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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 rfc2070                                        
Network Working Group                                       F. Yergeau
Internet Draft                                                G. Nicol
<draft-ietf-html-i18n-03.txt>                                 G. Adams
Expires 18 August 1996                                       M. Duerst
                                                      13 February 1996

         Internationalization of the Hypertext Markup Language

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft.  Internet-Drafts are working doc-
   uments of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, and
   its working groups. Note that other groups may also distribute work-
   ing documents as Internet-Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
   months. Internet-Drafts may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by
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   Distribution of this document is unlimited.  Please send comments to
   the HTML working group (HTML-WG) of the Internet Engineering Task
   Force (IETF) at <html-wg@w3.org>. Subscription address is <html-wg-
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   The Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is a simple markup language used
   to create hypertext documents that are platform independent.  Ini-
   tially, the application of HTML on the World Wide Web was seriously
   restricted by its reliance on the ISO-8859-1 coded character set,
   which is appropriate only for Western European languages.  Despite
   this restriction, HTML has been widely used with other languages,
   using other coded character sets or character encodings, at the
   expense of interoperability.

   This document is meant to address the issue of the

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   internationalization of HTML by extending the specification of HTML
   and giving additional recommendations for proper internationalisation
   support.  A foremost consideration is to make sure that HTML remains
   a valid application of SGML, while enabling its use in all languages
   of the world.

Table of contents

   1.  Introduction .................................................. 2
     1.1. Scope ...................................................... 3
     1.2. Conformance ................................................ 3
   2. The document character set ..................................... 4
     2.1. Reference processing model ................................. 4
     2.2. The document character set ................................. 6
     2.3. Undisplayable characters ................................... 7
   3. The LANG attribute.............................................. 7
   4. Additional entities, attributes and elements ................... 9
     4.1. Full Latin-1 entity set .................................... 9
     4.2. Markup for language-dependent presentation ................. 9
   5. Forms ..........................................................11
     5.1. DTD additions ..............................................11
     5.2. Form submission ............................................12
   6. Miscellaneous ..................................................13
   7. HTML public text ...............................................15
     7.1. HTML DTD ...................................................15
     7.2. SGML declaration for HTML ..................................30
     7.3. ISO Latin 1 character entity set ...........................31
   Bibliography ......................................................34
   Authors' Addresses ................................................36

1.  Introduction

   The Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is a simple markup language used
   to create hypertext documents that are platform independent.  Ini-
   tially, the application of HTML on the World Wide Web was seriously
   restricted by its reliance on the ISO-8859-1 coded character set,
   which is appropriate only for Western European languages.  Despite
   this restriction, HTML has been widely used with other languages,
   using other coded character sets or character encodings, through var-
   ious ad hoc extensions to the language [TAKADA].

   This document is meant to address the issue of the internationaliza-
   tion of HTML by extending the specification of HTML and giving addi-
   tional recommendations for proper internationalisation support.  It
   is in good part based on a paper by one of the authors on multilin-
   gualism on the WWW [NICOL].  A foremost consideration is to make sure

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   that HTML remains a valid application of SGML, while enabling its use
   in all languages of the world.

   The specific issues addressed are the SGML document character set to
   be used for HTML, the proper treatment of the charset parameter asso-
   ciated with the "text/html" content type and the specification of
   language tags and additional entities.

1.1 Scope

   HTML has been in use by the World-Wide Web (WWW) global information
   initiative since 1990.  This specification extends the capabilities
   of HTML (RFC 1866), primarily by removing the restriction to the
   ISO-8859-1 coded character set [ISO-8859-1].

   HTML is an application of ISO Standard 8879:1986, Information Pro-
   cessing Text and Office Systems -- Standard Generalized Markup Lan-
   guage (SGML) [ISO-8879]. The HTML Document Type Definition (DTD) is a
   formal definition of the HTML syntax in terms of SGML.  This specifi-
   cation amends the DTD of HTML in order to make it applicable to docu-
   ments encompassing a character repertoire much larger than that of
   ISO-8859-1, while still remaining SGML conformant.

1.2 Conformance

   This specification changes slightly the conformance requirements of
   HTML documents and HTML user agents.

