[Search] [txt|pdfized|bibtex] [Tracker] [WG] [Email] [Diff1] [Diff2] [Nits]
Versions: 00 01 02 03 04                                                
CoRE Working Group                                             M. Koster
Internet-Draft                                             Dogtiger Labs
Intended status: Informational                                A. Soloway
Expires: November 11, 2022                   Qualcomm Technologies, Inc.
                                                      B. Silverajan, Ed.
                                                      Tampere University
                                                            May 10, 2022


      Conditional Attributes for Constrained RESTful Environments
               draft-ietf-core-conditional-attributes-04

Abstract

   This specification defines Conditional Notification and Control
   Attributes that work with CoAP Observe (RFC7641).

Editor note

   The git repository for the draft is found at https://github.com/core-
   wg/conditional-attributes/

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on November 11, 2022.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents



Koster, et al.          Expires November 11, 2022               [Page 1]


Internet-Draft       Conditional Attributes for CoRE            May 2022


   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Conditional Attributes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     3.1.  Conditional Notification Attributes . . . . . . . . . . .   3
       3.1.1.  Greater Than (c.gt) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
       3.1.2.  Less Than (c.lt)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
       3.1.3.  Change Step (c.st)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       3.1.4.  Notification band (c.band)  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       3.1.5.  Edge (c.edge) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.2.  Conditional Control Attributes  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       3.2.1.  Minimum Period (c.pmin) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       3.2.2.  Maximum Period (c.pmax) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       3.2.3.  Minimum Evaluation Period (c.epmin) . . . . . . . . .   8
       3.2.4.  Maximum Evaluation Period (c.epmax) . . . . . . . . .   8
       3.2.5.  Confirmable Notification (c.con)  . . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.3.  Server processing of Conditional Attributes . . . . . . .   9
   4.  Implementation Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   5.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   6.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   7.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   8.  Contributors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   9.  Changelog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   10. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     10.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     10.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   Appendix A.  Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     A.1.  Minimum Period (c.pmin) example . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     A.2.  Maximum Period (c.pmax) example . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     A.3.  Greater Than (c.gt) example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     A.4.  Greater Than (c.gt) and Period Max (c.pmax) example . . .  16
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18

1.  Introduction

   IETF Standards for machine to machine communication in constrained
   environments describe a REST protocol [RFC7252] and a set of related
   information standards that may be used to represent machine data and
   machine metadata in REST interfaces.





Koster, et al.          Expires November 11, 2022               [Page 2]


Internet-Draft       Conditional Attributes for CoRE            May 2022


   This specification defines Conditional Notification and Control
   Attributes for use with CoRE Observe [RFC7641].

2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

   This specification requires readers to be familiar with all the terms
   and concepts that are discussed in [RFC7641].  This specification
   makes use of the following additional terminology:

   Notification Band:  A resource value range that may be bounded by a
      minimum and maximum value or may be unbounded having either a
      minimum or maximum value.

3.  Conditional Attributes

   This specification defines conditional attributes for use with CoRE
   Observe [RFC7641].  Conditional attributes provide fine-grained
   control of notification and synchronization of resource states.  When
   observing a resource, a CoAP client conveys conditional attributes as
   metadata using the query component of a CoAP URI.  A conditional
   attribute can be represented as a "name=value" query parameter or
   simply a "name" without a value.  Multiple conditional attributes in
   a query component are separated with an ampersand "&".  A resource
   marked as Observable in its link description SHOULD support these
   conditional attributes.

   Note: In this draft, we assume that there are finite quantization
   effects in the internal or external updates to the value representing
   the state of a resource; specifically, that a resource state may be
   updated at any time with any valid value.  We therefore avoid any
   continuous-time assumptions in the description of the conditional
   attributes and instead use the phrase "sampled value" to refer to a
   member of a sequence of values that may be internally observed from
   the resource state over time.

3.1.  Conditional Notification Attributes

   Conditional Notification Attributes define the conditions that
   trigger a notification.  Conditional Notification Attributes SHOULD
   be evaluated on all potential notifications from a resource, whether
   resulting from an internal server-driven sampling process or from
   external update requests to the server.



Koster, et al.          Expires November 11, 2022               [Page 3]


Internet-Draft       Conditional Attributes for CoRE            May 2022


   The set of Conditional Notification Attributes defined here allow a
   client to control how often a client is interested in receiving
   notifications and how much a value should change for the new
   representation state to be interesting.  One or more Conditional
   Notification Attributes MAY be included in an Observe request.

