQUENCE of TypeData
     METHOD-DATA  ::=   SEQUENCE of PA-DATA

     TypedData ::=   SEQUENCE {
                         data-type[0]   INTEGER,
                         data-value[1]  OCTET STRING OPTIONAL
     }

     Note that e-data-types have been reserved for all PA data types
     defined prior to July 1999. For the KDC_ERR_PREAUTH_REQUIRED message,
     when using new PA data types defined in July 1999 or later, the
     METHOD-DATA sequence must itself be encapsulated in an TypedData
     element of type TD-PADATA. All new implementations interpreting the
     METHOD-DATA field for the KDC_ERR_PREAUTH_REQUIRED message must accept
     a type of TD-PADATA, extract the typed data field and interpret the
     use any elements encapsulated in the TD-PADATA elements as if they
     were present in the METHOD-DATA sequence.
e-cksum
     This field contains an optional checksum for the KRB-ERROR message.
     The checksum is calculated over the Kerberos ASN.1 encoding of the
     KRB-ERROR message with the checksum absent. The checksum is then added
     to the KRB-ERROR structure and the message is re-encoded. The Checksum
     should be calculated using the session key from the ticket granting
     ticket or service ticket, where available. If the error is in response
     to a TGS or AP request, the checksum should be calculated uing the the
     session key from the client's ticket. If the error is in response to
     an AS request, then the checksum should be calulated using the
     client's secret key ONLY if there has been suitable preauthentication
     to prove knowledge of the secret key by the client[33]. If a checksum
     can not be computed because the key to be used is not available, no
     checksum will be included.

     6. Encryption and Checksum Specifications

     The Kerberos protocols described in this document are designed to use
     stream encryption ciphers, which can be simulated using commonly
     available block encryption ciphers, such as the Data Encryption
     Standard [DES77], and triple DES variants, in conjunction with block
     chaining and checksum methods [DESM80]. Encryption is used to prove
     the identities of the network entities participating in message
     exchanges. The Key Distribution Center for each realm is trusted by
     all principals registered in that realm to store a secret key in
     confidence. Proof of knowledge of this secret key is used to verify
     the authenticity of a principal.

     The KDC uses the principal's secret key (in the AS exchange) or a
     shared session key (in the TGS exchange) to encrypt responses to
     ticket requests; the ability to obtain the secret key or session key
     implies the knowledge of the appropriate keys and the identity of the
     KDC. The ability of a principal to decrypt the KDC response and
     present a Ticket and a properly formed Authenticator (generated with

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     the session key from the KDC response) to a service verifies the
     identity of the principal; likewise the ability of the service to
     extract the session key from the Ticket and prove its knowledge
     thereof in a response verifies the identity of the service.

     The Kerberos protocols generally assume that the encryption used is
     secure from cryptanalysis; however, in some cases, the order of fields
     in the encrypted portions of messages are arranged to minimize the
     effects of poorly chosen keys. It is still important to choose good
     keys. If keys are derived from user-typed passwords, those passwords
     need to be well chosen to make brute force attacks more difficult.
     Poorly chosen keys still make easy targets for intruders.

     The following sections specify the encryption and checksum mechanisms
     currently defined for Kerberos. The encodings, chaining, and padding
     requirements for each are described. For encryption methods, it is
     often desirable to place random information (often referred to as a
     confounder) at the start of the message. The requirements for a
     confounder are specified with each encryption mechanism.

     Some encryption systems use a block-chaining method to improve the the
     security characteristics of the ciphertext. However, these chaining
     methods often don't provide an integrity check upon decryption. Such
     systems (such as DES in CBC mode) must be augmented with a checksum of
     the plain-text which can be verified at decryption and used to detect
     any tampering or damage. Such checksums should be good at detecting
     burst errors in the input. If any damage is detected, the decryption
     routine is expected to return an error indicating the failure of an
     integrity check. Each encryption type is expected to provide and
     verify an appropriate checksum. The specification of each encryption
     method sets out its checksum requirements.

     Finally, where a key is to be derived from a user's password, an
     algorithm for converting the password to a key of the appropriate type
     is included. It is desirable for the string to key function to be
     one-way, and for the mapping to be different in different realms. This
     is important because users who are registered in more than one realm
     will often use the same password in each, and it is desirable that an
     attacker compromising the Kerberos server in one realm not obtain or
     derive the user's key in another.

     For an discussion of the integrity characteristics of the candidate
     encryption and checksum methods considered for Kerberos, the reader is
     referred to [SG92].

     6.1. Encryption Specifications

     The following ASN.1 definition describes all encrypted messages. The
     enc-part field which appears in the unencrypted part of messages in
     section 5 is a sequence consisting of an encryption type, an optional
     key version number, and the ciphertext.

     EncryptedData ::=   SEQUENCE {
                         etype[0]     INTEGER, -- EncryptionType
                         kvno[1]      INTEGER OPTIONAL,
                         cipher[2]    OCTET STRING -- ciphertext
     }



     etype
          This field identifies which encryption algorithm was used to
          encipher the cipher. Detailed specifications for selected
          encryption types appear later in this section.

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     kvno
          This field contains the version number of the key under which
          data is encrypted. It is only present in messages encrypted under
          long lasting keys, such as principals' secret keys.
     cipher
          This field contains the enciphered text, encoded as an OCTET
          STRING.
     The cipher field is generated by applying the specified encryption
     algorithm to data composed of the message and algorithm-specific
     inputs. Encryption mechanisms defined for use with Kerberos must take
     sufficient measures to guarantee the integrity of the plaintext, and
     we recommend they also take measures to protect against precomputed
     dictionary attacks. If the encryption algorithm is not itself capable
     of doing so, the protections can often be enhanced by adding a
     checksum and a confounder.

     The suggested format for the data to be encrypted includes a
     confounder, a checksum, the encoded plaintext, and any necessary
     padding. The msg-seq field contains the part of the protocol message
     described in section 5 which is to be encrypted. The confounder,
     checksum, and padding are all untagged and untyped, and their length
     is exactly sufficient to hold the appropriate item. The type and
     length is implicit and specified by the particular encryption type
     being used (etype). The format for the data to be encrypted for some
     methods is described in the following diagram, but other methods may
     deviate from this layour - so long as the definition of the method
     defines the layout actually in use.

           +-----------+----------+-------------+-----+
           |confounder |   check  |   msg-seq   | pad |
           +-----------+----------+-------------+-----+

     The format cannot be described in ASN.1, but for those who prefer an
     ASN.1-like notation:

     CipherText ::=   ENCRYPTED       SEQUENCE {
             confounder[0]   UNTAGGED[35] OCTET STRING(conf_length)
OPTIONAL,
             check[1]        UNTAGGED OCTET STRING(checksum_length)
OPTIONAL,
             msg-seq[2]      MsgSequence,
             pad             UNTAGGED OCTET STRING(pad_length) OPTIONAL
     }

     One generates a random confounder of the appropriate length, placing
     it in confounder; zeroes out check; calculates the appropriate
     checksum over confounder, check, and msg-seq, placing the result in
     check; adds the necessary padding; then encrypts using the specified
     encryption type and the appropriate key.

     Unless otherwise specified, a definition of an encryption algorithm
     that specifies a checksum, a length for the confounder field, or an
     octet boundary for padding uses this ciphertext format[36]. Those
     fields which are not specified will be omitted.

     In the interest of allowing all implementations using a particular
     encryption type to communicate with all others using that type, the
     specification of an encryption type defines any checksum that is
     needed as part of the encryption process. If an alternative checksum
     is to be used, a new encryption type must be defined.

     Some cryptosystems require additional information beyond the key and
     the data to be encrypted. For example, DES, when used in
     cipher-block-chaining mode, requires an initialization vector. If
     required, the description for each encryption type must specify the
     source of such additional information. 6.2. Encryption Keys


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     The sequence below shows the encoding of an encryption key:

            EncryptionKey ::=   SEQUENCE {
                                keytype[0]    INTEGER,
                                keyvalue[1]   OCTET STRING
            }

     keytype
          This field specifies the type of encryption that is to be
          performed using the key that follows in the keyvalue field. It
          will always correspond to the etype to be used to generate or
          decode the EncryptedData. In cases when multiple algorithms use a
          common kind of key (e.g., if the encryption algorithm uses an
          alternate checksum algorithm for an integrity check, or a
          different chaining mechanism), the keytype provides information
          needed to determine which algorithm is to be used.
     keyvalue
          This field contains the key itself, encoded as an octet string.
     All negative values for the encryption key type are reserved for local
     use. All non-negative values are reserved for officially assigned type
     fields and interpreta- tions.

     6.3. Encryption Systems

     6.3.1. The NULL Encryption System (null)

     If no encryption is in use, the encryption system is said to be the
     NULL encryption system. In the NULL encryption system there is no
     checksum, confounder or padding. The ciphertext is simply the
     plaintext. The NULL Key is used by the null encryption system and is
     zero octets in length, with keytype zero (0).

     6.3.2. DES in CBC mode with a CRC-32 checksum (des-cbc-crc)

     The des-cbc-crc encryption mode encrypts information under the Data
     Encryption Standard [DES77] using the cipher block chaining mode
     [DESM80]. A CRC-32 checksum (described in ISO 3309 [ISO3309]) is
     applied to the confounder and message sequence (msg-seq) and placed in
     the cksum field. DES blocks are 8 bytes. As a result, the data to be
     encrypted (the concatenation of confounder, checksum, and message)
     must be padded to an 8 byte boundary before encryption. The details of
     the encryption of this data are identical to those for the des-cbc-md5
     encryption mode.

     Note that, since the CRC-32 checksum is not collision-proof, an
     attacker could use a probabilistic chosen-plaintext attack to generate
     a valid message even if a confounder is used [SG92]. The use of
     collision-proof checksums is recommended for environments where such
     attacks represent a significant threat. The use of the CRC-32 as the
     checksum for ticket or authenticator is no longer mandated as an
     interoperability requirement for Kerberos Version 5 Specification 1
     (See section 9.1 for specific details).

     6.3.3. DES in CBC mode with an MD4 checksum (des-cbc-md4)

     The des-cbc-md4 encryption mode encrypts information under the Data
     Encryption Standard [DES77] using the cipher block chaining mode
     [DESM80]. An MD4 checksum (described in [MD492]) is applied to the
     confounder and message sequence (msg-seq) and placed in the cksum
     field. DES blocks are 8 bytes. As a result, the data to be encrypted
     (the concatenation of confounder, checksum, and message) must be
     padded to an 8 byte boundary before encryption. The details of the
     encryption of this data are identical to those for the des-cbc-md5
     encryption mode.


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     6.3.4. DES in CBC mode with an MD5 checksum (des-cbc-md5)

     The des-cbc-md5 encryption mode encrypts information under the Data
     Encryption Standard [DES77] using the cipher block chaining mode
     [DESM80]. An MD5 checksum (described in [MD5-92].) is applied to the
     confounder and message sequence (msg-seq) and placed in the cksum
     field. DES blocks are 8 bytes. As a result, the data to be encrypted
     (the concatenation of confounder, checksum, and message) must be
     padded to an 8 byte boundary before encryption.

     Plaintext and DES ciphtertext are encoded as blocks of 8 octets which
     are concatenated to make the 64-bit inputs for the DES algorithms. The
     first octet supplies the 8 most significant bits (with the octet's
     MSbit used as the DES input block's MSbit, etc.), the second octet the
     next 8 bits, ..., and the eighth octet supplies the 8 least
     significant bits.

     Encryption under DES using cipher block chaining requires an
     additional input in the form of an initialization vector. Unless
     otherwise specified, zero should be used as the initialization vector.
     Kerberos' use of DES requires an 8 octet confounder.

     The DES specifications identify some 'weak' and 'semi-weak' keys;
     those keys shall not be used for encrypting messages for use in
     Kerberos. Additionally, because of the way that keys are derived for
     the encryption of checksums, keys shall not be used that yield 'weak'
     or 'semi-weak' keys when eXclusive-ORed with the hexadecimal constant
     F0F0F0F0F0F0F0F0.

     A DES key is 8 octets of data, with keytype one (1). This consists of
     56 bits of key, and 8 parity bits (one per octet). The key is encoded
     as a series of 8 octets written in MSB-first order. The bits within
     the key are also encoded in MSB order. For example, if the encryption
     key is (B1,B2,...,B7,P1,B8,...,B14,P2,B15,...,B49,P7,B50,...,B56,P8)
     where B1,B2,...,B56 are the key bits in MSB order, and P1,P2,...,P8
     are the parity bits, the first octet of the key would be
     B1,B2,...,B7,P1 (with B1 as the MSbit). [See the FIPS 81 introduction
     for reference.]

     String to key transformation

     To generate a DES key from a text string (password), a "salt" is
     concatenated to the text string, and then padded with ASCII nulls to
     an 8 byte boundary. This "salt" is normally the realm and each
     component of the principal's name appended. However, sometimes
     different salts are used --- for example, when a realm is renamed, or
     if a user changes her username, or for compatibility with Kerberos V4
     (whose string-to-key algorithm uses a null string for the salt). This
     string is then fan-folded and eXclusive-ORed with itself to form an 8
     byte DES key. Before eXclusive-ORing a block, every byte is shifted
     one bit to the left to leave the lowest bit zero. The key is the
     "corrected" by correcting the parity on the key, and if the key
     matches a 'weak' or 'semi-weak' key as described in the DES
     specification, it is eXclusive-ORed with the constant
     00000000000000F0. This key is then used to generate a DES CBC checksum
     on the initial string (with the salt appended). The result of the CBC
     checksum is the "corrected" as described above to form the result
     which is return as the key. Pseudocode follows:


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          name_to_default_salt(realm, name) {
               s = realm
               for(each component in name) {
                    s = s + component;
               }
               return s;
          }

          key_correction(key) {
               fixparity(key);
               if (is_weak_key_key(key))
                    key = key XOR 0xF0;
               return(key);
          }

          string_to_key(string,salt) {

               odd = 1;
               s = string + salt;
               tempkey = NULL;
               pad(s); /* with nulls to 8 byte boundary */
               for(8byteblock in s) {
                    if(odd == 0)  {
                        odd = 1;
                        reverse(8byteblock)
                    }
                    else odd = 0;
                    left shift every byte in 8byteblock one bit;
                    tempkey = tempkey XOR 8byteblock;
               }
               tempkey = key_correction(tempkey);
               key = key_correction(DES-CBC-check(s,tempkey));
               return(key);
          }

     6.3.5. Triple DES with HMAC-SHA1 Kerberos Encryption Type with and
     without Key Derivation [Original draft by Marc Horowitz, revisions by
     David Miller]

          There are still a few pieces of this specification to be included
          by falue, rather than by reference. This will be done before the
          Pittsburgh IETF.
     This encryption type is based on the Triple DES cryptosystem, the
     HMAC-SHA1 [Krawczyk96] message authentication algorithm, and key
     derivation for Kerberos V5 [HorowitzB96]. Key derivation may or may
     not be used in conjunction with the use of Triple DES keys.

