INTERNET-DRAFT                                                    J. Max
HARTS Working Group                                             Rainfarm
Category: Informational                                        S. Stoner
                                                                May 1997
                                                   Expires November 1997

      Humanities and Arts: Sharing Center Stage on the Internet

Status of this Memo

   Distribution of this document is unlimited.  Please send all input,
   information, and comments to

   This document is an Internet-Draft.  Internet-Drafts are working
   documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas,
   and its working groups.  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
   months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents
   at any time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   To learn to current status of any Internet-Draft, please check the
   "1id- abstracts.txt" listing contained in the Internet-Drafts Shadow
   Directories on (Africa), (Europe), (Pacific Rim), (US East Coast), or (US West Coast).

   This memo provides information for the Internet, Humanities, and
   Arts communities.  This memo does not specify an Internet standard of
   any kind.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.


   This document is designed primarily for individuals who have
   limited knowledge of, or experience with, the Internet.

   The purpose of this document is to provide members of the arts and
   humanities communities with an introduction to the Internet as a
   valuable tool, resource, and medium for the creation, presentation,
   and preservation of arts and humanities-based content.

   The intended audience is practicing artists, scholars, related
   professionals, and others who's knowledge, expertise and support is
   important to ensuring the arts and humanities are well-placed in the
   global information infrastructure.

   For purposes of simplicity this document will use the word "Artist"
   to mean both Artist and Humanist: "all practitioners who work in the
   fields of the visual, performance, and literary arts, as well as

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   museum curators, librarians, and others who are involved in the
   research, restoration, and presentation of that which comprises our
   cultural heritage."  (See Section 1.1 for further definitions of Arts
   and Humanitites.)

Table of Contents

   i.    Conventions for this Draft..................................  3

   1.    Introduction................................................  4
   1.1   Definition of Arts and Humanities...........................  4
   1.2   What is the Internet........................................  4
   1.3   What is the World Wide Web..................................  5

   2.    What does the Internet mean to the "Artist?"................  7
   2.1   Access to the Global Community:
         Museums, libraries, newspapers, periodicals, stores.........  8
   2.2   Discovering the work of others..............................  8
   2.3   Freely Available software, and other information............  9
   2.4   Sharing your work with others............................... 10
   2.5   Communicating about the arts................................ 10
   2.6   Collaborating...............................................  9

   3.    Forums...................................................... 11
   3.1   Message Based Communications................................ 11
   3.1.1 Electronic mail (email)..................................... 11
   3.1.2 Mailing list server (listserv).............................. 12
   3.1.3 Newsgroups.................................................. 12
   3.1.4 Electronic Bulletin Board System (BBS) ..................... 13
   3.2   Real-Time Communications.................................... 13
   3.2.1 Internet Relay Chat (IRC)................................... 13
   3.2.2 Multi-User Dungeon (MUD).................................... 14
   3.2.3 Audio/Video Conferencing.................................... 14
   3.2.4 Whiteboard Systems.......................................... 14
   3.3   Archives.................................................... 14
   3.3.1 Searching................................................... 15
   3.3.2 Compound Searches........................................... 16

   4.    Accessing the Internet...................................... 17
   4.1   Getting Started............................................. 18
   4.2   Internet Service Providers.................................. 20
   4.3   Computer Software and Hardware Tools........................ 21
   4.4   Multimedia.................................................. 22

   5.    Creating Content............................................ 23
   5.1   Getting Help................................................ 23
   5.2   Basic Design Issues: Understanding Formats.................. 24
   5.3   Text and Hypertext.......................................... 24
   5.4   Graphic and Moving Images................................... 24
   5.5   Music and Sound............................................. 24
   5.6   Content Design Issues....................................... 26
   5.7   Publicizing your Work....................................... 26

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   6.    Issues and Challenges....................................... 26
   6.1   Security Issues............................................. 27
   6.2   Viruses..................................................... 27
   6.3   Rights...................................................... 27
   6.4   Conducting Business over the Internet....................... 28
   6.5   Netiquette.................................................. 28

   7.    Glossary.................................................... 28

   8.    Resources................................................... 28
   8.1   RFCs........................................................ 29
   8.1.1 Using RFC-INFO@ISI.EDU to retrieve RFCs..................... 29

   9.    References.................................................. 29
   10.   Security Considerations..................................... 30
   11.   Acknowledgments............................................. 32
   12.   Authors' Address............................................ 32

   Appendix A.  Examples/Projects on the Internet of Interest to the
                Arts and Humanities Communities

   Appendix B.  Some other URL's of interest

   Appendix C.  Examples for using the RFC server RFC-INFO@ISI.EDU

i. Conventions and Notes in the March 1997 Draft.

   We have agreed that testimonial sections are essential, so we need
   everyone to begin collecting quotes and experiences for each section.

   Also every section should have many pointers to more information.
   Any and all input, suggestions, and submissions graciously accepted.

   This draft includes the following notation to aid completion:

   - At the sign of two asterisks (**) are important notes and
   - At the sign of two plus signs (++) information is needed.  Where
     known a contributor is mentioned by name, otherwise, please
   - At the sign of two question marks(??) we need to decide what
     goes there.

1. Introduction

   This document has been structured to provide information about,
   and examples of, the wide range of functions and capabilities
   inherent to online services.  It will also show the potential of
   networking technologies for enhancing Arts and Humanities content and

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   The basic functions of the Internet are described, along with
   their application for building online communities of interest
   (including the Arts and Humanities).

   This is followed by discussion and examples of how Arts and
   Humanities content can be represented, stored, and retrieved on the

   Also provided are examples of hardware and software being used,
   and in development, to support the creation and presentation of new
   artistic and literary works.

   In addition to illustrating the great potential of the Internet,
   this document aspires to provide an introduction to the issues and
   challenges that affect the development and presentation of arts and
   humanities content online.

   Finally, some tools and resources have been provided to assist
   both novice and experienced users in benefiting from, and
   contributing to the global online arts and humanities community.

1.1 Definitions of Arts and Humanities

   For purposes of this document the term "Arts" includes, but is not
   limited to, dance, design arts, folk arts, literary arts, media and
   film arts, music, theater, and visual arts.

   The term "Humanities" includes, but is not limited to, the study
   of the following: language, both modern and classical; linguistics;
   literature; history; jurisprudence philosophy; archaeology;
   comparative religion; ethics; the history, criticism and theory of
   the arts; those aspects of social sciences which have humanistic
   content and employ humanistic methods; and the study and application
   of the humanities to the human environment.

1.2 What is the Internet?

   As new users, the first question that probably comes to mind is:
   "What is the Internet?"  The answer is: "People, computers and
   information electronically linked around the world by a common
   Protocol for communicating with each other."

   The beginnings come from the US Department of Defense's desire to
   transport government and military information during the time of a
   "nuclear event".  Thus the Advanced Research Projects Agency was
   formed, which created ARPANET.  From this, over the next 26 years or
   so, grew the network known as "The Internet", now dubbed the
   "Information Superhighway".  There are several million computers
   connected and over 40 million users.

   The common language or "Communication Protocol" which these
   computers on the Internet speak, is the Internet Protocol, or IP.

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   This is the underlying layer which allows transmission of diverse
   data, information, text, pictures, sound, etc. to be passed between
   otherwise incompatible machines.

   The Internet should not be confused with America OnLine (AOL),
   CompuServe, Prodigy, and other type service providers, which may use
   their own, often proprietary, protocols and are sites unto themselves
   but may have connections to the Internet.  The Internet should also
   not be confused with the World Wide Web which is the topic of the
   next section.

1.3 What is the World Wide Web?

   The World Wide Web, often called, "The Web" is a vast multimedia
   document distributed among a large number of the computers on the
   internet.  This document is in a format called HyperText which allows
   information in the web to be linked by words or pictures viewed on
   the computer.

   The Web is broken up into a large set of pages (Web Pages) of
   information connected by HyperText "Links" which let you click on a
   highlighted word or picture to call up a page of related information.
   This is what differentiates HyperText from "normal" text.  In
   "normal" text, each sentence or idea is connected in a single
   sequence or "train of thought", from beginning to end.  In HyperText
   however, the flow of ideas branches out, so that each idea may be
   connected to many different "trains of thought" that jump from link
   to link.  This allows you to read HyperText documents, in a way more
   naturally resembling human thought.