   Conditional Notification Attributes are defined below:

             +-------------------+--------+-----------------+
             | Attribute         | Name   | Value           |
             +-------------------+--------+-----------------+
             | Greater Than      | c.gt   | xs:decimal      |
             |                   |        |                 |
             | Less Than         | c.lt   | xs:decimal      |
             |                   |        |                 |
             | Change Step       | c.st   | xs:decimal (>0) |
             |                   |        |                 |
             | Notification Band | c.band | (none)          |
             |                   |        |                 |
             | Edge              | c.edge | xs:boolean      |
             +-------------------+--------+-----------------+

               Table 1: Conditional Notification Attributes

3.1.1.  Greater Than (c.gt)

   When present, Greater Than indicates the upper limit value the
   sampled value SHOULD cross before triggering a notification.  A
   notification is sent whenever the sampled value crosses the specified
   upper limit value, relative to the last reported value, and the time
   for "c.pmin" has elapsed since the last notification.  The sampled
   value is sent in the notification.  If the value continues to rise,
   no notifications are generated as a result of "c.gt".  If the value
   drops below the upper limit value then a notification is sent,
   subject again to the "c.pmin" time.

   The Greater Than parameter can only be supported on resources with a
   scalar numeric value.

3.1.2.  Less Than (c.lt)

   When present, Less Than indicates the lower limit value the resource
   value SHOULD cross before triggering a notification.  A notification
   is sent when the samples value crosses the specified lower limit
   value, relative to the last reported value, and the time for "c.pmin"
   has elapsed since the last notification.  The sampled value is sent
   in the notification.  If the value continues to fall no notifications
   are generated as a result of "c.lt".  If the value rises above the



Koster, et al.          Expires November 11, 2022               [Page 4]


Internet-Draft       Conditional Attributes for CoRE            May 2022


   lower limit value then a new notification is sent, subject to the
   "c.pmin" time.

   The Less Than parameter can only be supported on resources with a
   scalar numeric value.

3.1.3.  Change Step (c.st)

   When present, the change step indicates how much the value
   representing a resource state SHOULD change before triggering a
   notification, compared to the old state.  Upon reception of a query
   including the "c.st" attribute, the current resource state
   representing the most recently sampled value is reported, and then
   set as the last reported value (last_rep_v).  When a subsequent
   sampled value or update of the resource state differs from the last
   reported state by an amount, positive or negative, greater than or
   equal to st, and the time for "c.pmin" has elapsed since the last
   notification, a notification is sent and the last reported value is
   updated to the new resource state sent in the notification.  The
   change step MUST be greater than zero otherwise the receiver MUST
   return a CoAP error code 4.00 "Bad Request" (or equivalent).

   The Change Step parameter can only be supported on resource states
   represented with a scalar numeric value.

   Note: Due to sampling and other constraints, e.g. "c.pmin", the
   change in resource states received in two sequential notifications
   may differ by more than "c.st".

3.1.4.  Notification band (c.band)

   The notification band attribute allows a bounded or unbounded (based
   on a minimum or maximum) value range that may trigger multiple
   notifications.  This enables use cases where different ranges results
   in differing behaviour.  For example, in monitoring the temperature
   of machinery, whilst the temperature is in the normal operating
   range, only periodic updates are needed.  However as the temperature
   moves to more abnormal ranges more frequent state updates may be sent
   to clients.

   Without a notification band, a transition across a less than (c.lt),
   or greater than (c.gt) limit only generates one notification.  This
   means that it is not possible to describe a case where multiple
   notifications are sent so long as the limit is exceeded.

   The "c.band" attribute works as a modifier to the behaviour of "c.gt"
   and "c.lt".  Its use is determined only by its presence, and not its




Koster, et al.          Expires November 11, 2022               [Page 5]


Internet-Draft       Conditional Attributes for CoRE            May 2022


   value.  Therefore, if "c.band" is present in a query, "c.gt", "c.lt"
   or both, MUST be included.

   When "c.band" is present with the "c.lt" attribute, it defines the
   lower bound for the notification band (notification band minimum).
   Notifications occur when the resource value is equal to or above the
   notification band minimum.  If "c.lt" is not present there is no
   minimum value for the band.

