DNSOP Working Group                                         P. Thomassen
Internet-Draft                         deSEC, Secure Systems Engineering
Intended status: Standards Track                               N. Wisiol
Expires: 24 October 2022            deSEC, Technische Universit├Ąt Berlin
                                                           22 April 2022


  Automatic DNSSEC Bootstrapping using Authenticated Signals from the
                            Zone's Operator
                draft-ietf-dnsop-dnssec-bootstrapping-00

Abstract

   This document introduces an in-band method for DNS operators to
   publish arbitrary information about the zones they are authoritative
   for, in an authenticated fashion and on a per-zone basis.  The
   mechanism allows managed DNS operators to securely announce DNSSEC
   key parameters for zones under their management, including for zones
   that are not currently securely delegated.

   Whenever DS records are absent for a zone's delegation, this signal
   enables the parent's registry or registrar to cryptographically
   validate the CDS/CDNSKEY records found at the child's apex.  The
   parent can then provision DS records for the delegation without
   resorting to out-of-band validation or weaker types of cross-checks
   such as "Accept after Delay" ([RFC8078]).

   This document updates [RFC8078] and replaces its Section 3 with
   Section 3.2 of this document.

   [ Ed note: Text inside square brackets ([]) is additional background
   information, answers to frequently asked questions, general musings,
   etc.  They will be removed before publication.  This document is
   being collaborated on at https://github.com/desec-io/draft-thomassen-
   dnsop-dnssec-bootstrapping/ (https://github.com/desec-io/draft-
   thomassen-dnsop-dnssec-bootstrapping/).  The authors gratefully
   accept pull requests. ]

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.




Thomassen & Wisiol       Expires 24 October 2022                [Page 1]


Internet-Draft            dnssec-bootstrapping                April 2022


   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on 24 October 2022.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/
   license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document.
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.  Code Components
   extracted from this document must include Revised BSD License text as
   described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are
   provided without warranty as described in the Revised BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.1.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     1.2.  Requirements Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   2.  Signaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     2.1.  Chain of Trust  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     2.2.  Signaling Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   3.  Bootstrapping a DNSSEC Delegation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.1.  Signaling Consent to Act as the Child's Signer  . . . . .   6
       3.1.1.  Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.2.  Validating CDS/CDNSKEY Records for DNSSEC
           Bootstrapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       3.2.1.  Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.3.  Triggers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.4.  Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   4.  Operational Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     4.1.  Child DNS Operator  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     4.2.  Parental Agent  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   5.  Implementation Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     5.1.  Child DNS Operator-side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     5.2.  Parental Agent-side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   6.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   8.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   9.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   Appendix A.  Change History (to be removed before publication)  .  13



Thomassen & Wisiol       Expires 24 October 2022                [Page 2]


Internet-Draft            dnssec-bootstrapping                April 2022


   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14

1.  Introduction

   Securing a DNS delegation for the first time requires that the
   Child's DNSSEC parameters be conveyed to the Parent through some
   trusted channel.  While the communication conceptually has to occur
   between the Parent registry and the DNSSEC key holder, what exactly
   that means and how the communication is coordinated traditionally
   depends on the relationship the Child has with the Parent:

   A typical situation is that the key is held by the Child DNS
   Operator; the communication thus often involes this entity.  In
   addition, depending on the circumstances, it may also involve the
   Registrar, possibly via the Registrant (for details, see [RFC7344],
   Appendix A).

   As observed in [RFC7344], these dependencies result often result in a
   manual process that is susceptible to mistakes and/or errors.  In
   addition, due to the annoyance factor of the process, involved
   parties may avoid the process of getting a DS record set published in
   the first place.

   To alleviate these problems, automated provisioning of DS records has
   been specified in ([RFC8078]).  It is based on the Parental Agent
   (registry or registrar) fetching DNSSEC key parameters in the form of
   CDS and CDNSKEY records ([RFC7344]) from the Child zone's apex, and
   validating them somehow.  This validation can be done using DNSSEC
   itself if the objective is to update an existing DS record set (such
   as during key rollover).  However, when bootstrapping a DNSSEC
   delegation, the Child zone has no existing DNSSEC validation path,
   and other means to ensure the CDS/CDNSKEY records' legitimacy must be
   found.

