HIP Working Group                                             A. Keranen
Internet-Draft                                              G. Camarillo
Intended status: Experimental                                 J. Maenpaa
Expires: September 9, 2010                                      Ericsson
                                                           March 8, 2010

 Host Identity Protocol-Based Overlay Networking Environment (HIP BONE)
  Instance Specification for REsource LOcation And Discovery (RELOAD)


   This document is the Host Identity Protocol-Based Overlay Networking
   Environment (HIP BONE) instance specification for the REsource
   LOcation And Discovery (RELOAD) protocol.  The document provides the
   details needed to build a RELOAD-based overlay that uses HIP.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on September 9, 2010.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents

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   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
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   described in the BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   3.  Peer Protocol  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   4.  Node ID Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   5.  Mapping between Protocol Primitives and HIP Messages . . . . .  4
     5.1.  Forwarding Header  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     5.2.  Security Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     5.3.  Replaced RELOAD Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   6.  Securing Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   7.  Routing HIP Messages via the Overlay . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   8.  Enrollment and Bootstrapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   9.  NAT Traversal  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   10. RELOAD Overlay Configuration Document Extension  . . . . . . .  8
   11. Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   12. IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   13. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   14. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     14.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     14.2. Informational References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

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1.  Introduction

   The HIP BONE (Host Identify Protocol-Based Overlay Networking
   Environment) specification [I-D.ietf-hip-bone] provides a high-level
   framework for building HIP-based [RFC5201] overlays.  The HIP BONE
   framework leaves the specification of the details on how to combine a
   particular peer protocol with HIP to build an overlay up to documents
   referred to as HIP BONE instance specifications.  As discussed in
   [I-D.ietf-hip-bone], a HIP BONE instance specification needs to
   define, minimally:

   o  the peer protocol to be used.
   o  what kind of Node IDs are used and how they are derived.
   o  which peer protocol primitives trigger HIP messages.
   o  how the overlay identifier is generated.

   This document addresses all the previous items and provides
   additional details needed to built RELOAD-based HIP BONEs.  The
   details on how different RELOAD modules would be integrated to a HIP
   implementation and what kind of APIs are used between them are left
   as implementation details or to be defined by other documents.

2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
   In addition, this document uses the terms defined in [RFC5201],
   [I-D.ietf-hip-bone], [I-D.ietf-hip-via], and [I-D.ietf-p2psip-base].

3.  Peer Protocol

   The peer protocol to be used is RELOAD, which is specified in
   [I-D.ietf-p2psip-base].  When used with RELOAD, HIP replaces the
   RELOAD's Forwarding and Link Management Layer (described in Section
   5.5. of [I-D.ietf-p2psip-base].

4.  Node ID Generation

   This document specifies two modes for generating Node IDs.  Which
   mode is used in an actual overlay is defined by the overlay

   RELOAD uses 128-bit Node IDs.  Since HIP uses 128-bit ORCHIDs
   [RFC4843], a peer's ORCHID can be used as such as a RELOAD Node ID

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   (the "ORCHID" mode).  In this mode, also all the RELOAD Resource IDs
   are prefixed with the ORCHID prefix and the lower 100 bits of the
   IDs, as defined by RELOAD usage documents, are used after the prefix.

   In the other Node ID mode, namely "RELOAD", all 128 bits are
   generated as defined in [I-D.ietf-p2psip-base] resulting in a larger
   usable address space.

5.  Mapping between Protocol Primitives and HIP Messages

   RELOAD HIP BONE replaces the RELOAD protocol primitives taking care
   of connection establishment with the HIP base exchange, where as the
   rest of the RELOAD messages are conveyed within HIP messages.  The
   Forwarding and Link Management Layer functionality of RELOAD defined
   in Section 5.5. of [I-D.ietf-p2psip-base], including all the NAT
   traversal functionality, is replaced by HIP and the extensions
   defined in this document.

