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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06                                          
DECADE                                                           X. Chen
Internet-Draft                                                  Z. Huang
Intended status: Informational                       HUAWEI Technologies
Expires: May 3, 2012                                             L. Chen
                                                                  H. Liu
                                                         Yale University
                                                            Oct 31, 2011


                 Integration Examples of DECADE System
                draft-ietf-decade-integration-example-02

Abstract

   DECADE is an in-network storage infrastructure which is under
   discussions and constructions.  It can be integrated into Peer-to-
   Peer (P2P) applications to achieve more efficient content
   distributions.  This document represents two detailed examples of how
   to integrate DECADE into P2P applications (live streaming and file
   sharing).  Specifically, it describes mainly about: 1) a preliminary
   DECADE client API; 2) a P2P live streaming integration with DECADE;
   3) a P2P file sharing integration with DECADE; 4)ALTO+DECADE based
   file distribution platform; 5) tests on our DECADE integrarions and
   6) an application performance analysis from the tests.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on May 3, 2012.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.



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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
   2.  Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
      2.1.  P2P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
      2.2.  DECADE Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
      2.3.  DECADE Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
      2.4.  P2P LiveStreaming Client (P2PLS Client) . . . . . . . . . 5
      2.5.  DECADE Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
      2.6.  Vuze  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
      2.7.  DECADE Plugin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
      2.8.  DECADE-Enabled Vuze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
      2.9.  Remote Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
   3.  DECADE Client API  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
   4.  DECADE Integration of P2P LiveStreaming Client . . . . . . . . 6
      4.1.  DECADE Integration Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
         4.1.1.  Data Access  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
         4.1.2.  Message Control  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
      4.2.  Challenges in DECADE Integration  . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
         4.2.1.  Limited Connection Slot  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
         4.2.2.  Additional Control Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
   5.  DECADE Integration of P2P Filesharing Client . . . . . . . . . 9
      5.1.  Vuze Client Design  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
      5.2.  DECADE-Enabled Vuze architecture Design . . . . . . . . . 9
      5.3.  DECADE-Enabled Vuze Communication Procedure . . . . . . . 11
   6.  ALTO+DECADE based file distribution platform . . . . . . . . . 11
      6.1.  File distribution platform architecture Design  . . . . . 11
      6.2.  CP Uploading and Publishing Communication Procedure . . . 11
      6.3.  User Downloading Communication Procedure  . . . . . . . . 11
   7.  Test Environment and Settings  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
      7.1.  Test Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
      7.2.  Platforms and Components of P2PLS . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
         7.2.1.  EC2 DECADE Server  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
         7.2.2.  PlanetLab P2P LiveStreaming Client   . . . . . . . . 14
         7.2.3.  Tracker  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14





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         7.2.4.  Source Server  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
         7.2.5.  Test Controller  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
      7.3.  Platforms and Components of Vuze  . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
         7.3.1.  EC2 DECADE Server  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
         7.3.2.  Vuze Client with DECADE Plugin . . . . . . . . . . . 16
         7.3.3.  Remote Controller  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
         7.3.4.  Tracker  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
         7.3.5.  HTTP Server  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
         7.3.6.  PL Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   8.  Performance Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
      8.1. Performance Metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
         8.1.1.  P2P Live Streaming .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
         8.1.2.  Vuze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
         8.1.3.  ALTO+DECADE based file distribution platform . . . . 17
      8.2.  Result and Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
         8.2.1.  P2P Live Streaming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
         8.2.2.  Vuze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
         8.2.3.  ALTO+DECADE based file distribution platform . . . . 18
   9.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   10.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   11.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20


















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1.  Introduction

   DECADE is an in-network storage infrastructure under discussions and
   constructions.  It can be integrated into Peer-to-Peer (P2P)
   applications to achieve more efficient content distributions.

   This draft introduces an instance of application integration with
   DECADE.  In our example system, the core component includes DECADE
   servers and DECADE-enabled P2P live streaming clients.  A DECADE
   server provides data storage and transport service with interactive
   control to DECADE clients.  We extended a P2P live streaming
   application, P2PLS (P2P LiveStreaming), to leverage DECADE service
   provided by the servers.  P2PLS clients are DECADE-enabled.  For our
   implementation, we used a preliminary API (Application Programming
   Interface) set, which is supposed to be provided by DECADE, to enable
   P2PLS clients to use DECADE in their data transmission.  In this
   draft, we introduce the design of the DECADE-P2PLS integration
   system, the main control flow for DECADE-enabled data transmission,
   and the testing performance with this system.