   For lack of a comprehensive DNS-innate solution, either out-of-band
   methods have been used so far to complete the chain of trust, or
   cryptographic validation has been entirely dispensed with, in
   exchange for weaker types of cross-checks such as "Accept after
   Delay" ([RFC8078] Section 3.3).  An in-band validation method for
   enabling DNSSEC has been missing.











Thomassen & Wisiol       Expires 24 October 2022                [Page 3]


Internet-Draft            dnssec-bootstrapping                April 2022


   This document aims to close this gap by introducing an in-band method
   for DNS Operators to publish arbitrary information about the zones
   they are authoritative for, in an authenticated manner and on a per-
   zone basis.  The mechanism allows managed DNS Operators to securely
   announce DNSSEC key parameters for zones under their management.  The
   Parent can then use this signal to cryptographically validate the
   CDS/CDNSKEY records found at an insecure Child zone's apex, and upon
   success secure the delegation.

   While applicable to the vast majority of domains, the protocol does
   not support certain edge cases, such as excessively long Child zone
   names, or DNSSEC bootstrapping for in-bailiwick domains (see
   Section 3.4).

   Readers are expected to be familiar with DNSSEC, including [RFC4033],
   [RFC4034], [RFC4035], [RFC6781], [RFC7344], and [RFC8078].

1.1.  Terminology

   This section defines the terminology used in this document.

   CDS/CDNSKEY  This notation refers to CDS and/or CDNSKEY, i.e., one or
      both.

   Child  The entity on record that has the delegation of the domain
      from the Parent.

   Child DNS Operator  The entity that maintains and publishes the zone
      information for the Child DNS.

   Parent  The domain in which the Child in registered.

   Parental Agent  The entity that has the authority to insert DS
      records into the Parent zone on behalf of the Child.  (It could
      the the registry, registrar, a reseller, or some other authorized
      entity.)

   Signaling Domain  A hostname from the Child's NS record set, prefixed
      with the label _dsauth.  There are as many Signaling Domains as
      there are distinct NS targets.

   Signaling Name  The labels that are prefixed to a Signaling Domain in
      order to identify a Child zone's name (see Section 2.2).

   Signaling Record  A DNS record located at a Signaling Name under a
      Signaling Domain.  Signaling Records are used by the Child DNS
      Operator to publish information about the Child.




Thomassen & Wisiol       Expires 24 October 2022                [Page 4]


Internet-Draft            dnssec-bootstrapping                April 2022


   Signaling Zone  The zone which is authoritative for a given Signaling
      Domain.

1.2.  Requirements Notation

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
   14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

2.  Signaling

   When setting up initial trust, the Child zone's CDS/CDNSKEY RRsets
   need to be authenticated.  This is achieved using an authentication
   signal from the Child DNS Operator that the Parent can discover and
   validate, thus transferring trust from the Child DNS Operator to the
   Child zone.

2.1.  Chain of Trust

   If a Child DNS Operator implements the protocol, each Signaling Zone
   MUST be signed and securely delegated, i.e. have a valid DNSSEC chain
   of trust.

   For example, when performing DNSSEC bootstrapping for a Child zone
   with NS records ns1.example.net and ns2.example.net, the Child DNS
   Operator needs to ensure that a valid DNSSEC chain of trust exists
   for the zone(s) that are authoritative for the Signaling Domains
   _dsauth.ns1.example.net and _dsauth.ns2.example.net.

2.2.  Signaling Names

   To publish a piece of information about the Child zone in an
   authenticated fashion, the Child DNS Operator MUST publish one or
   more Signaling Records at the Child's Signaling Name under each
   Signaling Domain.