1.2.1 Documents

   All HTML 2.0 conforming documents remain conforming with this speci-
   fication.  However, the extensions introduced here make valid cer-
   tains documents that would not be HTML 2.0 conforming, in particular
   those containing characters or character references outside of the
   repertoire of ISO 8859-1, and those containing markup introduced

1.2.2. User agents

   In addition to the requirements of RFC 1866, the following require-
   ments are placed on HTML user agents.

      To ensure interoperability and proper support for at least
      ISO-8859-1 in an environment where character encoding schemes
      other than ISO-8859-1 are present, user agents must correctly
      interpret the charset parameter accompanying an HTML document

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      received from the network.

      Furthermore, conforming user-agents are required to at least parse
      correctly all numeric character references within the range of the
      Basic Multilingual Plane (BMP) of ISO 10646-1 [ISO-10646].

2. The document character set

2.1. Reference processing model

   This overview explains a reference processing model used for HTML,
   and in particular the SGML concept of a document character set. An
   actual implementation may widely differ in its internal workings from
   the model given below, but should behave as described to an outside

   Because there are various widely differing encodings of text, SGML
   does not directly address the question of how characters are encoded
   e.g. in a file. SGML views the characters as a single set (called a
   "character repertoire"), and a "code set" that assigns an integer
   number (known as "character number") to each character in the reper-
   toire.  The document character set declaration defines what each of
   the character numbers represents [GOLD90, p. 451].  In most cases, an
   SGML DTD and all documents that refer to it have a single document
   character set, and all markup and data characters are part of this

   HTML, as an application of SGML, does not directly address the ques-
   tion of how characters are encoded as octets in external representa-
   tions such as files. This is deferred to mechanisms external to HTML,
   such as MIME as used by the HTTP protocol or by electronic mail.

   For the HTTP protocol [HTTP-1.0], the way characters are encoded is
   defined by the "charset" parameter [1] of the "Content-Type" field of
   the header of an HTTP response. For example, to indicate that the
   transmitted document is encoded in the "JIS" encoding of Japanese
   [RFC1468], the header will contain the following line:

   Content-Type: text/html; charset=ISO-2022-JP

  [1] The term "charset" in MIME is used to designate a
character  encoding,  rather than a coded character set
as the term may suggest.  A  character  encoding  is  a
mapping  (possibly many-to-one) of a sequence of octets
to a sequence of characters  taken  from  one  or  more
character repertoires.

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   The default charset parameter in the case of the HTTP protocol is
   ISO-8859-1 (the so-called "Latin-1" for Western European characters).
   The HTTP protocol also defines a mechanism for the client to specify
   the character encodings it can accept. Clients and servers are
   strongly requested to use these mechanisms to assure correct trans-
   mission and interpretation of any document. Provisions that can be
   taken to help correct interpretation, even in cases where a server or
   client do not yet use these mechanisms, are described in section 6.

   Similarly, if HTML documents are transferred by electronic mail, the
   character encoding is defined by the "charset" parameter of the "Con-
   tent-Type" MIME header line [RFC1521].

   In the case any other way of transferring and storing HTML documents
   are defined or become popular, it is advised that similar provisions
   should be made to clearly identify the character encoding used and/or
   to use a single/default encoding capable of representing the widest
   range of characters used in an international context.

   Whatever the external character encoding actually be, the reference
   processing model translates it to a representation of the document
   character set specified in Section 2.2 before processing specific to
   SGML/HTML.  The reference processing model can be depicted as fol-

     [resource]->[decoder]->[entity ]->[ SGML ]->[application]->[display]
                            [manager]  [parser]
                                ^          |
                                |          |

   The decoder is responsible for decoding the external representation
   of the resource to a representation using the document character set.
   The entity manager, the parser, and the application deal only with
   characters of the document character set.  A display-oriented part of
   the application or the display machinery itself may again convert
   characters represented in the document character set to some other
   representation more suitable for their purpose. In any case, the
   entity manager, the parser, and the application, as far as character
   semantics are concerned, are using the HTML document character set

   An actual implementation may choose, or not, to translate the docu-
   ment into some encoding of the document character set as described
   above; the behaviour described by this reference processing model can
   be achieved otherwise.  This subject is well out of the scope of this
   specification, however, and the reader is invited to consult the SGML
   standard [ISO-8879] or a SGML handbook [BRYAN88] [GOLD90] [VANH90]

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   [SQ91] for further information.

