dprive                                                      D.K. Gillmor
Internet-Draft                                                      ACLU
Intended status: Informational                                J. Salazar
Expires: 8 September 2022                                   7 March 2022


     Unilateral Opportunistic Deployment of Encrypted Recursive-to-
                           Authoritative DNS
                draft-ietf-dprive-unilateral-probing-00

Abstract

   This draft sets out steps that DNS servers (recursive resolvers and
   authoritative servers) can take unilaterally (without any
   coordination with other peers) to defend DNS query privacy against a
   passive network monitor.  The steps in this draft can be defeated by
   an active attacker, but should be simpler and less risky to deploy
   than more powerful defenses.  The draft also introduces (but does not
   try to specify) the semantics of signalling that would permit defense
   against an active attacker.

   The goal of this draft is to simplify and speed deployment of
   opportunistic encrypted transport in the recursive-to-authoritative
   hop of the DNS ecosystem.  With wider easy deployment of the
   underlying transport on an opportunistic basis, we hope to facilitate
   the future specification of stronger cryptographic protections
   against more powerful attacks.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on 8 September 2022.







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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/
   license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document.
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.  Code Components
   extracted from this document must include Revised BSD License text as
   described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are
   provided without warranty as described in the Revised BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.1.  Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Priorities  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     2.1.  Minimizing Negative Impacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.2.  Protocol Choices  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Guidance for Authoritative Servers  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.1.  Pooled Authoritative Servers Behind a Single IP
           Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.2.  Authentication  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.3.  Server Name Indication  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.4.  Resource Exhaustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   4.  Guidance for recursive resolvers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.1.  Overall recursive resolver Settings . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.2.  Recursive Resolver Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     4.3.  Authoritative Server Encrypted Transport Connection
           State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       4.3.1.  Separate State for Each of the Recursive Resolver's Own
               IP Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     4.4.  Maintaining Authoritative State by IP Address . . . . . .  10
     4.5.  Probing Policy  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       4.5.1.  Sending a query over Do53 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       4.5.2.  Receiving a response over Do53  . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       4.5.3.  Initiating a connection over encrypted transport  . .  12
       4.5.4.  Establishing an encrypted transport connection  . . .  14
       4.5.5.  Failing to establish an encrypted transport
               connection  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       4.5.6.  Encrypted transport failure . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       4.5.7.  Handling clean shutdown of encrypted transport
               connection  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       4.5.8.  Sending a query over encrypted transport  . . . . . .  17
       4.5.9.  Receiving a response over encrypted transport . . . .  17



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       4.5.10. Resource Exhaustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
       4.5.11. Maintaining connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   5.  Signalling for Stronger Defense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     5.1.  Combining Signals with Opportunistic Probing  . . . . . .  20
   6.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
   7.  Privacy Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     7.1.  Server Name Indication  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
   8.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
   9.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
   10. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
     10.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
     10.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
   Appendix A.  Document Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
     A.1.  Document History  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
       A.1.1.  Substantive changes from -01 to -02 . . . . . . . . .  23
       A.1.2.  Substantive changes from -00 to -01 . . . . . . . . .  23
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23

1.  Introduction

1.1.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
   14 ([RFC2119] and [RFC8174]) when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

1.2.  Terminology

   *  "unilateral" means capable of opportunistic probing deployment
      without external coordination with any of the other parties

   *  Do53 refers to traditional cleartext DNS over port 53 ([RFC1035])

   *  DoQ refers to DNS-over-QUIC ([I-D.ietf-dprive-dnsoquic])

   *  DoT refers to DNS-over-TLS ([RFC7858])

   *  DoH refers to DNS-over-HTTPS ([RFC8484])

   *  Encrypted transports refers to DoQ, DoT, and DoH collectively

2.  Priorities

   This document aims to provide guidance to implementers who want to
   simply enable protection against passive network observers.




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   In particular, it focuses on mechanisms that can be adopted
   unilaterally by recursive resolvers and authoritative servers,
   without any explicit coordination with the other parties.  This
   guidance provides opportunistic security (see [RFC7435]) --
   encrypting things that would otherwise be in the clear, without
   interfering with or weakening stronger forms of security.