   Signaling Records MUST be accompanied by RRSIG records created with
   the corresponding Signaling Zone's key(s).  The type and contents of
   these Signaling Records are detailed in Section 3.1.

   The Signaling Name is identical to the Child name, with the final
   root label removed.







Thomassen & Wisiol       Expires 24 October 2022                [Page 5]


Internet-Draft            dnssec-bootstrapping                April 2022


3.  Bootstrapping a DNSSEC Delegation

   Child DNS Operators and Parental Agents who wish to use CDS/CDNSKEY
   records for DNSSEC bootstrapping SHOULD support the protocol
   described in this section.

3.1.  Signaling Consent to Act as the Child's Signer

   To confirm its willingness to act as the Child's delegated signer and
   authenticate the Child's CDS/CDNSKEY RRsets, the Child DNS Operator
   MUST co-publish them at the corresponding Signaling Name under each
   Signaling Domain as defined in Section 2.2.

   Existing use of CDS/CDNSKEY records is specified at the Child apex
   only ([RFC7344], Section 4.1).  This protocol extends the use of
   these record types to non-apex owner names for the purpose of DNSSEC
   bootstrapping.  To exclude the possibility of semantic collision,
   there MUST NOT be a zone cut at a Signaling Name.

   Unlike the CDS/CDNSKEY records at the Child's apex, Signaling Records
   MUST be signed with the corresponding Signaling Zone's key(s).  Their
   contents MUST be identical to the corresponding records published at
   the Child's apex.

3.1.1.  Example

   For the purposes of bootstrapping the Child zone example.co.uk with
   NS records ns1.example.net and ns2.example.net, the required
   Signaling Domains are _dsauth.ns1.example.net and
   _dsauth.ns2.example.net.

   In the zones containing these domains, the Child DNS Operator
   authenticates the CDS/CDNSKEY records found at the Child's apex by
   co-publishing them at the names:

   example.co.uk._dsauth.ns1.example.net
   example.co.uk._dsauth.ns2.example.net

   The records are accompanied by RRSIG records created using the key(s)
   of the respective Signaling Zone.

3.2.  Validating CDS/CDNSKEY Records for DNSSEC Bootstrapping

   This section replaces Section 3 of [RFC8078].

   To validate a Child's CDS/CDNSKEY RRset for DNSSEC bootstrapping, the
   Parental Agent, knowing both the Child zone name and its NS
   hostnames, MUST execute the following steps:



Thomassen & Wisiol       Expires 24 October 2022                [Page 6]


Internet-Draft            dnssec-bootstrapping                April 2022


   1.  verify that the Child is not currently securely delegated;

   2.  query the CDS/CDNSKEY records at the Child zone apex directly
       from each of the authoritative servers listed in the delegation's
       NS record set;

   3.  query the CDS/CDNSKEY records located at the Signaling Name under
       each Signaling Domain using a trusted DNS resolver and enforce
       DNSSEC validation;

   4.  check (separately by record type) that all record sets retrieved
       in Steps 2 and 3 have equal contents;

   If the above steps succeed without error, the CDS/CDNSKEY records are
   successfully validated, and the Parental Agent can proceed with the
   publication of the DS record set under the precautions described in
   [RFC8078], Section 5.

   If, however, an error condition occurs, in particular:

   *  in Step 1: the Child is already securely delegated;

   *  in Step 2: any failure during the retrieval of the CDS/CDNSKEY
      records located at the Child apex from any of the authoritative
      nameservers;

   *  in Step 3: any failure to retrieve the CDS/CDNSKEY RRsets located
      at the Signaling Name under any Signaling Domain, including
      failure of DNSSEC validation, or unauthenticated data (AD bit not
      set);

   *  in Step 4: inconsistent responses (for at least one of the types),
      including a record set that is empty in one of Steps 2 or 3, but
      non-empty in the other;

   the Parental Agent MUST abort the procedure.