   Please note that P2PLS in this draft only represents the usage case
   of "live streaming" out of a large number of P2P applications, while
   DECADE itself can support other applications.  The API set used in
   this system is an experimental design and implementation.  It is not
   a standard and is still under development.  Currently, DECADE in this
   draft is only a preliminary framework of in-network storage for P2P.
   It is designed to test the pros and cons of in-network storage
   utilized by P2P applications rather than to reach a final solution.























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2.  Concepts

2.1.  P2P

   Peer-to-Peer computing or networking is a distributed application
   architecture that partitions tasks or work loads between peers.
   Peers are equally privileged, equipotent participants in the
   application.

2.2.  DECADE Server

   A DECADE server is implemented with DECADE protocols, management
   mechanism and storage strategies.  It is an important element to
   provide DECADE services.  In a DECADE server, we have a number of
   Data Lockers each of which is a virtual account and private STORAGE
   space for applications.

2.3.  DECADE Module

   DECADE module is a functional component for application clients to
   utilize DECADE.  This component serves as an application-specific
   interface between a particular application and DECADE servers.  It
   can be a simple implementation of basic DECADE access APIs, or a
   smart realization which integrates application-specific control
   strategies with DECADE APIs.

2.4.  P2P LiveStreaming Client (P2PLS Client)

   P2P LiveStreaming Client (P2PLS Client) is our self-maintained
   version of a native P2P live streaming application.  It is one
   example out of a large number of P2P applications.

2.5.  DECADE Client

   DECADE client is an integration of a native P2P client and a DECADE
   module.  It is not required to embed DECADE module into native P2P
   clients, since it can also be an independent conponent running at a
   remote server.

2.6.  Vuze

   Vuze is an open source P2P application, which uses BitTorrent
   protocol for message and data exchanging.  Vuze provides a set of
   interfaces which support users to develop particular extensions.







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2.7.  DECADE Plugin

   A plugin built into Vuze to implement DECADE functions including
   getting/putting data from/to DECADE server and redirection

2.8.  DECADE-Enabled Vuze

   A Vuze client that is enabled by DECADE plugin.

2.9.  Remote Controller

   A controller which can control every Vuze client to start or stop
   downloading tasks.  It also has a function of collecting statistic
   information of each Vuze client.  It is a major operating platform.





































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3.  DECADE Client API

   In order to simplify the DECADE integration with P2P clients, we
   provide an API set which covers the communications with DECADE
   servers and token-generation.  On top of this API, a P2P client can
   develop its own application-specific control and data distribution
   policies.

   There are five basic interfaces:

   o Get_Object: to get an object from a DECADE server with an
   authorized token.  The get operation can be classified into two
   categories: Local Get and Remote Get. Local Get is to get an object
   from a local DECADE server.  Remote Get is to use a client's local
   DECADE server to indirectly get an object from a remote DECADE
   server.  The object will be firstly passed to the local DECADE
   server, then returned to the application client.

   o Put_Object: to store an object into a DECADE server with an
   authorized token.  A client can either store an object into its local
   DECADE server or into other clients' DECADE servers, if it has an
   authorized token.  Both of the operations are direct, for we don't
   provide indirectly storing (i.e. remote put).

   o Delete_Object: to delete an object in a DECADE server explicitly
   with an authorized token.  Note that an object can also be deleted
   implicitly by setting an expired time or a specific TTL.

   o Status_Query: to query current status of an application itself,
   including listing stored objects, resource usage, etc..  Such
   information is private.

   o Generate_Token: to generate an authorized token.  The token can be
   used to access an application client's local DECADE server, or passed
   to other clients to allow them to access the client's local DECADE
   server.















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4.  DECADE Integration of P2P LiveStreaming Client

   We integrate a DECADE module into a P2P live streaming application--
   P2PLS, in order that clients of this application can easily leverage

4.1.  DECADE Integration Architecture

   The architecture of the P2PLS application and DECADE integration is
   shown in Figure 1:
        +---------------+                       +---------------+
        |    DECADE     |                       |    DECADE     |
        |     Peer      |                       |     Peer      |
        |+-------------+|   +---------------+   |+-------------+|
        ||DECADE Module||---| DECADE Server |---||DECADE Module||
        |+------^------+|   +---------------+   |+------^------+|
        |   API |       |                       |   API |       |
        |+------v------+|   +---------------+   |+------v------+|
        ||Native Client||---|    Tracker    |---||Native Client||
        |+-------------+|   +---------------+   |+-------------+|
        +---------------+                       +---------------+

                                Figure 1

   A DECADE-integrated P2PLS client uses DECADE module to communicate
   with its DECADE server and transmit data between itself and its
   DECADE server.  It is compatible with its original P2P protocol,
   while it also uses a DECADE protocol to exchange DECADE related
   messages with other peers.