   When "c.band" is present with the "c.gt" attribute, it defines the
   upper bound for the notification band (notification band maximum).
   Notifications occur when the resource value is equal to or below the
   notification band maximum.  If "c.gt" is not present there is no
   maximum value for the band.

   If "c.band" is present with both the "c.gt" and "c.lt" attributes,
   notification occurs when the resource value is greater than or equal
   to "c.gt" or when the resource value is less than or equal to "c.lt".

   If "c.band" is specified in which the value of "c.gt" is less than
   that of "c.lt", in-band notification occurs.  That is, notification
   occurs whenever the resource value is between the "c.gt" and "c.lt"
   values, including equal to "c.gt" or "c.lt".

   If "c.band" is specified in which the value of "c.gt" is greater than
   that of "c.lt", out-of-band notification occurs.  That is,
   notification occurs when the resource value not between the "c.gt"
   and "c.lt" values, excluding equal to "c.gt" and "c.lt".

   The Notification Band parameter can only be supported on resources
   with a scalar numeric value.

3.1.5.  Edge (c.edge)

   When present, the "c.edge" attribute indicates interest for receiving
   notifications of either the falling edge or the rising edge
   transition of a boolean resource state.  When the value of the
   "c.edge" attribute is 0 (False), the server notifies the client each
   time a resource state changes from True to False.  When the value of
   the "c.edge" attribute is 1 (True), the server notifies the client
   each time a resource state changes from False to True.

   The "c.edge" attribute can only be supported on resources with a
   boolean value.







Koster, et al.          Expires November 11, 2022               [Page 6]


Internet-Draft       Conditional Attributes for CoRE            May 2022


3.2.  Conditional Control Attributes

   Conditional Control Attributes define the time intervals between
   consecutive notifications as well as the cadence of the measurement
   of the conditions that trigger a notification.  Conditional Control
   Attributes can be used to configure the internal server-driven
   sampling process for performing measurements of the conditions of a
   resource.  One or more Conditional Control Attributes MAY be included
   in an Observe request.

   Conditional Control Attributes are defined below:

       +-------------------------------+---------+-----------------+
       | Attribute                     | Name    | Value           |
       +-------------------------------+---------+-----------------+
       | Minimum Period (s)            | c.pmin  | xs:decimal (>0) |
       |                               |         |                 |
       | Maximum Period (s)            | c.pmax  | xs:decimal (>0) |
       |                               |         |                 |
       | Minimum Evaluation Period (s) | c.epmin | xs:decimal (>0) |
       |                               |         |                 |
       | Maximum Evaluation Period (s) | c.epmax | xs:decimal (>0) |
       |                               |         |                 |
       | Confirmable Notification      | c.con   | xs:boolean      |
       +-------------------------------+---------+-----------------+

                  Table 2: Conditional Control Attributes

3.2.1.  Minimum Period (c.pmin)

   When present, the minimum period indicates the minimum time, in
   seconds, between two consecutive notifications (whether or not the
   resource state has changed).  In the absence of this parameter, the
   minimum period is up to the server.  The minimum period MUST be
   greater than zero otherwise the receiver MUST return a CoAP error
   code 4.00 "Bad Request" (or equivalent).

   A server MAY update the resource state with the last sampled value
   that occured during the "c.pmin" interval, after the "c.pmin"
   interval expires.

   Note: Due to finite quantization effects, the time between
   notifications may be greater than "c.pmin" even when the sampled
   value changes within the "c.pmin" interval. "c.pmin" may or may not
   be used to drive the internal sampling process.






Koster, et al.          Expires November 11, 2022               [Page 7]


Internet-Draft       Conditional Attributes for CoRE            May 2022


3.2.2.  Maximum Period (c.pmax)

   When present, the maximum period indicates the maximum time, in
   seconds, between two consecutive notifications (whether or not the
   resource state has changed).  In the absence of this parameter, the
   maximum period is up to the server.  The maximum period MUST be
   greater than zero and MUST be greater than, or equal to, the minimum
   period parameter (if present) otherwise the receiver MUST return a
   CoAP error code 4.00 "Bad Request" (or equivalent).