   There is no central hierarchy that organizes the Web.  Instead, the
   information is distributed among many "Web Sites" created and used by
   the many people involved.  A Web Site is much like a magazine in that
   it has a Front Page, called the Home Page, and may have many other
   pages of related information that can be connected in whatever way
   the author wishes.

   For example, you could create a "Cool Music" Web Page and place it on
   a Web Server, which can be any computer somewhere on the internet
   running software to provide access to the resident Web Pages.  Anyone
   on the internet could then use a piece of software called a Web
   Browser to ask the Web Server to look at your Home Page.

   This Home Page could be a striking artwork featuring a list of your
   favorite albums and a few labeled buttons.  While your music plays
   from their speakers they choose to click on any album that catches
   their eye, or go to lists of information sorted by Artist, Label, or
   Genre.  Once they get to the page for any particular album, they
   would see the artwork, a song list, and many other links to follow.
   Clicking on a song could pull up the song lyrics, or perhaps even
   download parts of the song.  Or they could follow a link from your
   page to the HomePage of the artist's record company, or to magazines

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   that have interviewed the band.  If the information is out there,
   your page could link to it.

   Web pages are written in a format called HTML, the HyperText Markup
   Language.  This is a protocol for putting special symbols into a text
   document that specify links to other pages, fonts to use, images to
   load, and many other things.  It is simple enough that most people
   can learn to use it, but rich enough in possibility that there will
   always be a thriving community of people making web pages for others.

   In order to download information from distant places in the internet,
   your computer will be using a protocol called HTTP, the HyperText
   Transfer Protocol.  HTTP was designed to allow web browser software
   to connect to web server software on another machine and request the
   transmission of a web page in the form of an HTML document and any
   associated images, audio, video, etc.

   Since any part of a page can link to any accessible data on the
   Internet, each link must include a reference to exactly where on the
   internet the information is.  This is the job of the Uniform Resource
   Locator, URL.  The URL is very much like your home address.  When you
   tell someone your "address", you give your postal code,
   country, state, town/city, street, building, and your name.

   A URL is a machine readable (and hence somewhat cryptic) text string
   which tells both people and machines where to find the information.
   It contains the name, directory, machine, host address, and the
   protocol for accessing that information.  URLs usually take the form
   "", where "www" indicates the locations World
   Wide Web server, "something" indicates the name of the organization
   who runs it, and "com" indicates that that organization is a Company.
   Other extensions which indicate types of organizations, are ".gov"
   for US government sites, ".edu" for educational sites, and ".org" for
   other organizations such as "not for profit", etc.  There are also
   specific extensions for each country in the world, such as ".CA" for
   sites in Canada, ".nl" for sites in the Netherlands, etc.

   http in this example is the protocol used to access it.  Since http is
   the primary protocol of the web, many browsers now assume it, and you
   will likely only need to know the protocol being used if its
   different from http.  Other protocols include "ftp", the File Transfer
   Protocol, and "gopher" which are both text based, rather than graphic
   based.   (See also Section 3 - Forums)

   After the communication protocol and site address are identified, the
   document's URL can go on to specify a particular page at the site.
   The example above will retrieve's default homepage,
   usually index.html.  The .html extension on that filename indicates
   that the file is formatted with the HyperText Markup Language.  Other
   file extensions might be .txt for standard format Text files, .gif for
   Graphic Image Format files, .jpg, another graphics format, .wav for
   certain audio files, and many others.

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   You can start browsing the Internet, or "surfing" as its often
   called, by entering a URL into your web browser, which will download
   the appropriate file.  If you then select a link, your browser will
   read the URL built into the page itself, and use it to find and
   access the appropriate information.

   At last check there were hundreds of thousands of web sites, home
   pages, and hosts on the Web.  The contents of those sites are almost
   as varied.  Some pages are personal pages containing photos of family
   members, lists of hobbies, or the sharing of collections such as song
   lyrics.  Some pages are strictly business, selling everything from
   abalone to zymoscopes.  (If you're interested in doing business over
   the Web, please read Sections 6 and 10 on Security.)  Still other
   pages provide services such as information searches, and weather

2. What does the Internet mean to the Artist?

   The internet is exerting a profound influence on our society.  Human
   culture is based on communication, and the widespread availability of
   information and the thought-like constructions of HyperText are the
   most powerful new ideas in communication since the invention of
   writing.  A glance back at history will easily show how written
   language has shaped our societies.  These results are only a
   foreshadowing of the things to come.

   Even now in its infancy, the effects of the internet can be easily
   seen in popular media as well as in the way we do business.  But the
   most dramatic influences are in the children who are now growing up
   with the net.  Many parents are aware of the influence television has
   over their children.  Eventually the net may become a superset of all
   TV, but with added power to inform as well as entertain.  If we raise
   the internet right, it will return the favor by nurturing a
   generation that may well grow up wiser than ourselves.

   And so we have a great responsibility to make sure that the best
   parts of human culture are represented on the internet.  Because the
   net is still primarily created and run by Scientists and Engineers
   who are creatures of mind, it is the heart and soul of the internet
   that needs help.  Artists are the heart and soul of human culture,
   and must bring the fruits of their efforts to the net to give the net
   culture (and future generations) their essence of humanity.

   And if that doesn't convince you, we will also show that there are
   many ways in which artists may exploit the net for their own personal
   gain.  As the online culture becomes a more balanced representation
   of humanity, the net will become an essential tool for collaboration,
   communication, and distribution of art.  The day is coming where
   those who are not on the net will be greatly handicapped in the
   expression and distribution of their art.

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   A great many visual and performing arts institutions and
   organizations have now established sites on the World Wide Web and a
   significant number of online discussion groups focus on the arts and
   humanities.  Consortiums of museums and libraries are now using
   networking technologies to support research and projects involving
   more effective ways to collect, store, and disseminate objects of
   antiquity and other non-textual primary sources, as well as textual

   Thousands of sites are also created by individuals and for
   institutions, organizations, and businesses for reasons ranging from
   commerce to simple self expression.  The net is the new frontier for
   the growth of humanity.  Can you afford not to be involved?

2.1 Access to the Global Community

   Access to art is no longer constrained by vicinity.  Hang out your
   electronic shingle and just imagine who might drop in.  The Internet
   connects hundreds of countries, thousands of cities, and countless
   groups and individuals around the globe.  People all around the world
   will be looking for what they want on the net, and if you have what
   they want, then through the magic of the net, you are their next door

   The Internet explorer will find that more and more sites are becoming
   multilingual.  The Internet provides a forum in which diverse
   cultures can merge, and allows the explorer to visit faraway places
   from the privacy and safety of their own computer.

2.2 Discovering the work of others

   Once you have the basic tools for using the Internet (See Section
   4) you will begin to understand how easy, helpful, informative, and
   exciting it can be.  With a few quick strokes you have accessed a
   great library, museum, or gallery, toured a faraway city, or looked
   up an old friend.  You might find an out of print book you have
   always wanted, then either read it on your computer screen, or print
   it out on your printer.  If you do not have a printer, simply save it
   to your floppy disk and bring that to a shop or friend with a
   printer.  Its really that easy.

   You could spend the afternoon at the Smithsonian, or the Louvre
   without ever leaving your chair.  For a more athletic adventure, you
   could put your computer in front of your treadmill, and jog through
   the online Olympics site.

   When you are ready, you can explore deeper.  Follow other links to
   smaller sites, lesser known writers, artists, poets, and thinkers,
   and discover the emerging world they are creating.  With the proper
   tools you can even view moving pictures, and listen to music and
   other audio.

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   With access to the Internet, the world is at your fingertips.  Even
   more than art, literature, and humor, online is information.  Bring
   your questions on health, the environment, government, and religion,
   and look though volumes of documentation on your concerns, or discuss
   your questions with others electronically.  Once you get used to it,
   you will even be downloading more information and tools to assist you

   Examples of sites to explore, and good starting points can be found
   in Appendices A and B.

2.3 Access to Freely Available Software, and Other Information

   There is a world of useful software available to you via the
   Internet.  Known as Shareware, Public Domain, or Freely Copyable, you
   can find many software programs you may download and use on your own
   machine, often completely free, occasionally for a small and/or
   optional fee which helps the author to afford to create more software
   for general use. There are also libraries, stores, and news groups
   you can peruse in search of just the tool or information you want.

   As you explore the Internet, you will begin to find information that
   is beyond your reach without the right tools for viewing, listening,
   etc.  For example, someone may have put up a sound file using a
   format which cannot be recognized by the software you have installed.
   In these cases, that person will often have included a pointer to the
   exact tool necessary to recognize their format, or convert the
   format, and you can download, install, and use this tool right away.