   The most important consequence of this reference processing model is
   that numeric character references are always resolved with respect to
   the fixed document character set, and thus to the same characters,
   whatever the external encoding actually used. For an example, see
   Section 2.2.

2.2. The document character set

   The document character set, in the SGML sense, is the Basic Multilin-
   gual Plane of ISO 10646:1993 [ISO-10646], also known as UCS-2.  This
   is code-by-code identical with the Unicode standard [UNICODE].  The
   adoption of this document character set implies a change in the SGML
   declaration specified in the HTML 2.0 specification (section 9.5 of
   [RFC1866]).  The change amounts to removing the two BASESET specifi-
   cations and their accompanying DESCSET declarations, replacing them
   with the following declaration:

     BASESET "ISO Registration Number 176//CHARSET
              ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-2 with implementation level 3
              //ESC 2/5 2/15 4/5"
     DESCSET  0   9     UNUSED
              9   2     9
              11  2     UNUSED
              13  1     13
              14  18    UNUSED
              32  95    32
              127 1     UNUSED
              128 32    UNUSED
              160 65374 160

   Making UCS-2 the document character set does not create non-
   conformance of any expression, construct or document that is conform-
   ing to HTML 2.0.  It does make conforming certain constructs that are
   not admissible in HTML 2.0.  One consequence is that data characters
   outside the repertoire of ISO-8859-1, but within that of UCS-2 become
   valid SGML characters.  Another is that the upper limit of the range
   of numeric character references is extended from 255 to 65533 [2] ;
   thus, &#1048; is a valid reference to a "CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER I".
   [ERCS] is a good source of information on Unicode and SGML, although
  [2] 65533  (FFFD hexadecimal) is the last valid char-
acter in UCS-2. 65534 (FFFE hexadecimal) is  unassigned
and  reserved as the byte-swapped version of ZERO WIDTH
NON-BREAKING SPACE  for  byte-sex  detection  purposes.
65535 (FFFF hexadecimal) is unassigned.

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   its scope and technical content differ greatly from this specifica-

   ISO 10646-1:1993 is the most encompassing character set currently
   existing, and there is no other character set that could take its
   place as the document character set for HTML. Also, it is expected
   that with future extensions of ISO 10646, this specification may also
   be extended.  If nevertheless for a specific application there is a
   need to use characters outside this standard, this should be done by
   avoiding any conflicts with present or future versions of ISO 10646,
   i.e. by assigning these characters to a private zone. Also, it should
   be borne in mind that such a use will be highly unportable; in many
   cases, it may be better to use inline bitmaps.

2.3. Undisplayable characters

   With the document character set being the full ISO 10646 BMP, the
   possibility that a character cannot be displayed due to lack of
   appropriate resources (fonts) cannot be avoided. Because there are
   many different things that can be done in such a case, this document
   does not prescribe any specific behaviour. Depending on the implemen-
   tation, this may also be handled by the underlaying display system
   and not the application itself.  The following considerations, how-
   ever, may be of help:

   -  A clearly visible, but unobtrusive behaviour should be preferred.
      Some documents may contain many characters that cannot be renden-
      dered, and so showing an alert for each of them is not the right
      thing to do.

   -  In case a numeric representation of the missing character is
      given, its hexadecimal (not decimal) form is to be preferred,
      because this form is used in character set standards [ERCS].

3. The LANG attribute

   Language tags can be used to control rendering of a marked up docu-
   ment in various ways: character disambiguation, in cases where the
   character encoding is not sufficient to resolve to a specific glyph;
   quotation marks; hyphenation; ligatures; spacing; voice synthesis;
   etc.  Independently of rendering issues, language markup is useful as
   content markup for purposes such as classification and searching.

   Since any text can logically be assigned a language, almost all HTML
   elements admit the LANG attribute.  The DTD reflects this.  It is
   also intended that any new element introduced in later versions of
   HTML will admit the LANG attribute, unless there is a good reason not
   to do so.