2.1.  Minimizing Negative Impacts

   It also aims to minimize potentially negative impacts caused by the
   probing of encrypted transports -- for the systems that adopt these
   guidelines, for the parties that they communicate with in the "second
   hump" of the DNS camel, and for uninvolved third parties.  The
   negative impacts that we specifically try to minimize are:

   *  excessive bandwidth use

   *  excessive computational resources (CPU and memory in particular)

   *  amplification attacks (where DNS resolution infrastructure is
      wielded as part of a DoS attack)

2.2.  Protocol Choices

   While this document focuses specifically on strategies used by DNS
   servers, it does not go into detail on the specific protocols used,
   as those protocols --- in particular, DoT and DoQ --- are described
   in other documents.

   This document does not pursue the use of DoH in this context, because
   a DoH client needs to know the path part of a DoH endpoint URL, and
   there are currently no mechanisms for a DNS resolver to predict the
   path on its own, in an opportunistic or unilateral fashion, without
   incurring in excessive use of resources.  For instance, a recursive
   resolver in theory could guess the full path to a queried IP address
   by trying all the URL paths that the client has in records and see if
   one of those works, but even though it can be expected that this
   would work 99% of the time with fewer than 100 probes, this technique
   would likely incur in excessive resource consumption potentially
   leading to vulnerabilities and amplification attacks.  The authors of
   this draft particularly welcome ideas and contributions from the
   community that lead to a suitable mechanism for unilaterally probing
   for DoH-capable authoritative servers, for later consideration in
   this or other drafts.







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3.  Guidance for Authoritative Servers

   An authoritative server SHOULD implement and deploy DNS-over-TLS
   (DoT) on TCP port 853.

   An authoritative server MAY implement and deploy DNS-over-QUIC (DoQ)
   on UDP port 853.

3.1.  Pooled Authoritative Servers Behind a Single IP Address

   Some authoritative DNS servers are structured as a pool of
   authoritatives standing behind a load-balancer that runs on a single
   IP address, forwarding queries to members of the pool.

   In such a deployment, individual members of the pool typically get
   updated independently from each other.

   A recursive resolver following the guidance in Section 4 that
   interacts with such a pool likely does not know that it is a pool.
   If some members of the pool are updated to follow this guidance while
   others are not, the recursive client might see the pool as a single
   authoritative server that sometimes offers and sometimes refuses
   encrypted transport.

   To avoid incurring additional minor timeouts for such a recursive
   resolver, the pool operator SHOULD either:

   *  ensure that all members of the pool enable the same encrypted
      transport(s) within the span of a few seconds, or

   *  ensure that the load balancer maps client requests to pool members
      based on client IP addresses.

   Similar concerns apply to authoritative servers responding from an
   anycast IP address.  As long as the pool of servers is in a
   heterogenous state, any flapping route that switches a given client
   IP address to a different responder risks incurring an additional
   timeout.  Frequent changes of routing for anycast listening IP
   addresses are also likely to cause problems for TLS, TCP, or QUIC
   connection state as well, so stable routes are important to ensure
   that the service remains available and responsive.

3.2.  Authentication

   For unilateral deployment, an authoritative server does not need to
   offer any particular form of authentication.





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   The simplest deployment would simply provide a self-issued,
   regularly-updated X.509 certificate.  This mechanism is supported by
   many TLS and QUIC clients, and will be acceptable for any
   opportunistic connection.

   Possible alternate forms of server authentication include:

   *  an X.509 Certificate issued by a widely-known certification
      authority associated with the common NS names used for this
      authoritative server

   *  DANE authentication (potentially including the TLS handshake)

3.3.  Server Name Indication

   An authoritative DNS server that wants to handle unilateral queries
   MAY rely on Server Name Indication (SNI) to select alternate server
   credentials.  However, such a server MUST NOT serve resource records
   that differ based on SNI (or on the lack of SNI) provided by the
   client, as a probing recursive resolver that offers SNI might or
   might not have used the right server name to get the records it's
   looking for.

3.4.  Resource Exhaustion

   A well-behaved recursive resolver may keep an encrypted connection
   open to an authoritative server, to amortize the costs of connection
   setup for both parties.

   However, some authoritative servers may have insufficient resources
   available to keep many connections open concurrently.

   To keep resources under control, authoritative servers should
   proactively manage their encrypted connections.  Section 6.5 of
   [I-D.ietf-dprive-dnsoquic] ("Connection Handling") offers useful
   guidance for servers managing DoQ connections.  Section 3.4 of
   [RFC7858] offers useful guidance for servers managing DoT
   connections.

   An authoritative server facing unforseen resource exhaustion SHOULD
   cleanly close open connections from recursive resolvers based on the
   authoritative's preferred prioritization.