   Using the basic tools acquired to access the Internet (See Section
   4), you can begin to add to your collection software tools, both for
   accessing the information already on the Internet, and for creating
   your own content (See Section 5).

2.4 Sharing your work with others

   There are many people both like, and unlike, yourself with whom you
   can meet, communicate, and share ideas.  Some like to just talk, you
   can listen if you like.  Others like to just listen, so you and
   others can talk.

   There are also many forms that communication can take, from
   private electronic mail, to group video conferencing, to moderated
   newsgroups, to public bulletin boards.  See Section 3 for more
   information on Electronic Forums.

   Artists often want to share their work with other artists on the
   Internet so that they will receive comments and recognition for their
   work. It is a great place to explore new ideas with other artists as
   well.  Perhaps a painter has tried a new paint and has a review of
   it, or has developed a new way to mix colors, or a photographer wants
   to share how to get a difficult shot.  Perhaps you would like to

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   locate a rare album, or debate one musicians merit over anothers.

   There are many types of content that artists can share.  Including:

      - text: stories, poetry, historic accounts, transcripts, etc.
      - images of their visual work: paintings, photographs,
      - images of themselves: photographs, self-portraits
      - sound files of their audio works or voice presentations of
        their works: books on tape, speeches, tutorials, music
      - moving pictures: video arts, performance arts, etc.
      - a description of their art process and works of art
      - resume and/or biographical data
      - contact information in the form of electronic mail address,
        postal mail address, phone, etc.  Electronic mail is most
        popular because it allows people to respond spontaneously.

   After you've met some of the global critics, and compared your work
   with others, you may feel so bold as to share your work with others.
   Perhaps emailing a manuscript to a publisher, or putting up scans of
   your art will entice a buyer.  Perhaps it will entice a critic to say
   wonderful things about you to a buyer.

   Perhaps putting your work on the Internet will bring fortune and
   fame, or perhaps it will encourage others to put their work up.
   Increasing the cultural content of the Internet will have profound
   results in all areas of the Arts.

2.5 Communicating about the arts

   Perhaps you prefer to discuss and compare the works of others with
   producers, collectors, gallery owners or other professionals in your
   field, or related fields.  You might want to find out who's hot and
   why.  You could also find out where, and when shows, showings,
   benefits, conferences, releases, signings, and performances are
   taking place, or announce your own showing.

   They say that for every artist, there is a critic, and you could meet
   one, or be one, on the Internet.

2.6 Collaborating

   There are many ways of collaborating over the Internet.  There are
   art and literature projects which explore the Internet by asking
   people to put their feelings, thoughts, and ideas about the Internet
   in, and there are projects which simply arrive, or are downloaded
   over the Internet, in which people participate.

   There are also games which are played over the Internet, by players
   all over the planet.  These types of games, which are described in
   in greater detail in Section 3, can be both entertainment and a
   learning experience.  Some games offer players the opportunity to

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   alter the environment, so that ideas and information contained in
   the game evolve over time into a jointly constructed experience.

3. Forums

   Websters defines a forum as "A public meeting place for open
   discussion."  In the world that could be a park or an auditorium.  In
   the Internet, a forum will be electronic, but it may still feel like
   a roomful of people.

   Many forums exist on the Internet.  There are interactive forums
   where you can share information in real-time and carry on discussions
   with others.  There are message-based forums where you send or
   receive a message and others involved in that forum can respond
   later, and there are archived forums where information is stored, and
   may be retrieved by anyone but modified only by its owner.

   While we have attempted to list and describe a few of the more
   popular forums, we have not created an exhaustive, complete, or
   up-to-the-minute list here.  You can find information on forums,
   lists and sites in many magazines and books today.  (See Section 4.1
   - Getting Started)

3.1 Message-based Communications

   In Message-based communication, a message is sent by one user, and
   received by one or many.  For example, you might send a dinner
   invitation to an individual, a couple, or a group.  In the same way,
   you send electronic messages to individuals or groups.  Just like
   your Postal Service for physical mail, there are electronic mail
   servers for electronic mail.  Just like you have a physical address
   to which your physical mail is sent, there is an electronic mail
   address to which your electronic mail is sent.

   Message-based Communications includes electronic mail, listservs,
   newsgroups, and bulletin boards.

3.1.1 E-mail

   Electronic mail (email) is a system whereby a computer user can
   exchange messages with other computer users (or groups of users) via
   a communications network.

   Typical use of email consists of downloading messages as received
   from a mailbox or mail server, then reading and replying to them
   solely electronically using a mail program which behaves much like a
   word processor for the most part.  The user can send mail to, or
   receive mail from, any other user with Internet access.  Electronic
   mail is much like paper mail, in that it is sent, delivered, and
   contains information.  That information can be textual, graphic, or
   even sound.  (See Section 4 - Accessing the Internet, and Section 5 -
   Creating Content, for more information on non-textonly email

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   You will get an Electronic mail, or Email address usually from
   your Internet Service Provider (See Section 4).  Your email address
   contains your name, and the address of the machine on which you
   receive your mail.  The name of the machine will be in two parts,
   (separated by a dot or period symbol ".") the name of the machine
   itself, and the "domain" it is in.  (See the documents reference in
   Section 8 - Resources, for more information on domain names).

   The possible extensions for a domain name will be one of: .edu, for
   educational institutions; .gov, for government sites; .com, for
   commercial companies; .org, for other organizations; or it might be a
   locational domain name which would contain the city, state, region,
   and country, as would be Los Angeles, California, United

   An email address takes the form "yourname"@"yoursite"."yourdomain"
   For example, if your name is Jo Cool and you get your Internet
   service from Dirigible Online, your email address might be

3.1.2 Listserv (mailing list server)

   A Listserv is an automated program that accepts email messages from
   users and performs basic operations on mailing lists for those users.
   In the Internet, listservs are usually accessed as either
   "list-request@host.domain" or "listserv@host.domain"; for example,
   the list server for the hypothetical list ""
   would be "".

   Sending email to "" causes the message to be sent
   to all the list subscribers, which is inappropriate for "Subscribe"
   and "Unsubscribe" requests.  Sending a message to ""
   sends the message only to the list server.  Using ""
   you would put the listname in the subject field with "Subscribe
   me@my.domain" as the body of the message.  Not all mailing lists use
   list servers to handle list administration duties.

3.1.3 Newsgroups

   A Newsgroup is an electronic bulletin board system created originally
   by the Unix community and which is accessible via the Internet.
   Usenet News forms a discussion forum accessible by millions of users
   in almost every country in the world.  Usenet News consists of
   thousands of topics arranged in a hierarchical form.  Major topics
   include "comp" for computer topics, "rec" for recreational topics,
   "soc" for social topics, "sci" for science topics, and there are many
   others we will not list here.  Within the major topics are subtopics,
   such as "" for general music content, and
   "" for classical music, or "" for
   discussions relating to the physics of medical science.

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   If you have access to newsgroups, it would be wise to check
   news.announce.newusers first.  This newsgroup provides detailed
   information on Newsgroups, such as how to find the right place to post
   or even information on newsgroup writing style.

   Local Newsgroups are those that are accessible through your
   organization or company which contain news that is relevant only to
   your organization. For example, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
   (GSFC) has many internal Newsgroups that are of interest only to
   GSFC's employees and none of the other NASA centers.  Therefore,
   newsgroups have been formed to provide internal information to NASA
   GSFC employees only and no one else.  Some examples are:
   gsfc.carpool, gsfc.dialup or gsfc.220.civil.servants.

   Another example of a local newsgroup is news that is posted
   regarding your community or the vicinity in which you live.  For
   example, if you lived in the Washington D.C. area some of the local
   newsgroups would be:  dc.biking, or dc.smithsonian.

3.1.4 Electronic Bulletin Board System (BBS)

   A Bulletin Board System consists of a computer, and associated
   software, typically providing electronic messaging services, archives
   of files, and any other services or activities of interest to the
   bulletin board systems' operator.

   Typical use of a BBS has the user dial into the BBS via their modem
   and telephone line and select from a hierarchy of lists, files,
   subdirectories, or other data maintained by the operator.  Once
   connected, the user can often send messages to other BBS users within
   the system.

   Although BBSs have traditionally been the domain of hobbyists, an
   increasing number of BBSs are connected directly to the Internet, and
   many BBSs are currently operated by government, educational,
   research, and commercial institutions.