3.2.3.  Minimum Evaluation Period (c.epmin)

   When present, the minimum evaluation period indicates the minimum
   time, in seconds, the client recommends to the server to wait between
   two consecutive measurements of the conditions of a resource since
   the client has no interest in the server doing more frequent
   measurements.  When the minimum evaluation period expires after the
   previous measurement, the server MAY immediately perform a new
   measurement.  In the absence of this parameter, the minimum
   evaluation period is not defined and thus not used by the server.
   The server MAY use "c.pmin", if defined, as a guidance on the desired
   measurement cadence.  The minimum evaluation period MUST be greater
   than zero otherwise the receiver MUST return a CoAP error code 4.00
   "Bad Request" (or equivalent).

3.2.4.  Maximum Evaluation Period (c.epmax)

   When present, the maximum evaluation period indicates the maximum
   time, in seconds, the server MAY wait between two consecutive
   measurements of the conditions of a resource.  When the maximum
   evaluation period expires after the previous measurement, the server
   MUST immediately perform a new measurement.  In the absence of this
   parameter, the maximum evaluation period is not defined and thus not
   used by the server.  The maximum evaluation period MUST be greater
   than zero and MUST be greater than the minimum evaluation period
   parameter (if present) otherwise the receiver MUST return a CoAP
   error code 4.00 "Bad Request" (or equivalent).

3.2.5.  Confirmable Notification (c.con)

   When present with a value of 1 (True) in a query, the "c.con"
   attribute indicates a notification MUST be confirmable, i.e., the
   server MUST send the notification in a confirmable CoAP message, to
   request an acknowledgement from the client.  When present with a
   value of 0 (False) in a query, the "c.con" attribute indicates a
   notification can be confirmable or non-confirmable, i.e., it can be
   sent in a confirmable or a non-confirmable CoAP message.




Koster, et al.          Expires November 11, 2022               [Page 8]


Internet-Draft       Conditional Attributes for CoRE            May 2022


3.3.  Server processing of Conditional Attributes

   Conditional Notification Attributes and Conditional Control
   Attributes may be present in the same query.  However, they are not
   defined at multiple prioritization levels.  The server sends a
   notification whenever any of the parameter conditions are met, upon
   which it updates its last notification value and time to prepare for
   the next notification.  Only one notification occurs when there are
   multiple conditions being met at the same time.  The reference code
   below illustrates the logic to determine when a notification is to be
   sent.

 bool notifiable( Resource * r ) {

   #define EDGE EXISTS(r->edge)
   #define BAND EXISTS(r->band)
   #define SCALAR_TYPE ( num_type == r->type )
   #define STRING_TYPE ( str_type == r->type )
   #define BOOLEAN_TYPE ( bool_type == r->type )
   #define PMIN_EX ( r->last_sample_time - r->last_rep_time >= r->pmin )
   #define PMAX_EX ( r->last_sample_time - r->last_rep_time > r->pmax )
   #define LT_EX ( r->v < r->lt ^ r->last_rep_v < r->lt )
   #define GT_EX ( r->v > r->gt ^ r->last_rep_v > r->gt )
   #define ST_EX ( abs( r->v - r->last_rep_v ) >= r->st )
   #define IN_BAND ( ( r->gt <= r->v && r->v <= r->lt ) || \
                     ( r->lt <= r->gt && r->gt <= r->v ) || \
                     ( r->v <= r->lt && r->lt <= r->gt ) )
   #define VB_CHANGE ( r->vb != r->last_rep_vb )
   #define VB_EDGE ( r->vb && r->edge || !r->vb && !r->edge )
   #define VS_CHANGE ( r->vs != r->last_rep_vs )

   return (
     PMIN_EX &&
     ( SCALAR_TYPE ?
       ( ( !BAND && ( GT_EX || LT_EX || ST_EX || PMAX_EX ) ) ||
         ( BAND && IN_BAND && ( ST_EX || PMAX_EX) ) )
     : STRING_TYPE ?
       ( VS_CHANGE || PMAX_EX )
     : BOOLEAN_TYPE ?
       ( ( !EDGE && VB_CHANGE ) ||
         ( EDGE && VB_CHANGE && VB_EDGE ) ||
         PMAX_EX )
     : false )
   );
 }






Koster, et al.          Expires November 11, 2022               [Page 9]


Internet-Draft       Conditional Attributes for CoRE            May 2022


4.  Implementation Considerations

   When "c.pmax" and "c.pmin" are equal, the expected behaviour is that
   notifications will be sent every (c.pmin == c.pmax) seconds.
   However, these notifications can only be fulfilled by the server on a
   best effort basis.  Because "c.pmin" and "c.pmax" are designed as
   acceptable tolerance bounds for sending state updates, a query from
   an interested client containing equal "c.pmin" and "c.pmax" values
   must not be seen as a hard real-time scheduling contract between the
   client and the server.