   In the case of unanticipated resource exhaustion, a reasonable
   prioritization scheme would be to close connections in this order,
   until resources are back in control:





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   *  connections with no outstanding queries, ordered by idle time
      (longest idle time gets closed first)

   *  connections with outstanding queries, ordered by age of
      outstanding query (oldest outstanding query gets closed first)

   When resources are especially tight, the authoritative server may
   also decline to accept new connections over encrypted transport.

4.  Guidance for recursive resolvers

   This section outlines a probing policy suitable for unilateral
   adoption by any recursive resolver.  Following this policy should not
   result in failed resolutions or significant delay.

4.1.  Overall recursive resolver Settings

   A recursive resolver implementing this draft must set system-wide
   values for some default parameters.  These parameters may be set
   independently for each supported encrypted transport, though a simple
   implementation may keep the parameters constant across encrypted
   transports.

      +=============+===================================+===========+
      | Name        | Description                       | Suggested |
      |             |                                   | Default   |
      +=============+===================================+===========+
      | persistence | How long should the recursive     | 3 days    |
      |             | resolver remember successful      | (259200   |
      |             | encrypted transport connections?  | seconds)  |
      +-------------+-----------------------------------+-----------+
      | damping     | How long should the recursive     | 1 day     |
      |             | resolver remember unsuccessful    | (86400    |
      |             | encrypted transport connections?  | seconds)  |
      +-------------+-----------------------------------+-----------+
      | timeout     | How long should the recursive     | 4 seconds |
      |             | resolver wait for an initiated    |           |
      |             | encrypted connection to complete? |           |
      +-------------+-----------------------------------+-----------+

        Table 1: recursive resolver system parameters per encrypted
                                 transport

   This document uses the notation E-foo to refer to the foo parameter
   for the encrypted transport E.






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   For example DoT-persistence would indicate the length of time that
   the recursive resolver will remember that an authoritative server had
   a successful connection over DoT.

   This document also assumes that the resolver maintains a list of
   outstanding cleartext queries destined for the authoritative
   resolver's IP address X.  This list is referred to as
   Do53-queries[X].  This document does not attempt to describe the
   specific operation of sending and receiving cleartext DNS queries
   (Do53) for a recursive resolver.  Instead it describes a "bolt-on"
   mechanism that extends the recursive resolver's operation on a few
   simple hooks into the recursive resolver's existing handling of Do53.

   Implementers or deployers of DNS recursive resolvers that follow the
   strategies in this document are encouraged to report their preferred
   values of these parameters.

4.2.  Recursive Resolver Requirements

   To follow this guidance, a recursive resolver MUST implement at least
   one of either DoT or DoQ in its capacity as a client of authoritative
   nameservers.

   A recursive resolver SHOULD implement the client side of DNS-over-TLS
   (DoT).  A recursive resolver MAY implement the client side of DNS-
   over-QUIC (DoQ).

   DoT queries from the recursive resolver MUST target TCP port 853,
   with an ALPN of dot.  DoQ queries from the recursive resolver MUST
   target UDP port 853, with an ALPN of doq.

   While this document focuses on the recursive-to-authoritative hop, a
   recursive resolver implementing these strategies SHOULD also accept
   queries from its clients over some encrypted transport (current
   common transports are DoH or DoT).

4.3.  Authoritative Server Encrypted Transport Connection State

   The recursive resolver SHOULD keep a record of the state for each
   authoritative server it contacts, indexed by the IP address of the
   authoritative server and the encrypted transports supported by the
   recursive resolver.

   Each record should contain the following fields for each supported
   encrypted transport, each of which would initially be null:






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   +===============+==========================================+========+
   | Name          | Description                              | Retain |
   |               |                                          | Across |
   |               |                                          | Reset  |
   +===============+==========================================+========+
   | session       | The associated state of any              | N      |
   |               | existing, established session (the       |        |
   |               | structure of this value is dependent     |        |
   |               | on the encrypted transport               |        |
   |               | implementation).  If session is not      |        |
   |               | null, it may be in one of two            |        |
   |               | states: pending or established           |        |
   +---------------+------------------------------------------+--------+
   | initiated     | Timestamp of most recent connection      | Y      |
   |               | attempt                                  |        |
   +---------------+------------------------------------------+--------+
   | completed     | Timestamp of most recent completed       | Y      |
   |               | handshake                                |        |
   +---------------+------------------------------------------+--------+
   | status        | Enumerated value of success or fail      | Y      |
   |               | or timeout, associated with the          |        |
   |               | completed handshake                      |        |
   +---------------+------------------------------------------+--------+
   | resumptions   | A stack of resumption tickets (and       | Y      |
   |               | associated parameters) that could be     |        |
   |               | used to resume a prior successful        |        |
   |               | connection                               |        |
   +---------------+------------------------------------------+--------+
   | queries       | A queue of queries intended for this     | N      |
   |               | authoritative server, each of which      |        |
   |               | has additional status early, unsent,     |        |
   |               | or sent                                  |        |
   +---------------+------------------------------------------+--------+
   | last-activity | A timestamp of the most recent           | N      |
   |               | activity on the connection               |        |
   +---------------+------------------------------------------+--------+