3.2.1.  Example

   To verify the CDS/CDNSKEY records for the Child example.co.uk, the
   Parental Agent (assuming that the Child delegation's NS records are
   ns1.example.net and ns2.example.net)

   1.  checks that the Child domain is not yet securely delegated;

   2.  queries CDS/CDNSKEY records for example.co.uk directly from
       ns1.example.net and ns2.example.net;




Thomassen & Wisiol       Expires 24 October 2022                [Page 7]


Internet-Draft            dnssec-bootstrapping                April 2022


   3.  queries and validates the CDS/CDNSKEY records located at (see
       Section 2.2)

   example.co.uk._dsauth.ns1.example.net
   example.co.uk._dsauth.ns2.example.net

   4.  checks that the CDS/CDNSKEY record sets retrieved in Steps 2 and
       3 agree across responses.

   If all these steps succeed, the Parental Agent can proceed to publish
   a DS record set as indicated by the validated CDS/CDNSKEY records.

3.3.  Triggers

   [ Clarity of this section needs to be improved. ]

   Parental Agents SHOULD trigger the procedure described in Section 3.2
   once one of the following conditions is fulfilled:

   *  The Parental Agent receives a new or updated NS record set for a
      Child;

   *  The Parental Agent encounters Signaling Records during a
      proactive, opportunistic scan (e.g. daily queries for the
      Signaling Records of some or all of its delegations);

   *  The Parental Agent encounters Signaling Records for its Children
      during a scan (e.g. daily) of known Signaling Domains (derived
      from the NS records found in the Parent zone).  The scan is
      completed by either

      -  performing a targeted NSEC walk (starting with the Parent
         domain prepended to the Signaling Domain, such as
         co.uk._dsauth.ns1.example.net), or by

      -  performing a zone transfer of the zone containing (the relevant
         portion of) the Signaling Domain, if the Signaling Zone
         operator allows it, and iterating over its contents.

   *  Any other condition as deemed appropriate by local policy.

   One of the inputs of the bootstrapping algorithm in Section 3.2 is
   the NS record set of the Child's delegation.  It is therefore
   necessary to establish knowledge of the delegation's NS record set
   before firing the trigger.






Thomassen & Wisiol       Expires 24 October 2022                [Page 8]


Internet-Draft            dnssec-bootstrapping                April 2022


   In some cases, the trigger context contains reliable information
   about the Child's delegation, such as when bootstrapping is triggered
   by the registrant changing their NS record set, or during a daily
   scan of existing delegations.  In such cases, the delegation's NS
   RRset can be used as is.

   In cases where the trigger context does not provide sufficient
   knowledge of the NS record set, the Parental Agent MUST fetch the
   delegation's NS record set and ensure that the proper NS record set
   is fed to the bootstrapping algorithm (Section 3.2).

   In particular, when discovering Signaling Names by means of an NSEC
   walk or zone transfer, the Parental Agent MUST NOT assume that the
   nameserver(s) under whose Signaling Domain(s) a Signaling Name is
   discovered is in fact authoritative for the corresponding Child.
   Before firing the trigger for a particular candidate Child, the
   Parental Agent MUST ascertain that the Child's delegation actually
   contains the nameserver hostname under whose Signaling Domain the
   scan occurred.

3.4.  Limitations

   As a consequence of Step 3 in Section 3.2, DS bootstrapping does not
   work for in-bailiwick delegations, as no pre-existing chain of trust
   to the Child domain is available during bootstrapping.

   The protocol is further restricted by the fact that the fully
   qualified Signaling Names fit within the general limits that apply to
   DNS names (such as their length and label count).

4.  Operational Recommendations

4.1.  Child DNS Operator

   To keep the size of the Signaling Zones minimal and bulk processing
   efficient (such as via NSEC walks or zone transfers), Child DNS
   Operators SHOULD remove Signaling Records which are found to have
   been acted upon.