   The use of the notification band minimum and maximum allow for a
   synchronization whenever a change in the resource value occurs.
   Theoretically this could occur in-line with the server internal
   sample period or the configuration of "c.epmin" and "c.epmax" values
   for determining the resource value.  Implementors SHOULD consider the
   resolution needed before updating the resource, e.g. updating the
   resource when a temperature sensor value changes by 0.001 degree
   versus 1 degree.

   When a server has multiple observations with different measurement
   cadences as defined by the "c.epmin" and "c.epmax" values, the server
   MAY evaluate all observations when performing the measurement of any
   one observation.

   This specification defines conditional attributes that can be used
   with CoRE Observe relationships between CoAP clients and CoAP
   servers.  However, it is recognised that the presence of 1 or more
   proxies between a client and a server can interfere with clients
   receiving resource updates, if a proxy does not supply resource
   representations when the value remains unchanged (eg if "c.pmax" is
   set, and the server sends multiple updates when the resource state
   contains the same value).  A server SHOULD use the Max-Age option to
   mitigate this by setting Max-Age to be less than or equal to
   "c.pmax".

5.  Security Considerations

   The security considerations in Section 11 of [RFC7252] apply.
   Additionally, the security considerations in Section 7 of [RFC7641]
   also apply.

6.  IANA Considerations

   This memo requests a new Conditional Attributes registry to ensure
   attributes map uniquely to parameter names.





Koster, et al.          Expires November 11, 2022              [Page 10]


Internet-Draft       Conditional Attributes for CoRE            May 2022


   +---------------------------+-----------+---------------+-----------+
   | Attribute                 | Parameter | Value         | Reference |
   +---------------------------+-----------+---------------+-----------+
   | Minimum Period (s)        | c.pmin    | xs:decimal    | This memo |
   |                           |           | (>0)          |           |
   |                           |           |               |           |
   | Maximum Period (s)        | c.pmax    | xs:decimal    | This memo |
   |                           |           | (>0)          |           |
   |                           |           |               |           |
   | Minimum Evaluation Period | c.epmin   | xs:decimal    | This memo |
   | (s)                       |           | (>0)          |           |
   |                           |           |               |           |
   | Maximum Evaluation Period | c.epmax   | xs:decimal    | This memo |
   | (s)                       |           | (>0)          |           |
   |                           |           |               |           |
   | Confirmable Notification  | c.con     | xs:boolean    | This memo |
   |                           |           |               |           |
   | Greater Than              | c.gt      | xs:decimal    | This memo |
   |                           |           |               |           |
   | Less Than                 | c.lt      | xs:decimal    | This memo |
   |                           |           |               |           |
   | Change Step               | c.st      | xs:decimal    | This memo |
   |                           |           | (>0)          |           |
   |                           |           |               |           |
   | Notification Band         | c.band    | (none)        | This memo |
   |                           |           |               |           |
   | Edge                      | c.edge    | xs:boolean    | This memo |
   +---------------------------+-----------+---------------+-----------+

7.  Acknowledgements

   Hannes Tschofenig and Mert Ocak highlighted syntactical corrections
   in the usage of pmax and pmin in a query.  David Navarro proposed
   allowing for pmax to be equal to pmin.

8.  Contributors















Koster, et al.          Expires November 11, 2022              [Page 11]


Internet-Draft       Conditional Attributes for CoRE            May 2022


   Christian Groves
   Australia
   email: cngroves.std@gmail.com

   Zach Shelby
   ARM
   Vuokatti
   FINLAND
   phone: +358 40 7796297
   email: zach.shelby@arm.com

   Matthieu Vial
   Schneider-Electric
   Grenoble
   France
   phone: +33 (0)47657 6522
   eMail: matthieu.vial@schneider-electric.com

   Jintao Zhu
   Huawei
   Xi'an, Shaanxi Province
   China
   email: jintao.zhu@huawei.com