4.1.1.  Data Access

   DECADE module is called whenever a client wants to get data objects
   from (or put data objects into) its DECADE server.  Each data object
   transferred between a client and its DECADE server should go through
   DECADE module.  Neither the DECADE server and the original client
   knows each other.  A data object is a data transfer unit between
   DECADE servers and application clients.  Its size can be application-
   customized, according to variable requirements of performance or
   sensitive factors (e.g. low latency, high bandwidth utilization).

4.1.2.  Message Control

   Control and data plane decoupling is a design principle of DECADE.
   Control messages are propagated in an original P2P way.  DECADE only
   introduces an additional control message between DECADE module which
   carries DECADE authorized token.  By exchanging DECADE authorized
   tokens, P2P live streaming clients can retrieve or store data objects
   into or from others' DECADE servers.



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4.2.  Challenges in DECADE Integration

   One essential objective of DECADE integration is to improve (or at
   least not to hurt) the application performance.  However, as a brand
   new architecture, DECADE has some inherit challenges which will
   potentially be harmful to application performance.  In our P2P live
   streaming case, we met mainly two such limitations of DECADE:

4.2.1.  Limited Connection Slot

   Limited Connection Slot: In native P2P systems, a peer can establish
   tens or hunderds of concurrent connections with other peers.
   However, this situation can hardly be ture when it is integrated with
   DECADE because it is too expensive for DECADE servers to maintain so
   many connections for each peer.  Typically, each DECADE peer only
   have m connection slots, which means it can only at most have m
   active connections with its DECADE server simultaneously.  A
   potential "side effect" of limited connection slot is that the
   content availability and downloading rate might be impacted
   negatively by fewwer connections carrying data traffic.  This
   requests us to adjust the peer's behavior in resource allocation,
   downloading/uploading scheduling, etc. to fully utilize the
   connection slots to archieve a satisfying and robust data
   downloading.

   o Batch Request: In order to fully utilize the connection bandwidth
   of a DECADE server and reduce overhead, a P2PLS client may combine
   multiple requests in a single request to DECADE server.  Note that
   for the sake of improving data transfer efficiency in P2P live
   streaming, we may combine multiple data requests into a batch
   request.  Generally, a batch may consist of different kinds of access
   requests.

   o Data Object Size: In typical P2P live streaming application, the
   size of a data block is relatively small, considering to reduce end-
   to-end transport latency.  However, existing data size may incur
   large control overhead and low transport utilization.  A larger data
   object size may be needed to utilize DECADE more efficiently.

4.2.2.  Additional Control Latency

   Addtional Control Latency: In native P2P systems, when an uploader
   decides to reply a request for a piece, it sends the piece out
   directly.  Nevertheless, in DECADE-aware P2P systems, the uploader
   typically only replies with a token of the piece.  And then the
   downloader will leverage this token to fetch the piece from the
   uploader's DECADE server.  This process obviously introduces
   additional control latency compared with native P2P systems.  It is



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   even more serious in latency sensitive applications such as P2P live
   streaming.  We need to consider how to reduce such additional delay
   or how to compensate the lose with other inherit advantages of
   DECADE.

   o Range Token: One way to reduce request latency is to use range
   token.  A P2PLS client may piggyback a range token when it propagates
   its bitmap to its neighbors, to indicate that all available pieces in
   the bitmap are accassable by this range token.  Then instead of
   requesting specific pieces from this client and waiting for response,
   the neighbors can directly use this range token to access data in
   DECADE servers.  Note that this method not only reduce request
   latency, but also reduce message overhead.

   With these adjustments and strategies, DECADE clients' performance
   was not impacted by the liminations of DECADE and was even better
   than native clients' as we will see in following sections.


































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5.  DECADE Integration of P2P Filesharing Client

   We integrate DECADE with a popular P2P file-sharing application--
   Vuze.