   Signaling Domains SHOULD be delegated as zones of their own, so that
   the Signaling Zone's apex coincides with the Signaling Domain (such
   as _dsauth.ns1.example.net).  While it is permissible for the
   Signaling Domain to be contained in a Signaling Zone of fewer labels
   (such as example.net), a zone cut ensures that bootstrapping
   activities do not require modifications of the zone containing the
   nameserver hostname.





Thomassen & Wisiol       Expires 24 October 2022                [Page 9]


Internet-Draft            dnssec-bootstrapping                April 2022


   In addition, Signaling Zones SHOULD use NSEC to allow efficient
   discovery of pending bootstrapping operations by means of zone
   walking (see Section 3.3).  This is especially useful for bulk
   processing after a Child DNS Operator has enabled the protocol.

4.2.  Parental Agent

   It is RECOMMENDED to perform queries within Signaling Domains
   (Section 3.2) with an (initially) cold resolver cache as to retrieve
   the most current information regardless of TTL.  (When a batch job is
   used to attempt bootstrapping for a large number of delegations, the
   cache does not need to get cleared in between.)

   [It is expected that Signaling Records have few consumers only, so
   that caching would not normally have a performance benefit.  Perhaps
   it is thus better to RECOMMEND low TTLs instead?]

5.  Implementation Status

   *Note to the RFC Editor*: please remove this entire section before
   publication.

5.1.  Child DNS Operator-side

   *  Knot DNS supports manual creation of non-apex CDS/CDNSKEY records.

   *  PowerDNS supports manual creation of non-apex CDS/CDNSKEY records.

   *  Proof-of-concept Signaling Domains with several thousand Signaling
      Names exist at _dsauth.ns1.desec.io and _dsauth.ns2.desec.org.

   *  Another DNS operator has implemented the protocol (synthesizing
      Signaling Records for a significant number of domains).

   *  The authors are planning to develop a tool for automatic
      generation of signaling records.

5.2.  Parental Agent-side

   *  A tool to retrieve and process Signaling Records for bootstrapping
      purposes, either directly or via zone walking, is available at
      https://github.com/desec-io/dsbootstrap (https://github.com/desec-
      io/dsbootstrap).  The tool outputs the validated DS records which
      then can be added to the Parent zone.

   *  Some registries/registrars (e.g. .cl, GoDaddy) are working on
      implementations of the protocol.




Thomassen & Wisiol       Expires 24 October 2022               [Page 10]


Internet-Draft            dnssec-bootstrapping                April 2022


6.  Security Considerations

   The protocol adds authentication to the CDS/CDNSKEY-based
   bootstrapping concept of [RFC8078], while removing nothing.  Its
   security level is therefore strictly higher than that of existing
   approaches described in that document (e.g.  "Accept after Delay").
   Apart from this general improvement, the same Security Considerations
   apply as in [RFC8078].

   The level of rigor in Section 3.2 is needed to prevent publication of
   a half-baked DS RRset (authorized only under a subset of NS
   hostnames).  This ensures, for example, that an operator in a multi-
   homed setup cannot enable DNSSEC unless all other operators agree. [
   TODO In principle, this applies to any CDS update.  Should we phrase
   it as a general update to [RFC8078]? ]

   [ Thoughts on the Chain of Trust:

   Actors in the chain(s) of trust of the Signaling Zone(s) (the DNS
   Operator themselves, plus entities further up in the chain) can
   undermine the protocol.  However,

   *  that's possible with CDS/CDNSKEY, too (new method is not weaker);

   *  if the Child DNS Operator doesn't trust the zones in which its NS
      hostnames live (including their nameservers' A records) because
      their path from the root is untrusted, you probably don't want to
      trust that operator as a whole;

   *  when bootstrapping is done upon receipt of a new NS record set,
      the window of opportunity is very small;

   *  mitigation exists by diversifying e.g. the nameserver hostname's
      TLDs, which is advisable anyways;

   *  correct bootstrapping is easily monitored by the Child DNS
      Operator.