9.  Changelog

   draft-ietf-core-conditional-attributes-04

   o  Reference code updated to include behaviour for edge attribute.

   draft-ietf-core-conditional-attributes-03

   o  Attribute names updated to create uniqueness for use as
      conditional observe attributes.

   draft-ietf-core-conditional-attributes-02

   o  Clarifications on usage and value of the band parameter

   o  Implementation considerations for proxies added

   o  Security considerations added

   o  IANA considerations added

   draft-ietf-core-conditional-attributes-01





Koster, et al.          Expires November 11, 2022              [Page 12]


Internet-Draft       Conditional Attributes for CoRE            May 2022


   o  Clarifications on True and False values for Edge and Con
      Attributes

   o  Alan Soloway added as author

   draft-ietf-core-conditional-attributes-00

   o  Conditional Atttributes section from draft-ietf-core-dynlink-13
      separated into own WG draft

10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

10.2.  Informative References

   [RFC7252]  Shelby, Z., Hartke, K., and C. Bormann, "The Constrained
              Application Protocol (CoAP)", RFC 7252,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7252, June 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7252>.

   [RFC7641]  Hartke, K., "Observing Resources in the Constrained
              Application Protocol (CoAP)", RFC 7641,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7641, September 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7641>.

Appendix A.  Examples

   This appendix provides some examples of the use of binding attribute
   / observe attributes.

   Note: For brevity the only the method or response code is shown in
   the header field.

A.1.  Minimum Period (c.pmin) example







Koster, et al.          Expires November 11, 2022              [Page 13]


Internet-Draft       Conditional Attributes for CoRE            May 2022


           Observed   CLIENT  SERVER     Actual
       t   State         |      |         State
           ____________  |      |  ____________
       1                 |      |
       2    unknown      |      |     18.5 Cel
       3                 +----->|                  Header: GET
       4                 | GET  |                   Token: 0x4a
       5                 |      |                Uri-Path: temperature
       6                 |      |               Uri-Query: c.pmin="10"
       7                 |      |                 Observe: 0 (register)
       8                 |      |
       9   ____________  |<-----+                  Header: 2.05
      10                 | 2.05 |                   Token: 0x4a
      11    18.5 Cel     |      |                 Observe: 9
      12                 |      |                 Payload: "18.5 Cel"
      13                 |      |  ____________
      14                 |      |
      15                 |      |     23 Cel
      16                 |      |
      17                 |      |
      18                 |      |
      19                 |      |  ____________
      20   ____________  |<-----+                  Header: 2.05
      21                 | 2.05 |     26 Cel        Token: 0x4a
      22    26 Cel       |      |                 Observe: 20
      23                 |      |                 Payload: "26 Cel"
      24                 |      |
      25                 |      |

      Figure 1: Client registers and receives one notification of the
   current state and one of a new state state when c.pmin time expires.

A.2.  Maximum Period (c.pmax) example

           Observed   CLIENT  SERVER     Actual
       t   State         |      |         State
           ____________  |      |  ____________
       1                 |      |
       2    unknown      |      |     18.5 Cel
       3                 +----->|                  Header: GET
       4                 | GET  |                   Token: 0x4a
       5                 |      |                Uri-Path: temperature
       6                 |      |               Uri-Query: c.pmax="20"
       7                 |      |                 Observe: 0 (register)
       8                 |      |
       9   ____________  |<-----+                  Header: 2.05
      10                 | 2.05 |                   Token: 0x4a
      11    18.5 Cel     |      |                 Observe: 9



Koster, et al.          Expires November 11, 2022              [Page 14]


Internet-Draft       Conditional Attributes for CoRE            May 2022


      12                 |      |                 Payload: "18.5 Cel"
      13                 |      |
      14                 |      |
      15                 |      |  ____________
      16   ____________  |<-----+                  Header: 2.05
      17                 | 2.05 |     23 Cel        Token: 0x4a
      18    23 Cel       |      |                 Observe: 16
      19                 |      |                 Payload: "23 Cel"
      20                 |      |
      21                 |      |
      22                 |      |
      23                 |      |
      24                 |      |
      25                 |      |
      26                 |      |
      27                 |      |
      28                 |      |
      29                 |      |
      30                 |      |
      31                 |      |
      32                 |      |
      33                 |      |
      34                 |      |
      35                 |      |
      36                 |      |  ____________
      37   ____________  |<-----+                  Header: 2.05
      38                 | 2.05 |     23 Cel        Token: 0x4a
      39    23 Cel       |      |                 Observe: 37
      40                 |      |                 Payload: "23 Cel"
      41                 |      |
      42                 |      |