     Algorithm Identifiers

     The des3-cbc-hmac-sha1 encryption type has been assigned the value 7.
     The des3-cbc-hmac-sha1-kd encryption type, specifying the key
     derivation variant of the encryption type, has been assigned the value
     16. The hmac-sha1-des3 checksum type has been assigned the value 13.
     The hmac-sha1-des3-kd checksum type, specifying the key derivation
     variant of the checksum, has been assigned the value 12.

     Triple DES Key Production

     The EncryptionKey value is 24 octets long. The 7 most significant bits
     of each octet contain key bits, and the least significant bit is the
     inverse of the xor of the key bits.


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     For the purposes of key derivation, the block size is 64 bits, and the
     key size is 168 bits. The 168 bits output by key derivation are
     converted to an EncryptionKey value as follows. First, the 168 bits
     are divided into three groups of 56 bits, which are expanded
     individually into 64 bits as follows:

      1  2  3  4  5  6  7  p
      9 10 11 12 13 14 15  p
     17 18 19 20 21 22 23  p
     25 26 27 28 29 30 31  p
     33 34 35 36 37 38 39  p
     41 42 43 44 45 46 47  p
     49 50 51 52 53 54 55  p
     56 48 40 32 24 16  8  p

     The "p" bits are parity bits computed over the data bits. The output
     of the three expansions are concatenated to form the EncryptionKey
     value.

     When the HMAC-SHA1 of a string is computed, the key is used in the
     EncryptedKey form.

     The string-to-key function is used to tranform UNICODE passwords into
     DES3 keys. The DES3 string-to-key function relies on the "N-fold"
     algorithm, which is detailed in [9]. The description of the N-fold
     algorithm in that document is as follows:
        o To n-fold a number X, replicate the input value to a length that
          is the least common multiple of n and the length of X. Before
          each repetition, the input is rotated to the right by 13 bit
          positions. The successive n-bit chunks are added together using
          1's-complement addition (that is, addition with end-around carry)
          to yield an n-bit result"
        o The n-fold algorithm, as with DES string-to-key, is applied to
          the password string concatenated with a salt value. The salt
          value is derived in the same was as for the DES string-to-key
          algorithm. For 3-key triple DES then, the operation will involve
          a 168-fold of the input password string. The remainder of the
          string-to-key function for DES3 is shown here in pseudocode:

     DES3string-to-key(passwordString, key)

         salt = name_to_default_salt(realm, name)
         s = passwordString + salt
         tmpKey1 = 168-fold(s)
         parityFix(tmpKey1);
         if not weakKey(tmpKey1)
             /*
              * Encrypt temp key in itself with a
              * zero initialization vector
              *
              * Function signature is DES3encrypt(plain, key, iv)
              * with cipher as the return value
              */
             tmpKey2 = DES3encrypt(tmpKey1, tmpKey1, zeroIvec)
             /*
              * Encrypt resultant temp key in itself with third component
              * of first temp key as initialization vector
              */
             key = DES3encrypt(tmpKey2, tmpKey1, tmpKey1[2])
             parityFix(key)
             if not weakKey(key)
                  return SUCCESS
             else
                  return FAILURE
         else
             return FAILURE


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     The weakKey function above is the same weakKey function used with DES
     keys, but applied to each of the three single DES keys that comprise
     the triple DES key.

     The lengths of UNICODE encoded character strings include the trailing
     terminator character (0).

     Encryption Types des3-cbc-hmac-sha1 and des3-cbc-hmac-sha1-kd

     EncryptedData using this type must be generated as described in
     [Horowitz96]. The encryption algorithm is Triple DES in Outer-CBC
     mode. The checksum algorithm is HMAC-SHA1. If the key derivation
     variant of the encryption type is used, encryption key values are
     modified according to the method under the Key Derivation section
     below.

     Unless otherwise specified, a zero IV must be used.

     If the length of the input data is not a multiple of the block size,
     zero octets must be used to pad the plaintext to the next eight-octet
     boundary. The counfounder must be eight random octets (one block).

     Checksum Types hmac-sha1-des3 and hmac-sha1-des3-kd

     Checksums using this type must be generated as described in
     [Horowitz96]. The keyed hash algorithm is HMAC-SHA1. If the key
     derivation variant of the checksum type is used, checksum key values
     are modified according to the method under the Key Derivation section
     below.

     Key Derivation

     In the Kerberos protocol, cryptographic keys are used in a number of
     places. In order to minimize the effect of compromising a key, it is
     desirable to use a different key for each of these places. Key
     derivation [Horowitz96] can be used to construct different keys for
     each operation from the keys transported on the network. For this to
     be possible, a small change to the specification is necessary.

     This section specifies a profile for the use of key derivation
     [Horowitz96] with Kerberos. For each place where a key is used, a
     ``key usage'' must is specified for that purpose. The key, key usage,
     and encryption/checksum type together describe the transformation from
     plaintext to ciphertext, or plaintext to checksum.

     Key Usage Values

     This is a complete list of places keys are used in the kerberos
     protocol, with key usage values and RFC 1510 section numbers:

      1. AS-REQ PA-ENC-TIMESTAMP padata timestamp, encrypted with the
         client key (section 5.4.1)
      2. AS-REP Ticket and TGS-REP Ticket (includes tgs session key or
         application session key), encrypted with the service key
         (section 5.4.2)
      3. AS-REP encrypted part (includes tgs session key or application
         session key), encrypted with the client key (section 5.4.2)
      4. TGS-REQ KDC-REQ-BODY AuthorizationData, encrypted with the tgs
         session key (section 5.4.1)
      5. TGS-REQ KDC-REQ-BODY AuthorizationData, encrypted with the tgs
         authenticator subkey (section 5.4.1)
      6. TGS-REQ PA-TGS-REQ padata AP-REQ Authenticator cksum, keyed
         with the tgs session key (sections 5.3.2, 5.4.1)
      7. TGS-REQ PA-TGS-REQ padata AP-REQ Authenticator (includes tgs
         authenticator subkey), encrypted with the tgs session key
         (section 5.3.2)

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      8. TGS-REP encrypted part (includes application session key),
         encrypted with the tgs session key (section 5.4.2)
      9. TGS-REP encrypted part (includes application session key),
         encrypted with the tgs authenticator subkey (section 5.4.2)
     10. AP-REQ Authenticator cksum, keyed with the application session
         key (section 5.3.2)
     11. AP-REQ Authenticator (includes application authenticator
         subkey), encrypted with the application session key (section
         5.3.2)
     12. AP-REP encrypted part (includes application session subkey),
         encrypted with the application session key (section 5.5.2)
     13. KRB-PRIV encrypted part, encrypted with a key chosen by the
         application (section 5.7.1)
     14. KRB-CRED encrypted part, encrypted with a key chosen by the
         application (section 5.6.1)
     15. KRB-SAVE cksum, keyed with a key chosen by the application
         (section 5.8.1)
     18. KRB-ERROR checksum (e-cksum in section 5.9.1)
     19. AD-KDCIssued checksum (ad-checksum in appendix B.1)
     20. Checksum for Mandatory Ticket Extensions (appendix B.6)
     21. Checksum in Authorization Data in Ticket Extensions (appendix B.7)

     Key usage values between 1024 and 2047 (inclusive) are reserved for
     application use. Applications should use even values for encryption
     and odd values for checksums within this range.

     A few of these key usages need a little clarification. A service which
     receives an AP-REQ has no way to know if the enclosed Ticket was part
     of an AS-REP or TGS-REP. Therefore, key usage 2 must always be used
     for generating a Ticket, whether it is in response to an AS- REQ or
     TGS-REQ.

     There might exist other documents which define protocols in terms of
     the RFC1510 encryption types or checksum types. Such documents would
     not know about key usages. In order that these documents continue to
     be meaningful until they are updated, key usages 1024 and 1025 must be
     used to derive keys for encryption and checksums, respectively. New
     protocols defined in terms of the Kerberos encryption and checksum
     types should use their own key usages. Key usages may be registered
     with IANA to avoid conflicts. Key usages must be unsigned 32 bit
     integers. Zero is not permitted.

     Defining Cryptosystems Using Key Derivation

     Kerberos requires that the ciphertext component of EncryptedData be
     tamper-resistant as well as confidential. This implies encryption and
     integrity functions, which must each use their own separate keys. So,
     for each key usage, two keys must be generated, one for encryption
     (Ke), and one for integrity (Ki):

           Ke = DK(protocol key, key usage | 0xAA)
           Ki = DK(protocol key, key usage | 0x55)

     where the protocol key is from the EncryptionKey from the wire
     protocol, and the key usage is represented as a 32 bit integer in
     network byte order. The ciphertest must be generated from the
     plaintext as follows:

        ciphertext = E(Ke, confounder | plaintext | padding) |
                     H(Ki, confounder | plaintext | padding)

     The confounder and padding are specific to the encryption algorithm E.


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     When generating a checksum only, there is no need for a confounder or
     padding. Again, a new key (Kc) must be used. Checksums must be
     generated from the plaintext as follows:

           Kc = DK(protocol key, key usage | 0x99)
           MAC = H(Kc, plaintext)

     Note that each enctype is described by an encryption algorithm E and a
     keyed hash algorithm H, and each checksum type is described by a keyed
     hash algorithm H. HMAC, with an appropriate hash, is required for use
     as H.

     Key Derivation from Passwords

     The well-known constant for password key derivation must be the byte
     string {0x6b 0x65 0x72 0x62 0x65 0x72 0x6f 0x73}. These values
     correspond to the ASCII encoding for the string "kerberos".

     6.4. Checksums

     The following is the ASN.1 definition used for a checksum:

              Checksum ::=   SEQUENCE {
                             cksumtype[0]   INTEGER,
                             checksum[1]    OCTET STRING
              }

     cksumtype
          This field indicates the algorithm used to generate the
          accompanying checksum.
     checksum
          This field contains the checksum itself, encoded as an octet
          string.
     Detailed specification of selected checksum types appear later in this
     section. Negative values for the checksum type are reserved for local
     use. All non-negative values are reserved for officially assigned type
     fields and interpretations.

     Checksums used by Kerberos can be classified by two properties:
     whether they are collision-proof, and whether they are keyed. It is
     infeasible to find two plaintexts which generate the same checksum
     value for a collision-proof checksum. A key is required to perturb or
     initialize the algorithm in a keyed checksum. To prevent
     message-stream modification by an active attacker, unkeyed checksums
     should only be used when the checksum and message will be subsequently
     encrypted (e.g. the checksums defined as part of the encryption
     algorithms covered earlier in this section).

     Collision-proof checksums can be made tamper-proof if the checksum
     value is encrypted before inclusion in a message. In such cases, the
     composition of the checksum and the encryption algorithm must be
     considered a separate checksum algorithm (e.g. RSA-MD5 encrypted using
     DES is a new checksum algorithm of type RSA-MD5-DES). For most keyed
     checksums, as well as for the encrypted forms of unkeyed
     collision-proof checksums, Kerberos prepends a confounder before the
     checksum is calculated.


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     6.4.1. The CRC-32 Checksum (crc32)

     The CRC-32 checksum calculates a checksum based on a cyclic redundancy
     check as described in ISO 3309 [ISO3309]. The resulting checksum is
     four (4) octets in length. The CRC-32 is neither keyed nor
     collision-proof. The use of this checksum is not recommended. An
     attacker using a probabilistic chosen-plaintext attack as described in
     [SG92] might be able to generate an alternative message that satisfies
     the checksum. The use of collision-proof checksums is recommended for
     environments where such attacks represent a significant threat.

     6.4.2. The RSA MD4 Checksum (rsa-md4)

     The RSA-MD4 checksum calculates a checksum using the RSA MD4 algorithm
     [MD4-92]. The algorithm takes as input an input message of arbitrary
     length and produces as output a 128-bit (16 octet) checksum. RSA-MD4
     is believed to be collision-proof.

     6.4.3. RSA MD4 Cryptographic Checksum Using DES (rsa-md4-des)

     The RSA-MD4-DES checksum calculates a keyed collision-proof checksum
     by prepending an 8 octet confounder before the text, applying the RSA
     MD4 checksum algorithm, and encrypting the confounder and the checksum
     using DES in cipher-block-chaining (CBC) mode using a variant of the
     key, where the variant is computed by eXclusive-ORing the key with the
     constant F0F0F0F0F0F0F0F0[39]. The initialization vector should be
     zero. The resulting checksum is 24 octets long (8 octets of which are
     redundant). This checksum is tamper-proof and believed to be
     collision-proof.

     The DES specifications identify some weak keys' and 'semi-weak keys';
     those keys shall not be used for generating RSA-MD4 checksums for use
     in Kerberos.

     The format for the checksum is described in the follow- ing diagram:


+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
     |  des-cbc(confounder   +   rsa-md4(confounder+msg),key=var(key),iv=0)
|

+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+

     The format cannot be described in ASN.1, but for those who prefer an
     ASN.1-like notation:

     rsa-md4-des-checksum ::=   ENCRYPTED       UNTAGGED SEQUENCE {
                                confounder[0]   UNTAGGED OCTET STRING(8),
                                check[1]        UNTAGGED OCTET STRING(16)
     }

     6.4.4. The RSA MD5 Checksum (rsa-md5)

     The RSA-MD5 checksum calculates a checksum using the RSA MD5
     algorithm. [MD5-92]. The algorithm takes as input an input message of
     arbitrary length and produces as output a 128-bit (16 octet) checksum.
     RSA-MD5 is believed to be collision-proof.

     6.4.5. RSA MD5 Cryptographic Checksum Using DES (rsa-md5-des)

     The RSA-MD5-DES checksum calculates a keyed collision-proof checksum
     by prepending an 8 octet confounder before the text, applying the RSA
     MD5 checksum algorithm, and encrypting the confounder and the checksum
     using DES in cipher-block-chaining (CBC) mode using a variant of the
     key, where the variant is computed by eXclusive-ORing the key with the
     hexadecimal constant F0F0F0F0F0F0F0F0. The initialization vector
     should be zero. The resulting checksum is 24 octets long (8 octets of
     which are redundant). This checksum is tamper-proof and believed to be
     collision-proof.


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     The DES specifications identify some 'weak keys' and 'semi-weak keys';
     those keys shall not be used for encrypting RSA-MD5 checksums for use
     in Kerberos.