   Table 2: recursive resolver state per authoritative IP, per encrypted
                                 transport

   Note that the session fields in aggregate constitute a pool of open
   connections to different servers.

   With the exception of the session, queries, and last-activity fields,
   this cache information should be kept across restart of the server
   unless explicitly cleared by administrative action.





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   This document uses the notation E-foo[X] to indicate the value of
   field foo for encrypted transport E to IP address X.

   For example, DoT-initiated[192.0.2.4] represents the timestamp when
   the most recent DoT connection packet was sent to IP address
   192.0.2.4.

4.3.1.  Separate State for Each of the Recursive Resolver's Own IP
        Addresses

   Note that the recursive resolver should record this per-
   authoritative-IP state for each IP address it uses as it sends its
   queries.  For example, if a recursive resolver can send a packet to
   authoritative servers from IP addresses 192.0.2.100 and 192.0.2.200,
   it should keep two distinct sets of per-authoritative-IP state, one
   for each source address it uses.  Keeping these state tables distinct
   for each source address makes it possible for a pooled authoritative
   server behind a load balancer to do a partial rollout while
   minimizing accidental timeouts (see Section 3.1).

4.4.  Maintaining Authoritative State by IP Address

   In designing a probing strategy, the recursive resolver could record
   its knowledge about any given authoritative server with different
   strategies, including at least:

   *  the authoritative server's IP address,

   *  the authoritative server's name (the NS record used), or

   *  the zone that contains the record being looked up.

   This draft encourages the first strategy, to minimize timeouts or
   accidental delays.

   A timeout (accidental delay) is most likely to happen when the
   recursive client believes that the authoritative server offers
   encrypted transport, but the actual server reached declines encrypted
   transport (or worse, filters the incoming traffic and does not even
   respond with an ICMP port closed message).

   By associating state with the IP address, the recursive client is
   most able to avoid reaching a heterogenous deployment.

   For example, consider an authoritative server named ns0.example.com
   that is served by two installations (with two A records), one at
   192.0.2.7 that follows this guidance, and one at 192.0.2.8 that is a
   legacy (cleartext port 53-only) deployment.  A recursive client who



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   associates state with the NS name and reaches .7 first will "learn"
   that ns0.example.com supports encrypted transport.  A subsequent
   query over encrypted transport dispatched to .8 would fail,
   potentially delaying the response.

   By associating the state with the authoritative IP address, the
   client can minimize the number of accidental delays introduced (see
   also Section 4.3.1 and Section 3.1).

4.5.  Probing Policy

   When a recursive resolver discovers the need for an authoritative
   lookup to an authoritative DNS server using IP address X, it
   retrieves the records associated with X from its cache.

   The following sections presume that the time of the discovery of the
   need for lookup is time T0.

   If any of the records discussed here are absent, they are treated as
   null.

   The recursive resolver must know to decide whether to initially send
   a query over Do53, or over any of the supported encrypted transports
   (DoT or DoQ).

   Note that a resolver might initiate this query via any or all of the
   known transports.  When multiple queries are sent, the initial
   packets for each connection can be sent concurrently, similar to
   "Happy Eyeballs" ([RFC8305]).  However, unlike Happy Eyeballs, when
   one transport succeeds, the other connections do not need to be
   terminated, but can instead be continued to establish whether the IP
   address X is capable of corresponding on the relevant transport.

4.5.1.  Sending a query over Do53

   For any of the supported encrypted transports E, if either of the
   following holds true, the resolver SHOULD NOT send a query to X over
   Do53:

   *  E-session[X] is in the established state, or

   *  E-status[X] is success, and (T - E-completed[X]) < persistence

   Otherwise, if there is no outstanding session for any encrypted
   transport, and the last successful encrypted transport connection was
   long ago, the resolver sends a query to X over Do53.  When it does
   so, it inserts a handle for the query in Do53-queries[X].