5.1.  Vuze Client Design

   Note that Vuze client is classified into two different kinds - Native
   Vuze and DECADE-Enabled Vuze.  When running Native Vuze, it behaves
   as ordinary BitTorrent client: some Vuze clients upload data for
   others to download.  When using DECADE-Enabled Vuze, the
   communication and data exchange processes are changed.  The uploader
   uploads data to its DECADE server, and downloaders download data from
   DECADE servers.  By this means, uplink traffic can be reduced sharply
   and download performance can be improved.  It is beneficial for ISPs
   to save the last-mile uplink bandwidth.

5.2.  DECADE-Enabled Vuze architecture Design

   DECADE plugin is a key component of our demo system.  It has several
   interfaces with other components as following:

   Interface between DECADE plugin and DECADE server: DECADE plugin can
   upload and download data from DECADE server.  It also includes other
   functions such as user registration, application registration etc.

   Interface between DECADE plugin and Vuze client: DECADE plugin can
   register a listener to intercept the BitTorrent message such AS
   "BT_Request" message from or to Vuze client, encapsulate the data
   from DECADE server into "BT_Piece" message and put the "BT_Piece"
   message into incoming message queue, read the block/piece data from
   the disk when seeding (to upload the data to DECADE server), and
   start or stop the download tasks, all these functions are supported
   in the Plugin API provided by Vuze.

   Interface between DECADE plugins: When DECADE plugin intercepts the
   "BT_Request" message from other Vuze clients, local DECADE plugin
   sends "Redirect" message to remote DECADE plugin to authorize it to
   download the piece data from the DECADE server.

   Interface between DECADE plugin and Remote Controller: DECADE plugin
   registers with Remote Controller after starting up, Remote Controller
   can control all the Vuze clients to start, stop or resume the
   download tasks through DECADE plugins.

   The system architecture is as follow:





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     _____________             _____________
     |  DACADE    |            |  DECADE    |
     |  Server    |------------|  Server    |
     |____________|            |____________|
           ^                         ^
           |                         |
     ______|______             ______|______
     |     |      |            |     |      |
     | P2P | Peer |            | P2P | Peer |
     |     |      |            |     |      |             _____________
     | ____v____  |            | ____v____  |             | Remote     |
     | |DECADE  | |            | | DECADE | |             | Controller |
     | |Plugin  | |----------- | | Plugin | |-------------|____________|
     | |________| |            | |________| |                   |
     |     ^   ^  |            |     ^      |                   |
     |     |   |__|____________|_____|______|___________________|
     | PluginAPI  |            | PluginAPI  |
     |     |      |            |     |      |
     | ____v____  |            | ____v____  |
     | |        | |            | |        | |
     | |  Vuze  | |----------- | |  Vuze  | |
     | |________| |            | |________| |
     |____________|            |____________|


                               Figure 2

5.3.  DECADE-Enabled Vuze Communication Procedure

   A DECADE plugin can change the data path of BitTorrent download by
   using a "Redirect" message.

   The detailed communication procedure is as following:

   o When each client starts the download task ,it will try to connect
   the tracker to get peer list and then send "BT_Request" message to
   other peers in peer list.

   o If the DECADE plugin is enabled, then it will intercept the
   incoming "BT_Request" message from other Vuze clients, and then reply
   with a "Redirect" message which includes DECADE server's address,
   authorization token and so on to the requester.

   o When a DECADE plugin receives a "Redirect" message, it will connect
   to the DECADE server according to message context and send "Remote
   Get" message to the DECADE server to request the data, then wait for
   response.




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   o When a DECADE server receives a "Remote Get" message, it will check
   the server IP address in the message, Case 1: if the address equals
   to its own IP address, then it will send the data to the requester
   from its local disk/memory; Case 2: if the address is not equal to
   its own IP address, then it will send the "Remote Get" message to
   that address, to fetch the data, and then send the data to the
   requester.  The data will be cached in the server locally for use by
   other requesters.

   o When a DECADE plugin obtains the data, it will encapsulate the data
   into a standard "BT_Piece" message and send to Vuze client, then the
   client can write the data block into storage.