3.2.  Real-Time Communications

   Real-Time Communications describes the process of communicating with
   others via the Internet virtually simultaneously.  Generally in a
   forum where you type something, which another user sees on their
   screen, and types something, which you see a moment later.  The
   moment between when they begin typing, and you begin seeing their
   words, is known as "net-lag".

   Forums which communicate in real-time are the Internet Relay Chat
   (IRC), the Multi-User Dungeon (MUD), Audio/Video Conferencing (AVC),
   and White Board Systems (WBS).

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3.2.1  IRC - Internet Relay Chat, WebChat

   Internet Relay Chat, or IRC, provides a text-based mechanism for
   communication with multiple participants.  IRC is an interactive
   forum set up in virtual rooms that you can move between, and where
   others can virtually "hang out".  Chat rooms can be used to discuss
   common ideas or topics, or as part of a collaborative process.  The
   connection method used will be specific to each IRC site.

   Web chat is like IRC but it is done via a web browser such as
   Netscape Navigator or Internet Explorer and it is not a text only

   Once you have chosen the group you want to participate in, you must
   choose a nickname, commonly known in the chat world as a "handle" for
   yourself (usually a very creative name).  With some software you can
   have your nickname link to your webpage or email.  Some software also
   allows you to post a very small picture next to your name.

   Many webchat sites require the user to register before being able to
   participate in the activity.  If any additional software is needed
   based on your particular software and PC configuration the site will
   point you in the right direction so you can download the necessary

   Some sites will provide you with chat etiquette guidelines.  Please
   be sure to read the directions before you participate in the Chat

   Once you begin to chat you may find that there are some abbreviation
   used that you are not familiar with.  These abbreviations are for
   various actions or phrases.  Some very common ones are: by the way
   (btw), in my humble/honest opinion (imho), or ta ta for now (ttfn).

   The following sites point to some of the chat groups accessible via
   the Web:
   The Chat Hole -
   WebChat Broadcasting System -
   Yahoo! - Computers and Internet: Internet: World Wide Web: Chat -

3.2.2  MUD - Multi-User Dungeon

   An interactive game environment where both real other players and
   virtual other players exist and with whom you can communicate to
   share ideas or solve puzzles, etc.

   The word "Dungeon" refers to the setting of many of the original
   games of this sort, in which you, our hero, must escape from a
   dungeon-like environment where evil goblins, demons, and other
   "bad-guys" are trying to kill you.  Generally the goal, in order

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   to win the game, is to find and retrieve some treasure, or reach
   some hidden place, and find the way out.

++ vrml, avatar, digital editing systems, proprietary  (palace, urban
++ desires)

++ Expand on the concept of "shared construction" -- that this
++ enables information and ideas to accrue over time.

3.2.3  Audio/Video Conferencing

   CU-SeeMe is a desktop videoconferencing software tool.  CU-SeeMe
   allows Macintosh and Windows users with an Internet connection and a
   desktop camera (some go for as little as $100) to see, hear and speak
   with other CU-SeeMe users across the world.  This program was
   developed at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, USA and is
   freely available.

   CU-SeeMe allows the user to have a one-to-one communication.  It is
   also possible to have a one-to-many or many-to-many communication by
   installing a reflector on a Unix machine or using a public site (more
   on this later).

   To download the software, see: or go to Cornell University's
   CU-SeeMe Page at for more information.
   This site also provides detailed information on what is needed to run

   Another reliable site is the CU-SeeMe Home Page:

   For one-to-many or many-to-many communication, a reflector is needed.
   The reflector software must be installed on a Unix machine.  The
   software can be obtained from Cornell University's CU-SeeMe Page
   mentioned above.

   For a list of public reflectors see:

   Please note that there are Netiquette rules that ought to be observed
   when using a reflector, please see:

   There is an enhanced commercial version of CU-SeeMe, information on
   that can also be found at CU-SeeMe Home Page mentioned above.

++  multicasting
++  Expand on uses

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3.2.4  Whiteboard Systems

   A Whiteboard is analogous to the blackboard, and is physically quite
   similar.  A Whiteboard System allows people on the Internet to share
   text, drawings, and other graphic information which is being written
   in real-time on an electronically enhanced whiteboard.

   Software exists which allows connections between two sites, or
   hundreds, over the Internet, the Web, or your telephone.

++ commercial, non-commercial, internet, non-internet.
++ PictureTel, SmartBoard,
++ wwwphone is freely available. Send mail to:

3.3  Archives

   Archive is defined in Webster's New World Dictionary as:
    n. 1 a) a place where public records, documents, etc. are kept
    b) a place where material having documentary interest, as private
    papers, institutional records,memorabilia, or photographs, is kept.

   Archives on the Internet are pretty much the exact same thing.  The
   motive and much of the content is the same, but the media changes
   (from paper files, to electronic files), and as such allows for a
   much greater diversity of content.

   Archives on the Internet also allow many people access to their
   files simultaneously, and from all over the world.

   Any and all information that people want to make available on the
   Internet can be.  This means there is a truly vast amount of
   information out there, with more being added every day.  In fact
   there is so much information that it is sometimes difficult and
   confusing to find the information you want.  This is the topic of our
   next section.

3.3.1 Searching

   One of the great challenges facing the internet is how to organize
   the vast amounts of information in ways that allow most people to
   find what they want.  In theory, there may be a "perfect"
   organization, but in practice, we will never achieve it.  This means
   that finding the information you want on the net may require some
   skill on your part.  Fortunately there are many tools and strategies
   that may be helpful.

   One of the all time great ideas for finding the information you want
   is a thing called a search engine.  A search engine is a computer
   program usually living on a remote computer that spends its time
   downloading information from other computers and building an index of
   what lives where.  This behavior has given them the nickname of Web
   Crawlers.  What this means to you, is that you can call up the Search
   Engine's home page, and enter in a subject, name, title, or random

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   string pattern, which is then used to search the engines index
   for stuff out on the net that seems related.  This can lead to both a
   large volume of information, and some rather startling discoveries of
   information from unsuspected sources.

   Some of the available Searchers and Indices on the Internet include:

   Yahoo      - Index of WWW sites, with search capabilities
   DejaNews   - USENET (news groups) search engine
   WebCrawler -
   Lycos      -
   AltaVista  - WWW and USENET search engine
   Magellan   - Index of reviewed and rated Internet sites, with
                search capabilities

   Yahoo, for example, has a high-level category called "Arts", which
   has a multitude of subcategories below it, most of which have further
   subdivision, each of which can contain lists of lists.  For example,
   to find information on Modern Dance, one can follow the links to
   or simply type "Modern Dance" into the search field and choose from a
   list of selections returned.

   On a typical attempt on March 25, 1997, Yahoo returned 4 major
   categories of Modern Dance, and offered 82 other links to related
   pages around the web.

   There are many other Searchers and Indices on the Internet, and a
   good way to find them, is to do a search for them in one of the
   services above, or others you encounter in your travels.

3.3.2 Compound Searches

   After experimenting with the available search engines, it quickly
   becomes clear that searching on a broad category can result in too
   much information.  For example, a recent search at AltaVista for the
   subject "Rembrandt" matched over 8500 individual items, including
   information on the famous artist (Rembrandt von Rijn (1606-1669)),

   URL: and His

   URL: a
   hotel in Thailand (Rembrandt Hotel and Plaza, Bangkok),

   URL: and a pizza
   restaurant in California

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   To be more particular in what you find, all of the available
   search engines allow you to do compound searches, in which multiple
   keywords are used, possibly in combination with Boolean logic
   operators such as AND, OR, and NOT. For example, to focus in on
   Rembrandt the artist, at the exclusion of pizza cafes, try the
   following advanced search in Magellan:

   Rembrandt AND artist AND portrait NOT pizza

   Note that the method of entering search items differs slightly
   from service to service.  When trying a new service, check the
   available help topic before searching.  And as with any new skill,
   practice, practice, practice!