   The standard RELOAD messages consist of three parts: Forwarding
   Header, Message Contents and the Security Block.  When RELOAD
   messages are sent in a RELOAD HIP BONE overlay, the RELOAD Message
   Contents are used as such within HIP DATA [I-D.ietf-hip-hiccups]
   messages, but the functionality of the Forwarding Header and Security
   Block are replaced with HIP header, HIP VIA lists [I-D.ietf-hip-via],
   and CERT [I-D.ietf-hip-cert], TRANSACTION_ID [I-D.ietf-hip-hiccups],
   OVERLAY_ID and OVERLAY_TTL [I-D.ietf-hip-bone] parameters.

5.1.  Forwarding Header

   The RELOAD Forwarding Header is used for forwarding messages between
   peers and to their final destination.  The Forwarding Header's
   overlay field's value MUST be used as such in an OVERLAY_ID parameter
   and the transaction_id field in a TRANSACTION_ID parameter.  That is,
   all RELOAD HIP BONE messages MUST contain these parameters and the
   length of the OVERLAY_ID parameter's identifier field is 4 and the
   length of the TRANSACTION_ID's identifier 8 octets.  HIP VIA lists
   are used for the same purpose as the destination_list and via_list in
   the Forwarding Header, with the exception that all Resource IDs MUST
   be of the same length as Node IDs and compressed IDs MUST NOT be
   used.  The TTL value in the OVERLAY_TTL parameter is used like the
   ttl field in the Forwarding Header.

   The functionality of the fragment and length fields are provided by
   the HIP headers.  The relo_token, version, and max_res_len are not
   needed with HIP and options field, if needed eventually for some
   extensions, can be replaced with additional HIP parameters.

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5.2.  Security Block

   The RELOAD Security Block contains certificates and digital
   signatures of the message.  All the HIP DATA messages are digitally
   signed by the originator of the message and contain the HOST_ID
   parameter with the identifier that can be used for verifying the
   signature.  Certificates are delivered in a HIP CERT parameter as
   defined in [I-D.ietf-hip-cert] or stored to the overlay using the
   RELOAD Certificate Storage Usage.

   Note that when the RELOAD mode for Node ID generation is used, the
   certificate certifying that a host is allowed to use a certain Node
   ID MUST contain host's Node ID instead of HIT in the "Subject
   Alternative Name" of the certificate as described in Section 10.3 of
   [I-D.ietf-p2psip-base] while the "Subject" field contains the HIT
   calculated from the Host Identity.

5.3.  Replaced RELOAD Messages

   The Attach procedure in RELOAD establishes a connection between two
   peers.  This procedure is performed using the AttachReq and AttachAns
   messages.  When HIP is used, the Attach procedure is performed by
   using a HIP base exchange.  That is, peers send HIP I1 messages
   instead of RELOAD AttachReq messages.  This behavior replaces the one
   described in Section 5.5. of [I-D.ietf-p2psip-base].

   The AppAttach procedure in RELOAD is used for creating a connection
   for other applications than RELOAD.  Also the AppAttach procedure is
   replaced with HIP base exchange and after the base exchange peers can
   exchange any application layer data using the normal transport layer
   ports over the NAT traversing IPsec connection.

   This specification does not support flooding of configuration files,
   so Config_Update requests and responses (Section 5.5.6. of
   [I-D.ietf-p2psip-base]) MUST NOT be sent in the overlay.  RELOAD Ping
   messages (Section 5.5.5 of [I-D.ietf-p2psip-base]) MAY be used.

   For all other RELOAD messages the Message Contents are used as such
   within HIP DATA messages.

6.  Securing Communication

   RELOAD uses TLS [RFC5246] connections for securing the hop-by-hop
   messaging and certificates and signatures for providing integrity
   protection for the overlay messages and for the data stored in the

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   With a RELOAD HIP BONE, instead of using TLS connections as defined
   in [I-D.ietf-p2psip-base], all HIP overlay messages SHOULD be either
   sent using encrypted connections (such as IPsec ESP tunnel between
   two peers) or the contents of the messages SHOULD be in an ENCRYPTED
   parameter (see Section 5.2.15 of [RFC5201]).  Use of encrypted
   connections is RECOMMENDED since that provides confidentiality also
   for the HIP headers.

