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Versions: 00 01 02 03                                                   
  INTERNET-DRAFT                                             Eric A. Hall
  Document: draft-ietf-crisp-firs-arch-03.txt                 August 2003
  Expires: March, 2004
  Category: Standards-Track
                  The Federated Internet Registry Service:
                    Architecture and Implementation Guide
     Status of this Memo
     This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
     all provisions of Section 10 of RFC 2026.
     Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
     Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that
     other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
     Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
     months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other
     documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts
     as reference material or to cite them other than as "work in
     The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
     The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
     Copyright Notice
     Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003).  All Rights Reserved.
     This document describes the architectural framework for the
     Federated Internet Registry Service (FIRS), a distributed service
     for storing, locating and transferring information about Internet
     resources using LDAPv3.
  Internet Draft    draft-ietf-crisp-firs-arch-03.txt      August 2003
     Table of Contents
     1.   Introduction...............................................3
       1.1.  Background..............................................3
       1.2.  Objectives..............................................4
       1.3.  Overview................................................4
     2.   Prerequisites and Terminology..............................6
     3.   Reference Example..........................................6
     4.   The FIRS Namespace.........................................8
       4.1.  The domainComponent Hierarchy...........................8
       4.2.  The inetResources Container.............................9
       4.3.  Resource-Specific Entries..............................10
       4.4.  Attribute References...................................10
       4.5.  Namespace Aliases......................................10
       4.6.  Partition Replicas.....................................11
     5.   FIRS Schema Definitions...................................12
       5.1.  Global Schema..........................................13
           5.1.1.  The inetResources schema.........................13
           5.1.2.  The inetAssociatedResources schema...............14
           5.1.3.  The referral schema..............................14
       5.2.  Resource-Specific Schema...............................14
     6.   Query Processing Behaviors................................15
       6.1.  Query Pre-Processing...................................16
       6.2.  Bootstrap Processing...................................18
       6.3.  Query Processing.......................................19
       6.4.  Query Post-Processing..................................20
           6.4.1.  Referrals........................................20
           6.4.2.  Internationalization and localization............21
       6.5.  Query Restriction Mechanisms...........................23
     7.   Transition Issues.........................................24
       7.1.  NIC Handles............................................24
       7.2.  Change-Logs............................................25
       7.3.  Legacy System Support..................................25
     8.   Security Considerations...................................26
     9.   IANA Considerations.......................................28
     10.  Normative References......................................29
     11.  Informational References..................................31
     12.  Changes from Previous Versions............................31
     13.  Author's Address..........................................33
     14.  Acknowledgments...........................................33
     15.  Full Copyright Statement..................................33
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  1.      Introduction
     FIRS is intended to provide a distributed WHOIS-like information
     service, using the LDAPv3 specifications [RFC3377] for the data-
     formatting and query-transport functions.
  1.1.    Background
     The original WHOIS service [RFC812] was provided as a front-end to
     a centralized repository of ARPANET resources and users. Over
     time, hundreds of WHOIS servers have been deployed across the
     public Internet, with each server providing general information
     about the particular network resources under the control of a
     specific organization.
     Unfortunately, neither [RFC812] nor any of its successors define a
     strict set of data-typing or formatting requirements, and as a
     result, each of the different implementations provide different
     kinds of information in slightly different ways. Furthermore, each
     WHOIS server operates as a self-contained entity, with no
     standardized mechanisms to infer knowledge of any other servers,
     meaning that WHOIS servers cannot redirect clients to other
     servers for additional information. Another concern is that the
     WHOIS services which are being operated today offer no means of
     client authentication, requiring that server operators essentially
     publish all data with a single "world-readable" permission even
     though this single permission often conflicts with the privacy and
     security policies of specific jurisdictions.
     There are many other secondary issues with the WHOIS service as it
     exists in current form. However, the largest problems are a lack
     of standardized data formats, a lack of widely-supported referral
     mechanisms, and a lack of privacy and security controls, as
     described in the preceding text.
     FIRS attempts to address these issues by defining guidelines for
     the operation of a distributed and highly-structured WHOIS-like
     service, using LDAPv3 for the query/response transfer service, and
     using LDAP schema for the search inputs, answer data, and
     redirection mechanisms. In short, the intention of this approach
     is to provide an extensible and scalable WHOIS-like service by
     leveraging the inherent capabilities of LDAPv3.
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  1.2.    Objectives
     The principle objective behind FIRS is to offer structured
     information about distributed Internet resources in a model which
     reflects the federated delegations of those resources. This
     specifically includes centralized delegations from authorized
     governance bodies (such as DNS domains under top-level domains),
     but also includes delegations from authorized bodies further down
     the delegation path (such as leaf-node DNS domain names within the
     "corp.example.com" zone).
     Furthermore, the FIRS service is intended to be used with a wide
     variety of resources. The core set of specifications define rules
     for handling the most-common resources (DNS domains, IP addresses,
     contact information, and so forth), but other types of resources
     may be grafted onto the architecture as needed. By extension, FIRS
     should be capable of providing the necessary support structure for
     any kind of information to be stored in a global mesh of FIRS-
     centric LDAP directories, and for the FIRS-specific clients and
     servers to be easily extended to accommodate that data.
     Another critical objective is integration support, in that FIRS-
     specific data should be easily accessible to a wide number of
     applications. For example, if a network manager needs to retrieve
     information about a particular host or network which is displayed
     in a management application, it should be easy for that
     application to be extended so that the FIRS data can be fetched by
     that application, rather than always requiring the use of a FIRS-
     specific application.
     Finally, the collection of specifications which define the
     Federated Internet Registry Service (FIRS) are intended to satisfy
     the CRISP Working Group requirements, as specified in draft-ietf-
     crisp-requirements-05, "Cross Registry Internet Service Protocol
     (CRISP) Requirements" [CRISP-REQ].
  1.3.    Overview
     In order to achieve the stated objectives, the FIRS specifications
     collectively define an LDAP-specific application, including
     application-specific namespaces, object classes, attributes,
     syntaxes, matching filters, behavioral rules, and more. The
     framework defined in this document is intended to accommodate the
     specific resource-types and usages, while the other specifications
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     define the technical details for the service as a whole or for the
     unique resource-types.
     Cumulatively, the FIRS collection of specifications define the
     following service elements:
        *   Namespace Rules. The FIRS specifications define a layered
            namespace consisting of DNS-based delegation hierarchies, a
            FIRS-specific container entry, and resource-specific
            subordinate entries.
        *   Schema Definitions. The FIRS specifications reuse some
            existing LDAP schema definitions, and also define several
            FIRS-specific definitions, as needed.
        *   Query-Processing Rules. The FIRS specifications also reuse
            some existing processing rules, and define several
            additional rules as needed. Among these rules are
            requirements for normalizing data, locating servers,
            processing referrals, and more.