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4.5.2.  Receiving a response over Do53

   When a successful response R is received in cleartext from
   authoritative server X for a query Q that was sent over Do53, the
   recursive resolver should:

   *  If Q is in Do53-queries[X]:

      -  Return R to the requesting client

   *  Remove Q from Do53-queries[X]

   *  For each supported encrypted transport E:

      -  If Q is in E-queries[X]:

         o  Remove Q from E-queries[X]

   But if R is unsuccessful (e.g.  SERVFAIL):

   *  If Q is in Do53-queries[X]:

      -  Remove Q from Do53-queries[X]

   *  if Q is not in any of *-queries[X]:

      -  Return SERVFAIL to the client

4.5.3.  Initiating a connection over encrypted transport

   If any E-session[X] is in the established, the recursive resolver
   SHOULD NOT initiate a new connection to X over any other transport,
   but should instead send a query through the existing session (see
   Section 4.5.8).  FIXME: What if there's a preferred transport, but
   the established session does not correspond to that preferred
   transport?

   Otherwise, the timer should examine and possibly refresh its state
   for encrypted transport E to authoritative IP address X:

   *  if E-session[X] is in state pending, and

   *  T - E-initiated[X] > E-timeout, then

      -  set E-session[X] to null and

      -  set E-status[X] to timeout




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   When resources are available to attempt a new encrypted transport,
   the resolver should only initiate a new connection to X over E as
   long as one of the following holds true:

   *  E-status[X] is success, or

   *  E-status[X] is fail or timeout and (T - E-completed[X]) > damping,
      or

   *  E-status[X] is null and E-initiated[X] is null

   When initiating a session to X over encrypted transport E, if
   E-resumptions[X] is not empty, one ticket should be popped off the
   stack and used to try to resume a previous session.  Otherwise, the
   initial Client Hello handshake should not try to resume any session.

   When initiating a connection, the resolver should take the following
   steps:

   *  set E-initiated[X] to T0

   *  store a handle for the new session (which should have pending
      state) in E-session[X]

   *  insert a handle for the query that prompted this connection in
      E-queries[X], with status unsent or early, as appropriate (see
      below).

4.5.3.1.  Early Data

   Modern encrypted transports like TLS 1.3 offer the chance to store
   "early data" from the client into the initial Client Hello in some
   contexts.  A resolver that initiates a connection over a encrypted
   transport according to this guidance in a context where early data is
   possible SHOULD send the DNS query that prompted the connection in
   the early data, according to the sending guidance in Section 4.5.8.

   If it does so, the status of Q in E-queries[X] should be set to early
   instead of unsent.

4.5.3.2.  Resumption Tickets

   When initiating a new connection (whether by resuming an old session
   or not), the recursive resolver SHOULD request a session resumption
   ticket from the authoritative server.  If the authoritative server
   supplies a resumption ticket, the recursive resolver pushes it into
   the stack at E-resumptions[X].




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4.5.3.3.  Server Name Indication

   For modern encrypted transports like TLS 1.3, most client
   implementations expect to send a Server Name Indication (SNI) in the
   Client Hello.

   There are two complications with selecting or sending SNI in this
   unilateral probing:

   *  Some authoritative servers are known by more than one name;
      selecting a single name to use for a given connection may be
      difficult or impossible.

   *  In most configurations, the contents of the SNI field is exposed
      on the wire to a passive adversary.  This potentially reveals
      additional information about which query is being made, based on
      the NS of the query itself.

   To avoid additional leakage and complexity, a recursive resolver
   following this guidance SHOULD NOT send SNI to the authoritative when
   attempting encrypted transport.

   If the recursive resolver needs to send SNI to the authoritative for
   some reason not found in this document, it is RECOMMENDED that it
   implements Encrypted Client Hello ([I-D.ietf-tls-esni]) to reduce
   leakage.

4.5.3.4.  Authoritative Server Authentication

   A recursive resolver following this guidance MAY attempt to verify
   the server's identity by X.509 certificate or DANE.  When doing so,
   the identity would presumably be based on the NS name used for a
   given query.

   However, since this probing policy is unilateral and opportunistic,
   the client connecting under this policy MUST accept any certificate
   presented by the server.  If the client cannot verify the server's
   identity, it MAY use that information for reporting, logging, or
   other analysis purposes.  But it MUST NOT reject the connection due
   to the authentication failure, as the result would be falling back to
   cleartext, which would leak the content of the session to a passive
   network monitor.