   The detailed communication diagram is as follow:
  ________   __________   __________   ________   _________   _________
 |       |  | DACADE  |  | DACADE  |  |       |  | DECADE  |  | DECADE |
 | Vuze1 |  | Plugin1 |  | Plugin2 |  | Vuze2 |  | Server1 |  | Server2|
 |_______|  |_________|  |_________|  |_______|  |_________|  |________|
     |           |            |           |           |            |
     |           |  HandShake |           |           |            |
     |k----------|------------|---------->|           |            |
     |        Azureus HandShake           |           |            |
     |k----------|------------|---------->|           |            |
     |           | BT_BitField|           |           |            |
     |k----------|------------|---------->|           |            |
     |           | BT_Request |           |           |            |
     |-----------|----------->|           |           |            |
     |           |            |           |           |            |
     |           |  Redirect  |           |           |            |
     |           |k-----------|           |           |            |
     |           |           DACADE RemoteGet         |            |
     |           |----------------------------------->|            |
     |           |            |           |           | DACADE Get |
     |           |            |           |           |----------->|
     |           |            |           |           | DACADE Data|
     |           |            |           |           |k-----------|
     |           |             DACADE Data            |            |
     |           |k-----------------------------------|            |
     |           |            |           |           |            |
     | BT_Piece  |            |           |           |            |
     |k----------|            |           |           |            |
     |           |            |           |           |            |


                                  Figure 3






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6.  ALTO+DECADE based file distribution platform

   We integate DECADE with a file distribution platform based on the
   ALTO+DECADE architecture

6.1.  File distribution platform architecture Design

   Note that This Integration is a file distribution platform based on
   the ALTO+DECADE architecture.  It allows content providers (CP) to
   upload files to DECADE servers, and end users to download files from
   optimal DECADE source servers.Specifically, three components in this
   trial are provided:

   o DECADE Servers:store files.

   o DECADEs Portal: offers content publishers a portal site to upload
   files; it also includes ALTO service to direct end users to an
   optimal DECADE Server to download files.

   o Content Publisher's Portal: A simulated portal for a content
   publisher TO offer a web portal to publish download URL and for its
   END users TO download from DECADE.

   The system architecture is as follow:



























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                  _________                      _________
                 | DECADE  |                    | DECADE  |
                 | Client1 |                    | Client2 |
                 |_________|                    |_________|
                           \                   /
                            \                 /
                             \ _____________ /
                              |  Content    |
                              | Publisher's |
                              |   Portal    |
                              |_____________|
                                     |
                                     |
                                     |
               ______________________|______________________
               |               ____________                 |
               |              |  DECADEs   |       ISP      |
               |              |  Portal    |                |
               |             /|____________| \              |
               |           /     |      |      \            |
               | ________/  _____|__   _|______  \________  |
               || DECADE | | DECADE | | DECADE | | DECADE | |
               ||Server1 | |Server2 | |Server3 | |Servern | |
               ||________| |________| |________| |________| |
               |____________________________________________|

                                Figure 4

6.2.  CP Uploading and Publishing Communication Procedure

   Publisher (CP) should upload his file into DECADE Servers first and
   get the URLs of the files then can publish the download hyperlink on
   his official homepage.

   The detailed communication procedure is as following:

   o CP upload any files what he wants to publish via logon DECADE
   Portal site and send data objects via HTTP flow.

   o DECADE Portal can cache the file uploaded by publisher and
   distribute the file to specified DECADE Sever Zones, DECADE Server
   will divide the file into many slides as long as the length of file,
   and save them in different folder.

   o When a file has been uploaded successfully, DECADE Portal will list
   the URL of this file on homepage, publisher can find it easily, and
   use the URL for publishing.




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   The detailed communication diagram is as follow:
          _________          _________         _________
         |         |        | DECADE  |       | DECADE  |
         |Publisher|        | Portal  |       | ServerX |
         |_________|        |_________|       |_________|
             |                   |                  |
             |   PUT Data        |                  |
             |------------------>|                  |
             |                   | Distribute data  |
             |                   |----------------->|
             |                   |    Response      |
             |                   |<-----------------|
             |   URLs & Token    |                  |
             |<------------------|                  |
             |                   |                  |

                              Figure 5

6.3.  User Downloading Communication Procedure

   When publisher have put file URLs on his publishing homepage, users
   can visit his downloading page and click hyperlink to download
   files.Users should visit CP's download list page, and find out which
   file he is interested in, and then click the hyperlink to download.

   The detailed communication procedure is as following:

   o User visits publisher's homepage, finds a file download link.

   o User clicks the hyper link, homepage returns chunk {URLs & Tokens}
   to the User, and the user uses those URLs & Tokens to redirect to
   DECADE Portal's download page.

   o DECADE Portal help the user to find an optimal DECADE Server as
   long as user's IP, and return it to the user.

   o user connect to this DECADE Server to get data via HTTP flow.