     Meanwhile, the core collection of FIRS specifications define these
     naming, schema and processing rules for the following kinds of
     Internet resources:
        *   Partition Data. Each partition in the globally distributed
            database provides information about the partition itself,
            allowing users to get a sense of who is providing the data.
        *   Domain Name Resources. Any DNS domain name (including zone
            delegations and host-specific resources) can be tracked in
            the FIRS directory, with information about the domain
            resource being provided by registries, registrars, or
            operators, individually or collectively.
        *   Network Block Resources. Any IP address block (including v4
            or v6 networks or host-specific addresses) or Autonomous
            System can be tracked in the FIRS directory, with
            information about the network resource being provided by
            regional registries, registrars, or operators, individually
            or collectively.
        *   Contacts. Each partition and network resource has multiple
            role-specific contact definitions, any of which can refer
            to generic role accounts or to actual persons, according to
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            policy and/or desire. Any partition can provide any degree
            of data about the contact entries under their control.
        *   Cross-Partition Pointers. Entries can act as aliases to
            other entries, or can point to other entries as sources of
            additional data. Meanwhile, attribute values for well-known
            resources can provide pointers to related data, such as
            providing a contact identifier that refers to a contact in
            another partition.
     Cumulatively, this architecture provides a substrate of well-
     formed data which is highly-distributed across independent
     partitions and servers, while providing multiple "stovepipe"
     applications of that data.
  2.      Prerequisites and Terminology
     The complete set of specifications in the FIRS collection
     cumulative define a structured and distributed information service
     using LDAPv3 for the data-formatting and transport functions. This
     specification should be read in the context of that set, which
     currently includes [FIRS-CORE], [FIRS-DNS], [FIRS-DNSRR],
     In order to fully understand FIRS, readers should be familiar with
     [RFC2247], [RFC2251], [RFC2252], [RFC2253], [RFC2254], [RFC2256],
     [RFC2798], [RFC3296]and [RFC3377].
     The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL
     in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119.
  3.      Reference Example
     For the purpose of subsequent discussion, a visual example of a
     typical partition is provided below. This data-set is not intended
     to provide a complete demonstration of all the capabilities in
     FIRS, but instead is only intended for illustration purposes. Each
     of the resource-specific specifications provide additional
     examples and illustrations which provide more detail.
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     Figure 1 below shows an example of a FIRS-specific data-set.
            [top object class]
            [inetResources object class]
            +-attribute: inetGeneralContacts
            | value: "admins@example.com"
            | [top object class]
            | [inetResources object class]
            | [inetOrgPerson object class]
            | |
            | +-attribute: mail
            |   value: "admins@example.com"
            | [top object class]
            | [inetResources object class]
            | [inetDnsDomain object class]
            | [inetDnsRR object class]
            | |
            | +-attribute: inetDnsRRData
            |   value: "NS 86400 864000 ns1.example.net"
              [top object class]
              [inetResources object class]
              [inetDnsDomain object class]
              [referral object class]
              +-attribute: ref
                value: "ldap:///???(
     Figure 1: The FIRS-specific data for Example Widgets.
     As can be seen in Figure 1, entries use a FIRS-specific namespace
     in conjunction with FIRS-specific schema. FIRS clients use FIRS-
     specific queries to navigate and retrieve the data, as needed.
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  4.      The FIRS Namespace
     A critical aspect of FIRS is the use of an application-specific
     namespace which is imposed on all FIRS-based resources. The FIRS
     namespace rules facilitate the programmatic creation of searches,
     and help to ensure predictable results.
     The FIRS namespace consists of three "layers", which are:
        *   A set of domainComponent relative distinguished names which
            cumulatively identify a specific partition of the global
            directory tree.
        *   A FIRS-specific container entry which segregates the
            resource-specific child entries from other LDAP data.
        *   The resource-specific entries which describe the managed
            resources in the selected partition.
     The namespace follows a right-to-left order.
     As an example, Figure 1 shows a DNS domain resource entry named
     "cn=example.com,cn=inetResources,dc=example,dc=com", which refers
     to the "example.com" domain resource within the "cn=inetResources"
     container under the "dc=example,dc=com" directory partition.
  4.1.    The domainComponent Hierarchy
     The top-level of the namespace uses the domainComponent naming and
     mapping rules specified in RFC 2247 [RFC2247], which maps DNS
     domain names to domainComponent ("dc=") relative distinguished
     names (RDNs). The full sequence of domainComponent RDNs
     cumulatively represents a partition in the LDAP directory tree.
     In this model, a sequence of domainComponent RDNs map to a domain
     name in the global DNS hierarchy, with a FIRS partition having an
     identical scope of authority as its domain name counterpart.
     Furthermore, the SRV resource records associated with those DNS
     domains also provide a mechanism for locating the authoritative
     LDAP servers associated with any particular resource in the global
     FIRS directory database.
     Since the partition roots determine the scope of control over a
     set of resources, partitions which overlap also have overlapping
     scopes of control. For example, the "dc=com" and
     "dc=example,dc=com" partitions can both provide information about
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     the "www.example.com" domain name resource. In order to reduce the
     amount of ambiguity which is naturally present in this kind of
     model, FIRS defines multiple bootstrapping models and also defines
     the default model which should be used for any given resource. For
     example, queries for centrally-delegated resources are supposed to
     ask the top-level partition for information about those resources,
     while queries for user-managed resources are supposed to ask the
     leaf-node partition for information about those resources.
     Figure 1 shows the directory partition of "dc=example,dc=com"
     which maps to the "example.com" scope of authority from the DNS
     hierarchy, with the "dc=example,dc=com" sequence representing a
     distinct partition in the globally distributed directory database.
     Note that each of the specifications which govern particular kinds
     of resources define their own partition-mapping rules, using
     different portions of the DNS hierarchy. Specifications are
     explicitly allowed to use whatever portion of the DNS namespace
     they wish for this service, but the absolute binding between
     partitions and DNS domains MUST be preserved in all cases. If an
     organization chooses to offer a private list of resources (such as
     advertising a list of networks which have been compromised), that
     organization is free to map the application-specific partition to
     any domain name it chooses (note that the use of SRV resource
     records for location information ensures that only a domain name
     under the control of a willing party can be used).
  4.2.    The inetResources Container
     This specification requires the use of a mandatory LDAP container
     entry with the RDN of "cn=inetResources", which MUST exist at the
     root of every directory partition that provides FIRS services. All
     publicly-accessible resource-specific FIRS-related entries MUST be
     stored in the "cn=inetResources" container entry.
     The primary motivation for this naming rule is for predictability,
     in that it allows searches to be formed programmatically (a search
     base for resources in "dc=example,dc=com" can be programmatically
     formed as "cn=inetResources,dc=example,dc=com", for example).
     Furthermore, the use of a single container entry for all of an
     organization's FIRS-related resources allows that branch of the
     directory database to be managed independently of other entries on
     the server, which facilitates better operational security and
     replication controls.
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     All told, the use of the inetResources container is important
     enough to justify the MANDATORY usage of this naming syntax.