4.5.4.  Establishing an encrypted transport connection

   When an encrypted transport connection actually completes (e.g., the
   TLS handshake completes) at time T1, the resolver sets E-completed[X]
   to T1 and does the following:



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   If the handshake completed successfully:

   *  update E-session[X] so that it is in state established

   *  set E-status[X] to success

   *  for each query Q in E-queries[X]:

      -  if early data was accepted and Q is early,

         o  set the status of Q to sent

      -  otherwise:

         o  send Q through the session (see Section 4.5.8), and set the
            status of Q to sent

   *  set E-last-activity[X] to T1

4.5.5.  Failing to establish an encrypted transport connection

   If, at time T2 an encrypted transport handshake completes with a
   failure (e.g. a TLS alert),

   *  set E-session[X] to null

   *  set E-status[X] to fail

   *  set E-completed[X] to T2

   *  for each query Q in E-queries[X]:

      -  if Q is not present in any other *-queries[X] or in
         Do53-queries[X], add Q to Do53-queries[X] and send query Q to X
         over Do53.

   Note that this failure will trigger the recursive resolver to fall
   back to cleartext queries to the authoritative server at IP address
   X.  It will retry encrypted transport to X once the damping timer has
   elapsed.

4.5.6.  Encrypted transport failure

   Once established, an encrypted transport might fail for a number of
   reasons (e.g., decryption failure, or improper protocol sequence).

   If this happens:




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   *  set E-session[X] to null

   *  set E-status[X] to fail

   *  for each query Q in E-queries[X]:

      -  if Q is not present in any other *-queries[X] or in
         Do53-queries[X], add Q to Do53-queries[X] and send query Q to X
         over Do53.  FIXME: should a resumption ticket be used here for
         this previously successful connection?

   Note that this failure will trigger the recursive resolver to fall
   back to cleartext queries to the authoritative server at IP address
   X.  It will retry encrypted transport to X once the damping timer has
   elapsed.

   FIXME: are there specific forms of failure that we might handle
   differently?  For example, What if a TCP timeout closes an idle DoT
   connection?  What if a QUIC stream ends up timing out but other
   streams on the same QUIC connection are going through?  Do the
   described scenarios cover the case when an encrypted transport's port
   is made unavailable/closed?

4.5.7.  Handling clean shutdown of encrypted transport connection

   At time T3, the recursive resolver may find that authoritative server
   X cleanly closes an existing outstanding connection (most likely due
   to resource exhaustion, see Section 3.4).

   When this happens:

   *  set E-session[X] to null

   *  for each query Q in E-queries[X]:

      -  if Q is not present in any other *-queries[X] or in
         Do53-queries[X], add Q to Do53-queries[X] and send query Q to X
         over Do53.

   Note that this premature shutdown will trigger the recursive resolver
   to fall back to cleartext queries to the authoritative server at IP
   address X.  Any subsequent query to X will retry the encrypted
   connection promptly.








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4.5.8.  Sending a query over encrypted transport

   When sending a query to an authoritative server over encrypted
   transport at time T4, the recursive resolver should take a few
   reasonable steps to ensure privacy and efficiency.

   When sending query Q, the recursive resolver should ensure that its
   state in E-queries[X] is set to sent.

   The recursive resolver also sets E-last-activity[X] to T4.

   In addition, the recursive resolver should consider the following
   guidance:

4.5.8.1.  Avoid EDNS client subnet

   To protect the privacy of the client, the recursive resolver SHOULD
   NOT send EDNS(0) Client Subnet information to the authoritative
   server ([RFC7871]) unless explicitly authorized to do so by the
   client.

4.5.8.2.  Pad to standard policy

   To increase the anonymity set for each query, the recursive resolver
   SHOULD use EDNS(0) padding according to policies described in
   [RFC8467].

4.5.8.3.  Send queries in separate channels

   When multiple queries are multiplexed on a single encrypted transport
   to a single authoritative server, the recursive resolver MUST offer
   distinct query ID fields for every outstanding query on a connection,
   and MUST be capable of receiving responses out of order.

   To the extent that the encrypted transport can avoid head-of-line
   blocking (e.g.  QUIC can use a separate stream per query) the
   recursive resolver SHOULD avoid head-of-line blocking.