   Test of search scope:
     Lycos:     rembrandt.                       1837 relevant documents
     Lycos:     rembrandt and artist and portrait   6 relevant documents
     Yahoo:     rembrandt                 2 Catagory and 39 site matches
     Yahoo:     rembrandt and artist      2 Catagory and 11 site matches
     AltaVista: rembrandt                        about "10000" documents
     AltaVista: rembrandt +artist +museum          about "100" documents
     WebCrawler: rembrandt.                     347 matching "rembrandt"
     WebCrawler: rembrandt and artist and portrait 21 matching documents
     Magellan:  rembrandt                                    666 results
     Magellan:  rembrandt and artist and portrait          39379 results

   You'll notice, in the above statistics, that the numbers for Magellan
   are quite different from the others.  This is because different
   search engines may function differently.  When you do a this+that
   search on Magellan, it looks for all instances of This AND all
   instances of That rather than the standard response of Only documents
   which contain both This AND That.  On almost all the sites I have
   explored, there is an explanation of how the search process works on
   that site.  You should read that explanation if you're having trouble
   or need further information.

   You will also begin to see patterns in the way people name, or file,
   their information, which will help you find more information.  Some
   may list their links to ART, while others list their links to
   PAINTINGS.  Also many people put links to related pages in their
   pages, so one page you find that doesn't have what you're looking
   for, may have a pointer to another page that does have what you're
   looking for. Searching is an iterative process, keep going from one
   search key to another, and continue down multiple levels to see what
   is out there.  Its known as Exploring, or Surfing the Net, and it is
   a major part of the joy of the Internet.

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4. Accessing the Internet

   Accessing the Internet in terms of simply receiving, downloading,
   and viewing files, uses most of the same tools (software and
   hardware) needed to create files and make them available on the
   Internet.  This section, and the next, overlap in the areas of basic
   hardware and software.

   The Internet can be accessed in many comfortable ways: at school,
   at home, at work, and even at trendy CyberCoffeeHouses.  Accessing
   the Internet is not synonymous with publishing and displaying on the
   Internet, however.  You may need different equipment for creating and
   retrieving content.

4.1 Getting Started

   Many Internet Service Providers (See Section 4.2) offer free
   instruction to get you started in accessing the Internet as well as
   creating content.  With the competition of Internet providers, you
   should be able to find one or two that offer the instruction you
   need.  Artists in smaller communities may need to rely more heavily
   upon online sources of information.

   Check with local libraries and schools which may offer classes on
   Internet related subjects, including getting connected, or check the
   Internet section available in most bookstores today.

   Don't be dissuaded if you find limited access.  The Internet will
   soon be everywhere, but if you don't want to wait, then do what these
   enterprising youths did...

   When several students from large universities returned home to Taos,
   NM, a couple of summers ago, they left behind their Internet
   connections.  Missing their connectivity, they approached the owner
   of a local bakery and suggested he start an Internet room where he
   could charge people by the hour to use the Internet.  The
   entrepreneurial baker applied for a government grant and received a
   a few computers with high speed modems.

   You may be able to find a place like this, often called a CyberCafe,
   rather than having to create one.  Try your local magazine stand for
   the latest periodicals, or your public library or bookstore for
   pointers to other people who will know more.

   Once you have some Internet access, you can find out more about
   Cybercafes, InternetCafes, and other physical Internet access points,
   by searching as described in Section 3, and in the newsgroup

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4.2  Internet Service Providers

   Being an Internet Service Provider (ISP) these days is pretty easy
   and can be financially worthwhile, so there are alot of them, and
   they are starting and failing every day.  In addition to the
   information and pointers you will find in this document, many
   organizations exist to help you locate, and choose a service
   provider.  In any case, be sure to get references, not only for the
   ISP but also for the organizations who recommend them.  Some
   organizations exist solely to recommend those who pay them.  Most
   Internet related magazines these days contain extensive advertising
   by ISPs in your area.  See Appendix D for a listing of many magazines
   which now contain information and pointers about the Internet.

   As we discussed in Section 1, every machine on the Internet needs an
   address by which it is accessed.  Even machines which are only
   browsing need an address to which the browsed information is
   returned.  This is actually called your IP (Internet Protocol)
   address.  Usually you will get your IP address from your work,
   school, or ISP when you get your configuration information for your
   Internet connection.  If you were trying to get an IP Address on your
   own, you would go to the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).

   The following is sent out by the IANA in response to a request for
   an IP network number assignment.

      You should get your IP address (a 32bit number) from your
      network service provider.

      Your network service provider works with a regional registry
      to manage these addresses.  The regional registry for the US
      is the Internic, for Europe is RIPE, for the Asia and Pacific
      region is the AP-NIC, and parts of the world not otherwise
      covered are managed by the Internic.

      If for some reason your network service provider does not
      provide you with an IP address, you can contact the your
      regional registry at one of the following addresses:

              Internic     <>
              RIPE         <>
              AP-NIC       <>

      Please do contact your network service provider first, though.
      The regional registry will want to know all the gory details
      about why that didn't work out before they allocate you an
      address directly.

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4.3 Computer Software and Hardware Tools

   A basic computer system consists of a box containing a Central
   Processor Unit (CPU), MotherBoard, and Floppy Drive.  It will also
   come with a keyboard, and you will need a Hard Drive, Memory, and a
   Video Monitor.  How much memory, how large a hard drive, and how
   fabulous a monitor, will vary with your needs and experience.

   To connect to an ISP you will also need a modem and a phone line.
   Your normal telephone line will do, but if you have call-waiting you
   will probably want to disable it for the duration of your networking
   session so that you do not lose data to a lost connection.

   There are many types of computers available including PC's, Macs, and
   other Workstations.  The most affordable systems are generally PCs
   and Macs.  You may also need to choose an Operating System (OS) for
   the machine you choose.

   Personal Computers (PCs) can run a version of DOS, anything from
   Microsoft(R), or a version of Unix (BSDI, FreeBSD, Linux, etc.) Apple
   Macintosh computers can run the common Mac Windows, or Apples version
   of Unix.  Workstations generally run a Unix derived OS.

   With any system, you should ensure that it contains the software and
   hardware necessary to maintain both itself and your data.  While
   computer data is not particularly fragile, it is still sometimes lost
   due to hardware or software problems or simple human error.  For this
   reason it is considered important to "back up" your system by making
   extra copies of important data.  While simply copying data onto
   floppy disks could work, the small storage size of the disks makes it
   alot of work and prone to human error.  Many large capacity disk and
   tape drives are available with special software specifically for
   doing backups.  It is highly recommended that you purchase a backup
   solution along with your computer.

   It is also important to protect your data from being damaged by
   computer viruses.  When you connect to the net and move data back and
   forth, it is possible that there can be a small piece of software
   (called a virus) that could hide in some of the data and "infect"
   your system, possibly then using your system to infect other machines
   that you connect to.  These viruses are often created by misguided
   people as a sort of computer prank, and can accidentally or
   maliciously damage your data.  Fortunately it is possible to buy
   virus checking software that can regularly scan your system to see if
   it has been infected.  This software is important whether you are
   downloading information from the net, or using other peoples floppy
   disks.  See Section 6 for more information on viruses.

   Determining your ideal hardware and software configuration will
   take some time and patience.  You need an understanding of what you
   want to do, and how, and whether you wish to simply view, or create.

   You'll also want to know the limitations and expandability potential

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   of the system, so you can determine if it will have a useful
   lifespan.  If the machine cannot grow for the foreseeable few years,
   it will become obsolete before its given you its fullest value.

4.4 Multimedia

   Depending upon your needs, you may require special hardware installed
   in the machine, or attached externally by cables.  These additional
   pieces of hardware are known as peripherals.

   The peripherals needed for accessing information on the Internet
   might include the following:

   - a sound card and speakers to hear sounds, music, speech, etc.
   - a CD-ROM player to read stored images of artwork
   - midi equipment for audio artists
   - video equipment for participating in video forums
   - a printer to make hardcopy of files, or images
   - Other equipment for creating content See Section 5.

   Most of these peripherals will require specialized software.  If you
   plan to purchase all the hardware and software at once, find a vendor
   who will connect and test all the hardware, software, and peripherals
   for you.  Due to the complexity of these systems, they can be
   difficult to configure for the inexperienced user.

   Also, verify that the vendor will stand behind their equipment, and
   this configuration in the event that it doesn't work the way you want
   it to.  Hook the system up, and test it extensively right away, so
   as to determine any problems before your warrantee period expires.

5.  Creating Content

   As the hardware and software of the net becomes cheaper and better
   understood, the technology itself will become less important than the
   content which lives on the net.  Many of the rewards of the Internet
   will go to the people who create such content.

   There are different ways to add content to the Internet.  One may
   start with pre-existing content, such as paintings or stories, and
   find a place for it, or one may create content specifically for the
   net such as a web page.