  4.3.    Resource-Specific Entries
     The FIRS collection of specifications define several Internet
     resource types, each of which have their own naming rules.
     However, each resource type follows a consistent naming principle,
     in that each specific resource has an RDN which uniquely
     identifies that resource within the inetResources container entry.
     For example, Figure 1 shows an entry for the "www.example.com"
     domain name resource in the "cn=inetResources" container of the
     "dc=example,dc=com" partition, and also shows an entry for the
     "admins@example.com" contact resource in that same container and
     partition. Although the naming syntax is different for each
     resource type, the naming rules are consistent and facilitate
     predictable usage.
     The naming rules for each of the distinct resource type are
     provided in the documents which govern those resource types.
  4.4.    Attribute References
     Most of the core attributes that refer to one of the other core
     attributes provide entry names as data values. In this model, an
     attribute which needs to identify a particular resource provides
     the name of the target resource as the attribute value, with the
     client using this data to instantiate any new queries which may be
     requested by the user.
     For example, many of the object classes provide "contact"
     attributes, each of which provide one or more contact identifiers
     as attribute values (such as providing "account@registry" or
     "user@domain", or both of these identifiers). If the user wishes
     to obtain more information about any of the listed contacts, they
     would use the identifier value to start a new query (in turn,
     these queries may further reference additional entries in the
     global system, either through the use of referrals or with
     additional attribute pointers).
  4.5.    Namespace Aliases
     FIRS allows entries to alias for other entries through the use of
     referrals. Referrals represent one of the strongest capabilities
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     of the FIRS architecture, in that they allow for a significant
     variety of cross-referencing among entries.
     For example, a referral can be used to create a placeholder entry
     for specific resources (such as a web server), with that entry
     only existing as a referral for a resource which is managed in
     another partition (such as a web-hosting server at an ISP). This
     concept is illustrated in Figure 1, which shows an entry for
     "cn=www.example.com,cn=inetResources,dc=example,dc=com" that
     provides a referral with the inetDnsDomainMatch matching filter
     value of "cn=www-1.example.net", which would result in an entirely
     new query for that intDnsDomain entry being started (including new
     lookups for the authoritative partition, and so forth).
     Referrals can also be created as subordinate entries underneath a
     canonical entry. In that model, any data for the local resource
     would be returned, and would also be accompanied by a referral to
     another entry on another server, where additional information
     about the named resource could be retrieved.
     FIRS supports two different kinds of LDAP referrals, which are
     subordinate reference referrals and continuation reference
     referrals. Subordinate reference referrals indicate that the
     search base used in the query only exists as an alias to another
     partition or entry, meaning that the entire query must be
     restarted in order for any answer data to be retrieved. Meanwhile,
     continuation reference referrals indicate that some answer data is
     available, but that more information is available at some other
     location, and that the client should start new queries in order to
     retrieve all of the information.
     Referrals are provided as URLs. FIRS specifically requires the use
     of LDAP URLs in order to ensure predictable automated processing.
     Refer to section 6.4.1 for a brief discussion on how these URLs
     are processed by FIRS clients.
  4.6.    Partition Replicas
     All directory partitions which provide data for global Internet
     resources SHOULD be replicated across two or more servers. Each of
     the authoritative LDAP servers for the managed resource MUST be
     specified with a unique DNS SRV resource record.
     Directory partitions which serve multiple organizations SHOULD
     also be replicated. For example, an ISP which provides FIRS
     services for their customers SHOULD also follow these same rules,
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     since outages of those servers will affect multiple parties. Leaf-
     node directory partitions associated with user-managed resources
     MAY replicate their partitions, but are not required to do so.
     Note that the most effective replication strategy will be for
     entities to replicate their directory partitions with their
     delegation parents, as this will allow queries for those resources
     to be processed by the parent servers (thereby eliminating the
     need for an immediate referral). In many cases, this will not be
     feasible (the servers for the "dc=com" directory partition cannot
     be expected to host replicas of every subordinate directory
     partition), but it is encouraged where practical.
     It is also expected that certain servers will be configured to
     serve as multi-replica masters, effectively acting as large-scale
     caching servers for many different resources. When used in
     conjunction with the targeted bootstrap model described in section
     6.4.1, this will allow clients to retrieve a significant amount of
     information without having to pursue a large number of referrals
     or redirects. This usage is expected and endorsed.
     Note that the LDAP specifications do not currently provide cache
     timers or any other mechanisms which can indicate how accurate or
     timely any replicas may be. It is important for replicas to be
     synchronized frequently in order to avoid problems that may result
     from replicas going stale.
     Further towards the objectives of reliability and redundancy, any
     referral URLs which include host identifier elements SHOULD
     provide multiple URLs, each of which identify different hosts. For
     leaf-node referrals and labeledURI [RFC2079] references, this
     behavior MAY be relaxed. Note that a host identifier MAY resolve
     to multiple addresses, and secondary IP addresses SHOULD be used
     if one of the addresses fails; clients SHOULD NOT give up on a
     host simply because one of its IP addresses appears to be
  5.      FIRS Schema Definitions
     Another critical aspect of FIRS is the use of well-known schema,
     including object classes, attributes, syntaxes and matching
     filters. Some of the schema definitions are for the global FIRS
     service and are usable by all entries (including resource-specific
     entries), while others are specific to particular resource-types.
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     For new services, pre-existing schema definitions SHOULD be reused
     if they are suitable, since this facilitates integration with
     other LDAP applications.
  5.1.    Global Schema
     There are three global schema definitions which can be used by any
     of the entries within FIRS. These include:
        *   The "inetResources" master schema. All FIRS-related entries
            (including the inetResources container entry and all of the
            resource-specific subordinate entries) MUST use the
            inetResources structural object class and schema
            definitions defined in [FIRS-CORE]. The inetResources
            object class defines a variety of general-purpose
            attributes which are useful for general information about
            an organization and its resources.
        *   Associated resources. All FIRS-related entries MAY use the
            "inetAssociatedResources" auxiliary object class and schema
            definitions defined in [FIRS-CORE]. This object class
            provides cross-reference pointer attributes which allow an
            entry to reference other resources which may be of interest
            to other users or applications.
        *   Referral pointers. All FIRS-related entries MAY use the
            "referral" object class and schema definitions defined in
            [RFC3296]. This object class allows an entry to exist as a
            referral source, with queries for that resource being
            redirected to the referral target. Refer to section 4.4 for
            a discussion on the different kinds of referral mechanisms
            offered by FIRS, and section 6.4.1 for a discussion on the
            FIRS referral-processing mechanisms.
     Figure 1 shows that all of the entries within and including the
     "cn=inetResources" container entry have the inetResources object
     class defined. Meanwhile, each of the resource-specific entries in
     that example also have their own resource-specific object classes,
     while the "cn=www.example.com" resource-specific entry also has
     the referral object class defined.