     The format for the checksum is described in the following diagram:


+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
     |  des-cbc(confounder   +   rsa-md5(confounder+msg),key=var(key),iv=0)
|

+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+

     The format cannot be described in ASN.1, but for those who prefer an
     ASN.1-like notation:

     rsa-md5-des-checksum ::=   ENCRYPTED       UNTAGGED SEQUENCE {
                                confounder[0]   UNTAGGED OCTET STRING(8),
                                check[1]        UNTAGGED OCTET STRING(16)
     }

     6.4.6. DES cipher-block chained checksum (des-mac)

     The DES-MAC checksum is computed by prepending an 8 octet confounder
     to the plaintext, performing a DES CBC-mode encryption on the result
     using the key and an initialization vector of zero, taking the last
     block of the ciphertext, prepending the same confounder and encrypting
     the pair using DES in cipher-block-chaining (CBC) mode using a a
     variant of the key, where the variant is computed by eXclusive-ORing
     the key with the hexadecimal constant F0F0F0F0F0F0F0F0. The
     initialization vector should be zero. The resulting checksum is 128
     bits (16 octets) long, 64 bits of which are redundant. This checksum
     is tamper-proof and collision-proof.

     The format for the checksum is described in the following diagram:


+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
     |   des-cbc(confounder  + des-mac(conf+msg,iv=0,key),key=var(key),iv=0)
|

+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+

     The format cannot be described in ASN.1, but for those who prefer an
     ASN.1-like notation:

     des-mac-checksum ::=   ENCRYPTED       UNTAGGED SEQUENCE {
                            confounder[0]   UNTAGGED OCTET STRING(8),
                            check[1]        UNTAGGED OCTET STRING(8)
     }

     The DES specifications identify some 'weak' and 'semi-weak' keys;
     those keys shall not be used for generating DES-MAC checksums for use
     in Kerberos, nor shall a key be used whose variant is 'weak' or
     'semi-weak'.

     6.4.7. RSA MD4 Cryptographic Checksum Using DES alternative
     (rsa-md4-des-k)

     The RSA-MD4-DES-K checksum calculates a keyed collision-proof checksum
     by applying the RSA MD4 checksum algorithm and encrypting the results
     using DES in cipher-block-chaining (CBC) mode using a DES key as both
     key and initialization vector. The resulting checksum is 16 octets
     long. This checksum is tamper-proof and believed to be
     collision-proof. Note that this checksum type is the old method for
     encoding the RSA-MD4-DES checksum and it is no longer recommended.


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     6.4.8. DES cipher-block chained checksum alternative (des-mac-k)

     The DES-MAC-K checksum is computed by performing a DES CBC-mode
     encryption of the plaintext, and using the last block of the
     ciphertext as the checksum value. It is keyed with an encryption key
     and an initialization vector; any uses which do not specify an
     additional initialization vector will use the key as both key and
     initialization vector. The resulting checksum is 64 bits (8 octets)
     long. This checksum is tamper-proof and collision-proof. Note that
     this checksum type is the old method for encoding the DES-MAC checksum
     and it is no longer recommended. The DES specifications identify some
     'weak keys' and 'semi-weak keys'; those keys shall not be used for
     generating DES-MAC checksums for use in Kerberos.

     7. Naming Constraints

     7.1. Realm Names

     Although realm names are encoded as GeneralStrings and although a
     realm can technically select any name it chooses, interoperability
     across realm boundaries requires agreement on how realm names are to
     be assigned, and what information they imply.

     To enforce these conventions, each realm must conform to the
     conventions itself, and it must require that any realms with which
     inter-realm keys are shared also conform to the conventions and
     require the same from its neighbors.

     Kerberos realm names are case sensitive. Realm names that differ only
     in the case of the characters are not equivalent. There are presently
     four styles of realm names: domain, X500, other, and reserved.
     Examples of each style follow:

          domain:   ATHENA.MIT.EDU (example)
            X500:   C=US/O=OSF (example)
           other:   NAMETYPE:rest/of.name=without-restrictions (example)
        reserved:   reserved, but will not conflict with above

     Domain names must look like domain names: they consist of components
     separated by periods (.) and they contain neither colons (:) nor
     slashes (/). Though domain names themselves are case insensitive, in
     order for realms to match, the case must match as well. When
     establishing a new realm name based on an internet domain name it is
     recommended by convention that the characters be converted to upper
     case.

     X.500 names contain an equal (=) and cannot contain a colon (:) before
     the equal. The realm names for X.500 names will be string
     representations of the names with components separated by slashes.
     Leading and trailing slashes will not be included.

     Names that fall into the other category must begin with a prefix that
     contains no equal (=) or period (.) and the prefix must be followed by
     a colon (:) and the rest of the name. All prefixes must be assigned
     before they may be used. Presently none are assigned.

     The reserved category includes strings which do not fall into the
     first three categories. All names in this category are reserved. It is
     unlikely that names will be assigned to this category unless there is
     a very strong argument for not using the 'other' category.


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     These rules guarantee that there will be no conflicts between the
     various name styles. The following additional constraints apply to the
     assignment of realm names in the domain and X.500 categories: the name
     of a realm for the domain or X.500 formats must either be used by the
     organization owning (to whom it was assigned) an Internet domain name
     or X.500 name, or in the case that no such names are registered,
     authority to use a realm name may be derived from the authority of the
     parent realm. For example, if there is no domain name for E40.MIT.EDU,
     then the administrator of the MIT.EDU realm can authorize the creation
     of a realm with that name.

     This is acceptable because the organization to which the parent is
     assigned is presumably the organization authorized to assign names to
     its children in the X.500 and domain name systems as well. If the
     parent assigns a realm name without also registering it in the domain
     name or X.500 hierarchy, it is the parent's responsibility to make
     sure that there will not in the future exists a name identical to the
     realm name of the child unless it is assigned to the same entity as
     the realm name.

     7.2. Principal Names

     As was the case for realm names, conventions are needed to ensure that
     all agree on what information is implied by a principal name. The
     name-type field that is part of the principal name indicates the kind
     of information implied by the name. The name-type should be treated as
     a hint. Ignoring the name type, no two names can be the same (i.e. at
     least one of the components, or the realm, must be different). The
     following name types are defined:

     name-type      value   meaning

    NT-UNKNOWN        0   Name type not known
    NT-PRINCIPAL      1   General principal name (e.g. username, DCE
principal)
    NT-SRV-INST       2   Service and other unique instance (krbtgt)
    NT-SRV-HST        3   Service with host name as instance (telnet, rcmds)
    NT-SRV-XHST       4   Service with slash-separated host name components
    NT-UID            5   Unique ID
    NT-X500-PRINCIPAL 6   Encoded X.509 Distingished name [RFC 1779]
    NT-SMTP-NAME      7   Name in form of SMTP email name (e.g.
user@foo.com)

     When a name implies no information other than its uniqueness at a
     particular time the name type PRINCIPAL should be used. The principal
     name type should be used for users, and it might also be used for a
     unique server. If the name is a unique machine generated ID that is
     guaranteed never to be reassigned then the name type of UID should be
     used (note that it is generally a bad idea to reassign names of any
     type since stale entries might remain in access control lists).

     If the first component of a name identifies a service and the
     remaining components identify an instance of the service in a server
     specified manner, then the name type of SRV-INST should be used. An
     example of this name type is the Kerberos ticket-granting service
     whose name has a first component of krbtgt and a second component
     identifying the realm for which the ticket is valid.

     If instance is a single component following the service name and the
     instance identifies the host on which the server is running, then the
     name type SRV-HST should be used. This type is typically used for
     Internet services such as telnet and the Berkeley R commands. If the
     separate components of the host name appear as successive components
     following the name of the service, then the name type SRV-XHST should
     be used. This type might be used to identify servers on hosts with
     X.500 names where the slash (/) might otherwise be ambiguous.


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     A name type of NT-X500-PRINCIPAL should be used when a name from an
     X.509 certificiate is translated into a Kerberos name. The encoding of
     the X.509 name as a Kerberos principal shall conform to the encoding
     rules specified in RFC 2253.

     A name type of SMTP allows a name to be of a form that resembles a
     SMTP email name. This name type can be used in conjunction with
     name-canonicalization to allow a free-form of username to be specified
     as a client name and allow the KDC to determine the Kerberos principal
     name for the requested name. [JBrezak]

     A name type of UNKNOWN should be used when the form of the name is not
     known. When comparing names, a name of type UNKNOWN will match
     principals authenticated with names of any type. A principal
     authenticated with a name of type UNKNOWN, however, will only match
     other names of type UNKNOWN.

     Names of any type with an initial component of 'krbtgt' are reserved
     for the Kerberos ticket granting service. See section 8.2.3 for the
     form of such names.

     7.2.1. Name of server principals

     The principal identifier for a server on a host will generally be
     composed of two parts: (1) the realm of the KDC with which the server
     is registered, and (2) a two-component name of type NT-SRV-HST if the
     host name is an Internet domain name or a multi-component name of type
     NT-SRV-XHST if the name of the host is of a form such as X.500 that
     allows slash (/) separators. The first component of the two- or
     multi-component name will identify the service and the latter
     components will identify the host. Where the name of the host is not
     case sensitive (for example, with Internet domain names) the name of
     the host must be lower case. If specified by the application protocol
     for services such as telnet and the Berkeley R commands which run with
     system privileges, the first component may be the string 'host'
     instead of a service specific identifier. When a host has an official
     name and one or more aliases, the official name of the host must be
     used when constructing the name of the server principal.

     8. Constants and other defined values

     8.1. Host address types

     All negative values for the host address type are reserved for local
     use. All non-negative values are reserved for officially assigned type
     fields and interpretations.

     The values of the types for the following addresses are chosen to
     match the defined address family constants in the Berkeley Standard
     Distributions of Unix. They can be found in with symbolic names AF_xxx
     (where xxx is an abbreviation of the address family name).

     Internet (IPv4) Addresses

     Internet (IPv4) addresses are 32-bit (4-octet) quantities, encoded in
     MSB order. The type of IPv4 addresses is two (2).

     Internet (IPv6) Addresses [Westerlund]


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     IPv6 addresses are 128-bit (16-octet) quantities, encoded in MSB
     order. The type of IPv6 addresses is twenty-four (24). [RFC1883]
     [RFC1884]. The following addresses (see [RFC1884]) MUST not appear in
     any Kerberos packet:
        o the Unspecified Address
        o the Loopback Address
        o Link-Local addresses
     IPv4-mapped IPv6 addresses MUST be represented as addresses of type 2.

     CHAOSnet addresses

     CHAOSnet addresses are 16-bit (2-octet) quantities, encoded in MSB
     order. The type of CHAOSnet addresses is five (5).

     ISO addresses

     ISO addresses are variable-length. The type of ISO addresses is seven
     (7).

     Xerox Network Services (XNS) addresses

     XNS addresses are 48-bit (6-octet) quantities, encoded in MSB order.
     The type of XNS addresses is six (6).

     AppleTalk Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP) addresses

     AppleTalk DDP addresses consist of an 8-bit node number and a 16-bit
     network number. The first octet of the address is the node number; the
     remaining two octets encode the network number in MSB order. The type
     of AppleTalk DDP addresses is sixteen (16).

     DECnet Phase IV addresses

     DECnet Phase IV addresses are 16-bit addresses, encoded in LSB order.
     The type of DECnet Phase IV addresses is twelve (12).

     Netbios addresses

     Netbios addresses are 16-octet addresses typically composed of 1 to 15
     characters, trailing blank (ascii char 20) filled, with a 16th octet
     of 0x0. The type of Netbios addresses is 20 (0x14).

     8.2. KDC messages

     8.2.1. UDP/IP transport

     When contacting a Kerberos server (KDC) for a KRB_KDC_REQ request
     using UDP IP transport, the client shall send a UDP datagram
     containing only an encoding of the request to port 88 (decimal) at the
     KDC's IP address; the KDC will respond with a reply datagram
     containing only an encoding of the reply message (either a KRB_ERROR
     or a KRB_KDC_REP) to the sending port at the sender's IP address.
     Kerberos servers supporting IP transport must accept UDP requests on
     port 88 (decimal). The response to a request made through UDP/IP
     transport must also use UDP/IP transport.

     8.2.2. TCP/IP transport [Westerlund,Danielsson]

     Kerberos servers (KDC's) should accept TCP requests on port 88
     (decimal) and clients should support the sending of TCP requests on
     port 88 (decimal). When the KRB_KDC_REQ message is sent to the KDC
     over a TCP stream, a new connection will be established for each
     authentication exchange (request and response). The KRB_KDC_REP or
     KRB_ERROR message will be returned to the client on the same TCP
     stream that was established for the request. The response to a request

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     made through TCP/IP transport must also use TCP/IP transport.
     Implementors should note that some extentions to the Kerberos protocol
     will not work if any implementation not supporting the TCP transport
     is involved (client or KDC). Implementors are strongly urged to
     support the TCP transport on both the client and server and are
     advised that the current notation of "should" support will likely
     change in the future to must support. The KDC may close the TCP stream
     after sending a response, but may leave the stream open if it expects
     a followup - in which case it may close the stream at any time if
     resource constratints or other factors make it desirable to do so.
     Care must be taken in managing TCP/IP connections with the KDC to
     prevent denial of service attacks based on the number of TCP/IP
     connections with the KDC that remain open. If multiple exchanges with
     the KDC are needed for certain forms of preauthentication, multiple
     TCP connections may be required. A client may close the stream after
     receiving response, and should close the stream if it does not expect
     to send followup messages. The client must be prepared to have the
     stream closed by the KDC at anytime, in which case it must simply
     connect again when it is ready to send subsequent messages.

     The first four octets of the TCP stream used to transmit the request
     request will encode in network byte order the length of the request
     (KRB_KDC_REQ), and the length will be followed by the request itself.
     The response will similarly be preceeded by a 4 octet encoding in
     network byte order of the length of the KRB_KDC_REP or the KRB_ERROR
     message and will be followed by the KRB_KDC_REP or the KRB_ERROR
     response. If the sign bit is set on the integer represented by the
     first 4 octets, then the next 4 octets will be read, extending the
     length of the field by another 4 octets (less the sign bit which is
     reserved for future expansion).

     8.2.3. OSI transport

     During authentication of an OSI client to an OSI server, the mutual
     authentication of an OSI server to an OSI client, the transfer of
     credentials from an OSI client to an OSI server, or during exchange of
     private or integrity checked messages, Kerberos protocol messages may
     be treated as opaque objects and the type of the authentication
     mechanism will be:

     OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {iso (1), org(3), dod(6),internet(1),
security(5),kerberosv5(2)}

     Depending on the situation, the opaque object will be an
     authentication header (KRB_AP_REQ), an authentication reply
     (KRB_AP_REP), a safe message (KRB_SAFE), a private message (KRB_PRIV),
     or a credentials message (KRB_CRED). The opaque data contains an
     application code as specified in the ASN.1 description for each
     message. The application code may be used by Kerberos to determine the
     message type.