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   The language attribute, LANG, takes as its value a language tag that
   identifies a natural language spoken, written, or otherwise conveyed
   by human beings for communication of information to other human
   beings. Computer languages are explicitly excluded.

   The syntax and registry of HTML language tags is the same as that
   defined by RFC 1766 [RFC1766]. In summary, a language tag is composed
   of one or more parts: A primary language tag and a possibly empty
   series of subtags:

        language-tag  = primary-tag *( "-" subtag )
        primary-tag   = 1*8ALPHA
        subtag        = 1*8ALPHA

   Whitespace is not allowed within the tag and all tags are case-
   insensitive. The namespace of language tags is administered by the
   IANA. Example tags include:

       en, en-US, en-cockney, i-cherokee, x-pig-latin

   Two-letter primary-tags are reserved for ISO 639 language abbrevia-
   tions [ISO-639], and three-letter primary-tags for the language
   abbreviations of the "Ethnologue" [ETHNO] (the latter is in addition
   to the requirements of RFC 1766). Any two-letter initial subtag is an
   ISO 3166 country code [ISO-3166].

   In the context of HTML, a language tag is not to be interpreted as a
   single token, as per RFC 1766, but as a hierarchy. For example, a
   user agent that adjusts rendering according to language should con-
   sider that it has a match when a language tag in a style sheet entry
   matches the initial portion of the language tag of an element. An
   exact match should be preferred. This interpretation allows an ele-
   ment marked up as, for instance, "en-US" to trigger styles corre-
   sponding to, in order of preference, US-English ("en-US") or 'plain'
   or 'international' English ("en").

        NOTE -- using the language tag as a hierarchy does not
        imply that all languages with a common prefix will be
        understood by those fluent in one or more of those lan-
        guages; it simply allows the user to request this commonal-
        ity when it is true for that user.

   The rendering of elements may be affected by the LANG attribute.  For
   any element, the value of the LANG attribute overrides the value
   specified by the LANG attribute of any enclosing element and the
   value (if any) of the HTTP Content-Language header. If none of these
   are set, a suitable default, perhaps controlled by user preferences,
   by automatic context analysis or by the user's locale, should be used

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   to control rendering.

4. Additional entities, attributes and elements

4.1. Full Latin-1 entity set

   According to the suggestion of section 14 of [RFC1866], the set of
   Latin-1 entities is extended to cover the whole right part of
   ISO-8859-1 (all code positions with the high-order bit set).  The
   names of the entities are taken from the appendices of [SGML].  A
   list is provided in section 7.3 of this specification.

4.2. Markup for language-dependent presentation

   For the correct presentation of text from certain languages (irre-
   spective of formatting issues), some support in the form of addi-
   tional entities and elements is needed.  Markup is needed in some
   cases to force or block joining behavior in contexts in which joining
   would occur but should not or would not occur but should.

   Many languages are written in horizontal lines from left to right,
   while others are written from right to left.  When both writing
   directions are present, one talks of bidirectional text (BIDI for
   short). BIDI text requires markup in special circumstances where
   ambiguities as to the directionality of some characters have to be
   resolved.  This markup affects the ability to render BIDI text in a
   semantically legible fashion.  That is, without this special BIDI
   markup, cases arise which would prevent *any* rendering whatsoever
   that reflected the basic meaning of the text. Plain text may contain
   this markup (joining or BIDI) in the form of special-purpose charac-
   ters; in HTML, these are replaced by SGML markup as follows:

   First, a generic container is needed to carry the LANG and DIR (see
   below) attributes in cases where no other element is appropriate; the
   SPAN element is introduced for that purpose.