  5.1.1.  The inetResources schema
     The inetResources object class is intended to provide summary
     information about a collection of resources under the control of a
     single organization or management body. Since this object class is
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     also inherited by the resource-specific object classes, these
     attributes can be defined at each of the subordinate entries if a
     global set of attribute values is undesirable or unfeasible.
     Since multiple directory partitions can use subordinate reference
     referrals to share a single common inetResources entry, it is
     important for the data to be applicable to all of the entries
     which refer to it. For example, it would be effective for a small
     private company to use a shared set of inetResources attributes
     for their DNS domain names and IP network blocks, but it would
     probably be counter-productive for a global ISP to share contact
     data across all of their hosted domains and routed networks. If
     separate contacts are required for each resource, the contact data
     should be specified within each entry, rather than being linked to
     the inetResources entry.
     The inetResources object class provides several multi-valued
     contact-related attributes for a variety of well-known
     administrative roles. This model allows the inetResources entry
     and each of the subordinate managed resources to share a common
     set of administrative roles, or to have unique roles for each
     resource, as seen fit by the managing entity.
  5.1.2.  The inetAssociatedResources schema
     The inetAssociatedResources object class defines attributes which
     are useful for providing general-purpose cross-referencing
     information with other resources. For example, a contact entry can
     list IPv4 networks or DNS domains as associated resources, thereby
     providing a simplistic cross-reference mechanism between an
     administrator and the resources he manages. In short, any of the
     common resource types can be associated with any other resource
     through the use of this object class.
  5.1.3.  The referral schema
     The referral object class is used to redirect queries to other
     entries programmatically. This object class and its associated
     schema and rules provide the backbone of the aliasing mechanisms
     discussed in section 4.4.
  5.2.    Resource-Specific Schema
     In addition to the global schema definitions, each of the
     resource-specific entries in FIRS MUST use the resource-specific
     schema definitions defined for use with that specific resource
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     type. These object classes are defined in the specifications which
     govern the different resource-types. These include:
        *   DNS domains. Every domain name resource entry MUST use the
            inetDnsDomain object class and schema definitions defined
            in [FIRS-DNS]. These entries can refer to zone delegations,
            host-specific entries, reverse-lookup pointer entries, or
            any other domain name.
        *   DNS resource-records. Any domain name resource MAY use the
            inetDnsRR object class and schema definitions defined in
            [FIRS-DNSRR]. The inetDnsRR object class defines a single
            optional attribute for storing multiple DNS resource
            records as supplemental data to a domain name entry.
        *   IPv4 address blocks. Every IPv4 address block resource MUST
            use the inetIpv4Network object class and schema definitions
            defined in [FIRS-IPV4]. Entries can refer to entire
            networks or to single hosts, as needed.
        *   IPv6 address blocks. Every IPv6 address block resource MUST
            use the inetIpv6Network object class and schema definitions
            defined in [FIRS-IPV6]. Entries can refer to entire
            networks or to single hosts, as needed.
        *   Autonomous system numbers. Every autonomous system number
            resource MUST use the inetAsNumber object class and schema
            definitions defined in [FIRS-ASN].
        *   Contacts. Every contact entry MUST use the inetOrgPerson
            object class defined in [RFC2798], but MUST also use the
            additional schema definitions defined in [FIRS-CONTCT].
     As was discussed in section 5.1, each resource-specific entry MAY
     exist as a referral source, or MAY have attributes which refer to
     additional (related) resources.
  6.      Query Processing Behaviors
     Another critical aspect to FIRS is the query-processing behavioral
     rules which govern the ways in which a client parses an input
     string, locates a server which is authoritative for the resource
     being queried, generates LDAPv3 queries, and processes the
     resulting answer data. More specifically:
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        *   Query pre-processing. Portions of this process require the
            client to determine the type of resource being queried for,
            and to determine the initial partition which should be used
            for the query. Since this process is different for each
            particular resource-type, the rules which govern this
            behavior are defined in each of the resource-specific
        *   Bootstrap processing. Once a resource-type and partition
            have been determined, the client must locate the LDAP
            servers which are authoritative for that partition. [FIRS-
            CORE] defines three different bootstrap models that clients
            can use as part of this process, while each of the
            resource-specific specifications define which of the models
            are to be used for each particular resource-type.
        *   Query processing. Once a server has been located, the
            client must submit the LDAP query which was formed during
            the pre-preprocessing phase. [FIRS-CORE] defines certain
            LDAPv3 query parameters which all FIRS clients MUST conform
            with, while the resource-specific specifications define
            resource-specific matching rules.
        *   Query post-processing. Response data frequently needs to be
            further processed. For example, referrals may need to be
            processed, or some kinds of data may need to be localized.
            These mechanisms and their behavioral rules are defined in
            [FIRS-CORE], while the resource-specific specifications may
            also describe supplemental rules.
     Each of these phases are discussed in more detail below.
  6.1.    Query Pre-Processing
     Client input is generally limited to a single well-formed unit of
     data, such as a domain name ("example.com") or an email address
     ("admins@example.com"), and this single piece of information must
     be used to subsequently build a fully-formed LDAPv3 query,
     including the assertion value, the search base, the matching
     filter, and so forth. All of these steps are part of the pre-
     processing phase.
     Although the exact sequence of steps will vary according to the
     resource-type being queried, there are some commonalities between
     each of them. Among these steps:
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        *   Determine the resource type. Different kinds of resources
            have different processing steps, validation mechanisms, and
            so forth, each of which require that the resource-type be
            appropriately identified. Clients MAY use any mechanisms
            necessary to force this determination.
        *   Validate and normalize the data. In all cases, the input
            data MUST be validated and normalized according to the
            syntax rules defined in the specification which governs the
            resource-type. As an example of this step, queries for
            internationalized domain names must be validated and
            normalized into a canonical UTF-8 [RFC2279] form before any
            other steps can be taken. Similarly, IP addresses are
            required to conform to specific syntax rules, with the
            input address possibly being expanded or compressed so as
            to comply with the syntax requirements.
        *   Determine the authoritative directory partition for the
            named resource. In most cases, the authoritative partition
            will be a variation of the input query string, but this is
            not always the case. For example, the default partition for
            an email address will be extrapolated from the domain
            component of the email address itself, while the
            authoritative partition for an autonomous system number
            uses a reserved (special-purpose) domain name. In some
            cases, the authoritative partition may change during the
            subsequent query-processing steps.
        *   Determine the search base for the query. Each resource type
            has resource-specific query-processing rules which will
            dictate how the authoritative partitions are mapped to the
            search base. In some cases, the cn=inetResources container
            entry in the authoritative partition will be used "as-is",
            while in other cases, the cn=inetResources container entry
            in a delegation parent of the authoritative partition will
            be used instead. In some cases, the search base may change
            during subsequent query-processing steps.
        *   Determine the assertion value for the query. The assertion
            value will usually be the normalized form of the input
            query. In some cases, the assertion value may change during
            subsequent query-processing steps.