     8.2.3. Name of the TGS

     The principal identifier of the ticket-granting service shall be
     composed of three parts: (1) the realm of the KDC issuing the TGS
     ticket (2) a two-part name of type NT-SRV-INST, with the first part
     "krbtgt" and the second part the name of the realm which will accept
     the ticket-granting ticket. For example, a ticket-granting ticket
     issued by the ATHENA.MIT.EDU realm to be used to get tickets from the
     ATHENA.MIT.EDU KDC has a principal identifier of "ATHENA.MIT.EDU"
     (realm), ("krbtgt", "ATHENA.MIT.EDU") (name). A ticket-granting ticket
     issued by the ATHENA.MIT.EDU realm to be used to get tickets from the
     MIT.EDU realm has a principal identifier of "ATHENA.MIT.EDU" (realm),
     ("krbtgt", "MIT.EDU") (name).


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     8.3. Protocol constants and associated values

     The following tables list constants used in the protocol and defines
     their meanings. Ranges are specified in the "specification" section
     that limit the values of constants for which values are defined here.
     This allows implementations to make assumptions about the maximum
     values that will be received for these constants. Implementation
     receiving values outside the range specified in the "specification"
     section may reject the request, but they must recover cleanly.

     Encryption type       etype value block size  minimum pad  confounder
size
     NULL                           0     1           0            0
     des-cbc-crc                    1     8           4            8
     des-cbc-md4                    2     8           0            8
     des-cbc-md5                    3     8           0            8
     reserved                       4
     des3-cbc-md5                   5     8           0                 8
     reserved                       6
     des3-cbc-sha1                  7     8           0                 8
     dsaWithSHA1-CmsOID             9
(pkinit)
     md5WithRSAEncryption-CmsOID   10
(pkinit)
     sha1WithRSAEncryption-CmsOID  11
(pkinit)
     rc2CBC-EnvOID                 12
(pkinit)
     rsaEncryption-EnvOID          13                (pkinit from PKCS#1
v1.5)
     rsaES-OAEP-ENV-OID            14                (pkinit from PKCS#1
v2.0)
     des-ede3-cbc-Env-OID          15
(pkinit)
     des3-cbc-sha1-kd              16                                 (Tom
Yu)
     rc4-hmac                      23
(swift)
     rc4-hmac-exp                  24
(swift)

     reserved                      0x8003

     Checksum type              sumtype value       checksum size
     CRC32                      1                   4
     rsa-md4                    2                   16
     rsa-md4-des                3                   24
     des-mac                    4                   16
     des-mac-k                  5                   8
     rsa-md4-des-k              6                   16 (drop rsa ?)
     rsa-md5                    7                   16 (drop rsa ?)
     rsa-md5-des                8                   24 (drop rsa ?)
     rsa-md5-des3               9                   24 (drop rsa ?)
     hmac-sha1-des3-kd          12                  20
     hmac-sha1-des3             13                  20
     sha1 (unkeyed)             14                  20

     padata type                     padata-type value

     PA-TGS-REQ                      1
     PA-ENC-TIMESTAMP                2
     PA-PW-SALT                      3
     reserved                        4
     PA-ENC-UNIX-TIME                5                  (depricated)
     PA-SANDIA-SECUREID              6
     PA-SESAME                       7
     PA-OSF-DCE                      8
     PA-CYBERSAFE-SECUREID           9
     PA-AFS3-SALT                    10
     PA-ETYPE-INFO                   11
     PA-SAM-CHALLENGE                12                  (sam/otp)
     PA-SAM-RESPONSE                 13                  (sam/otp)
     PA-PK-AS-REQ                    14                  (pkinit)
     PA-PK-AS-REP                    15                  (pkinit)
     PA-USE-SPECIFIED-KVNO           20
     PA-SAM-REDIRECT                 21                  (sam/otp)
     PA-GET-FROM-TYPED-DATA          22
     PA-SAM-ETYPE-INFO               23                  (sam/otp)


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     data-type                     value    form of typed-data

     reserved                        1-21
     TD-PADATA                       22
     TD-PKINIT-CMS-CERTIFICATES      101      CertificateSet from CMS
     TD-KRB-PRINCIPAL                102
     TD-KRB-REALM                    103
     TD-TRUSTED-CERTIFIERS           104
     TD-CERTIFICATE-INDEX            105
     TD-APP-DEFINED-ERROR            106

     authorization data type         ad-type value
     AD-IF-RELEVANT                     1
     AD-INTENDED-FOR-SERVER             2
     AD-INTENDED-FOR-APPLICATION-CLASS  3
     AD-KDC-ISSUED                      4
     AD-OR                              5
     AD-MANDATORY-TICKET-EXTENSIONS     6
     AD-IN-TICKET-EXTENSIONS            7
     reserved values                    8-63
     OSF-DCE                            64
     SESAME                             65
     AD-OSF-DCE-PKI-CERTID              66    (hemsath@us.ibm.com)
     AD-WIN200-PAC                     128
(jbrezak@exchange.microsoft.com)

     Ticket Extension Types

     TE-TYPE-NULL                  0     Null ticket extension
     TE-TYPE-EXTERNAL-ADATA        1     Integrity protected authorization
data
     reserved                      2     TE-TYPE-PKCROSS-KDC
     TE-TYPE-PKCROSS-CLIENT        3     PKCROSS cross realm key ticket
     TE-TYPE-CYBERSAFE-EXT         4     Assigned to CyberSafe Corp
     reserved                      5     TE-TYPE-DEST-HOST

     alternate authentication type   method-type value
     reserved values                 0-63
     ATT-CHALLENGE-RESPONSE          64

     transited encoding type         tr-type value
     DOMAIN-X500-COMPRESS            1
     reserved values                 all others

     Label               Value   Meaning or MIT code

     pvno                    5   current Kerberos protocol version number

     message types

     KRB_AS_REQ             10   Request for initial authentication
     KRB_AS_REP             11   Response to KRB_AS_REQ request
     KRB_TGS_REQ            12   Request for authentication based on TGT
     KRB_TGS_REP            13   Response to KRB_TGS_REQ request
     KRB_AP_REQ             14   application request to server
     KRB_AP_REP             15   Response to KRB_AP_REQ_MUTUAL
     KRB_SAFE               20   Safe (checksummed) application message
     KRB_PRIV               21   Private (encrypted) application message
     KRB_CRED               22   Private (encrypted) message to forward
credentials
     KRB_ERROR              30   Error response


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     name types

     KRB_NT_UNKNOWN        0  Name type not known
     KRB_NT_PRINCIPAL      1  Just the name of the principal as in DCE, or
for users
     KRB_NT_SRV_INST       2  Service and other unique instance (krbtgt)
     KRB_NT_SRV_HST        3  Service with host name as instance (telnet,
rcommands)
     KRB_NT_SRV_XHST       4  Service with host as remaining components
     KRB_NT_UID            5  Unique ID
     KRB_NT_X500_PRINCIPAL 6  Encoded X.509 Distingished name [RFC 2253]

     error codes

     KDC_ERR_NONE                    0   No error
     KDC_ERR_NAME_EXP                1   Client's entry in database has
expired
     KDC_ERR_SERVICE_EXP             2   Server's entry in database has
expired
     KDC_ERR_BAD_PVNO                3   Requested protocol version number
not supported
     KDC_ERR_C_OLD_MAST_KVNO         4   Client's key encrypted in old
master key
     KDC_ERR_S_OLD_MAST_KVNO         5   Server's key encrypted in old
master key
     KDC_ERR_C_PRINCIPAL_UNKNOWN     6   Client not found in Kerberos
database
     KDC_ERR_S_PRINCIPAL_UNKNOWN     7   Server not found in Kerberos
database
     KDC_ERR_PRINCIPAL_NOT_UNIQUE    8   Multiple principal entries in
database
     KDC_ERR_NULL_KEY                9   The client or server has a null key
     KDC_ERR_CANNOT_POSTDATE        10   Ticket not eligible for postdating
     KDC_ERR_NEVER_VALID            11   Requested start time is later than
end time
     KDC_ERR_POLICY                 12   KDC policy rejects request
     KDC_ERR_BADOPTION              13   KDC cannot accommodate requested
option
     KDC_ERR_ETYPE_NOSUPP           14   KDC has no support for encryption
type
     KDC_ERR_SUMTYPE_NOSUPP         15   KDC has no support for checksum
type
     KDC_ERR_PADATA_TYPE_NOSUPP     16   KDC has no support for padata type
     KDC_ERR_TRTYPE_NOSUPP          17   KDC has no support for transited
type
     KDC_ERR_CLIENT_REVOKED         18   Clients credentials have been
revoked
     KDC_ERR_SERVICE_REVOKED        19   Credentials for server have been
revoked
     KDC_ERR_TGT_REVOKED            20   TGT has been revoked
     KDC_ERR_CLIENT_NOTYET          21   Client not yet valid - try again
later
     KDC_ERR_SERVICE_NOTYET         22   Server not yet valid - try again
later
     KDC_ERR_KEY_EXPIRED            23   Password has expired - change
password to reset
     KDC_ERR_PREAUTH_FAILED         24   Pre-authentication information was
invalid
     KDC_ERR_PREAUTH_REQUIRED       25   Additional
pre-authenticationrequired [40]
     KDC_ERR_SERVER_NOMATCH         26   Requested server and ticket don't
match
     KDC_ERR_MUST_USE_USER2USER     27   Server principal valid for
user2user only
     KDC_ERR_PATH_NOT_ACCPETED      28   KDC Policy rejects transited path
     KDC_ERR_SVC_UNAVAILABLE        29   A service is not available
     KRB_AP_ERR_BAD_INTEGRITY       31   Integrity check on decrypted field
failed
     KRB_AP_ERR_TKT_EXPIRED         32   Ticket expired
     KRB_AP_ERR_TKT_NYV             33   Ticket not yet valid
     KRB_AP_ERR_REPEAT              34   Request is a replay
     KRB_AP_ERR_NOT_US              35   The ticket isn't for us
     KRB_AP_ERR_BADMATCH            36   Ticket and authenticator don't
match
     KRB_AP_ERR_SKEW                37   Clock skew too great
     KRB_AP_ERR_BADADDR             38   Incorrect net address
     KRB_AP_ERR_BADVERSION          39   Protocol version mismatch
     KRB_AP_ERR_MSG_TYPE            40   Invalid msg type
     KRB_AP_ERR_MODIFIED            41   Message stream modified
     KRB_AP_ERR_BADORDER            42   Message out of order
     KRB_AP_ERR_BADKEYVER           44   Specified version of key is not
available
     KRB_AP_ERR_NOKEY               45   Service key not available
     KRB_AP_ERR_MUT_FAIL            46   Mutual authentication failed
     KRB_AP_ERR_BADDIRECTION        47   Incorrect message direction
     KRB_AP_ERR_METHOD              48   Alternative authentication method
required
     KRB_AP_ERR_BADSEQ              49   Incorrect sequence number in
message
     KRB_AP_ERR_INAPP_CKSUM         50   Inappropriate type of checksum in
message
     KRB_AP_PATH_NOT_ACCEPTED       51   Policy rejects transited path
     KRB_ERR_RESPONSE_TOO_BIG       52   Response too big for UDP, retry
with TCP
     KRB_ERR_GENERIC                60   Generic error (description in
e-text)
     KRB_ERR_FIELD_TOOLONG          61   Field is too long for this
implementation

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     KDC_ERROR_CLIENT_NOT_TRUSTED            62 (pkinit)
     KDC_ERROR_KDC_NOT_TRUSTED               63 (pkinit)
     KDC_ERROR_INVALID_SIG                   64 (pkinit)
     KDC_ERR_KEY_TOO_WEAK                    65 (pkinit)
     KDC_ERR_CERTIFICATE_MISMATCH            66 (pkinit)
     KRB_AP_ERR_NO_TGT                       67 (user-to-user)
     KDC_ERR_WRONG_REALM                     68 (user-to-user)
     KRB_AP_ERR_USER_TO_USER_REQUIRED        69 (user-to-user)
     KDC_ERR_CANT_VERIFY_CERTIFICATE         70 (pkinit)
     KDC_ERR_INVALID_CERTIFICATE             71 (pkinit)
     KDC_ERR_REVOKED_CERTIFICATE             72 (pkinit)
     KDC_ERR_REVOCATION_STATUS_UNKNOWN       73 (pkinit)
     KDC_ERR_REVOCATION_STATUS_UNAVAILABLE   74 (pkinit)
     KDC_ERR_CLIENT_NAME_MISMATCH            75 (pkinit)
     KDC_ERR_KDC_NAME_MISMATCH               76 (pkinit)

     9. Interoperability requirements

     Version 5 of the Kerberos protocol supports a myriad of options. Among
     these are multiple encryption and checksum types, alternative encoding
     schemes for the transited field, optional mechanisms for
     pre-authentication, the handling of tickets with no addresses, options
     for mutual authentication, user to user authentication, support for
     proxies, forwarding, postdating, and renewing tickets, the format of
     realm names, and the handling of authorization data.

     In order to ensure the interoperability of realms, it is necessary to
     define a minimal configuration which must be supported by all
     implementations. This minimal configuration is subject to change as
     technology does. For example, if at some later date it is discovered
     that one of the required encryption or checksum algorithms is not
     secure, it will be replaced.

     9.1. Specification 2

     This section defines the second specification of these options.
     Implementations which are configured in this way can be said to
     support Kerberos Version 5 Specification 2 (5.1). Specification 1
     (depricated) may be found in RFC1510.

     Transport

     TCP/IP and UDP/IP transport must be supported by KDCs claiming
     conformance to specification 2. Kerberos clients claiming conformance
     to specification 2 must support UDP/IP transport for messages with the
     KDC and should support TCP/IP transport.

     Encryption and checksum methods

     The following encryption and checksum mechanisms must be supported.
     Implementations may support other mechanisms as well, but the
     additional mechanisms may only be used when communicating with
     principals known to also support them: This list is to be determined.

     Encryption: DES-CBC-MD5, one triple des variant (tbd)
     Checksums: CRC-32, DES-MAC, DES-MAC-K, and DES-MD5 (tbd)

     Realm Names

     All implementations must understand hierarchical realms in both the
     Internet Domain and the X.500 style. When a ticket granting ticket for
     an unknown realm is requested, the KDC must be able to determine the
     names of the intermediate realms between the KDCs realm and the
     requested realm.


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     Transited field encoding

     DOMAIN-X500-COMPRESS (described in section 3.3.3.2) must be supported.
     Alternative encodings may be supported, but they may be used only when
     that encoding is supported by ALL intermediate realms.

     Pre-authentication methods

     The TGS-REQ method must be supported. The TGS-REQ method is not used
     on the initial request. The PA-ENC-TIMESTAMP method must be supported
     by clients but whether it is enabled by default may be determined on a
     realm by realm basis. If not used in the initial request and the error
     KDC_ERR_PREAUTH_REQUIRED is returned specifying PA-ENC-TIMESTAMP as an
     acceptable method, the client should retry the initial request using
     the PA-ENC-TIMESTAMP preauthentication method. Servers need not
     support the PA-ENC-TIMESTAMP method, but if not supported the server
     should ignore the presence of PA-ENC-TIMESTAMP pre-authentication in a
     request.