   A set of named character entities is added that allows partial sup-
   port of the Unicode bidirectional algorithm [UNICODE], plus some help
   with languages requiring contextual analysis for rendering:

   <!ENTITY zwnj CDATA "&#8204;"--=zero width non-joiner-->
   <!ENTITY zwj  CDATA "&#8205;"--=zero width joiner-->
   <!ENTITY lrm  CDATA "&#8206;"--=left-to-right mark-->
   <!ENTITY rlm  CDATA "&#8207;"--=right-to-left mark-->

   Next, an attribute called DIR is introduced, restricted to the values
   LTR (left-to-right) and RTL (right-to-left) and admitted by most ele-
   ments.  On block-type elements, the DIR attribute indicates the base

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   directionality of the text in the block; if omitted it is inherited
   from the parent element.  On inline elements, it makes the element
   start a new embedding level (to be explained below); if omitted the
   inline element does not start a new embedding level.

   Lastly, a new element called BDO (BIDI override) is introduced, which
   requires the DIR attribute to specify whether the override is left-
   to-right or right-to-left.  Its effect is to force the directionality
   of all characters within it to the value of DIR, irrespective of
   their intrinsic directional properties.

   The zero-width joiner and non-joiner (&zwj; and &zwnj;) are used to
   control joining behaviour.  For example, ARABIC LETTER HEH is used in
   isolation to abbreviate "Hijri" (the Islamic calendrical system);
   however, the initial form of the letter is desired, because the iso-
   lated form of HEH looks like the digit five as employed in Arabic
   script.  This is obtained by following the HEH with a zero-width
   joiner whose only effect is to provide context.  In Persian texts,
   there are cases where a letter that normally would join a subsequent
   letter in a cursive connection does not.  Here a zero-width non-
   joiner is used.

   The left-to-right and right-to-left marks (&lrm; and &rlm;) are used
   to disambiguate directionality of neutral characters, e.g., if you
   have a double quote sitting between an Arabic and a Latin letter,
   then which direction does the quote resolve to?  These characters are
   like zero width spaces which have a directional property (but no
   word/line break property).

   Nested embeddings of contra-directional text runs is also a case
   where the implicit directionality of characters is not sufficient,
   requiring markup. A common need for the embedding controls is to han-
   dle text that has been pasted from one bidi context to another, and
   the possibility of multiply embedded pastings.  Following is an exam-
   ple of a case where embedding is needed, showing its effect:

        Given the following latin (upper case) and arabic (lower
        case) letters in backing store with the specified embed-

        </SPAN> zw </SPAN> EF </SPAN>

        One gets the following rendering (with [] showing the
        directional transitions):

        [ AB [ wz [ CD ] yx ] EF ]

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        On the other hand, without this markup and with a base
        direction of LTR one gets the following rendering:

        [ AB [ yx ] CD [ wz ] EF ]

        Notice that yx is on the left and wz on the right unlike
        the above case where the embedding levels are used.  With-
        out the embedding markup one has at most two levels: a base
        directional level and a single counterflow directional

   The directional override feature (<BDO>)is needed to deal with
   unusual pieces of text in which directionality cannot be resolved
   from context in an unambiguous fashion. For example, it can be used
   to force left-to-right (or right-to-left) display of part numbers
   composed of Latin letters, digits and Hebrew letters.

   A few other additional elements are important to have for proper lan-
   guage-dependent rendering.

   Short quotations, and in particular the quotation marks surrounding
   them, are typically rendered differently in different languages and
   on platforms with different graphic capabilities: "a quotation in
   English", `another, slightly better one', ,,a quotation in German'',
   << a quotation in French >>.  The <Q> element is introduced for that

   Many languages require superscripts for proper rendering: as an exam-
   ple, the French "Mlle Dupont" should have "lle" in superscript.  The
   <SUP> element, and its sibling <SUB>, are introduced to allow proper
   markup of such text.  <SUP> and <SUB> contents are restricted to
   PCDATA to avoid nesting problems.

   Finally, in many languages text justification is much more important
   than it is in Western languages, and justifies markup.  The ALIGN
   attribute, admitting values of LEFT, RIGHT, CENTER and JUSTIFY, is
   added to a selection of elements where it makes sense (block-like).

5. Forms

5.1. DTD additions

   It is natural to expect input in any language in forms, as they pro-
   vide one of the only ways of obtaining user input. While this is pri-
   marily a UI issue, there are some things that should be specified at
   the HTML level to guide behavior and promote interoperability.