   ]

7.  IANA Considerations

   *TODO:* reserve _dsauth?

   This document has no IANA actions.






Thomassen & Wisiol       Expires 24 October 2022               [Page 11]


Internet-Draft            dnssec-bootstrapping                April 2022


8.  Acknowledgements

   Thanks to Brian Dickson, Ondřej Caletka, John R.  Levine,
   Christian Elmerot, and Oli Schacher for reviewing draft proposals and
   offering comments and suggestions.

   Thanks also to Steve Crocker, Hugo Salgado, and Ulrich Wisser for
   early-stage brainstorming.

9.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC4033]  Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
              Rose, "DNS Security Introduction and Requirements",
              RFC 4033, DOI 10.17487/RFC4033, March 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4033>.

   [RFC4034]  Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
              Rose, "Resource Records for the DNS Security Extensions",
              RFC 4034, DOI 10.17487/RFC4034, March 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4034>.

   [RFC4035]  Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
              Rose, "Protocol Modifications for the DNS Security
              Extensions", RFC 4035, DOI 10.17487/RFC4035, March 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4035>.

   [RFC6781]  Kolkman, O., Mekking, W., and R. Gieben, "DNSSEC
              Operational Practices, Version 2", RFC 6781,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6781, December 2012,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6781>.

   [RFC7344]  Kumari, W., Gudmundsson, O., and G. Barwood, "Automating
              DNSSEC Delegation Trust Maintenance", RFC 7344,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7344, September 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7344>.

   [RFC8078]  Gudmundsson, O. and P. Wouters, "Managing DS Records from
              the Parent via CDS/CDNSKEY", RFC 8078,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8078, March 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8078>.






Thomassen & Wisiol       Expires 24 October 2022               [Page 12]


Internet-Draft            dnssec-bootstrapping                April 2022


   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

Appendix A.  Change History (to be removed before publication)

   *  draft-ietf-dnsop-dnssec-bootstrapping-00

   |  Editorial changes.

   *  draft-thomassen-dnsop-dnssec-bootstrapping-03

   |  Clarified importance of record cleanup by moving paragraph up.
   |
   |  Pointed out limitations.
   |
   |  Replace [RFC8078] Section 3 with our Section 3.2.
   |
   |  Changed _boot label to _dsauth.
   |
   |  Removed hashing of Child name components in Signaling Names.
   |
   |  Editorial changes.

   *  draft-thomassen-dnsop-dnssec-bootstrapping-02

   |  Reframed as an authentication mechanism for RFC 8078.
   |
   |  Removed multi-signer use case (focus on RFC 8078 authentication).
   |
   |  Triggers need to fetch NS records (if not implicit from context).
   |
   |  Improved title.
   |
   |  Recognized that hash collisions are dealt with by Child apex
   |  check.

   *  draft-thomassen-dnsop-dnssec-bootstrapping-01

   |  Add section on Triggers.
   |
   |  Clarified title.
   |
   |  Improved abstract.
   |
   |  Require CDS/CDNSKEY records at the Child.
   |
   |  Reworked Signaling Name scheme.



Thomassen & Wisiol       Expires 24 October 2022               [Page 13]


Internet-Draft            dnssec-bootstrapping                April 2022


   |
   |  Recommend using cold cache for consumption.
   |
   |  Updated terminology (replace "Bootstrapping" by "Signaling").
   |
   |  Added NSEC recommendation for Bootstrapping Zones.
   |
   |  Added multi-signer use case.
   |
   |  Editorial changes.

   *  draft-thomassen-dnsop-dnssec-bootstrapping-00

   |  Initial public draft.

Authors' Addresses

   Peter Thomassen
   deSEC, Secure Systems Engineering
   Berlin
   Germany
   Email: peter@desec.io


   Nils Wisiol
   deSEC, Technische Universit├Ąt Berlin
   Berlin
   Germany
   Email: nils@desec.io






















Thomassen & Wisiol       Expires 24 October 2022               [Page 14]