     Mutual authentication

     Mutual authentication (via the KRB_AP_REP message) must be supported.

     Ticket addresses and flags

     All KDC's must pass on tickets that carry no addresses (i.e. if a TGT
     contains no addresses, the KDC will return derivative tickets), but
     each realm may set its own policy for issuing such tickets, and each
     application server will set its own policy with respect to accepting
     them.

     Proxies and forwarded tickets must be supported. Individual realms and
     application servers can set their own policy on when such tickets will
     be accepted.

     All implementations must recognize renewable and postdated tickets,
     but need not actually implement them. If these options are not
     supported, the starttime and endtime in the ticket shall specify a
     ticket's entire useful life. When a postdated ticket is decoded by a
     server, all implementations shall make the presence of the postdated
     flag visible to the calling server.

     User-to-user authentication

     Support for user to user authentication (via the ENC-TKT-IN-SKEY KDC
     option) must be provided by implementations, but individual realms may
     decide as a matter of policy to reject such requests on a
     per-principal or realm-wide basis.

     Authorization data

     Implementations must pass all authorization data subfields from
     ticket-granting tickets to any derivative tickets unless directed to
     suppress a subfield as part of the definition of that registered
     subfield type (it is never incorrect to pass on a subfield, and no
     registered subfield types presently specify suppression at the KDC).

     Implementations must make the contents of any authorization data
     subfields available to the server when a ticket is used.
     Implementations are not required to allow clients to specify the
     contents of the authorization data fields.


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     Constant ranges

     All protocol constants are constrained to 32 bit (signed) values
     unless further constrained by the protocol definition. This limit is
     provided to allow implementations to make assumptions about the
     maximum values that will be received for these constants.
     Implementation receiving values outside this range may reject the
     request, but they must recover cleanly.

     9.2. Recommended KDC values

     Following is a list of recommended values for a KDC implementation,
     based on the list of suggested configuration constants (see section
     4.4).

     minimum lifetime              5 minutes
     maximum renewable lifetime    1 week
     maximum ticket lifetime       1 day
     empty addresses               only when suitable  restrictions  appear
                                   in authorization data
     proxiable, etc.               Allowed.

     10. REFERENCES

     [NT94]    B. Clifford Neuman and Theodore Y. Ts'o, "An  Authenti-
               cation  Service for Computer Networks," IEEE Communica-
               tions Magazine, Vol. 32(9), pp. 33-38 (September 1994).

     [MNSS87]  S. P. Miller, B. C. Neuman, J. I. Schiller, and  J.  H.
               Saltzer,  Section  E.2.1:  Kerberos  Authentication and
               Authorization System, M.I.T. Project Athena, Cambridge,
               Massachusetts (December 21, 1987).

     [SNS88]   J. G. Steiner, B. C. Neuman, and J. I. Schiller,  "Ker-
               beros:  An Authentication Service for Open Network Sys-
               tems," pp. 191-202 in  Usenix  Conference  Proceedings,
               Dallas, Texas (February, 1988).

     [NS78]    Roger M.  Needham  and  Michael  D.  Schroeder,  "Using
               Encryption for Authentication in Large Networks of Com-
               puters,"  Communications  of  the  ACM,  Vol.   21(12),
               pp. 993-999 (December, 1978).

     [DS81]    Dorothy E. Denning and  Giovanni  Maria  Sacco,  "Time-
               stamps  in  Key Distribution Protocols," Communications
               of the ACM, Vol. 24(8), pp. 533-536 (August 1981).

     [KNT92]   John T. Kohl, B. Clifford Neuman, and Theodore Y. Ts'o,
               "The Evolution of the Kerberos Authentication Service,"
               in an IEEE Computer Society Text soon to  be  published
               (June 1992).

     [Neu93]   B.  Clifford  Neuman,  "Proxy-Based  Authorization  and
               Accounting  for Distributed Systems," in Proceedings of
               the 13th International Conference on  Distributed  Com-
               puting Systems, Pittsburgh, PA (May, 1993).

     [DS90]    Don Davis and Ralph Swick,  "Workstation  Services  and
               Kerberos  Authentication  at Project Athena," Technical
               Memorandum TM-424,  MIT Laboratory for Computer Science
               (February 1990).


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     [LGDSR87] P. J. Levine, M. R. Gretzinger, J. M. Diaz, W. E.  Som-
               merfeld,  and  K. Raeburn, Section E.1: Service Manage-
               ment System, M.I.T.  Project  Athena,  Cambridge,  Mas-
               sachusetts (1987).

     [X509-88] CCITT, Recommendation X.509: The Directory  Authentica-
               tion Framework, December 1988.

     [Pat92].  J. Pato, Using  Pre-Authentication  to  Avoid  Password
               Guessing  Attacks, Open Software Foundation DCE Request
               for Comments 26 (December 1992).

     [DES77]   National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Department  of  Com-
               merce,  "Data Encryption Standard," Federal Information
               Processing Standards Publication  46,   Washington,  DC
               (1977).

     [DESM80]  National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Department  of  Com-
               merce,  "DES  Modes  of Operation," Federal Information
               Processing Standards Publication 81,   Springfield,  VA
               (December 1980).

     [SG92]    Stuart G. Stubblebine and Virgil D. Gligor, "On Message
               Integrity  in  Cryptographic Protocols," in Proceedings
               of the IEEE  Symposium  on  Research  in  Security  and
               Privacy, Oakland, California (May 1992).

     [IS3309]  International Organization  for  Standardization,  "ISO
               Information  Processing  Systems - Data Communication -
               High-Level Data Link Control Procedure -  Frame  Struc-
               ture," IS 3309 (October 1984).  3rd Edition.

     [MD4-92]  R. Rivest, "The  MD4  Message  Digest  Algorithm,"  RFC
               1320,   MIT  Laboratory  for  Computer  Science  (April
               1992).

     [MD5-92]  R. Rivest, "The  MD5  Message  Digest  Algorithm,"  RFC
               1321,   MIT  Laboratory  for  Computer  Science  (April
               1992).

     [KBC96]   H. Krawczyk, M. Bellare, and R. Canetti, "HMAC:  Keyed-
               Hashing  for  Message  Authentication,"  Working  Draft
               draft-ietf-ipsec-hmac-md5-01.txt,   (August 1996).

     [Horowitz96] Horowitz, M., "Key Derivation for Authentication,
               Integrity, and Privacy",
draft-horowitz-key-derivation-02.txt,
               August 1998.

     [HorowitzB96] Horowitz, M., "Key Derivation for Kerberos V5", draft-
               horowitz-kerb-key-derivation-01.txt, September 1998.

     [Krawczyk96] Krawczyk, H., Bellare, and M., Canetti, R., "HMAC:
               Keyed-Hashing for Message Authentication",
draft-ietf-ipsec-hmac-
               md5-01.txt, August, 1996.

     A. Pseudo-code for protocol processing

     This appendix provides pseudo-code describing how the messages are to
     be constructed and interpreted by clients and servers.


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     A.1. KRB_AS_REQ generation

             request.pvno := protocol version; /* pvno = 5 */
             request.msg-type := message type; /* type = KRB_AS_REQ */

             if(pa_enc_timestamp_required) then
                     request.padata.padata-type = PA-ENC-TIMESTAMP;
                     get system_time;
                     padata-body.patimestamp,pausec = system_time;
                     encrypt padata-body into request.padata.padata-value
                             using client.key; /* derived from password */
             endif

             body.kdc-options := users's preferences;
             body.cname := user's name;
             body.realm := user's realm;
             body.sname := service's name; /* usually "krbtgt",
"localrealm" */
             if (body.kdc-options.POSTDATED is set) then
                     body.from := requested starting time;
             else
                     omit body.from;
             endif
             body.till := requested end time;
             if (body.kdc-options.RENEWABLE is set) then
                     body.rtime := requested final renewal time;
             endif
             body.nonce := random_nonce();
             body.etype := requested etypes;
             if (user supplied addresses) then
                     body.addresses := user's addresses;
             else
                     omit body.addresses;
             endif
             omit body.enc-authorization-data;
             request.req-body := body;

             kerberos := lookup(name of local kerberos server (or servers));
             send(packet,kerberos);

             wait(for response);
             if (timed_out) then
                     retry or use alternate server;
             endif

     A.2. KRB_AS_REQ verification and KRB_AS_REP generation

             decode message into req;

             client := lookup(req.cname,req.realm);
             server := lookup(req.sname,req.realm);

             get system_time;
             kdc_time := system_time.seconds;

             if (!client) then
                     /* no client in Database */
                     error_out(KDC_ERR_C_PRINCIPAL_UNKNOWN);
             endif
             if (!server) then
                     /* no server in Database */
                     error_out(KDC_ERR_S_PRINCIPAL_UNKNOWN);
             endif

             if(client.pa_enc_timestamp_required and
                pa_enc_timestamp not present) then

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                     error_out(KDC_ERR_PREAUTH_REQUIRED(PA_ENC_TIMESTAMP));
             endif

             if(pa_enc_timestamp present) then
                     decrypt req.padata-value into decrypted_enc_timestamp
                             using client.key;
                             using auth_hdr.authenticator.subkey;
                     if (decrypt_error()) then
                             error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_BAD_INTEGRITY);
                     if(decrypted_enc_timestamp is not within allowable
skew) then
                             error_out(KDC_ERR_PREAUTH_FAILED);
                     endif
                     if(decrypted_enc_timestamp and usec is replay)
                             error_out(KDC_ERR_PREAUTH_FAILED);
                     endif
                     add decrypted_enc_timestamp and usec to replay cache;
             endif

             use_etype := first supported etype in req.etypes;

             if (no support for req.etypes) then
                     error_out(KDC_ERR_ETYPE_NOSUPP);
             endif

             new_tkt.vno := ticket version; /* = 5 */
             new_tkt.sname := req.sname;
             new_tkt.srealm := req.srealm;
             reset all flags in new_tkt.flags;

             /* It should be noted that local policy may affect the  */
             /* processing of any of these flags.  For example, some */
             /* realms may refuse to issue renewable tickets         */

             if (req.kdc-options.FORWARDABLE is set) then
                     set new_tkt.flags.FORWARDABLE;
             endif
             if (req.kdc-options.PROXIABLE is set) then
                     set new_tkt.flags.PROXIABLE;
             endif

             if (req.kdc-options.ALLOW-POSTDATE is set) then
                     set new_tkt.flags.MAY-POSTDATE;
             endif
             if ((req.kdc-options.RENEW is set) or
                 (req.kdc-options.VALIDATE is set) or
                 (req.kdc-options.PROXY is set) or
                 (req.kdc-options.FORWARDED is set) or
                 (req.kdc-options.ENC-TKT-IN-SKEY is set)) then
                     error_out(KDC_ERR_BADOPTION);
             endif

             new_tkt.session := random_session_key();
             new_tkt.cname := req.cname;
             new_tkt.crealm := req.crealm;
             new_tkt.transited := empty_transited_field();

             new_tkt.authtime := kdc_time;

             if (req.kdc-options.POSTDATED is set) then
                if (against_postdate_policy(req.from)) then
                     error_out(KDC_ERR_POLICY);
                endif
                set new_tkt.flags.POSTDATED;
                set new_tkt.flags.INVALID;
                new_tkt.starttime := req.from;

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             else
                omit new_tkt.starttime; /* treated as authtime when omitted
*/
             endif
             if (req.till = 0) then
                     till := infinity;
             else
                     till := req.till;
             endif

             new_tkt.endtime := min(till,
                                   new_tkt.starttime+client.max_life,
                                   new_tkt.starttime+server.max_life,
                                   new_tkt.starttime+max_life_for_realm);

             if ((req.kdc-options.RENEWABLE-OK is set) and
                 (new_tkt.endtime < req.till)) then
                     /* we set the RENEWABLE option for later processing */
                     set req.kdc-options.RENEWABLE;
                     req.rtime := req.till;
             endif

             if (req.rtime = 0) then
                     rtime := infinity;
             else
                     rtime := req.rtime;
             endif

             if (req.kdc-options.RENEWABLE is set) then
                     set new_tkt.flags.RENEWABLE;
                     new_tkt.renew-till := min(rtime,

new_tkt.starttime+client.max_rlife,

new_tkt.starttime+server.max_rlife,

new_tkt.starttime+max_rlife_for_realm);
             else
                     omit new_tkt.renew-till; /* only present if RENEWABLE
*/
             endif

             if (req.addresses) then
                     new_tkt.caddr := req.addresses;
             else
                     omit new_tkt.caddr;
             endif

             new_tkt.authorization_data := empty_authorization_data();

             encode to-be-encrypted part of ticket into OCTET STRING;
             new_tkt.enc-part := encrypt OCTET STRING
                     using etype_for_key(server.key), server.key,
server.p_kvno;

             /* Start processing the response */

             resp.pvno := 5;
             resp.msg-type := KRB_AS_REP;
             resp.cname := req.cname;
             resp.crealm := req.realm;
             resp.ticket := new_tkt;

             resp.key := new_tkt.session;
             resp.last-req := fetch_last_request_info(client);
             resp.nonce := req.nonce;
             resp.key-expiration := client.expiration;
             resp.flags := new_tkt.flags;

             resp.authtime := new_tkt.authtime;
             resp.starttime := new_tkt.starttime;

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             resp.endtime := new_tkt.endtime;

             if (new_tkt.flags.RENEWABLE) then
                     resp.renew-till := new_tkt.renew-till;
             endif

             resp.realm := new_tkt.realm;
             resp.sname := new_tkt.sname;

             resp.caddr := new_tkt.caddr;

             encode body of reply into OCTET STRING;

             resp.enc-part := encrypt OCTET STRING
                              using use_etype, client.key, client.p_kvno;
             send(resp);

     A.3. KRB_AS_REP verification

             decode response into resp;

             if (resp.msg-type = KRB_ERROR) then
                     if(error = KDC_ERR_PREAUTH_REQUIRED(PA_ENC_TIMESTAMP))
then
                             set pa_enc_timestamp_required;
                             goto KRB_AS_REQ;
                     endif
                     process_error(resp);
                     return;
             endif

             /* On error, discard the response, and zero the session key */
             /* from the response immediately */

             key = get_decryption_key(resp.enc-part.kvno,
resp.enc-part.etype,
                                      resp.padata);
             unencrypted part of resp := decode of decrypt of resp.enc-part
                                     using resp.enc-part.etype and key;
             zero(key);

             if (common_as_rep_tgs_rep_checks fail) then
                     destroy resp.key;
                     return error;
             endif

             if near(resp.princ_exp) then
                     print(warning message);
             endif
             save_for_later(ticket,session,client,server,times,flags);

     A.4. KRB_AS_REP and KRB_TGS_REP common checks

             if (decryption_error() or
                 (req.cname != resp.cname) or
                 (req.realm != resp.crealm) or
                 (req.sname != resp.sname) or
                 (req.realm != resp.realm) or
                 (req.nonce != resp.nonce) or
                 (req.addresses != resp.caddr)) then
                     destroy resp.key;
                     return KRB_AP_ERR_MODIFIED;
             endif