   The detailed communication diagram is as follow:












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   _________     ____________     _________     _________     _________
  |         |   |Publisher's |   | DECADE  |   |  ALTO   |   | DECADE  |
  |Publisher|   |   Portal   |   | Portal  |   |  Server |   |  Server |
  |_________|   |____________|   |_________|   |_________|   |_________|
      |              |                |             |             |
      |Download Req  |                |             |             |
      |------------->|                |             |             |
      | URLs&Tokens  |                |             |             |
      |<-------------|                |             |             |
      |              |                |             |             |
      |    Download Require(Tokens)   |             |             |
      |------------------------------>|             |             |
      |              |                |Route Search |             |
      |              |                |------------>|             |
      |              |                |Route Result |             |
      |              |                |<------------|             |
      | optimal DECADE Server address |             |             |
      |<------------------------------|             |             |
      |              |                |             |             |
      |              |            Get Data          |             |
      |---------------------------------------------------------->|
      |              |                |             |             |
      |              |           Send Data          |             |
      |<----------------------------------------------------------|
      |              |                |             |             |
      |              |                |             |             |

                               Figure 6























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7.  Test Environment and Settings

   In order to demonstrate the performance of our DECADE implementation
   and DECADE-integrated P2P live streaming and file-sharing
   applications, we conduct some experimental tests in Amazon EC2 and
   PlanetLab.  We perform a pair of comparative experiments: DECADE
   integrated P2P application v.s. native P2P application, in the same
   environment using the same settings.

7.1.  Test Settings

   Our tests ran on a wide-spread area and diverse platforms, including
   a famous commercial cloud platform, Amazon EC2 and a well-known
   testbed, PlanetLab.  The environment settings are as following:

   o EC2 Regions: we setup DECADE servers in Amazon EC2 cloud, including
   all four regions around the world, US east, US west, Europe and Asia.

   o PlanetLab: we run our P2P live streaming clients and P2P file-
   sharing clients (both DECADE integrated and native clients) on
   PlanetLab of a wild-spread area.

   o Arrival pattern: we made all the clients join into the system
   within a short duration to simulate a flash crowd scenario.

   o Total Bandwidth: for a fair comparison, we set the system's total
   supply bandwidth to be exact the same in both test.

7.2.  Platforms and Components of P2PLS

   In the tests, we have different functional components running in
   different platforms, including DECADE servers, P2P live streaming
   clients(DECADE integrated or Native), Tracker, Source server and Test
   Controller, as shown in Figure 7.

















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       +----------+    +------------+    +------------+
       |  P2PLS   |   /|   DECADE   |----|   DECADE   |
       |  Manager |  / |   Server   |    |   Server   |
       +--------^\+ /  +-----|------+    +------|-----+ EC2
       ___________\/_________|__________________|_______
                  /\         |                  |
       +---------/+ \  +-----|------+    +------|-----+
       |  P2PLS   ^  \ |   P2PLS    ^    ^   P2PLS    |
       |  Source  |\  \|   Client   |\  /|   Client   |
       +-----|----+ \  \------^-----+ \/ +------^-----+ Planetlab
       ______|_______\__\_____|_______/\________|_______
             |        \  \    |      /  \       |
       +-----|----+    v--v---v-----v    v------v-----+
       | Streaming|    |   P2PLS    |    |    Test    |
       |   Files  |    |   Tracker  |    | Controller |
       +----------+    +------------+    +------------+ Yale Lab

              P2PLS represents to P2P LiveStreaming.

                           Figure 7

7.2.1.  EC2 DECADE Server

   DECADE Servers ran on Amazon EC2 small instances, with bandwidth
   constraint.

7.2.2.  PlanetLab P2P LiveStreaming Client

   Both DECADE integrated and Native P2P live streaming clients ran on
   planetlab which spreads in various locations around the world.  The
   DECADE integrated P2P live streaming clients connect to the closest
   DECADE server according to its Geo-location distance to the servers.
   DECADE integrated P2P live streaming clients use their DECADE servers
   to upload to neighbors, instead of their own "last-mile" bandwidth.

7.2.3.  Tracker

   A native P2P live streaming tracker ran at Yale's laboratory and
   served both DECADE integrated clients and native clients during the
   test.