   The data objects stored in the RELOAD HIP BONE overlay are signed and
   the signatures are stored as defined in [I-D.ietf-p2psip-base] with
   the exception that SignerIdentity is carried in the HIP DATA
   message's HOST_ID parameter instead of using the RELOAD
   SecurityBlock.  If certificates are needed, they are sent using the
   CERT parameter.

7.  Routing HIP Messages via the Overlay

   If a host has no valid locator for the receiver of a new HIP packet,
   and the receiver is part of a RELOAD HIP BONE overlay the host is
   participating in, the host can send the HIP packet to the receiver
   using the overlay routing.

   When sending a HIP packet via the overlay, the host MUST add an empty
   ROUTE_VIA parameter [I-D.ietf-hip-via] to the packet with the
   SYMMETRIC and MUST_FOLLOW flags set and an OVERLAY_ID parameter
   containing the identifier of the right overlay network.  The host
   consults the RELOAD Topology Plugin for the next hop and sends the
   HIP packet to that host.

   An intermediate host receiving a HIP packet with the OVERLAY_ID
   parameter checks if it is participating in that overlay, and SHOULD
   drop packets sent to unknown overlays.  If the host is not the final
   destination of the packet (i.e., the HIP header's receiver's HIT does
   not match to any of its HITs), it checks if the packet contains a
   ROUTE_DST parameter.  Such packets are forwarded to the next hop as
   specified in [I-D.ietf-hip-via].  Otherwise, the host finds the next
   hop from the RELOAD Topology Plugin and forwards the packet there.
   As specified in [I-D.ietf-hip-via], the host adds the HIT it uses on
   the HIP association with the next hop host to the end of the
   ROUTE_VIA parameter, if present.

   When the final destination host receives the HIP packet, the host
   processes it as specified in [RFC5201] and in case of HIP DATA
   packet, the contents are processed as specified in
   [I-D.ietf-p2psip-base].  If the HIP packet generates a response, the
   response is routed back on the same path using the ROUTE_DST
   parameter as specified in [I-D.ietf-hip-via].

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8.  Enrollment and Bootstrapping

   The RELOAD HIP BONE instance uses the enrollment and bootstrap
   procedure defined by RELOAD [I-D.ietf-p2psip-base] with the
   exceptions listed below.

   o  In RELOAD, a node wishing to enroll in an overlay starts with a
      discovery process to find an enrollment server as explained in
      [I-D.ietf-p2psip-base].  The URL of the enrollment server may be
      provided by an out-of-band mechanism or alternatively, the node
      can do a DNS SRV query to find an enrollment server.  In the
      RELOAD HIP BONE instance, instead of doing a DNS SRV query using a
      service name of "p2psip_enroll" to find an enrollment server, the
      service name "hipbreload_enr" is used.  The URL of the enrollment
      server is formed by appending a path of "hipbone-reload/enroll" to
      the overlay name.  After this, the enrollment and bootstrap
      procedure continues as defined in RELOAD base
      [I-D.ietf-p2psip-base], that is, the overlay configuration
      document is fetched from the enrollment server.
   o  The X.509 certificates used by the RELOAD HIP BONE instance are
      similar to those of RELOAD except that they contain HITs instead
      of RELOAD URIs.  The HITs are included in the SubjectAltName field
      of the certificate as described in [I-D.ietf-hip-cert].
   o  When contacting a bootstrap node, instead of forming a DTLS or TLS
      connection, the host MUST perform a HIP base exchange with the
      bootstrap node.  The base exchange MAY be performed using a HIP
      rendezvous or relay server.

   The RELOAD HIP BONE instance extends the RELOAD overlay configuration
   document by adding new elements inside each "configuration" element
   of the document.  These new elements are listed in Section 10.

9.  NAT Traversal

   RELOAD relies on the Forwarding and Link Management Layer providing
   NAT traversal capabilities.  Thus, the RELOAD HIP BONE instance
   implementations MUST implement some reliable NAT traversal mechanism.
   To maximize interoperability, all implementations SHOULD implement at
   least [I-D.ietf-hip-nat-traversal].