             /* make sure no flags are set that shouldn't be, and that all
that */
             /* should be are set
*/
             if (!check_flags_for_compatability(req.kdc-options,resp.flags))
then

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                     destroy resp.key;
                     return KRB_AP_ERR_MODIFIED;
             endif

             if ((req.from = 0) and
                 (resp.starttime is not within allowable skew)) then
                     destroy resp.key;
                     return KRB_AP_ERR_SKEW;
             endif
             if ((req.from != 0) and (req.from != resp.starttime)) then
                     destroy resp.key;
                     return KRB_AP_ERR_MODIFIED;
             endif
             if ((req.till != 0) and (resp.endtime > req.till)) then
                     destroy resp.key;
                     return KRB_AP_ERR_MODIFIED;
             endif

             if ((req.kdc-options.RENEWABLE is set) and
                 (req.rtime != 0) and (resp.renew-till > req.rtime)) then
                     destroy resp.key;
                     return KRB_AP_ERR_MODIFIED;
             endif
             if ((req.kdc-options.RENEWABLE-OK is set) and
                 (resp.flags.RENEWABLE) and
                 (req.till != 0) and
                 (resp.renew-till > req.till)) then
                     destroy resp.key;
                     return KRB_AP_ERR_MODIFIED;
             endif

     A.5. KRB_TGS_REQ generation

             /* Note that make_application_request might have to recursivly
*/
             /* call this routine to get the appropriate ticket-granting
ticket */

             request.pvno := protocol version; /* pvno = 5 */
             request.msg-type := message type; /* type = KRB_TGS_REQ */

             body.kdc-options := users's preferences;
             /* If the TGT is not for the realm of the end-server  */
             /* then the sname will be for a TGT for the end-realm */
             /* and the realm of the requested ticket (body.realm) */
             /* will be that of the TGS to which the TGT we are    */
             /* sending applies                                    */
             body.sname := service's name;
             body.realm := service's realm;

             if (body.kdc-options.POSTDATED is set) then
                     body.from := requested starting time;
             else
                     omit body.from;
             endif
             body.till := requested end time;
             if (body.kdc-options.RENEWABLE is set) then
                     body.rtime := requested final renewal time;
             endif
             body.nonce := random_nonce();
             body.etype := requested etypes;
             if (user supplied addresses) then
                     body.addresses := user's addresses;
             else
                     omit body.addresses;
             endif


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             body.enc-authorization-data := user-supplied data;
             if (body.kdc-options.ENC-TKT-IN-SKEY) then
                     body.additional-tickets_ticket := second TGT;
             endif

             request.req-body := body;
             check := generate_checksum (req.body,checksumtype);

             request.padata[0].padata-type := PA-TGS-REQ;
             request.padata[0].padata-value := create a KRB_AP_REQ using
                                           the TGT and checksum

             /* add in any other padata as required/supplied */

             kerberos := lookup(name of local kerberose server (or
servers));
             send(packet,kerberos);

             wait(for response);
             if (timed_out) then
                     retry or use alternate server;
             endif

     A.6. KRB_TGS_REQ verification and KRB_TGS_REP generation

             /* note that reading the application request requires first
             determining the server for which a ticket was issued, and
choosing the
             correct key for decryption.  The name of the server appears in
the
             plaintext part of the ticket. */

             if (no KRB_AP_REQ in req.padata) then
                     error_out(KDC_ERR_PADATA_TYPE_NOSUPP);
             endif
             verify KRB_AP_REQ in req.padata;

             /* Note that the realm in which the Kerberos server is
operating is
             determined by the instance from the ticket-granting ticket.
The realm
             in the ticket-granting ticket is the realm under which the
ticket
             granting ticket was issued.  It is possible for a single
Kerberos
             server to support more than one realm. */

             auth_hdr := KRB_AP_REQ;
             tgt := auth_hdr.ticket;

             if (tgt.sname is not a TGT for local realm and is not
req.sname) then
                     error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_NOT_US);

             realm := realm_tgt_is_for(tgt);

             decode remainder of request;

             if (auth_hdr.authenticator.cksum is missing) then
                     error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_INAPP_CKSUM);
             endif

             if (auth_hdr.authenticator.cksum type is not supported) then
                     error_out(KDC_ERR_SUMTYPE_NOSUPP);
             endif
             if (auth_hdr.authenticator.cksum is not both collision-proof
and keyed) then
                     error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_INAPP_CKSUM);
             endif

             set computed_checksum := checksum(req);
             if (computed_checksum != auth_hdr.authenticatory.cksum) then
                     error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_MODIFIED);
             endif

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             server := lookup(req.sname,realm);

             if (!server) then
                     if (is_foreign_tgt_name(req.sname)) then
                             server := best_intermediate_tgs(req.sname);
                     else
                             /* no server in Database */
                             error_out(KDC_ERR_S_PRINCIPAL_UNKNOWN);
                     endif
             endif

             session := generate_random_session_key();

             use_etype := first supported etype in req.etypes;

             if (no support for req.etypes) then
                     error_out(KDC_ERR_ETYPE_NOSUPP);
             endif

             new_tkt.vno := ticket version; /* = 5 */
             new_tkt.sname := req.sname;
             new_tkt.srealm := realm;
             reset all flags in new_tkt.flags;

             /* It should be noted that local policy may affect the  */
             /* processing of any of these flags.  For example, some */
             /* realms may refuse to issue renewable tickets         */

             new_tkt.caddr := tgt.caddr;
             resp.caddr := NULL; /* We only include this if they change */
             if (req.kdc-options.FORWARDABLE is set) then
                     if (tgt.flags.FORWARDABLE is reset) then
                             error_out(KDC_ERR_BADOPTION);
                     endif
                     set new_tkt.flags.FORWARDABLE;
             endif
             if (req.kdc-options.FORWARDED is set) then
                     if (tgt.flags.FORWARDABLE is reset) then
                             error_out(KDC_ERR_BADOPTION);
                     endif
                     set new_tkt.flags.FORWARDED;
                     new_tkt.caddr := req.addresses;
                     resp.caddr := req.addresses;
             endif
             if (tgt.flags.FORWARDED is set) then
                     set new_tkt.flags.FORWARDED;
             endif

             if (req.kdc-options.PROXIABLE is set) then
                     if (tgt.flags.PROXIABLE is reset)
                             error_out(KDC_ERR_BADOPTION);
                     endif
                     set new_tkt.flags.PROXIABLE;
             endif
             if (req.kdc-options.PROXY is set) then
                     if (tgt.flags.PROXIABLE is reset) then
                             error_out(KDC_ERR_BADOPTION);
                     endif
                     set new_tkt.flags.PROXY;
                     new_tkt.caddr := req.addresses;
                     resp.caddr := req.addresses;
             endif

             if (req.kdc-options.ALLOW-POSTDATE is set) then

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                     if (tgt.flags.MAY-POSTDATE is reset)
                             error_out(KDC_ERR_BADOPTION);
                     endif
                     set new_tkt.flags.MAY-POSTDATE;
             endif
             if (req.kdc-options.POSTDATED is set) then
                     if (tgt.flags.MAY-POSTDATE is reset) then
                             error_out(KDC_ERR_BADOPTION);
                     endif
                     set new_tkt.flags.POSTDATED;
                     set new_tkt.flags.INVALID;
                     if (against_postdate_policy(req.from)) then
                             error_out(KDC_ERR_POLICY);
                     endif
                     new_tkt.starttime := req.from;
             endif

             if (req.kdc-options.VALIDATE is set) then
                     if (tgt.flags.INVALID is reset) then
                             error_out(KDC_ERR_POLICY);
                     endif
                     if (tgt.starttime > kdc_time) then
                             error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_NYV);
                     endif
                     if (check_hot_list(tgt)) then
                             error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_REPEAT);
                     endif
                     tkt := tgt;
                     reset new_tkt.flags.INVALID;
             endif

             if (req.kdc-options.(any flag except ENC-TKT-IN-SKEY, RENEW,
                                  and those already processed) is set) then
                     error_out(KDC_ERR_BADOPTION);
             endif

             new_tkt.authtime := tgt.authtime;

             if (req.kdc-options.RENEW is set) then
               /* Note that if the endtime has already passed, the ticket
would  */
               /* have been rejected in the initial authentication stage, so
*/
               /* there is no need to check again here
*/
                     if (tgt.flags.RENEWABLE is reset) then
                             error_out(KDC_ERR_BADOPTION);
                     endif
                     if (tgt.renew-till < kdc_time) then
                             error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_TKT_EXPIRED);
                     endif
                     tkt := tgt;
                     new_tkt.starttime := kdc_time;
                     old_life := tgt.endttime - tgt.starttime;
                     new_tkt.endtime := min(tgt.renew-till,
                                            new_tkt.starttime + old_life);
             else
                     new_tkt.starttime := kdc_time;
                     if (req.till = 0) then
                             till := infinity;
                     else
                             till := req.till;
                     endif
                     new_tkt.endtime := min(till,

new_tkt.starttime+client.max_life,

new_tkt.starttime+server.max_life,

new_tkt.starttime+max_life_for_realm,
                                            tgt.endtime);

Neuman, Ts'o, Kohl                                   Expires: 14 January
2001

^L

INTERNET-DRAFT    draft-ietf-cat-kerberos-revisions-06          July 14,
2000


                     if ((req.kdc-options.RENEWABLE-OK is set) and
                         (new_tkt.endtime < req.till) and
                         (tgt.flags.RENEWABLE is set) then
                             /* we set the RENEWABLE option for later
processing */
                             set req.kdc-options.RENEWABLE;
                             req.rtime := min(req.till, tgt.renew-till);
                     endif
             endif

             if (req.rtime = 0) then
                     rtime := infinity;
             else
                     rtime := req.rtime;
             endif

             if ((req.kdc-options.RENEWABLE is set) and
                 (tgt.flags.RENEWABLE is set)) then
                     set new_tkt.flags.RENEWABLE;
                     new_tkt.renew-till := min(rtime,

new_tkt.starttime+client.max_rlife,

new_tkt.starttime+server.max_rlife,

new_tkt.starttime+max_rlife_for_realm,
                                               tgt.renew-till);
             else
                     new_tkt.renew-till := OMIT; /* leave the renew-till
field out */
             endif
             if (req.enc-authorization-data is present) then
                     decrypt req.enc-authorization-data into
decrypted_authorization_data
                             using auth_hdr.authenticator.subkey;
                     if (decrypt_error()) then
                             error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_BAD_INTEGRITY);
                     endif
             endif
             new_tkt.authorization_data :=
req.auth_hdr.ticket.authorization_data +
                                      decrypted_authorization_data;

             new_tkt.key := session;
             new_tkt.crealm := tgt.crealm;
             new_tkt.cname := req.auth_hdr.ticket.cname;

             if (realm_tgt_is_for(tgt) := tgt.realm) then
                     /* tgt issued by local realm */
                     new_tkt.transited := tgt.transited;
             else
                     /* was issued for this realm by some other realm */
                     if (tgt.transited.tr-type not supported) then
                             error_out(KDC_ERR_TRTYPE_NOSUPP);
                     endif
                     new_tkt.transited := compress_transited(tgt.transited +
tgt.realm)
                     /* Don't check tranited field if TGT for foreign realm,
                      * or requested not to check */
                     if (is_not_foreign_tgt_name(new_tkt.server)
                        && req.kdc-options.DISABLE-TRANSITED-CHECK not set)
then
                             /* Check it, so end-server does not have to
                              * but don't fail, end-server may still accept
it */
                             if (check_transited_field(new_tkt.transited) ==
OK)
                                   set
new_tkt.flags.TRANSITED-POLICY-CHECKED;
                             endif
                     endif
             endif

             encode encrypted part of new_tkt into OCTET STRING;
             if (req.kdc-options.ENC-TKT-IN-SKEY is set) then
                     if (server not specified) then

Neuman, Ts'o, Kohl                                   Expires: 14 January
2001

^L

INTERNET-DRAFT    draft-ietf-cat-kerberos-revisions-06          July 14,
2000

                             server = req.second_ticket.client;
                     endif
                     if ((req.second_ticket is not a TGT) or
                         (req.second_ticket.client != server)) then
                             error_out(KDC_ERR_POLICY);
                     endif

                     new_tkt.enc-part := encrypt OCTET STRING using
                             using etype_for_key(second-ticket.key),
second-ticket.key;
             else
                     new_tkt.enc-part := encrypt OCTET STRING
                             using etype_for_key(server.key), server.key,
server.p_kvno;
             endif

             resp.pvno := 5;
             resp.msg-type := KRB_TGS_REP;
             resp.crealm := tgt.crealm;
             resp.cname := tgt.cname;
             resp.ticket := new_tkt;

             resp.key := session;
             resp.nonce := req.nonce;
             resp.last-req := fetch_last_request_info(client);
             resp.flags := new_tkt.flags;

             resp.authtime := new_tkt.authtime;
             resp.starttime := new_tkt.starttime;
             resp.endtime := new_tkt.endtime;

             omit resp.key-expiration;

             resp.sname := new_tkt.sname;
             resp.realm := new_tkt.realm;

             if (new_tkt.flags.RENEWABLE) then
                     resp.renew-till := new_tkt.renew-till;
             endif

             encode body of reply into OCTET STRING;

             if (req.padata.authenticator.subkey)
                     resp.enc-part := encrypt OCTET STRING using use_etype,
                             req.padata.authenticator.subkey;
             else resp.enc-part := encrypt OCTET STRING using use_etype,
tgt.key;

             send(resp);

     A.7. KRB_TGS_REP verification

             decode response into resp;

             if (resp.msg-type = KRB_ERROR) then
                     process_error(resp);
                     return;
             endif

             /* On error, discard the response, and zero the session key
from
             the response immediately */

             if (req.padata.authenticator.subkey)
                     unencrypted part of resp := decode of decrypt of
resp.enc-part
                             using resp.enc-part.etype and subkey;
             else unencrypted part of resp := decode of decrypt of
resp.enc-part
                                     using resp.enc-part.etype and tgt's
session key;
             if (common_as_rep_tgs_rep_checks fail) then

Neuman, Ts'o, Kohl                                   Expires: 14 January
2001

^L

INTERNET-DRAFT    draft-ietf-cat-kerberos-revisions-06          July 14,
2000

                     destroy resp.key;
                     return error;
             endif

             check authorization_data as necessary;
             save_for_later(ticket,session,client,server,times,flags);

     A.8. Authenticator generation

             body.authenticator-vno := authenticator vno; /* = 5 */
             body.cname, body.crealm := client name;
             if (supplying checksum) then
                     body.cksum := checksum;
             endif
             get system_time;
             body.ctime, body.cusec := system_time;
             if (selecting sub-session key) then
                     select sub-session key;
                     body.subkey := sub-session key;
             endif
             if (using sequence numbers) then
                     select initial sequence number;
                     body.seq-number := initial sequence;
             endif