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   To ensure full interoperability, it is necessary for the user agent
   (and the user) to have an indication of the character encoding(s)
   that the server providing a form will be able to handle upon submis-
   sion of the filled-in form.  Such an indication is provided by the
   ACCEPT-CHARSET attribute of the INPUT and TEXTAREA elements, modeled
   on the HTTP Accept-Charset header (see [HTTP-1.1]), which contains a
   space and/or comma delimited list of character sets acceptable to the
   server.  A user agent may want to somehow advise the user of the con-
   tents of this attribute, or to restrict his possibility to enter
   characters outside the repertoires of the listed character sets.

        NOTE -- The list of character sets is to be interpreted as
        an EXCLUSIVE-OR list; the server announces that it is ready
        to accept any ONE of these character encoding schemes for
        each part of a multipart entity.  The client may perform
        character encoding translation to satisfy the server if

        NOTE -- The default value for the ACCEPT-CHARSET attribute
        of an INPUT or TEXTAREA element is the reserved value
        "UNKNOWN".  A user agent may interpret that value as the
        character encoding scheme that was used to transmit the
        document containing that element.

5.2. Form submission

   The HTML 2.0 form submission mechanism, based on the "application/x-
   www-form-urlencoded" media type, is ill-equipped with regard to
   internationalization.  In fact, since URLs are restricted to ASCII
   characters, the mechanism is akward even for ISO-8859-1 text.  Sec-
   tion 2.2 of [RFC1738] specifies that octets may be encoded using the
   "%HH" notation, but text submitted from a form is composed of charac-
   ters, not octets.  Lacking a specification of a character encoding
   scheme, the "%HH" notation has no well-defined meaning.

   A partial solution to this sorry state of affairs is to specify a
   default character encoding scheme to be assumed when the GET method
   of form submission is used.  Specifying UCS-2 would break all exist-
   ing forms, so the only sensible way is to designate ISO-8859-1.  That
   is, the encoded URL sent to submit a form by the GET method is to be
   interpreted as a sequence of single-octet characters encoded accord-
   ing to ISO-8859-1, and further encoded according to the scheme of
   [RFC1738] (the "%HH" notation).  This is clearly insufficient, so
   designers of forms are advised to use the POST method of form submis-
   sion whenever possible.

   A better solution is to add a MIME charset parameter to the

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   "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" media type specifier sent along
   with a POST method form submission, with the understanding that the
   URL encoding of [RFC1738] is applied on top of the specified charac-
   ter encoding, as a kind of implicit Content-Transfer-Encoding.  The
   default ISO-8859-1 is implied in the absence of a charset parameter.

   The best solution is to use the "multipart/form-data" media type
   described in [RFC1867] with the POST method of form submission.  This
   mechanism encapsulates the value part of each name-value pair in a
   body-part of a multipart MIME body that is sent as the HTTP entity;
   each body part can be labeled with an appropriate Content-Type,
   including if necessary a charset parameter that specifies the charac-
   ter encoding scheme.  The changes to the DTD necessary to support
   this method of form submission have been incorporated in the DTD
   included in this specification.

   How the user agent determines the encoding of the text entered by the
   user is outside the scope of this specification.

        NOTE -- Designers of forms and their handling scripts
        should be aware of an important caveat: when the default
        value of a field (the VALUE attribute) is returned upon
        form submission (i.e. the user did not modify this value),
        it cannot be guaranteed to be transmitted as a sequence of
        octets identical to that in the source document -- only as
        a possibly different but valid encoding of the same
        sequence of characters.

        This may be true even if the encoding of the document con-
        taining the form and that used for submission are the same,
        because only the sequence of characters of the default
        value, not the actual sequence of octets, may be counted on
        to be preserved.

6. Miscellaneous

   Proper interpretation of a text document requires that the character
   encoding scheme be known.  Current HTTP servers, however, do not gen-
   erally include an appropriate charset parameter with the Content-Type
   header, even when the encoding scheme is different from the default
   ISO-8859-1.  This is bad behaviour [3] , and as such strongly
  [3] This bad behaviour is even encouraged by the con-
tinued existence of browsers that declare  an  unrecog-
nized media type when they receive a charset parameter.
User agent implementators are  strongly  encouraged  to
make their software tolerant of this parameter, even if
they cannot take advantage of it.