        *   Determine the matching filter. Each resource-type has its
            own matching filter rules. For example, contact entries are
            matched with a simple equalityMatch comparison, while in
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            other cases the matching filter will be an extensibleMatch
            which is peculiar to the resource-type in use.
     Once all of the pre-processing steps have been successfully
     completed, the client will have to locate an LDAPv3 server which
     is authoritative for the search base before it can submit the
     query. This process is described in section 6.2 below.
  6.2.    Bootstrap Processing
     The bootstrap process uses DNS queries to locate the LDAP servers
     which should be used for a query. However, since different kinds
     of resources are managed through different delegation models,
     there are also different bootstrap models which have to be used to
     perform this process.
     FIRS supports three different bootstrap models, which are:
        *   Targeted. The "targeted" bootstrap model has the client
            attempting to locate the LDAP servers associated with a
            specific domain name, such as a domain name which may be
            returned as referrals or URLs. If no servers can be found
            at that domain name, the client exits the query.
        *   Top-down. The "top-down" bootstrap model has the client
            attempting to locate the LDAP servers associated with a
            top-level partition in the delegation path to the
            authoritative partition, and then following any subsequent
            LDAP referrals which may be returned. If no servers can be
            found for the top-level domain, the client exits the query.
        *   Bottom-up. The "bottom-up" bootstrap model has the client
            attempting to locate the LDAP servers associated with the
            authoritative partition itself. If no servers can be found
            for that partition, the authoritative partition is reset to
            the immediate parent in the delegation hierarchy and new
            DNS queries are issued, with this process repeating until a
            server is found or there are no more domains in the
            delegation path which can be queried.
     Each of the models are appropriate to different usages. For
     example, The targeted model is most useful when a particular piece
     of data is presumed to exist at a pre-determined location.
     Meanwhile, the top-down model is best suited for searches about
     global resources which are centrally managed and delegated (such
     as IP addresses and DNS domains), and where centrally-managed
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     delegation information is critical. Finally, the bottom-up model
     is most appropriate for resources which are managed at a leaf-node
     (such as contact information).
  6.3.    Query Processing
     Once an LDAP server has been located, the LDAPv3 query is
     submitted to that server.
     Most of the values for the query will have been collected during
     the pre-processing phase, although [FIRS-CORE] defines some rules
     which govern all queries. For example, [FIRS-CORE] specifies a
     maximum time limit of 60 seconds for queries (among other similar
     kinds of restrictions) in order to prevent runaway searches which
     would otherwise match all entries.
     [FIRS-CORE] also allows for authentication and access controls, in
     that FIRS servers are allowed to limit the depth and breadth of
     information that they provide to a specific client based on a
     variety of factors, including the level of authenticated access.
     Another consideration which can arise during this phase of the
     process is protocol and schema versioning considerations. The
     [LDAP] specifications already define mechanisms for protocol
     version negotiation, and the use of these mechanisms is endorsed
     and encouraged in [FIRS-CORE].
     Schema and capability negotiation is handled through the use of a
     "firsVersion" control (as defined in [FIRS-CORE]), which provides
     a list of the FIRS-specific object classes that are supported by
     the target server. If a server advertises support for any of the
     FIRS-specific object classes, then the server also commits to
     supporting all of the attributes and matching filters associated
     with that object class. Clients can then use this information to
     determine whether or not the current server is using the same
     schema as the client.
     The client MAY also use this information to determine whether or
     not it will need to construct its own queries. Since it is
     somewhat likely that a particular server will not support all of
     the mechanisms required by the complete FIRS model (especially
     including all of the extended matching filters), then the client
     can use this information to determine if it needs to construct its
     own extended queries locally. Refer to the resource-specific
     documents for more information on this process.
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  6.4.    Query Post-Processing
     Once a query has been submitted and processed, the server will
     return answer data or some kind of referral, or possibly both. In
     general, FIRS clients are expected to display all of the answer
     data and process all of the referrals, although there are specific
     considerations which must be taken into account. In particular,
     there are considerations for handling the different kinds of
     referrals, and there are localizations issues for specific kinds
     of attribute data.
  6.4.1.  Referrals
     As was discussed in section 4.4, there are two kinds of referral
     mechanisms which are used with FIRS, which are subordinate
     reference referrals and continuation reference referrals. More
        *   Subordinate reference referrals. Subordinate reference
            referrals are returned when the search base specified in a
            query exists as a referral to some other entry. This
            condition means that the current search operation cannot
            proceed, and that the search MUST be restarted using the
            search base specified in the referral message.
            Any of the FIRS-specific entries MAY be defined as
            subordinate reference referrals, although they are
            typically only used when the inetResources container entry
            in a partition is an alias for an inetResources container
            entry in another partition. Subordinate reference referrals
            and their schema are defined in [RFC3296] although there
            are additional restrictions placed on their usage as
            described in [FIRS-CORE].
        *   Continuation reference referrals. Continuation reference
            referrals are returned when a search operation has been
            successfully processed by the queried server, but the
            answer data also includes referrals to other entries. This
            condition means that the current search operation has
            succeeded, but that additional searches SHOULD be started
            in order for all of the answer data to be retrieved.
            These referrals are often provided as supplemental data to
            an answer set, although this is not required (a
            continuation reference referral can be the only response,
            but it won't be the only response in the common case).
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            Continuation reference referrals and their schema are also
            defined in [RFC3296], with additional restrictions placed
            on their usage as described in [FIRS-CORE].
     Whenever a referral is received in response to a query, the client
     is required to display any answer data which has also been
     received and then process the referral.
     LDAP referrals can use any kind of URL, although FIRS specifically
     requires the use of LDAP URLs. The client is required to parse the
     resulting URL for a host identifier, port number, search base, and
     assertion value elements, and then use these elements to construct
     and issue new queries.
     Note that [RFC2251] defines a superior reference referral which is
     used as a "default referral" for out-of-scope searches. However,
     FIRS specifically excludes support for superior reference
     referrals. Any superior reference referrals which are encountered
     as part of this service are to be treated as errors.
  6.4.2.  Internationalization and localization
     The FIRS model uses the internationalization and localization
     services which are inherent in LDAPv3. In many cases, this native
     support is sufficient to accommodate internationalization and
     localization considerations. However, there are several cases
     where additional and explicit support is required.
     For example, the domainComponent attribute is specifically
     restricted to seven-bit character codes, and is traditionally
     interpreted as simple [US-ASCII]. This is problematic with
     internationalized domain names and the domainComponent attributes
     derived from them, since these attribute sequences are used in
     partition identifiers, search bases, and numerous other areas. In
     order to ensure interoperability, all DNS domain names which are
     mapped to domainComponent attributes MUST be reduced to their
     ASCII-compatible form using the ToASCII process defined in
     [RFC3490] before they are used for domainComponent sequences.