     A.9. KRB_AP_REQ generation

             obtain ticket and session_key from cache;

             packet.pvno := protocol version; /* 5 */
             packet.msg-type := message type; /* KRB_AP_REQ */

             if (desired(MUTUAL_AUTHENTICATION)) then
                     set packet.ap-options.MUTUAL-REQUIRED;
             else
                     reset packet.ap-options.MUTUAL-REQUIRED;
             endif
             if (using session key for ticket) then
                     set packet.ap-options.USE-SESSION-KEY;
             else
                     reset packet.ap-options.USE-SESSION-KEY;
             endif
             packet.ticket := ticket; /* ticket */
             generate authenticator;
             encode authenticator into OCTET STRING;
             encrypt OCTET STRING into packet.authenticator using
session_key;

     A.10. KRB_AP_REQ verification

             receive packet;
             if (packet.pvno != 5) then
                     either process using other protocol spec
                     or error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_BADVERSION);
             endif
             if (packet.msg-type != KRB_AP_REQ) then
                     error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_MSG_TYPE);
             endif
             if (packet.ticket.tkt_vno != 5) then
                     either process using other protocol spec
                     or error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_BADVERSION);
             endif
             if (packet.ap_options.USE-SESSION-KEY is set) then
                     retrieve session key from ticket-granting ticket for
                      packet.ticket.{sname,srealm,enc-part.etype};
             else

Neuman, Ts'o, Kohl                                   Expires: 14 January
2001

^L

INTERNET-DRAFT    draft-ietf-cat-kerberos-revisions-06          July 14,
2000

                     retrieve service key for

packet.ticket.{sname,srealm,enc-part.etype,enc-part.skvno};
             endif
             if (no_key_available) then
                     if (cannot_find_specified_skvno) then
                             error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_BADKEYVER);
                     else
                             error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_NOKEY);
                     endif
             endif
             decrypt packet.ticket.enc-part into decr_ticket using retrieved
key;
             if (decryption_error()) then
                     error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_BAD_INTEGRITY);
             endif
             decrypt packet.authenticator into decr_authenticator
                     using decr_ticket.key;
             if (decryption_error()) then
                     error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_BAD_INTEGRITY);
             endif
             if (decr_authenticator.{cname,crealm} !=
                 decr_ticket.{cname,crealm}) then
                     error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_BADMATCH);
             endif
             if (decr_ticket.caddr is present) then
                     if (sender_address(packet) is not in decr_ticket.caddr)
then
                             error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_BADADDR);
                     endif
             elseif (application requires addresses) then
                     error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_BADADDR);
             endif
             if (not in_clock_skew(decr_authenticator.ctime,
                                   decr_authenticator.cusec)) then
                     error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_SKEW);
             endif
             if (repeated(decr_authenticator.{ctime,cusec,cname,crealm}))
then
                     error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_REPEAT);
             endif
             save_identifier(decr_authenticator.{ctime,cusec,cname,crealm});
             get system_time;
             if ((decr_ticket.starttime-system_time > CLOCK_SKEW) or
                 (decr_ticket.flags.INVALID is set)) then
                     /* it hasn't yet become valid */
                     error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_TKT_NYV);
             endif
             if (system_time-decr_ticket.endtime > CLOCK_SKEW) then
                     error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_TKT_EXPIRED);
             endif
             if (decr_ticket.transited) then
                 /* caller may ignore the TRANSITED-POLICY-CHECKED and do
                  * check anyway */
                 if (decr_ticket.flags.TRANSITED-POLICY-CHECKED not set)
then
                      if (check_transited_field(decr_ticket.transited) then
                           error_out(KDC_AP_PATH_NOT_ACCPETED);
                      endif
                 endif
             endif
             /* caller must check decr_ticket.flags for any pertinent
details */
             return(OK, decr_ticket, packet.ap_options.MUTUAL-REQUIRED);

     A.11. KRB_AP_REP generation

             packet.pvno := protocol version; /* 5 */
             packet.msg-type := message type; /* KRB_AP_REP */

             body.ctime := packet.ctime;

Neuman, Ts'o, Kohl                                   Expires: 14 January
2001

^L

INTERNET-DRAFT    draft-ietf-cat-kerberos-revisions-06          July 14,
2000

             body.cusec := packet.cusec;
             if (selecting sub-session key) then
                     select sub-session key;
                     body.subkey := sub-session key;
             endif
             if (using sequence numbers) then
                     select initial sequence number;
                     body.seq-number := initial sequence;
             endif

             encode body into OCTET STRING;

             select encryption type;
             encrypt OCTET STRING into packet.enc-part;

     A.12. KRB_AP_REP verification

             receive packet;
             if (packet.pvno != 5) then
                     either process using other protocol spec
                     or error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_BADVERSION);
             endif
             if (packet.msg-type != KRB_AP_REP) then
                     error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_MSG_TYPE);
             endif
             cleartext := decrypt(packet.enc-part) using ticket's session
key;
             if (decryption_error()) then
                     error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_BAD_INTEGRITY);
             endif
             if (cleartext.ctime != authenticator.ctime) then
                     error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_MUT_FAIL);
             endif
             if (cleartext.cusec != authenticator.cusec) then
                     error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_MUT_FAIL);
             endif
             if (cleartext.subkey is present) then
                     save cleartext.subkey for future use;
             endif
             if (cleartext.seq-number is present) then
                     save cleartext.seq-number for future verifications;
             endif
             return(AUTHENTICATION_SUCCEEDED);

     A.13. KRB_SAFE generation

             collect user data in buffer;

             /* assemble packet: */
             packet.pvno := protocol version; /* 5 */
             packet.msg-type := message type; /* KRB_SAFE */

             body.user-data := buffer; /* DATA */
             if (using timestamp) then
                     get system_time;
                     body.timestamp, body.usec := system_time;
             endif
             if (using sequence numbers) then
                     body.seq-number := sequence number;
             endif
             body.s-address := sender host addresses;
             if (only one recipient) then
                     body.r-address := recipient host address;
             endif
             checksum.cksumtype := checksum type;
             compute checksum over body;

Neuman, Ts'o, Kohl                                   Expires: 14 January
2001

^L

INTERNET-DRAFT    draft-ietf-cat-kerberos-revisions-06          July 14,
2000

             checksum.checksum := checksum value; /* checksum.checksum */
             packet.cksum := checksum;
             packet.safe-body := body;

     A.14. KRB_SAFE verification

             receive packet;
             if (packet.pvno != 5) then
                     either process using other protocol spec
                     or error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_BADVERSION);
             endif
             if (packet.msg-type != KRB_SAFE) then
                     error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_MSG_TYPE);
             endif
             if (packet.checksum.cksumtype is not both collision-proof and
keyed) then
                     error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_INAPP_CKSUM);
             endif
             if (safe_priv_common_checks_ok(packet)) then
                     set computed_checksum := checksum(packet.body);
                     if (computed_checksum != packet.checksum) then
                             error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_MODIFIED);
                     endif
                     return (packet, PACKET_IS_GENUINE);
             else
                     return common_checks_error;
             endif

     A.15. KRB_SAFE and KRB_PRIV common checks

             if (packet.s-address != O/S_sender(packet)) then
                     /* O/S report of sender not who claims to have sent it
*/
                     error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_BADADDR);
             endif
             if ((packet.r-address is present) and
                 (packet.r-address != local_host_address)) then
                     /* was not sent to proper place */
                     error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_BADADDR);
             endif
             if (((packet.timestamp is present) and
                  (not in_clock_skew(packet.timestamp,packet.usec))) or
                 (packet.timestamp is not present and timestamp expected))
then
                     error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_SKEW);
             endif
             if (repeated(packet.timestamp,packet.usec,packet.s-address))
then
                     error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_REPEAT);
             endif

             if (((packet.seq-number is present) and
                  ((not in_sequence(packet.seq-number)))) or
                 (packet.seq-number is not present and sequence expected))
then
                     error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_BADORDER);
             endif
             if (packet.timestamp not present and packet.seq-number not
present) then
                     error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_MODIFIED);
             endif

             save_identifier(packet.{timestamp,usec,s-address},
                             sender_principal(packet));

             return PACKET_IS_OK;


Neuman, Ts'o, Kohl                                   Expires: 14 January
2001

^L

INTERNET-DRAFT    draft-ietf-cat-kerberos-revisions-06          July 14,
2000

     A.16. KRB_PRIV generation

             collect user data in buffer;

             /* assemble packet: */
             packet.pvno := protocol version; /* 5 */
             packet.msg-type := message type; /* KRB_PRIV */

             packet.enc-part.etype := encryption type;

             body.user-data := buffer;
             if (using timestamp) then
                     get system_time;
                     body.timestamp, body.usec := system_time;
             endif
             if (using sequence numbers) then
                     body.seq-number := sequence number;
             endif
             body.s-address := sender host addresses;
             if (only one recipient) then
                     body.r-address := recipient host address;
             endif

             encode body into OCTET STRING;

             select encryption type;
             encrypt OCTET STRING into packet.enc-part.cipher;

     A.17. KRB_PRIV verification

             receive packet;
             if (packet.pvno != 5) then
                     either process using other protocol spec
                     or error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_BADVERSION);
             endif
             if (packet.msg-type != KRB_PRIV) then
                     error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_MSG_TYPE);
             endif

             cleartext := decrypt(packet.enc-part) using negotiated key;
             if (decryption_error()) then
                     error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_BAD_INTEGRITY);
             endif

             if (safe_priv_common_checks_ok(cleartext)) then
                     return(cleartext.DATA,
PACKET_IS_GENUINE_AND_UNMODIFIED);
             else
                     return common_checks_error;
             endif

     A.18. KRB_CRED generation

             invoke KRB_TGS; /* obtain tickets to be provided to peer */

             /* assemble packet: */
             packet.pvno := protocol version; /* 5 */
             packet.msg-type := message type; /* KRB_CRED */

             for (tickets[n] in tickets to be forwarded) do
                     packet.tickets[n] = tickets[n].ticket;
             done

             packet.enc-part.etype := encryption type;

             for (ticket[n] in tickets to be forwarded) do

Neuman, Ts'o, Kohl                                   Expires: 14 January
2001

^L

INTERNET-DRAFT    draft-ietf-cat-kerberos-revisions-06          July 14,
2000

                     body.ticket-info[n].key = tickets[n].session;
                     body.ticket-info[n].prealm = tickets[n].crealm;
                     body.ticket-info[n].pname = tickets[n].cname;
                     body.ticket-info[n].flags = tickets[n].flags;
                     body.ticket-info[n].authtime = tickets[n].authtime;
                     body.ticket-info[n].starttime = tickets[n].starttime;
                     body.ticket-info[n].endtime = tickets[n].endtime;
                     body.ticket-info[n].renew-till = tickets[n].renew-till;
                     body.ticket-info[n].srealm = tickets[n].srealm;
                     body.ticket-info[n].sname = tickets[n].sname;
                     body.ticket-info[n].caddr = tickets[n].caddr;
             done

             get system_time;
             body.timestamp, body.usec := system_time;

             if (using nonce) then
                     body.nonce := nonce;
             endif

             if (using s-address) then
                     body.s-address := sender host addresses;
             endif
             if (limited recipients) then
                     body.r-address := recipient host address;
             endif

             encode body into OCTET STRING;

             select encryption type;
             encrypt OCTET STRING into packet.enc-part.cipher
                    using negotiated encryption key;

     A.19. KRB_CRED verification

             receive packet;
             if (packet.pvno != 5) then
                     either process using other protocol spec
                     or error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_BADVERSION);
             endif
             if (packet.msg-type != KRB_CRED) then
                     error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_MSG_TYPE);
             endif

             cleartext := decrypt(packet.enc-part) using negotiated key;
             if (decryption_error()) then
                     error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_BAD_INTEGRITY);
             endif
             if ((packet.r-address is present or required) and
                (packet.s-address != O/S_sender(packet)) then
                     /* O/S report of sender not who claims to have sent it
*/
                     error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_BADADDR);
             endif
             if ((packet.r-address is present) and
                 (packet.r-address != local_host_address)) then
                     /* was not sent to proper place */
                     error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_BADADDR);
             endif
             if (not in_clock_skew(packet.timestamp,packet.usec)) then
                     error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_SKEW);
             endif
             if (repeated(packet.timestamp,packet.usec,packet.s-address))
then
                     error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_REPEAT);
             endif
             if (packet.nonce is required or present) and

Neuman, Ts'o, Kohl                                   Expires: 14 January
2001

^L

INTERNET-DRAFT    draft-ietf-cat-kerberos-revisions-06          July 14,
2000

                (packet.nonce != expected-nonce) then
                     error_out(KRB_AP_ERR_MODIFIED);
             endif

             for (ticket[n] in tickets that were forwarded) do
                     save_for_later(ticket[n],key[n],principal[n],
                                    server[n],times[n],flags[n]);
             return

     A.20. KRB_ERROR generation

             /* assemble packet: */
             packet.pvno := protocol version; /* 5 */
             packet.msg-type := message type; /* KRB_ERROR */

             get system_time;
             packet.stime, packet.susec := system_time;
             packet.realm, packet.sname := server name;

             if (client time available) then
                     packet.ctime, packet.cusec := client_time;
             endif
             packet.error-code := error code;
             if (client name available) then
                     packet.cname, packet.crealm := client name;
             endif
             if (error text available) then
                     packet.e-text := error text;
             endif
             if (error data available) then
                     packet.e-data := error data;
             endif

     B. Definition of common authorization data elements

     This appendix contains the definitions of common authorization data
     elements. These common authorization data elements are recursivly
     defined, meaning the ad-data for these types will itself contain a
     sequence of authorization data whose interpretation is affected by the
     encapsulating element. Depending on the meaning of the encapsulating
     element, the encapsulated elements may be ignored, might be
     interpreted as issued directly by the KDC, or they might be stored in
     a separate plaintext part of the ticket. The types of the
     encapsulating elements are specified as part of the Kerberos
     specification because the behavior based on these values should be
     understood across implementations whereas other elements need only be
     understood by the applications which they affect.

     In the definitions that follow, the value of the ad-type for the
     element will be specified in the subsection number, and the value of
     the ad-data will be as shown in the ASN.1 structure that follows the
     subsection heading.

     B.1. If relevant

     AD-IF-RELEVANT   AuthorizationData

     AD elements encapsulated within the if-relevant element are intended
     for interpretation only by application servers that understand the
     particular ad-type of the embedded element. Application servers that
     do not understand the type of an element embedded within the
     if-relevant element may ignore the uninterpretable element. This
     element promotes interoperability across implementations which may
     have local extensions for authorization.