   Let us for the moment assume that you have already created something
   which you would like to make available on the net.  There are many
   ways in which you could do this.  You could deal with agencies who
   provide this service professionally, find friends or others willing
   to do it for free, or get yourself on the net in some fashion and
   create a place for it yourself.

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   If you chose to do it yourself, you will need your own computer and
   some form of internet access from an Internet Service Provider (ISP)
   or Web Space Provider (WSP).

   Once you have a place to put your content, you will need to put it in
   the right format.  Images may have to be digitized, audio may have to
   be recorded into computer files, etc.  Section 5.2 discusses the
   various information formats in more detail.  While hardware, such as
   image scanners, are readily available, there are also many other
   options available.  For example, most print, or copy shops today can
   do high quality image scans and some WSPs may provide this as one of
   their services.

   If you are placing your content on the Web, a web page must be
   created for it in the form of an HTML document that references the
   content in the appropriate file format.  While this is easy enough to
   do yourself, many WSPs also offer this service, and there are also
   independent web page designers who may be able to do a better job.

   Creating online content involves moving your art into an electronic
   format and then, perhaps, re-formatting it for the Internet.  For
   some art forms, the initial electronic step is fairly painless:
   translating a short story, poem, novel (or any type of creative
   writing that doesn't have much desktop publishing formatting, for
   example) into HTML is fairly straight forward.  Likewise, moving a
   computer graphic to the Internet requires a converter program to make
   the graphic follow the right format.  Performing arts, sculpture, and
   other pieces that are hard to capture on a computer disk, require
   more work and creative thinking.

   Much of the information needed to help you think creatively about
   publicizing your work online is available in classes, books, local
   Internet cafes, and on the Internet itself.  Many Internet magazines
   are available for subscriptions or individual issues can help get you
   started.  Most new bookstores and, to some extent, used bookstores
   provide numerous volumes of Internet information.  However, even the
   most recently published books may contain outdated information.  The
   latest 'standards' can be obtained directly from the Internet
   Engineering Task Force, or IETF, at  The
   document you are reading now is a product of that organization.

   If you learn better by doing, rather than reading, you may be
   interested in taking a HTML or Internet Introduction course at a
   local college.  Most larger metropolitan area schools provide classes
   for the basics, which can also expose you to other artists.  Make
   sure you read the course description; some courses may only cover
   accessing the Internet while you may want to actually be creating
   documents.  If no colleges in your area offer classes, contact the
   computer science department or the continuing education office and
   suggest a topic.  If the school can obtain enough support, they may
   offer a class the following semester.

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5.1  Getting Help: Consultants, Web Page Designers, Providers, etc.

   Once you're connected to the Internet, there are many more ways of
   getting help with it.  Try the forums, listed in Section 3, such as
   Newsgroups, Bulletin Boards, and Chat rooms.  If you've checked the
   local netiquette guidelines, and behave accordingly, the Internet
   community will usually be very helpful toward new arrivals.

   When looking for good consultants and web page designers, start with
   the sites you like, and find out who did their pages.  Discuss your
   needs with other artists, or check the phone book, library, books,
   magazines and other periodicals for artist collectives and groups who
   may be available to assist you.  Look for groups whose cause is
   artisticly motivated, rather than trusting people who are paid to
   point you at a particular consultant or assistant.

   Know what you want.  If it takes you a while to figure out what you
   want, take that time.  This shouldn't be something you need to rush
   into.  The Internet isn't going to go away.  Whatever you decide to
   do, don't be afraid to ask for references.  A good provider of
   services will always be happy to provide you with a list of happy

5.2 Basic design issues: Understanding Formats

   As discribed in Section 1.3, there are many file formats available on
   the Internet.  You'll need to understand a little bit about the
   formats you'll want to present, in order to create them for others to
   see.  Some formats are called Public Domain, and are freely copyable,
   and the software tools used to create this content is available for
   you to download off the net.  Other formats are called Proprietary,
   and are only readable and creatable using software you must purchase
   from the vendor who created it, or their authorized reseller.  Some
   formats, and their associated formatting tools, come along with other
   software packages.  For example, Microsoft Windows comes with a Sound
   Recorder, which makes and plays back .wav files.  Now people who want
   sound cues in the software they write for Windows can use .wav files
   and give you more options with the tools you have.  So you can now
   surf the net for .wav files to add to the usefulness of those tools.

   For more information on file formats, connect to:
   (note the extension in this case is .htm rather than .html - this is
   the case when files are created in an environment that only supports
   three character extensions, such as DOS.

++ List, define, and describe, formats and extensions...
++ Sound, Image, Text, Hypertext

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   Some artists are actually using html as an artform in itself and are
   helping to push the boundaries of this medium.

++ Mention scanners, tablets, speakers, recorders,
++ encoders/decoders, slide reader video equipment, software needed,
++ Save in-depth for the appropriate subsection.

++ Don't forget Examples: How people are creating content ...

5.3  Text and Hypertext

++ what and how

5.4  Graphic and Moving images

++ Creating mpeg, jpeg, gif, jpg, Compression: jpg vs. gif
++ What is a thumbnail?

5.5  Music and Sound

   The World Wide Web supports audio data as well as visual data.  The
   most obvious way to send audio across the net would be to use digital
   audio like that used for the Compact Disc or "CD".  However, CD
   format digital audio requires 44,100 16 bit words per second for a
   mono signal, and twice that for a stereo signal.  While there are
   many places where one can find digital audio in Windows ".wav", or
   the MacIntosh ".au" format, these files typically take a very long
   time to download even a few seconds of audio.  The size of these
   formats makes them too inefficient for widespread use on the net

   It is however possible to do "useful" audio over the net. The
   emerging "de facto" standard seems to be _RealAudio_, based on the
   freely distributable server/player application, _RealAudio_ version
   2.0, developed by the Seattle based company Progressive Networks.
   First released in 1995, RealAudio allows useable digital audio in
   realtime over a 28.8 kB line, and has already been put into service
   on the home pages of most major record companies as well as in many
   niche applications.  In addition, RealAudio provides a "Voice mode"
   optimized for understandable speech transmission over a 14.4kB line.

   Unfortunately the quality of _RealAudio_ leaves much to be
   desired.  In particular, the sample rate in Music Mode is only 8Khz
   (as compared to CD quality 44.1 Khz), meaning that all high
   frequencies above 4khz are simply missing.  The resulting audio is
   still pleasing to listen to, but sounds very dull and dark.

   More information about RealAudio can be found at

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   Clearly Digital Audio is the way of the future, but until more
   bandwidth is available to the average person, it may not be the way
   of the present.  Fortunately, at least in the area of music, there is
   an interesting alternative.

   MIDI (the Musical Instrument Digital Interface), as developed for
   electronic musical instruments (keyboards, samplers, drum machines,
   etc.) works well for certain kinds of music over the net.  It
   involves sending no sound sources at all, just the description of the
   music -- kind of like the score, without the instruments.  If the
   receiver has the right instruments on their computer (such as the
   sounds defined in the General Midi soundset found on many
   soundcards), they can play back the musical score.

   The big disadvantage to using MIDI is that other than the limited
   selection of sounds in the General Midi set, it is extremely
   difficult to make sure the music sounds more than approximately like
   the original.  And there is no way to handle non-MIDI instruments
   such as guitar or voice, so it is useless to hear the new song by
   your favorite rock and roll band.

   The big advantage to MIDI is how fast it works over slow net
   connections.  For example, five minutes of music, fits in a mere 30k
   file, and usually will not take more than a few seconds even on the
   slowest of dialup connections!  This makes it ideal for applications
   such as networked games, or music to go along with a web page.

   There are many ways of embedding MIDI files into HTML documents,
   for WWW distribution.

   Anyone who wants to add MIDI to a page can choose to use existing
   public access MIDI file banks, of which there are many, or to produce
   new MIDI themselves.

   Crescendo is one package available for embedding MIDI files in
   HTML Crescendo works for both MacIntosh and

   Helpful Links: Publicly Available Audio and Music Applications

   Music of J.S. Bach for keyboard

   RISM (repertoire of manuscript sources), plus other access to
   online scholarly music resources.

   Crescendo is used in the web pages at
   along with a growing number of others.  One very interesting use of
   Crescendo occurs on the Music Theory Online publication, a serious
   scholarly site for publishing and debating musicology and music
   theory.  Articles there now routinely include short musical examples,
   a great sign of the future of scholarly publishing in the age of

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   dynamic, interactive content.