      Figure 2: Client registers and receives one notification of the
   current state, one of a new state and one of an unchanged state when
                                  "c.pmax

A.3.  Greater Than (c.gt) example














Koster, et al.          Expires November 11, 2022              [Page 15]


Internet-Draft       Conditional Attributes for CoRE            May 2022


        Observed   CLIENT  SERVER     Actual
    t   State         |      |         State
        ____________  |      |  ____________
    1                 |      |
    2    unknown      |      |     18.5 Cel
    3                 +----->|                  Header: GET
    4                 | GET  |                   Token: 0x4a
    5                 |      |                Uri-Path: temperature
    6                 |      |               Uri-Query: c.gt=25
    7                 |      |                 Observe: 0 (register)
    8                 |      |
    9   ____________  |<-----+                  Header: 2.05
   10                 | 2.05 |                   Token: 0x4a
   11    18.5 Cel     |      |                 Observe: 9
   12                 |      |                 Payload: "18.5 Cel"
   13                 |      |
   14                 |      |
   15                 |      |  ____________
   16   ____________  |<-----+                  Header: 2.05
   17                 | 2.05 |     26 Cel        Token: 0x4a
   18    26 Cel       |      |                 Observe: 16
   29                 |      |                 Payload: "26 Cel"
   20                 |      |
   21                 |      |

      Figure 3: Client registers and receives one notification of the
      current state and one of a new state when it passes through the
                       greater than threshold of 25.

A.4.  Greater Than (c.gt) and Period Max (c.pmax) example





















Koster, et al.          Expires November 11, 2022              [Page 16]


Internet-Draft       Conditional Attributes for CoRE            May 2022


        Observed   CLIENT  SERVER     Actual
    t   State         |      |         State
        ____________  |      |  ____________
    1                 |      |
    2    unknown      |      |     18.5 Cel
    3                 +----->|                  Header: GET
    4                 | GET  |                   Token: 0x4a
    5                 |      |                Uri-Path: temperature
    6                 |      |         Uri-Query: c.pmax=20;c.gt=25
    7                 |      |                 Observe: 0 (register)
    8                 |      |
    9   ____________  |<-----+                  Header: 2.05
   10                 | 2.05 |                   Token: 0x4a
   11    18.5 Cel     |      |                 Observe: 9
   12                 |      |                 Payload: "18.5 Cel"
   13                 |      |
   14                 |      |
   15                 |      |
   16                 |      |
   17                 |      |
   18                 |      |
   19                 |      |
   20                 |      |
   21                 |      |
   22                 |      |
   23                 |      |
   24                 |      |
   25                 |      |
   26                 |      |
   27                 |      |
   28                 |      |
   29                 |      |  ____________
   30   ____________  |<-----+                  Header: 2.05
   31                 | 2.05 |     23 Cel        Token: 0x4a
   32    23 Cel       |      |                 Observe: 30
   33                 |      |                 Payload: "23 Cel"
   34                 |      |
   35                 |      |
   36                 |      |  ____________
   37   ____________  |<-----+                  Header: 2.05
   38                 | 2.05 |     26 Cel        Token: 0x4a
   39    26 Cel       |      |                 Observe: 37
   40                 |      |                 Payload: "26 Cel"
   41                 |      |
   42                 |      |

      Figure 4: Client registers and receives one notification of the
                      current state, one when "c.pmax



Koster, et al.          Expires November 11, 2022              [Page 17]


Internet-Draft       Conditional Attributes for CoRE            May 2022


Authors' Addresses

   Michael Koster
   Dogtiger Labs
   524 H Street
   Antioch, CA  94509
   USA

   Email: michaeljohnkoster@gmail.com


   Alan Soloway
   Qualcomm Technologies, Inc.
   5775 Morehouse Drive
   San Diego  92121
   USA

   Email: asoloway@qti.qualcomm.com


   Bilhanan Silverajan (editor)
   Tampere University
   Kalevantie 4
   Tampere  FI-33100
   Finland

   Email: bilhanan.silverajan@tuni.fi
























Koster, et al.          Expires November 11, 2022              [Page 18]