   HIP relay servers are not necessarily needed with this HIP BONE
   instance since the overlay network can be used for relaying the Base
   Exchange and further HIP signaling can be done directly between the
   peers.  However, if it is possible that a bootstrap peer is behind a
   NAT, it MUST register with a HIP relay so that there is a reliable
   way to connect to it.

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10.  RELOAD Overlay Configuration Document Extension

   This document modifies the bootstrap-node element of the RELOAD
   overlay configuration document.  The modified bootstrap-node element
   contains the following elements:

   address:  The locator of the bootstrap node.
   port:  The port of the bootstrap node.
   hit:  The HIT of the bootstrap node.

   If the bootstrap-node element does not contain a HIT, opportunistic
   mode SHOULD be used for contacting the bootstrap node.

   This document also adds a new element inside the configuration
   element that defines which mode (see Section 4) is used for
   generating the Node and Resource IDs.  The name of the element is
   "hipbone-id-mode" and the content is the identifier of the mode:
   "ORCHID" for the ORCHID prefixed IDs and "RELOAD" for the IDs that
   use the whole 128 bits as defined by the RELOAD specification.

11.  Security Considerations

   The option to send overlay messages unencrypted makes it possible for
   hosts that are not part of the overlay to inspect the contents of the
   messages and thus should be avoided when possible.  If the ENCRYPTED
   parameter is used instead of encrypted connections, the HIP header
   remains visible but the contents are protected.

   Limiting the Node ID and Resource ID space into 128 bits (or 100 bits
   with ORCHID prefixes) results in a higher probability for ID
   collisions, both unintentional and intentional, than using larger
   address spaces.

12.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no IANA actions.

13.  Acknowledgements

   Tom Henderson provided valuable comments on the draft.

14.  References

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14.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC4843]  Nikander, P., Laganier, J., and F. Dupont, "An IPv6 Prefix
              for Overlay Routable Cryptographic Hash Identifiers
              (ORCHID)", RFC 4843, April 2007.

   [RFC5201]  Moskowitz, R., Nikander, P., Jokela, P., and T. Henderson,
              "Host Identity Protocol", RFC 5201, April 2008.

              Camarillo, G., Nikander, P., Hautakorpi, J., Keranen, A.,
              and A. Johnston, "HIP BONE: Host Identity Protocol (HIP)
              Based Overlay Networking Environment",
              draft-ietf-hip-bone-04 (work in progress), January 2010.

              Jennings, C., Lowekamp, B., Rescorla, E., Baset, S., and
              H. Schulzrinne, "REsource LOcation And Discovery (RELOAD)
              Base Protocol", draft-ietf-p2psip-base-07 (work in
              progress), February 2010.

              Komu, M., Henderson, T., Tschofenig, H., Melen, J., and A.
              Keranen, "Basic HIP Extensions for Traversal of Network
              Address Translators", draft-ietf-hip-nat-traversal-09
              (work in progress), October 2009.

              Camarillo, G. and A. Keranen, "Host Identity Protocol
              (HIP) Multi-hop Routing Extension", draft-ietf-hip-via-00
              (work in progress), October 2009.

              Camarillo, G. and J. Melen, "HIP (Host Identity Protocol)
              Immediate Carriage and Conveyance of Upper- layer Protocol
              Signaling (HICCUPS)", draft-ietf-hip-hiccups-02 (work in
              progress), March 2010.

              Heer, T. and S. Varjonen, "HIP Certificates",
              draft-ietf-hip-cert-02 (work in progress), October 2009.

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14.2.  Informational References

   [RFC5246]  Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
              (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, August 2008.

Authors' Addresses

   Ari Keranen
   Hirsalantie 11
   02420 Jorvas

   Email: Ari.Keranen@ericsson.com

   Gonzalo Camarillo
   Hirsalantie 11
   Jorvas  02420

   Email: Gonzalo.Camarillo@ericsson.com

   Jouni Maenpaa
   Hirsalantie 11
   Jorvas  02420

   Email: Jouni.Maenpaa@ericsson.com

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