   Formerly, debate on musical form and structure occurred in the
   pages of journals, referring usually to music examples in terms of
   its visual notation.  This notation requires a certain degree of
   training to decode, effectively restricting the potential readership
   to those with this professional training.  With sound examples
   embedded directly in the text, at least the aural effect of the music
   comes across, even to those unable to read the notation accurately.
   This shift is appropriate to the newer trends in music scholarship,
   which talk about music in terms of its social and cultural context,
   instead of only in formal terms.

5.6  Content Design Issues

   Know your intended audience.  If you want more people to see your
   work, you'll need to make it more accessible.

   Many sites are very careful about what content they will allow access
   to.  If you want all audiences to be able to view your work, make
   sure you are careful about your content and language.

   Another content design issue is tool friendliness.  Some machines
   have limitations which will not allow them to see or hear what you'd
   like them to.  For example, older or less expensive models of
   monitors may have monochrome, or one-color displays, or display only
   16 colors, or 256 colors.  If you create and view images which look
   fabulous with a 64,000 color display, you may want to test them using
   a 16 color display to see what the effect is.  Sometimes you can
   modify your image slightly to get a wider audience while only having
   a minor impact on the effect.

   The following sites give you pointers on what to consider when
   designing a web page that is content- rich:

   - Sun's Guide to Web Style -
   - Yale C/AIM Web Style Guide -
   - Web Development -
   - A Guide to Creating a Successful Web Site =
   - Bandwidth Conservation Society -
     This is resource for web developers with an interest in optimizing

   See Section 6 for other issues and challenges relating to content.

5.7  Publicizing your work

++  advertising on the net.  point to Sally's doc.

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6.  Issues and Challenges

   The Internet has many issues and challenges, among which are
   security, privacy, property rights, copyrights and freedom of speech.
   Security issues involve both the security of your data, as well as
   your image.  Viruses can be transmitted easily over the net, and
   precautions should always be taken.  If you choose to keep your own
   information available on the net it can be the subject of vandalism
   and theft.  You may also find yourself being persecuted for the
   information you provide as more and more people join the Internet
   community and feel the need to impose their morality upon it.

   This is no different from any society.  We must draw our own lines,
   and our own conclusions.  This section is terribly brief, and
   entirely summary in nature, and is in no way intended to be
   comprehensive.  It is intended to warn you and advise you.  If you
   have real concerns about your property rights, copyrights, and/or
   personal rights, please do your own research.  Internet laws are in
   such a state of flux that they are changing as I write this, and they
   will be changing as you read it.

   At last check, however, freedom of speech was prevailing in the
   United States, and so far the government has not upheld any laws
   prohibiting the exhibition of anything on the Internet.  Support your
   local constitutional rights.

6.1 Security Issues

++ See Section 10. but describe here also.
++ Security of content, site, ownership.

6.2 Viruses

   A "virus" is a program that modifies other programs by placing a copy
   of itself inside them.  It cannot run independently.  It requires
   that its host program be run to activate it.

   The damage caused by a virus may consist of the deletion of data or
   programs, maybe even reformatting of the hard disk, but more subtle
   damage is also possible.  Some viruses may modify data or introduce
   typing errors into text.  Other viruses may have no intentional
   effects other than replicating itself.

   Viruses can be transmitted over the Internet inside other programs,
   but usually they are transmitted by floppy disk.  Your best bet is to
   purchase a really versatile and up-to-date virus checking program
   from your local software retailer, and run it over every floppy you
   plan to read, and every program you plan to run, as well as
   periodically over the entire machine.

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   Computer viruses are enough like organic viruses that many of the
   same precautions apply.  Early detection is key.  Diligence will
   mitigate potential damage, but frequent incremental backups are your
   best strategy for recovery.

6.3 Rights

++ Intro to protecting your copyright on the Internet.
++ References: Copyright law, cases, etc.
** Remember Laws on Intellectual property are constantly changing!
++ examples of: copyright, trademark, disclaimers, international
++ concerns big issue re: other countries who do not recognize US law
++ goes both ways... respecting others copyrights

++  The implications of the Telecom Reform Bill with regard to
++  Freedom of Speech.
++ Censorship issues, need *your* help.

++ INTERNATIONALIZE: ie: Canada will not allow the import of anything
++ that is "degrading" to women.  Etc.

6.4 Conducting Business over the Internet

++ Secure transaction are possible, pointers to pgp, etc.

6.5 Netiquette

++ The Responsible Use of the Network document outline, and pointers.

   FYI 28 "Netiquette Guidelines", (Also RFC 1855), October 1995.

++ It never hurts to keep silent until you know your audience better.
++ Not being offended by others, ie: don't take it personally
++ keeping in mind international cultural differences, etc.

7.  Glossary

++ point to userglos, trainmat, and useful stuff that needs to be on
++ the same doc. for ease of use

   FYI 29 "Catalogue of Network Training Materials", (Also RFC 2007),
   October 1996.

   FYI 22 "Frequently Asked Questions for Schools", (Also RFC 1941),
   May 1996.

   FYI 18  "Internet Users' Glossary", (Also RFC 1983), August 1996.

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** words contained within this document which need to be defined for
** the audience: Boolean,

8.  Resources

++ Places to find more information of use and interest.
++ specific arts and humanities studies, projects, programs, getty

   Much of the information provided by this document was gathered
   from other documents.  Wherever important to the discussion, a
   pointer to the document was given, however, many more documents are
   available on many other topics.

8.1 Request for Comment

   One of the most important collections of informational documents
   about the Internet are written as Requests for Comment by the
   Internet Engineering Task Force.  The name Request for Comment is
   historical, as these documents are submitted by their authors' for
   the approval of the Internet community as Internet Standards, and
   valid Informational RFCs called FYIs, of which this document is one.
   Basically, if the IETF collective uses a tool or resource, they
   document its use in an RFC so that there is no mystery to its
   functionality, uses, designations, specifications, or purposes.

   More information on RFCs, FYIs, the IETF, and its organizations,
   documents, policies and purposes can be found in the RFCs themselves,
   by a number of means.

8.1.1  The ISI RFC-INFO service

   There are many way to get copies of RFCs over the Internet (see
   ConneqXions, Vol.6,No.1, January 1992).  Most of these simply access
   a directory of files where each RFC is in a file.  The searching
   capability (if any) is limited to the filename recognition features
   of that system.

   The ISI RFC-INFO server is a system you can search for an RFC by
   author, date, or keyword (all title words are automatically

   RFC-INFO is an e-mail based service to help in locating and
   retrieval of RFCs and FYIs.  Users can ask for "lists" of all RFCs
   and FYIs having certain attributes ("filters") such as their ID,
   keywords, title, author, issuing organization, and date.  Once an RFC
   is uniquely identified (e.g., by its RFC number) it may also be

   To use the service send e-mail to RFC-INFO@ISI.EDU with your requests
   in the body of the message.  Feel free to put anything in the
   SUBJECT, the system ignores it.  (All is case independent.)

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   See Appendix C.  Examples for using the RFC server RFC-INFO@ISI.EDU

9. References

++ should we create [#] footnotes?? i.e.: ISN doc, etc.
++ reference the publications and/or sites of key
++ arts and humanities organizations (e.g. Getty, NINCH)

10. Security Considerations

** jkrey points to site sec. handbook:
** "The "current" Work in Progress for the Site Security Handbook WG
** is the I-D - draft-ietf-ssh-handbook-03.txt.  This group is
** working on a companion document for the "user".  Stay tuned for
** the I-D.  They should have that out before San Jose."

   There are a wide variety of ways in which systems can be violated,
   some intentional, some accidental.  Of the intentional attacks, a
   portion may be exploratory, others simply abusive of your resources
   (using up your CPU time) but many are actively malicious.  No system
   is 100% safe, but there are steps you can take to protect against
   misconfigured devices spraying packets, casual intruders, and a
   variety of focused assaults.

   Your best defense is to educate yourself on the subject of
   security.  There are places on the net devoted to teaching users
   about security - most prominently, the CERT Coordination Center
   located at the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon
   university.  You can point your web browser (or direct your ftp
   connection) to to start.  This is a
   frequently asked questions guide and general overview on CERT.  It
   includes a bibliography of suggested reading and a variety of sources
   to find more information.