4.5.9.  Receiving a response over encrypted transport

   When a response R for query Q arrives at the recursive resolver over
   encrypted transport E from authoritative server with IP address X at
   time T5, if Q is in E-queries[X], the recursive resolver takes the
   following steps:

   *  Remove R from E-queries[X]

   *  Set E-last-activity[X] to T5



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   *  If R is successful:

      -  send R to the requesting client

      -  For each supported encrypted transport N other than E:

         o  If Q is in N-queries[X]:

            +  Remove Q from N-queries[X]

      -  If Q is in Do53-queries[X]:

         o  Remove Q from Do53-queries[X]

   *  Otherwise (R is unsuccessful, e.g., SERVFAIL):

      -  If Q is not in Do53-queries[X] or any other *-queries[X]:

         o  Return SERVFAIL to the requesting client FIXME: What
            response should be sent to the clients in the case that
            extended DNS errors are used in an authoritative's response?

4.5.10.  Resource Exhaustion

   To keep resources under control, a recursive resolver should
   proactively manage outstanding encrypted connections.  Section 6.5 of
   [I-D.ietf-dprive-dnsoquic] ("Connection Handling") offers useful
   guidance for clients managing DoQ connections.  Section 3.4 of
   [RFC7858] offers useful guidance for clients managing DoT
   connections.

   Even with sensible connection managment, a recursive resolver doing
   unilateral probing may find resources unexpectedly scarce, and may
   need to close some outstanding connections.

   In such a situation, the recursive resolver SHOULD use a reasonable
   prioritization scheme to close outstanding connections.

   One reasonable prioritization scheme would be:

   *  close outstanding established sessions based on E-last-activity[X]
      (oldest timestamp gets closed first)

   Note that when resources are limited, a recursive resolver following
   this guidance may also choose not to initiate new connections for
   encrypted transport.





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4.5.11.  Maintaining connections

   Some recursive resolvers looking to amortize connection costs, and to
   minimize latency MAY choose to synthesize queries to a particular
   resolver to keep a encrypted transport session active.

   A recursive resolver that adopts this approach should try to align
   the synthesized queries with other optimizations.  For example, a
   recursive resolver that "pre-fetches" a particular resource record to
   keep its cache "hot" can send that query over an established
   encrypted transport session.

5.  Signalling for Stronger Defense

   This draft _does not_ contemplate the specification of any form of
   coordinated signalling between authoritative servers and recursive
   resolvers, as such measures would not be unilateral.

   However, the draft highlights the needs of a signaling mechanism for
   stronger defense.

   We highlight the following questions for other specifications to
   solve:

   *  What does the signal need to contain?

      -  type of transport?  (DoQ?  DoT?  DoH?)

      -  error reporting if secure, authenticated connection fails (how
         to report? similar to TLSRPT?)

      -  whether to hard-fail if encrypted communication isn't available

      -  cryptographic authentication of authoritative server (e.g.
         pubkeys) vs. names vs. domain?

   *  How should the signal be presented?

      -  SVCB RR or "surprising" DS RR

   *  How should the signal be scoped?

      -  per-nameserver (by NS), per-nameserver (by IP address, via in-
         addr.arpa), or per-domain?







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5.1.  Combining Signals with Opportunistic Probing

   FIXME: How do the signals get combined with the above opportunistic
   probing policy?  Can we specify that without needing to specify the
   signalling mechanism itself?

6.  IANA Considerations

   IANA does not need to do anything for implementers to adopt the
   guidance found in this draft.

7.  Privacy Considerations

7.1.  Server Name Indication

   A recursive resolver querying an authoritative server over DoT or DoQ
   that sends Server Name Indication (SNI) in the clear in the
   cryptographic handshake leaks information about the intended query to
   a passive network observer.

   In particular, if two different zones refer to the same nameserver IP
   addresses via differently-named NS records, a passive network
   observer can distinguish queries to one zone from the queries to the
   other.

   Omitting SNI entirely, or using ECH to hide the intended SNI, avoids
   this additional leakage.  However, a series of queries that leak this
   information is still an improvement over the all-cleartext status quo
   at the time of this document.

8.  Security Considerations

   The guidance in this draft provides defense against passive network
   monitors for most queries.  It does not defend against active
   attackers.  It can also leak some queries and their responses due to
   "happy eyeballs" optimizations when the resolver's cache is cold.

   Implementation of the guidance in this draft should increase
   deployment of opportunistic encrypted DNS transport between recursive
   resolvers and authoritative servers at little operational risk.

   However, implementers should not rely on the guidance in this draft
   for robust defense against active attackers, but should treat it as a
   stepping stone en route to stronger defense.

   In particular, a recursive resolver following this guidance can
   easily be forced by an active attacker to fall back to cleartext DNS
   queries.  Or, an active attacker could position itself as a machine-



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   in-the-middle, which the recursive resolver would not defend against
   or detect due to lack of server authentication.  Defending against
   these attacks without risking additional unexpected protocol failures
   would require signalling and coordination that are out of scope for
   this draft.