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   discouraged, but some preventive measures can be taken to minimize
   the detrimental effects.

   In the case where a document is accessed from a hyperlink in an ori-
   gin HTML document, a CHARSET attribute is added to the attribute list
   of elements with link semantics (A and LINK), specifically by adding
   it to the linkExtraAttributes entity.  The value of that attribute is
   to be considered a hint to the User Agent as to the character encod-
   ing scheme used by the ressource pointed to by the hyperlink; it
   should be the appropriate value of the MIME charset parameter for
   that ressource.

   In any document, it is possible to include an indication of the
   encoding scheme like the following, as early as possible within the
   HEAD of the document:

    <META HTTP-EQUIV="Content-Type"
     CONTENT="text/html; charset=ISO-2022-JP">

   This is not foolproof, but will work if the encoding scheme is such
   that ASCII characters stand for themselves at least until the META
   element is parsed.  Note that there are better ways for a server to
   obtain character encoding information, instead of the unreliable
   <META> above; see [NICOL2] for some details and a proposal.

   For definiteness, the "charset" parameter received from the source of
   the document should be considered the most authoritative, followed in
   order of preference by the contents of a META element such as the
   above, and finally the CHARSET parameter of the anchor that was fol-
   lowed (if any).

   When HTML text is transmitted directly in UCS-2
   (charset=UNICODE-1-1), the question of byte order arises: does the
   high-order byte of each two-byte character come first or second?  For
   definiteness, this specification recommends that UCS-2 be transmitted
   in big-endian byte order (high order byte first), which corresponds
   to the established network byte order for two-byte quantities, to the
   Unicode recommendation for serialized text data and to RFC 1641.
   Furthermore, to maximize chances of proper interpretation, it is rec-
   ommended that documents transmitted as UCS-2 always begin with a
   ZERO-WIDTH NON-BREAKING SPACE character (hexadecimal FEFF) which,
   when byte-reversed becomes number FFFE, a character guaranteed to be
   never assigned.  Thus, a user-agent receiving an FFFE as the first
   octets of a text would know that bytes have to be reversed for the
   remainder of the text.

   There exist so-called UCS Transformation Formats than can be used to
   transmit UCS data, in addition to UCS-2.  UTF-7 [RFC1642] and UTF-8

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   [UTF-8] have interesting properties (no byte-ordering problem, dif-
   ferent flavours of ASCII compatibility) that make them worthy of con-
   sideration, especially for transmission of multilingual text.  The
   UTF-1 transformation format of ISO 10646 (registered by IANA as
   ISO-10646-UTF-1), has been removed from ISO 10646, and should not be

7. HTML Public Text


   This section contains a DTD for HTML based on the HTML 2.0 DTD of RFC
   1866, incorporating the changes for file upload as specified in RFC
   1867, and the changes deriving from this document.

   <!--    html.dtd

           Document Type Definition for the HyperText Markup Language,
           extended for internationalisation (HTML DTD)

           Last revised: 96/01/23

           Authors: Daniel W. Connolly <connolly@w3.org>
                    Francois Yergeau <yergeau@alis.com>
           See Also: html.decl, html-1.dtd

   <!ENTITY % HTML.Version
           "-//IETF//DTD HTML//EN"

           -- Typical usage:

               <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//IETF//DTD HTML//EN">

   <!--============ Feature Test Entities ========================-->

   <!ENTITY % HTML.Recommended "IGNORE"
           -- Certain features of the language are necessary for
              compatibility with widespread usage, but they may
              compromise the structural integrity of a document.
              This feature test entity enables a more prescriptive

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              document type definition that eliminates
              those features.

   <![ %HTML.Recommended [
           <!ENTITY % HTML.Deprecated "IGNORE">

   <!ENTITY % HTML.Deprecated "INCLUDE"
           -- Certain features of the language are necessary for
              compatibility with earlier versions of the specification,
              but they tend to be used and implemented inconsistently,
              and their use is deprecated. This feature test entity
              enables a document type definition that eliminates
              these features.