7.2.4.  Source Server

   A native P2P live streaming source server ran at Yale's laboratory
   and serve both DECADE integrated clients and native clients during
   the test.  The capacity of source is equivalently constrain for both
   cases.




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7.2.5.  Test Controller

   Test Controller is a manager to control all machines' behaviors in
   both EC2 and PlanetLab during the test.

7.3.  Platforms and Components of Vuze

   Test platforms includes Vuze client, tracker, DECADE Plugin, DECADE
   Servers and other supportive components such as HTTP Server, FTP
   Server and Remote Controller.
          +-------------+        +-------------+
          |             |        |             |
          |DECADE Server|  ...   |DECADE Server|
          |             |        |             |
          +-------------+        +-------------+
                 /   \                    \
                /     \                    \
               /       \                    \
              /         \                    \
             /           \                    \
            /             \                    \
           /               \                    \
    +-------------+ +-------------+     +-------------+  +-------------+
    | Vuze client | | Vuze client |     | Vuze client |  |             |
    | with DECADE | | with DECADE | ... | with DECADE |--|  Tracker    |
    | plugin      | | plugin      |     | plugin      |  |             |
    +-------------+ +-------------+     +-------------+  +-------------+
                \           |             /
                 \          |            /
                  \         |           /
                   \        |          /
                    \       |         /
                     \      |        /
                      \     |       /
                       \    |      /
                        \   |     /
   +-------------+   +-------------+    +-------------+  +-------------+
   |             |   |   Remote    |    |             |  |             |
   | PL Manager  |   | Controller  |    | HTTP Server |  |  FTP Server |
   |             |   |             |    |             |  |             |
   +-------------+   +-------------+    +-------------+  +-------------+

                                 Figure 8

7.3.1.  EC2 DECADE Server

   DECADE Servers ran on Amazon EC2 small instances, with bandwidth
   constraint.



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7.3.2.  Vuze Client with DECADE Plugin

   Vuze clients are divided into one seeding client and multiple
   leechers.  Leechers run at PlanetLab, while the seeding client runs
   at the Window 2003 server.  DECADE Plugin will be automatically
   loaded and run after Vuze client starts up.

7.3.3.  Remote Controller

   Remote controller can list all the Vuze clients in user interface and
   control them to download a specific BitTorrent file.  It runs at the
   same Window 2003 server with the seeding client.

7.3.4.  Tracker

   Vuze client provides tracker capability, so we did not deploy our own
   tracker.  Vuze embedded tracker is enabled when making a torrent
   file, the seeding client is also a tracker in this test.

7.3.5.  HTTP Server

   Torrent file will be put in the HTTP Server and the leechers will
   retrieve the torrent file from HTTP Server after receiving the
   download command from Remote Controller.  We use Apache Tomcat which
   is an open source software as HTTP Server.

7.3.6.  PL Manager

   PL Manager (PlanetLab experiment Manager)is a tool developed by
   University of Washington, which presents a simple GUI to control
   PlanetLab nodes and perform common tasks such as:

   o Selecting nodes for your slice.

   o Choosing nodes for your experiment based on CoMon information about
   the nodes.

   o Reliably deploying you experiment files.

   o Executing commands / sets of commands on every node in parallel.

   o Monitoring the progress of the experiment as a whole, as well as
   viewing console output from the nodes.








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8.  Performance Analysis

   During the test, Both DECADE integrated P2P live streaming clients
   and DECADE integrated P2P file-sharing clients achieved impressively
   better performance than native clients.

8.1.  Performance Metrics

8.1.1.  P2P Live Streaming

   To measure the performance of a P2P live streaming client, we employ
   mainly four metrics:

   o Startup Delay: the duration from a peer joins the channel to the
   moment it starts to play.

   o Piece Missed Rate: the number of pieces a peer loses when playing
   over the total number of pieces.

   o Freeze Times: the number of times a peer re-buffers during playing.

   o Average Peer Uploading Rate: Average uploading bandwidth of a peer.

8.1.2.  Vuze

   For the performance comparison of Native Vuze and DECADE-Enabled
   Vuze, the same system bandwidth is provided through some parameter
   settings.  In Native Vuze, the system bandwidth is defined as the
   amount of the uplink bandwidth from all the Vuze clients.  The
   maximum upload bandwidth (Bu) is configured to every Vuze client
   before the test.  Suppose the number of the Vuze clients is N, the
   system bandwidth is Bu * N. In the DECADE-Enabled Vuze case, the same
   bandwidth (Bu * N) is configured to the corresponding Ethernet port
   of DECADE Server.