   This guidance is only one part of operating a privacy-preserving DNS
   ecosystem.  A privacy-preserving recursive resolver should adopt
   other practices as well, such as QNAME minimization, local root zone,
   etc, to reduce the overall leakage of query information that could
   infringe on the client's privacy.

9.  Acknowledgements

   Many people contributed to the development of this draft beyond the
   authors, including Brian Dickson, Christian Huitema, Eric Nygren, Jim
   Reid, Kris Shrishak, Paul Hoffman, Ralf Weber, Robert Evans, and the
   DPRIVE working group.

10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

10.2.  Informative References

   [RFC1035]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and
              specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, DOI 10.17487/RFC1035,
              November 1987, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1035>.

   [I-D.ietf-dprive-dnsoquic]
              Huitema, C., Dickinson, S., and A. Mankin, "DNS over
              Dedicated QUIC Connections", Work in Progress, Internet-
              Draft, draft-ietf-dprive-dnsoquic-10, 28 February 2022,
              <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-dprive-
              dnsoquic-10.txt>.

   [I-D.ietf-tls-esni]
              Rescorla, E., Oku, K., Sullivan, N., and C. A. Wood, "TLS
              Encrypted Client Hello", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft,



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              draft-ietf-tls-esni-14, 13 February 2022,
              <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-tls-esni-
              14.txt>.

   [RFC7435]  Dukhovni, V., "Opportunistic Security: Some Protection
              Most of the Time", RFC 7435, DOI 10.17487/RFC7435,
              December 2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7435>.

   [RFC7858]  Hu, Z., Zhu, L., Heidemann, J., Mankin, A., Wessels, D.,
              and P. Hoffman, "Specification for DNS over Transport
              Layer Security (TLS)", RFC 7858, DOI 10.17487/RFC7858, May
              2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7858>.

   [RFC7871]  Contavalli, C., van der Gaast, W., Lawrence, D., and W.
              Kumari, "Client Subnet in DNS Queries", RFC 7871,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7871, May 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7871>.

   [RFC8305]  Schinazi, D. and T. Pauly, "Happy Eyeballs Version 2:
              Better Connectivity Using Concurrency", RFC 8305,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8305, December 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8305>.

   [RFC8467]  Mayrhofer, A., "Padding Policies for Extension Mechanisms
              for DNS (EDNS(0))", RFC 8467, DOI 10.17487/RFC8467,
              October 2018, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8467>.

   [RFC8484]  Hoffman, P. and P. McManus, "DNS Queries over HTTPS
              (DoH)", RFC 8484, DOI 10.17487/RFC8484, October 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8484>.

Appendix A.  Document Considerations

   [ RFC Editor: please remove this section before publication ]

   This document is currently edited as markdown.  Minor editorial
   changes can be suggested via merge requests at
   https://gitlab.com/dkg/dprive-unilateral-probing or by e-mail to the
   editor.  Please direct all significant commentary to the public IETF
   DPRIVE mailing list: dprive@ietf.org

   The authors' latest draft can be read online in html
   (https://dkg.gitlab.io/dprive-unilateral-probing/) or pdf
   (https://dkg.gitlab.io/dprive-unilateral-probing/unilateral-
   probing.pdf) or text (https://dkg.gitlab.io/dprive-unilateral-
   probing/unilateral-probing.txt) formats.





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A.1.  Document History

A.1.1.  Substantive changes from -01 to -02

   *  Clarify that deployment to a pool does not need to be strictly
      simultaneous

   *  Explain why authoritatives need to serve the same records
      regardless of SNI

   *  Defer to external, protocol-specific references for resource
      management

   *  Clarify that probed connections must not fail due to
      authentication failure

A.1.2.  Substantive changes from -00 to -01

   *  Fallback to cleartext when encrypted transport fails.

   *  Reduce default timeout to 4s

   *  Clarify SNI guidance: OK for selecting server credentials, not OK
      for changing answers

   *  Document ALPN and port numbers

   *  Justify sorting recursive resolver state by authoritative IP
      address

Authors' Addresses

   Daniel Kahn Gillmor
   American Civil Liberties Union
   125 Broad St.
   New York, NY,  10004
   United States of America
   Email: dkg@fifthhorseman.net


   Joey Salazar
   Alajuela
   20201
   Costa Rica
   Email: joeygsal@gmail.com






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