     Similarly, although DNS is technically capable of storing eight-
     bit code-point values, the operational rules which govern DNS do
     not support this usage for domain names which are used as host
     identifiers (and this includes zone delegations). As a result,
     internationalized domain names which are to be used for DNS
     lookups (such as queries for SRV resource records) MUST be reduced
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     to their ASCII-compatible form using the ToASCII process defined
     in [RFC3490] before these queries are issued.
     In those cases where entries or attributes use normalized UTF-8
     sequences inside of FIRS (specifically domain names and email
     addresses), FIRS clients SHOULD offer ASCII-compatible versions of
     those sequences, using the ToASCII process defined in [RFC3490].
     This will ensure that clients are able to use these sequences with
     legacy (pre-IDNA) applications directly. For example, if an entry
     displays an inetAssociatedDomains attribute, the domain names in
     that attribute should be displayed in their default UTF-8 form
     (assuming that the client's operating system and application
     allows it), but should also be made available in their ASCII-
     compatible form (either as a clipboard option, command-line
     option, or some other user-selectable switch) in order to allow
     the data to be passed to a legacy application in a form which is
     understandable by the legacy application.
     Attribute names are fixed, and can therefore be localized easily.
     As such, clients MAY choose to convert attribute names into a
     language appropriate to the local user for display purposes if
     this is desirable. However, clients MUST NOT localize attribute
     names which are used for query input. For example, clients MUST
     NOT convert "cn=" or "dc=" relative distinguished labels into a
     language-specific mapping and then use the mapped versions of
     these labels for assertion values in a subsequent query.
     RFC 2277 [RFC2277] requires free-text data to be tagged with
     language tags. RFC 2596 [RFC2596] defines a mechanism for storing
     language tags and language-specific attribute values in LDAPv3,
     and these mechanisms SHOULD be supported by FIRS clients and
     servers. For example, an organization name could be provided in
     English and Arabic, with the language tags allowing the client to
     display the appropriate attribute value instance based on the
     locale settings of the user.
     International postal regulations generally require that the
     recipient address on an envelope be provided in a language and
     charset which is native to the recipient's country, with the
     exception of the destination country name which should be provided
     in a language and charset that is native to the sender's country.
     This model ensures that the sender's post office will be able to
     route the mail to the recipient's country, while also ensuring
     that the destination country's post office will be able to perform
     local delivery. In order to facilitate this usage, the country
     attribute value SHOULD be localized to the local user's
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     nomenclature for that country, but other postal address data
     SHOULD NOT be localized.
     Notwithstanding the above, contact names SHOULD be provided in
     English in order to facilitate inter-party communications, using
     the mechanisms offered by [RFC2596]. For example, the default
     contact entry for a person in Japan SHOULD be provided in the
     native form for that person, but an English form SHOULD also be
     provided in order to allow non-Japanese users to properly address
     that person in subsequent communications. As stated in the
     preceding paragraph however, any postal communications for that
     person SHOULD use the native-language representation (at least on
     the envelope) in order to facilitate delivery.
     Time and date strings in LDAP use the generalizedTime syntax,
     making them predictable and easily convertible if necessary. As
     such, dates MAY be localized for display purposes by client
     applications as necessary.
     Finally, clients must recognize that some URL data is likely to be
     escaped, using at least one of the multiple rules which affect
     URLs and resource-specific data. For example, a URL which contains
     a domain name resource could theoretically have been escaped with
     three or four different syntax rules, and clients MUST be prepared
     to decode these URLs appropriately.
  6.5.    Query Restriction Mechanisms
     [FIRS-CORE] defines several discrete rules that can be employed by
     server operators to limit the queries received from any particular
     client. Some of these restrictions include:
        *   Servers MAY refuse service to any client (5.3.3).
        *   Servers MAY impose arbitrary maximum limits on the number
            of queries issued by any particular client for any given
            time period, such as limiting clients to 50 queries-per-day
            or five queries-per-hour (5.3.3).
        *   Servers MAY impose arbitrary wait intervals between
            successive queries from any particular client, such as
            requiring clients to wait five minutes between queries
        *   Servers MAY impose arbitrary limits on the maximum number
            of answers that they will return to a client over any given
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            time period (such as limiting clients to 100 answers-per-
            day), and MAY base this restriction on any type of answer
            data (5.3.3).
        *   Servers MAY restrict the resource-types that any particular
            client can query for, and MAY restrict the matching filters
            that any particular client can use for any of the resource-
            types that they are allowed to query (5.3.1).
        *   Servers MAY restrict the maximum length of time they spend
            processing any particular query (5.3.2).
        *   Servers MAY restrict the maximum number of matches that
            will be returned to any particular query (5.3.2).
        *   Server operators MAY define ACLs on entries and attributes
            in the database that restrict the data that is matched for
            any particular client (5.3.4).
     Any of these restrictions MAY be defined by the operators of the
     server in question, according to the policies deemed necessary by
     the operators of that server. For example, operators MAY apply
     different restrictions on ranges of client addresses, or
     authenticated identity, or any other necessary metric, or any
     combination thereof.
  7.      Transition Issues
     There are a handful of areas where FIRS does not fully compare
     with all of the existing WHOIS service offerings. These areas are
     discussed in more detail below.
  7.1.    NIC Handles
     Legacy NIC handles in existing databases can be accommodated using
     two possible mechanisms:
        *   NIC handle output in legacy WHOIS systems may be replaced
            with contact identifier addresses, using domain elements
            which refer to the operator's domain. For example, the NIC
            handle of EH26 on Network Solutions' WHOIS server could be
            replaced with "eh26@firs.netsol.com" or something similar.
            This approach causes lookups for that email address to be
            directed towards the operator's FIRS servers, and
            facilitates fast coalescence around the FIRS system.
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        *   Use the inetLocalIdentifier attribute defined in
            [FIRS-CORE]. This option provides a simple text string
            which can be used for private identifiers, but provides no
            integration with FIRS, other than allowing for attribute
            value searches.
     Although both options can be used simultaneously, the former
     mechanism is especially preferred.
  7.2.    Change-Logs
     Several WHOIS services provide pseudo change-logs in their
     response data, listing each unique modification event which has
     occurred for a particular resource. For example, RIPE and some of
     the ccTLDs provide WHOIS output which includes a series of
     "changed" fields that itemize every modification event ("updated",
     "added", etc.), the modifier, and the modification date, which
     cumulatively act as a change-log for the resource in question.
     Organizations are certainly free to maintain this information on
     their internal systems. However, this information is not necessary
     for public view of the data in the FIRS service. Furthermore,
     where auditing of this information will be required, a format
     which is suitable to legal review will also be required.
     Organizations who wish to make change-log information available
     should use an auxiliary LDAP schema for this purpose. An initial
     schema is available at http://www.ehsco.com/misc/draft-hall-ldap-
     audit-00.txt, although it has not been proposed as a standards-
     track effort, and should only be used as a starting point for
     other development.