   Next, you should probably read

   which contains a (primarily based on the UNIX operating system)
   checklist to help you determine whether you're site has suffered a
   security breach.  You can use it to guide you through handling a
   specific incident if you think your system has been compromised or
   you can use it as a list of common vulnerabilities.  CERT also
   maintains a wide variety of bulletins, software patches, and tools to
   help you keep up to date and secure.

   Before you are even online, you should consider some basic steps:

10.1 Formulate a security policy.

   It should include policies regarding physical access procedures,

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   security incident response, online privileges and back-up media.  Put
   a message at the login to establish your policy clearly.

   An example:

   "This system is for the use of authorized users only.  It may be
   monitored in the course of routine operation to detect unauthorized
   use.  Evidence of unauthorized use or criminal activity may result in
   legal prosecution."

10.1.1. Talk to your Internet Service Provider.

   Depending upon your provider and router management situation, there
   are a number of things your ISP should be able to do for you to make
   your site more secure.  Foremost, packet filtering on the router that
   connects you to the internet.  You will want to consider IP filters
   to allow specific types of traffic (web, ftp, mail, etc.) to certain
   machines (the mailhost, the web server, etc.) and no others.  Other
   filters can block certain types of IP spoofing where the intruder
   masks his or her identity using an IP address from inside your
   network to defeat your filters.  Discuss your concerns and questions
   with your provider - the company may have standards or tools they can

10.1.2. Make sure your systems are up to date.

   A significant number of incidents happen because older versions of
   software have well-known weaknesses that can be exploited from almost
   anywhere on the internet.  CERT provides a depository for software
   patches designed by concerned net.citizens, CERT's engineers and by
   the vendors themselves.

10.1.3. Use the tools available.

   Consider recording MD5 checksums on read-only media (the MD5-digest
   algorithm determines an electronic "fingerprint" for files to
   indicate their uniqueness -comparing more recent checksums to older
   ones can alert you to changes in important system files), installing
   tripwire on your systems (notes size and MD5 checksum changes, among
   other sanity checks), and periodically testing the integrity of your
   machines with programs an intruder might use, like SATAN and crack.
   [Details on MD5 are contained in RFC 1321.]

   Most files and fixes go through the basics before leaving you to
   figure things out on your own, but security can be a complicated
   issue, both technically and morally.  When good security is
   implemented, no one really notices.  Unfortunately, no one notices
   when it's not taken care of either.  That is until the system
   crashes, your data gets corrupted, or you get a phone call from an
   irate company whose site was cracked from your machines.  It doesn't
   matter if you carry only public information.  It doesn't matter if
   you think you're too small or unimportant to be noticed.  No one is

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   too small or too big, no site is immune.  Take precautions and be

11. Acknowledgments

   Joseph Aiuto
   Sepideh Boroumand
   Michael Century
   Kelly Cooper
   Lile Elam
   Dan Harrington
   Julie Jensen
   Walter Stickle

12. Authors' Address

   Janet Max

   Scott Stoner

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Appendix A.

++humanities computing projects, research projects,
++text encoding project (michael century) need to maintain perspective
++of the historic art archives and the "current" art in culture
++AHIB?  Marty Harris, Susan Sigfried NIDGE?

   Examples of Projects on the Internet of Interest to the Arts and
   Humanities Communities

   The commonplace insight about the web as a new distribution
   channel for cultural products is that it effaces the traditional
   border between producer and consumer.  Publishers exploit two-way
   interactivity by re-designing the editorial mix to include reader
   response.  Here follows some examples of the way creative artists
   attempt to design structures flexible enough for significant viewer

   RENGA ( - An inspired transposition of a
   traditional collaborative writing practice into the realm of digital
   media supported by the NTT InterCommunication Centre in Tokyo.  Renga
   means linked-image or linked-poem, and draws on the Japanese
   tradition of collaboration which effaces the unique notion of
   original author.

   PING ( - by Art+Com, a Berlin
   based media centre and thinktank.  Art+Com is a leader in producing
   high-end net visualization projects.  Ping lets the browser add a
   link, which then becomes a part of the ongoing visual structure.  It
   is similar, in this sense, to the Toronto Centre for Landscape
   Architecture's OASIS site.

   Art+Com's T-Vision project (
   which uses satellites and networked VR computers to permit an
   astonishing fly-in to earth from space: acclaimed as one of the most
   imaginative realizations of the potential of networked computing.

   OASIS(Image)INTERNET-DRAFT Toronto Centre for Landscape
   Architecture's OASIS site requires a specialized browser, but from a
   standard Netscape connection, you can view stills that give a sense
   of the beautiful images produced by the collaborative "design
   process".  It is introduced by its designers as follows:

   Oasis is a shared 3-Dimensional navigational environment for the
   world wide web.  This virtual landscape allows one to bury their own
   information links throughout the terrain or to discover and connect
   to new information left by others.

   TechnoSphere ( Is
   TechnoSphere a Game?

   Yes and no. It's an experiment on a global scale, a chance to

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   develop complex artificial life on digital networks.  TechnoSphere is
   interactive like a game, but transgresses the linear boundaries of
   branching and hierarchical games narrative to enable freer movement.
   TechnoSphere is designed to encourage a non-linear experiential

   Body Missing (

   Toronto artist Vera Frenkel created this richly evocative site on
   the disappearance of art and memory as an extension of her Transit
   Bar installation.  It is conceived as a site open to new
   'reconstructions' of the artworks confiscated during the Third Reich.
   First opened to the public as part of the ISEA95 exhibition in
   Montreal, it has since earned widespread critical comment and praise.

   Molecular Clinic 1.0

   Molecular Clinic 1.0 ' is an art project realized through a
   collaboration between ARTLAB and Seiko Mikami, and is one of the most
   elaborate custom designed art projects yet created for the Web.
   During their initial visit users should download the MOLECULAR ENGINE
   VIEWER, which is a type of molecular laboratory for their computer.
   What they will see on the web site after this initial download is a
   virtual space containing a three dimensional computer generated
   Spider and Monolith object.  The user will be able to navigate
   through and into this virtual space and can zoom into the spider all
   the way to the molecular level.

   File Room ( -
   Cumulative database info on Censorship, hosted in Chicago but
   conceived by Spanish artist Antoni Muntadas.

   Idea Futures  ( -

   Winner of the grand prize at the 1995 Ars Electronica competition
   for Web Sites, Idea Futures is a stock market of ideas, based on the
   theories of mathematical economist Robin Hanson.  The 'truth' of any
   claim is assigned a weight calculated by the amount of virtual cash
   which members of the exchange are willing to bet.  The scheme leads
   might lead toward a radical democratization of academic discourse,
   but just as easily, toward the trivialization of thought.  See the
   following for a philosophical critique of the system.

   Firefly ( also a prize winner at Ars
   Electronica in 1995, Firefly is an prototypical example of what
   enthusiasts call a "personal music recommendation agent", which makes
   suggestions for what you might like to listen to, based on a stored
   profile of your own likes and dislikes, and the evolving ratings
   submitted to the system by other members.  Worth visiting, if only to
   understand what all the fashionable hype about 'intelligent agents'

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   is all about; skeptics should know that even the promoters of these
   services admit the circularity of their systems: they're capable of
   reinforcing existing taste, but little else.

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Appendix B:  Some other URL's of interest

   Art on the Net
   Artist Memorials
   Personal Journals
   Musical Groups (Grateful Dead) (Phish)

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Appendix C:

   To get started you may send a message to RFC-INFO@ISI.EDU with
   requests such as in the following examples (without the explanation
   between []):

        Help: Help              [to get this information]

        List: FYI               [list the FYI notes]
        List: RFC               [list RFCs with window as keyword or
                                 in title]
         keywords: window
        List: FYI               [list FYIs about windows]
         Keywords: window
        List: *                 [list both RFCs and FYIs about windows]
         Keywords: window
        List: RFC               [list RFCs about ARPANET, ARPA
                                 NETWORK, etc.]
         title: ARPA*NET
         List: RFC              [list RFCs issued by MITRE, dated
          Organization: MITRE
          Dated-after:  Jan-01-1989
          Dated-before: Dec-31-1991
        List: RFC               [list RFCs obsoleting a given RFC]
          Obsoletes: RFC0010
        List: RFC               [list RFCs by authors starting with
         Author: Bracken*       [* is a wild card matches everything]
        List: RFC               [list RFCs by both Postel and Gillman]
          Authors: J. Postel    [note, the "filters" are ANDed]
          Authors: R. Gillman
        List: RFC               [list RFCs by any Crocker]
          Authors: Crocker

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