8.1.3.  ALTO+DECADE based file distribution platform

   In ALTO+DECADE based file distribution platform, the system bandwidth
   is defined as the amount of the download bandwidth from all clients.
   The maximum upload bandwidth is configured to every client before the
   test.  The maximum online users IS defined as the amount of the
   clients downloading simultaneously.

8.2.  Result and Analysis







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8.2.1.  P2P Live Streaming

   o Startup Delay: In the test, DECADE integrated P2P live streaming
   clients startup around 35~40 seconds. some of them startup at about
   10 seconds.  Native P2P live streaming clients startup around 110~120
   seconds. less than 20% of them startup within 100 seconds.

   o Piece Missed Rate: In the test, both DECADE integrated P2P live
   streaming clients and native P2P live streaming clients achieved a
   good performance in pieces missed rate.  Only about 0.02% of total
   pieces missed in both cases.

   o Freeze Times: In the test, native P2P live streaming clients
   suffered from more freezing than DECADE Integrated P2P live streaming
   clients by 40%.

   o Average Peer Uploading Rate: In the test, according to our
   settings, DECADE integrated P2P live streaming clients had no upload
   in their "last-mile" access network.  While in the native P2P live
   streaming system, more than 70% of peers uploaded in a rate that is
   much more than streaming rate.  In another word, DECADE can shift
   uploading traffic from clients' "last-mile" to in-network devices,
   which saves a lot of expensive bandwidth on access links..

8.2.2.  Vuze

   Performance advantage is shown according to the test result of
   experiment:

   o There is no upload data traffic from Vuze clients in the DECADE-
   Enabled Vuze experiment, but in the Native Vuze experiment, the
   upload data traffic from Vuze clients is the same as download data
   traffic.  Bandwidth resource is reduced in the last mile in the
   DECADE-Enabled Vuze experiment.  The test result is illustrated in
   the following table.  The download traffic and upload traffic include
   data traffic and signal traffic.  For the upload traffic in the
   DECADE-enable Vuze, the data traffic is zero so the all traffic is
   signal overhead.  Though we used the same torrent file in those two
   cases, the number of Vuze client was not the same because the nodes
   in the Planet-lab are not always stable.  Therefore, the download
   traffic is a little different in two cases.










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        +--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+
        |                    |                    |                    |
        |                    |  Download traffic  |   Upload traffic   |
        |                    |                    |                    |
        +--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+
        |                    |                    |                    |
        | DECADE-Enabled Vuze|       480MB        |       12MB
        |                    |                    |                    |
        +--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+
        |                    |                    |                    |
        |    Native Vuze     |       430MB        |       430MB
        |                    |                    |                    |
        +--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+


                                   Figure 9

   o Higher system resource efficiency in the DECADE-Enabled Vuze
   experiment, system resource efficiency is defined as the ratio of
   system download rate to the total system bandwidth.  The test result
   is illustrated in the following figure.
            |
            |
            |                           88%
            |
            |                        +-------+
            |                        |       |
            |         65%            |       |
            |                        |       |
            |      +-------+         |       |
            |      |       |         |       |
            |      |       |         |       |
            |      |       |         |       |
            |      |       |         |       |
            |      |       |         |       |
            |      |       |         |       |
            |      |       |         |       |
            |      |       |         |       |
            |      |       |         |       |
            |      |       |         |       |
            +------+-------+---------+-------+--------
                  Native Vuze      DECADE-Enabled Vuze

                                Figure 10







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8.2.3.  ALTO+DECADE based file distribution platform

   o Each DECADE Server can supply transmit bandwidth the same as at
   most 94% of network interface card (e.g. 1000M interface card server
   can supply bandwidth of 940Mbps at most).

   o Each DECADE Server can support about 400 users online download
   simultaneously as designed.











































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9.  Security Considerations

   This document does not contain any security considerations.
















































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10.  IANA Considerations

   This document does not have any IANA considerations.
















































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11.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.















































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Authors' Addresses

   Xiaohui Chen
   HUAWEI Technologies

   Email: risker.chen@huawei.com


   Zhigang Huang
   HUAWEI Technologies

   Email: hpanda@huawei.com


   Lijiang Chen
   Yale University

   Email: lijiang.chen@yale.edu


   Hongqiang Liu
   Yale University

   Email: hongqiang.liu@yale.edu



























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