  7.3.    Legacy System Support
     Organizations which already provide WHOIS services over TCP port
     43 have several migration options. At the lowest extreme, these
     organizations can continue to use and support those systems as-is,
     without any modifications. However, other organizations may choose
     to implement a FIRS client in a text-based application (such as a
     Perl script), with that application accepting typical queries over
     the legacy TCP/43 port, processing those queries through FIRS, and
     returning answer data back to the legacy WHOIS client. Another
     approach is described in draft-newton-whois-crisp-cohabitation-
     00.txt, which advocates the use of NAPTR and SRV resource records
     to redirect legacy clients to FIRS servers.
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     A similar range of options are available for back-end database
     integration. Organizations who do not wish to align their back-end
     databases to the LDAP/FIRS model can use basic scripts to generate
     LDIF files on a suitable schedule, and then populate their LDAP
     servers with this data. Meanwhile, other organizations may choose
     to provide an LDAP front-end to an existing database, while other
     organizations may choose to use a single LDAP repository for all
     of their applications.
     In general terms, FIRS does not require or endorse any of these
     mechanisms, and they are only presented here so that operators are
     aware of the options.
  8.      Security Considerations
     The FIRS collection of specifications describe an application of
     the LDAPv3 protocol, and as such it inherits the security
     considerations associated with LDAPv3, as described in section 7
     of [RFC2251].
     By nature, LDAP is a read-write protocol. As such, there are
     significant risks associated with unintentionally allowing
     unauthorized third-parties to update the underlying data.
     Moreover, allowing FIRS clients to update delegation data could
     result in network resources being stolen from their lawful
     operators. For example, if the LDAP front-end had update access to
     a domain delegation database, a malicious third-party could
     theoretically take ownership of a domain by exploiting an
     authentication weakness, thereby causing ownership of the domain
     to be changed to another party. For this reason, it is imperative
     that the FIRS service not be allowed to make critical
     modifications to delegated resources without ensuring that all
     possible precautions have been taken, potentially including strong
     authentication and encryption practices.
     The query processing models described in these documents make use
     of DNS lookups in order to locate the LDAP servers associated with
     a particular resource. DNS is susceptible to certain attacks and
     forgeries which may be used to redirect clients to LDAP servers
     which are not authoritative for the resource in question.
     This document provides multiple query models which will cause the
     same query to be answered by different servers (one would be
     processed by a delegation entity, while another would be processed
     by an operational entity). As a result, each of the servers may
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     provide different information, depending upon the query type that
     was originally selected.
     Some operators may choose to purposefully provide misleading or
     erroneous information in an effort to avoid responsibility for bad
     behavior. In addition, there are likely to be sporadic operator
     errors which will result in confusing or erroneous answers.
     Neither this specification nor the LDAPv3 protocol currently
     provide cache timers or any other mechanisms which can indicate
     how accurate or timely any replicas may be. As a result, it is
     possible for a replica to become significantly outdated, even to
     the point of containing wholesale errors.
     For all of the reasons listed above, it is essential that
     applications and end-users not make critical decisions based on
     the information provided by the FIRS service without having reason
     to believe the veracity of the information. Users should limit
     unknown or untrusted information to routine purposes.
     Despite these disclaimers, however, it is very likely that the
     information presented through the FIRS service will be used for
     many operational and problem-resolution purposes. In order to
     ensure the veracity of the information, a minimal set of
     operational guidelines are provided herein. For the most part,
     these rules are designed to prevent unauthorized modifications to
     the data.
     Note that these rules only apply to data which is willingly
     provided; no data is required to be entered, but where the data is
     provided, it SHOULD be validated as accurate on entry, and it MUST
     be secured against unauthorized modifications.
        *   The inetResources container entry and all of the resource-
            specific subordinate entries within every public DIT that
            provides FIRS resources SHOULD have anonymous read-only
            access permissions, and MUST NOT have anonymous add, delete
            or modify permissions.
        *   With the exception of contact-related attributes from the
            inetOrgPerson object class, each attribute MAY have
            whatever restrictions are necessary in order to suit local
            security policies, government regulations or personal
            privacy concerns. When the inetOrgPerson object class is
            used to provide contact details, the mail attribute MUST be
            defined, SHOULD be valid, SHOULD have anonymous read-only
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            access, and MUST NOT have anonymous add, delete or modify
            By using the inetOrgPerson object class, it is expected
            that existing contact-related entries can be reused. If
            reusing these entries is undesirable or unfeasible, entries
            with the necessary access SHOULD be made available.
        *   End-users and implementers SHOULD provide anonymous access
            to the creatorsName, createTimestamp, modifiersName and
            modifyTimestamp operational attributes associated with each
            entry in the inetResources branch, since this information
            is useful for determining the age of the underlying data.
        *   Server operators MAY define additional add, delete or
            modify permissions for authenticated users, using any
            LDAPv3 authentication mechanisms they wish. In particular,
            delegation entities MAY provide for the remote management
            of delegated resources (such as assigning modification
            privileges to the managers of a particular delegated domain
            or address block), although this is entirely optional, and
            is within the sole discretion of the delegation body.
        *   In the general case, server operators SHOULD NOT offer
            clear-text authentication mechanisms over unencrypted
     Finally, there are physical security issues associated with any
     service which provides physical addressing and delivery
     In summary, organizations MAY provide as much data as possible,
     although no information is required.
  9.      IANA Considerations
     The FIRS collection of specifications define an application of the
     LDAPv3 protocol rather than a new Internet application protocol.
     As such, there are no protocol-related IANA considerations.
     However, the FIRS collection of specifications do define several
     LDAP schema elements, including object classes, attributes,
     syntaxes and extensibleMatch filters, and these elements should be
     assigned OID values from the IANA branch. Furthermore, some of the
     specifications define their own status codes as attribute values,
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     and IANA is expected to maintain the code-point mapping values
     associated with these attributes.
     Finally, some of the specifications also describe public DNS and
     LDAP servers and data. It is expected that IANA will see to the
     establishment and maintenance of these servers and data.
  10.     Normative References
          [CRISP-REQ]   Newton, A. "Cross Registry Internet Service
                         Protocol (CRISP) Requirements", draft-ietf-
                         crisp-requirements-05, July 2003.
          [FIRS-ASN]    Hall, E. "Defining and Locating Autonomous
                         System Numbers in the Federated Internet
                         Registry Service", draft-ietf-crisp-firs-asn-
                         03, August 2003.
          [FIRS-CONTCT] Hall, E. "Defining and Locating Contact
                         Persons in the Federated Internet Registry
                         Service", draft-ietf-crisp-firs-contact-03,
                         August 2003.
          [FIRS-CORE]   Hall, E. "The Federated Internet Registry
                         Service: Core Elements", draft-ietf-crisp-
                         firs-core-03, August 2003.
          [FIRS-DNS]    Hall, E. "Defining and Locating DNS Domains in
                         the Federated Internet Registry Service",
                         draft-ietf-crisp-firs-dns-03, August 2003.