Neuman, Ts'o, Kohl                                   Expires: 14 January
2001

^L

INTERNET-DRAFT    draft-ietf-cat-kerberos-revisions-06          July 14,
2000

     B.2. Intended for server

     AD-INTENDED-FOR-SERVER   SEQUENCE {
              intended-server[0]     SEQUENCE OF PrincipalName
              elements[1]            AuthorizationData
     }

     AD elements encapsulated within the intended-for-server element may be
     ignored if the application server is not in the list of principal
     names of intended servers. Further, a KDC issuing a ticket for an
     application server can remove this element if the application server
     is not in the list of intended servers.

     Application servers should check for their principal name in the
     intended-server field of this element. If their principal name is not
     found, this element should be ignored. If found, then the encapsulated
     elements should be evaluated in the same manner as if they were
     present in the top level authorization data field. Applications and
     application servers that do not implement this element should reject
     tickets that contain authorization data elements of this type.

     B.3. Intended for application class

     AD-INTENDED-FOR-APPLICATION-CLASS SEQUENCE {
     intended-application-class[0] SEQUENCE OF GeneralString elements[1]
     AuthorizationData } AD elements encapsulated within the
     intended-for-application-class element may be ignored if the
     application server is not in one of the named classes of application
     servers. Examples of application server classes include "FILESYSTEM",
     and other kinds of servers.

     This element and the elements it encapulates may be safely ignored by
     applications, application servers, and KDCs that do not implement this
     element.

     B.4. KDC Issued

     AD-KDCIssued   SEQUENCE {
                    ad-checksum[0]    Checksum,
                     i-realm[1]       Realm OPTIONAL,
                     i-sname[2]       PrincipalName OPTIONAL,
                    elements[3]       AuthorizationData.
     }

     ad-checksum
          A checksum over the elements field using a cryptographic checksum
          method that is identical to the checksum used to protect the
          ticket itself (i.e. using the same hash function and the same
          encryption algorithm used to encrypt the ticket) and using a key
          derived from the same key used to protect the ticket.
     i-realm, i-sname
          The name of the issuing principal if different from the KDC
          itself. This field would be used when the KDC can verify the
          authenticity of elements signed by the issuing principal and it
          allows this KDC to notify the application server of the validity
          of those elements.
     elements
          A sequence of authorization data elements issued by the KDC.
     The KDC-issued ad-data field is intended to provide a means for
     Kerberos principal credentials to embed within themselves privilege
     attributes and other mechanisms for positive authorization, amplifying
     the priveleges of the principal beyond what can be done using a
     credentials without such an a-data element.


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     This can not be provided without this element because the definition
     of the authorization-data field allows elements to be added at will by
     the bearer of a TGT at the time that they request service tickets and
     elements may also be added to a delegated ticket by inclusion in the
     authenticator.

     For KDC-issued elements this is prevented because the elements are
     signed by the KDC by including a checksum encrypted using the server's
     key (the same key used to encrypt the ticket - or a key derived from
     that key). Elements encapsulated with in the KDC-issued element will
     be ignored by the application server if this "signature" is not
     present. Further, elements encapsulated within this element from a
     ticket granting ticket may be interpreted by the KDC, and used as a
     basis according to policy for including new signed elements within
     derivative tickets, but they will not be copied to a derivative ticket
     directly. If they are copied directly to a derivative ticket by a KDC
     that is not aware of this element, the signature will not be correct
     for the application ticket elements, and the field will be ignored by
     the application server.

     This element and the elements it encapulates may be safely ignored by
     applications, application servers, and KDCs that do not implement this
     element.

     B.5. And-Or

     AD-AND-OR           SEQUENCE {
                             condition-count[0]    INTEGER,
                             elements[1]           AuthorizationData
     }

     When restrictive AD elements encapsulated within the and-or element
     are encountered, only the number specified in condition-count of the
     encapsulated conditions must be met in order to satisfy this element.
     This element may be used to implement an "or" operation by setting the
     condition-count field to 1, and it may specify an "and" operation by
     setting the condition count to the number of embedded elements.
     Application servers that do not implement this element must reject
     tickets that contain authorization data elements of this type.

     B.6. Mandatory ticket extensions

     AD-Mandatory-Ticket-Extensions           SEQUENCE {
                             te-type[0]       INTEGER,
                             te-checksum[0]    Checksum
     }

     An authorization data element of type mandatory-ticket-extensions
     specifies the type and a collision-proof checksum using the same hash
     algorithm used to protect the integrity of the ticket itself. This
     checksum will be calculated over an individual extension field of the
     type indicated. If there are more than one extension, multiple
     Mandatory-Ticket-Extensions authorization data elements may be
     present, each with a checksum for a different extension field. This
     restriction indicates that the ticket should not be accepted if a
     ticket extension is not present in the ticket for which the type and
     checksum do not match that checksum specified in the authorization
     data element. Note that although the type is redundant for the
     purposes of the comparison, it makes the comparison easier when
     multiple extensions are present. Application servers that do not
     implement this element must reject tickets that contain authorization
     data elements of this type.


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     B.7. Authorization Data in ticket extensions

     AD-IN-Ticket-Extensions   Checksum

     An authorization data element of type in-ticket-extensions specifies a
     collision-proof checksum using the same hash algorithm used to protect
     the integrity of the ticket itself. This checksum is calculated over a
     separate external AuthorizationData field carried in the ticket
     extensions. Application servers that do not implement this element
     must reject tickets that contain authorization data elements of this
     type. Application servers that do implement this element will search
     the ticket extensions for authorization data fields, calculate the
     specified checksum over each authorization data field and look for one
     matching the checksum in this in-ticket-extensions element. If not
     found, then the ticket must be rejected. If found, the corresponding
     authorization data elements will be interpreted in the same manner as
     if they were contained in the top level authorization data field.

     Note that if multiple external authorization data fields are present
     in a ticket, each will have a corresponding element of type
     in-ticket-extensions in the top level authorization data field, and
     the external entries will be linked to the corresponding element by
     their checksums.

     C. Definition of common ticket extensions

     This appendix contains the definitions of common ticket extensions.
     Support for these extensions is optional. However, certain extensions
     have associated authorization data elements that may require rejection
     of a ticket containing an extension by application servers that do not
     implement the particular extension. Other extensions have been defined
     beyond those described in this specification. Such extensions are
     described elswhere and for some of those extensions the reserved
     number may be found in the list of constants.

     It is known that older versions of Kerberos did not support this
     field, and that some clients will strip this field from a ticket when
     they parse and then reassemble a ticket as it is passed to the
     application servers. The presence of the extension will not break such
     clients, but any functionaly dependent on the extensions will not work
     when such tickets are handled by old clients. In such situations, some
     implementation may use alternate methods to transmit the information
     in the extensions field.

     C.1. Null ticket extension

     TE-NullExtension   OctetString -- The empty Octet String

     The te-data field in the null ticket extension is an octet string of
     lenght zero. This extension may be included in a ticket granting
     ticket so that the KDC can determine on presentation of the ticket
     granting ticket whether the client software will strip the extensions
     field.

     C.2. External Authorization Data

     TE-ExternalAuthorizationData   AuthorizationData

     The te-data field in the external authorization data ticket extension
     is field of type AuthorizationData containing one or more
     authorization data elements. If present, a corresponding authorization
     data element will be present in the primary authorization data for the
     ticket and that element will contain a checksum of the external
     authorization data ticket extension.

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     ----------------------------------------------------------------------
     [TM] Project Athena, Athena, and Kerberos are trademarks of the
     Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). No commercial use of
     these trademarks may be made without prior written permission of MIT.

     [1] Note, however, that many applications use Kerberos' functions only
     upon the initiation of a stream-based network connection. Unless an
     application subsequently provides integrity protection for the data
     stream, the identity verification applies only to the initiation of
     the connection, and does not guarantee that subsequent messages on the
     connection originate from the same principal.

     [2] Secret and private are often used interchangeably in the
     literature. In our usage, it takes two (or more) to share a secret,
     thus a shared DES key is a secret key. Something is only private when
     no one but its owner knows it. Thus, in public key cryptosystems, one
     has a public and a private key.

     [3] Of course, with appropriate permission the client could arrange
     registration of a separately-named prin- cipal in a remote realm, and
     engage in normal exchanges with that realm's services. However, for
     even small numbers of clients this becomes cumbersome, and more
     automatic methods as described here are necessary.

     [4] Though it is permissible to request or issue tick- ets with no
     network addresses specified.

     [5] The password-changing request must not be honored unless the
     requester can provide the old password (the user's current secret
     key). Otherwise, it would be possible for someone to walk up to an
     unattended ses- sion and change another user's password.

     [6] To authenticate a user logging on to a local system, the
     credentials obtained in the AS exchange may first be used in a TGS
     exchange to obtain credentials for a local server. Those credentials
     must then be verified by a local server through successful completion
     of the Client/Server exchange.

     [7] "Random" means that, among other things, it should be impossible
     to guess the next session key based on knowledge of past session keys.
     This can only be achieved in a pseudo-random number generator if it is
     based on cryptographic principles. It is more desirable to use a truly
     random number generator, such as one based on measurements of random
     physical phenomena.

     [8] Tickets contain both an encrypted and unencrypted portion, so
     cleartext here refers to the entire unit, which can be copied from one
     message and replayed in another without any cryptographic skill.

     [9] Note that this can make applications based on unreliable
     transports difficult to code correctly. If the transport might deliver
     duplicated messages, either a new authenticator must be generated for
     each retry, or the application server must match requests and replies
     and replay the first reply in response to a detected duplicate.

     [10] This is used for user-to-user authentication as described in [8].

     [11] Note that the rejection here is restricted to authenticators from
     the same principal to the same server. Other client principals
     communicating with the same server principal should not be have their
     authenticators rejected if the time and microsecond fields happen to
     match some other client's authenticator.


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     [12] In the Kerberos version 4 protocol, the timestamp in the reply
     was the client's timestamp plus one. This is not necessary in version
     5 because version 5 messages are formatted in such a way that it is
     not possible to create the reply by judicious message surgery (even in
     encrypted form) without knowledge of the appropriate encryption keys.

     [13] Note that for encrypting the KRB_AP_REP message, the sub-session
     key is not used, even if present in the Authenticator.

     [14] Implementations of the protocol may wish to provide routines to
     choose subkeys based on session keys and random numbers and to
     generate a negotiated key to be returned in the KRB_AP_REP message.

     [15]This can be accomplished in several ways. It might be known
     beforehand (since the realm is part of the principal identifier), it
     might be stored in a nameserver, or it might be obtained from a
     configura- tion file. If the realm to be used is obtained from a
     nameserver, there is a danger of being spoofed if the nameservice
     providing the realm name is not authenti- cated. This might result in
     the use of a realm which has been compromised, and would result in an
     attacker's ability to compromise the authentication of the application
     server to the client.

     [16] If the client selects a sub-session key, care must be taken to
     ensure the randomness of the selected sub- session key. One approach
     would be to generate a random number and XOR it with the session key
     from the ticket-granting ticket.

     [17] This allows easy implementation of user-to-user authentication
     [8], which uses ticket-granting ticket session keys in lieu of secret
     server keys in situa- tions where such secret keys could be easily
     comprom- ised.

     [18] For the purpose of appending, the realm preceding the first
     listed realm is considered to be the null realm ("").

     [19] For the purpose of interpreting null subfields, the client's
     realm is considered to precede those in the transited field, and the
     server's realm is considered to follow them.

     [20] This means that a client and server running on the same host and
     communicating with one another using the KRB_SAFE messages should not
     share a common replay cache to detect KRB_SAFE replays.

     [21] The implementation of the Kerberos server need not combine the
     database and the server on the same machine; it is feasible to store
     the principal database in, say, a network name service, as long as the
     entries stored therein are protected from disclosure to and
     modification by unauthorized parties. However, we recommend against
     such strategies, as they can make system management and threat
     analysis quite complex.

     [22] See the discussion of the padata field in section 5.4.2 for
     details on why this can be useful.

     [23] Warning for implementations that unpack and repack data
     structures during the generation and verification of embedded
     checksums: Because any checksums applied to data structures must be
     checked against the original data the length of bit strings must be
     preserved within a data structure between the time that a checksum is
     generated through transmission to the time that the checksum is
     verified.


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     [24] It is NOT recommended that this time value be used to adjust the
     workstation's clock since the workstation cannot reliably determine
     that such a KRB_AS_REP actually came from the proper KDC in a timely
     manner.

     [25] Note, however, that if the time is used as the nonce, one must
     make sure that the workstation time is monotonically increasing. If
     the time is ever reset backwards, there is a small, but finite,
     probability that a nonce will be reused.

     [27] An application code in the encrypted part of a message provides
     an additional check that the message was decrypted properly.

     [29] An application code in the encrypted part of a message provides
     an additional check that the message was decrypted properly.

     [31] An application code in the encrypted part of a message provides
     an additional check that the message was decrypted properly.

     [32] If supported by the encryption method in use, an initialization
     vector may be passed to the encryption procedure, in order to achieve
     proper cipher chaining. The initialization vector might come from the
     last block of the ciphertext from the previous KRB_PRIV message, but
     it is the application's choice whether or not to use such an
     initialization vector. If left out, the default initialization vector
     for the encryption algorithm will be used.

     [33] This prevents an attacker who generates an incorrect AS request
     from obtaining verifiable plaintext for use in an off-line password
     guessing attack.

     [35] In the above specification, UNTAGGED OCTET STRING(length) is the
     notation for an octet string with its tag and length removed. It is
     not a valid ASN.1 type. The tag bits and length must be removed from
     the confounder since the purpose of the confounder is so that the
     message starts with random data, but the tag and its length are fixed.
     For other fields, the length and tag would be redundant if they were
     included because they are specified by the encryption type. [36] The
     ordering of the fields in the CipherText is important. Additionally,
     messages encoded in this format must include a length as part of the
     msg-seq field. This allows the recipient to verify that the message
     has not been truncated. Without a length, an attacker could use a
     chosen plaintext attack to generate a message which could be
     truncated, while leaving the checksum intact. Note that if the msg-seq
     is an encoding of an ASN.1 SEQUENCE or OCTET STRING, then the length
     is part of that encoding.

     [37] In some cases, it may be necessary to use a different "mix-in"
     string for compatibility reasons; see the discussion of padata in
     section 5.4.2.

     [38] In some cases, it may be necessary to use a different "mix-in"
     string for compatibility reasons; see the discussion of padata in
     section 5.4.2.

     [39] A variant of the key is used to limit the use of a key to a
     particular function, separating the functions of generating a checksum
     from other encryption performed using the session key. The constant
     F0F0F0F0F0F0F0F0 was chosen because it maintains key parity. The
     properties of DES precluded the use of the complement. The same
     constant is used for similar purpose in the Message Integrity Check in
     the Privacy Enhanced Mail standard.

     [40] This error carries additional information in the e- data field.
     The contents of the e-data field for this message is described in
     section 5.9.1.