          [FIRS-DNSRR]  Hall, E. "Defining and Locating DNS Resource
                         Records in the Federated Internet Registry
                         Service", draft-ietf-crisp-firs-dnsrr-02, July
          [FIRS-IPV4]   Hall, E. "Defining and Locating IPv4 Address
                         Blocks in the Federated Internet Registry
                         Service", draft-ietf-crisp-firs-ipv4-02,
                         August 2003.
          [FIRS-IPV6]   Hall, E. "Defining and Locating IPv6 Address
                         Blocks in the Federated Internet Registry
                         Service", draft-ietf-crisp-firs-ipv6-02,
                         August 2003.
          [ISO10646]    "ISO/IEC 10646-1:2000. International Standard
                         -- Information technology -- Universal
                         Multiple-Octet Coded Character Set (UCS) --
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                         Part 1: Architecture and Basic Multilingual
          [RFC2079]     Smith, M. "Definition of an X.500 Attribute
                         Type and an Object Class to Hold Uniform
                         Resource Identifiers (URIs)", RFC 2079,
                         January 1997.
          [RFC2247]     Kille, S., Wahl, M., Grimstad, A., Huber, R.,
                         and Sataluri, S. "Using Domains in LDAP/X.500
                         DNs", RFC 2247, January 1998.
          [RFC2251]     Wahl, M., Howes, T., and Kille, S.
                         "Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (v3)",
                         RFC 2251, December 1997.
          [RFC2252]     Wahl, M., Coulbeck, A., Howes, T., and Kille,
                         S. "Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
                         (v3): Attribute Syntax Definitions", RFC 2252,
                         December 1997.
          [RFC2253]     Wahl, M., Kille, S., and Howes, T.
                         "Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (v3):
                         UTF-8 String Representation of DNs", RFC 2253,
                         December 1997.
          [RFC2254]     Howes, T. "The String Representation of LDAP
                         Search Filters", RFC 2254, December 1997.
          [RFC2255]     Howes, T., and Smith, M. "The LDAP URL
                         Format", RFC 2255, December 1997.
          [RFC2256]     Wahl, M. "A Summary of the X.500(96) User
                         Schema for use with LDAPv3", RFC 2256,
                         December 1997.
          [RFC2277]     Alvestrand, H. "IETF Policy on Character Sets
                         and Languages", BCP 18, RFC 2277, January
          [RFC2279]     Yergeau, F. "UTF-8, a transformation format of
                         ISO 10646", RFC 2279, January 1998.
          [RFC2596]     Wahl, M., and Howes, T. "Use of Language Codes
                         in LDAP", RFC 2596, May 1999.
          [RFC2782]     Gulbrandsen, A., Vixie, P., and Esibov, L. "A
                         DNS RR for specifying the location of services
                         (DNS SRV)", RFC 2782, February 2000.
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          [RFC2798]     Smith, M. "Definition of the inetOrgPerson
                         LDAP Object Class", RFC 2798, April 2000.
          [RFC3296]     Zeilenga, K. "Named Subordinate References in
                         Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)
                         Directories", RFC 3296, July 2002.
          [RFC3377]     Hodges, J., and Morgan, R. "Lightweight
                         Directory Access Protocol (v3): Technical
                         Specification", RFC 3377, September 2002.
          [RFC3490]     Faltstrom, P., Hoffman, P., and Costello, A.
                         "Internationalizing Domain Names in
                         Applications (IDNA)", RFC 3490, March 2003.
          [US-ASCII]    Cerf, V. "ASCII format for Network
                         Interchange", RFC 20, October 1969.
  11.     Informational References
          [RFC812]      Harrenstien, K., and White, V.
                         "NICNAME/WHOIS", RFC 812, March 1982.
  12.     Changes from Previous Versions
        *   Several clarifications and corrections have been made.
        *   Added a discussion on the various query-restriction
            mechanisms that are available in the system as a whole.
        *   Clarified the use of referrals and added a discussion on
            attribute references.
        *   Several clarifications and corrections have been made.
        *   Several clarifications and corrections have been made.
        *   Restructured document set, separating the architectural
            discussion from the technical descriptions.
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        *   Consolidated the security discussions.
        *   As a result of the formation of the CRISP working group,
            the original monolithic document has been broken into
            multiple documents, with draft-ietf-crisp-lw-core
            describing the core service, while related documents
            describe the per-resource schema and access mechanisms.
        *   References to the ldaps: URL scheme have been removed,
            since there is no standards-track specification for the
            ldaps: scheme.
        *   An acknowledgements section was added.
        *   The "Objectives" section has been removed. [ir-dir-req] is
            now being used as the guiding document for this service.
        *   Several typographical errors have been fixed.
        *   Some unnecessary text has been removed.
        *   Figures changed to show complete sets of object classes, to
            improve inheritance visibility.
        *   Clarified the handling of reverse-lookup domains (zones
            within the in-addr.arpa portion of the DNS hierarchy) in
            the inetDnsDomain object class reference text.
        *   Referrals now use regular LDAP URLs (multiple responses
            with explicit hostnames and port numbers). Prior editions
            of this specification used LDAP SRV resource records for
            all referrals.
        *   The delegation status codes used by the
            inetDnsDelegationStatus, inetIpv4DelegationStatus,
            inetIpv6DelegationStatus and inetAsnDelegationStatus
            attributes have been condensed to a more logical set.
        *   Added an inetDnsAuthServers attribute for publishing the
            authoritative DNS servers associated with a domain. NOTE
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        *   Added an inetGeneralDisclaimer attribute for publishing
            generalized disclaimers.
        *   Added the inetAssociatedResources auxiliary object class
            for defining associated resources, and moved some of the IP
            addressing and ASN attributes to the new object class.
        *   Several attributes had their OIDs changed. NOTE THAT THIS
  13.     Author's Address
     Eric A. Hall
  14.     Acknowledgments
     Funding for the RFC editor function is currently provided by the
     Internet Society.
     Portions of this document were funded by VeriSign Labs.
     The first version of this specification was co-authored by Andrew
     Newton of VeriSign Labs, and subsequent versions continue to be
     developed with his active participation. Edward Lewis and Peter
     Gietz also contributed significant feedback to this specification
     in the later stages of its developments.
  15.     Full Copyright Statement
     Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003). All Rights Reserved.
     This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished
     to others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise
     explain it or assist in its implementation may be prepared,
     copied, published and distributed, in whole or in part, without
     restriction of any kind, provided that the above copyright notice
     and this paragraph are included on all such copies and derivative
     works. However, this document itself may not be modified in any
     way, such as by removing the copyright notice or references to the
     Internet Society or other Internet organizations, except as needed
     for the purpose of developing Internet standards in which case the
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     procedures for copyrights defined in the Internet Standards
     process must be followed, or as required to translate it into
     languages other than English.
     The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not
     be revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.
     This document and the information contained herein is provided on
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