   <!ENTITY % HTML.Highlighting "INCLUDE"
           -- Use this feature test entity to validate that a
              document uses no highlighting tags, which may be
              ignored on minimal implementations.

           -- Use this feature test entity to validate that a document
              contains no forms, which may not be supported in minimal

   <!--============== Imported Names ==============================-->

   <!ENTITY % Content-Type "CDATA"
           -- meaning an internet media type
              (aka MIME content type, as per RFC1521)

   <!ENTITY % HTTP-Method "GET | POST"
           -- as per HTTP specification, in progress

   <!--========= DTD "Macros" =====================-->

   <!ENTITY % heading "H1|H2|H3|H4|H5|H6">

   <!ENTITY % list " UL | OL | DIR | MENU " >

   <!ENTITY % attrs -- common attributes for elements --
            "LANG  NAME      #IMPLIED  -- RFC 1766 language tag --

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             DIR  (ltr|rtl)  #IMPLIED  -- text directionnality --
             id      ID      #IMPLIED  -- element identifier --
             class   NAMES   #IMPLIED  -- for subclassing elements --">

   <!ENTITY % just -- an attribute for text justification --
            "ALIGN  (left|right|center|justify)  #IMPLIED">

   <!--======= Character mnemonic entities =================-->

     "ISO 8879-1986//ENTITIES Added Latin 1//EN//HTML">

   <!ENTITY amp CDATA "&#38;"     -- ampersand          -->
   <!ENTITY gt CDATA "&#62;"      -- greater than       -->
   <!ENTITY lt CDATA "&#60;"      -- less than          -->
   <!ENTITY quot CDATA "&#34;"    -- double quote       -->

   <!--Entities for language-dependent presentation (BIDI and contextual analysis) -->
   <!ENTITY zwnj CDATA "&#8204;"-- zero width non-joiner-->
   <!ENTITY zwj  CDATA "&#8205;"-- zero width joiner-->
   <!ENTITY lrm  CDATA "&#8206;"-- left-to-right mark-->
   <!ENTITY rlm  CDATA "&#8207;"-- right-to-left mark-->

   <!--========= SGML Document Access (SDA) Parameter Entities =====-->

   <!-- HTML 2.0 contains SGML Document Access (SDA) fixed attributes
   in support of easy transformation to the International Committee
   for Accessible Document Design (ICADD) DTD
            "-//EC-USA-CDA/ICADD//DTD ICADD22//EN".
   ICADD applications are designed to support usable access to
   structured information by print-impaired individuals through
   Braille, large print and voice synthesis.  For more information on
           - ISO 12083:1993, Annex A.8, Facilities for Braille,
             large print and computer voice
           - ICADD ListServ
           - Usenet news group bit.listserv.easi
           - Recording for the Blind, +1 800 221 4792

             -- one to one mapping        -->
             -- context-sensitive mapping -->

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             -- generated text prefix     -->
             -- generated text suffix     -->
             -- suspend transform process -->

   <!--========== Text Markup =====================-->

   <![ %HTML.Highlighting [

   <!ENTITY % font " TT | B | I ">

   <!ENTITY % phrase "EM | STRONG | CODE | SAMP | KBD | VAR | CITE ">

   <!ENTITY % text "#PCDATA|A|IMG|BR|%phrase|%font|SPAN|Q|BDO|SUP|SUB">

   <!ELEMENT (%font;|%phrase) - - (%text)*>
           %SDAFORM; "Lit"
           %SDAFORM; "B"
   <!ATTLIST ( I | EM | CITE )
           %SDAFORM; "It"

   <!-- <TT>       Typewriter text                         -->
   <!-- <B>        Bold text                               -->
   <!-- <I>        Italic text                             -->

   <!-- <EM>       Emphasized phrase                       -->
   <!-- <STRONG>   Strong emphasis                         -->
   <!-- <CODE>     Source code phrase                      -->
   <!-- <SAMP>     Sample text or characters               -->
   <!-- <KBD>      Keyboard phrase, e.g. user input        -->
   <!-- <VAR>      Variable phrase or substitutable        -->
   <!-- <CITE>     Name or title of cited work             -->

   <!ENTITY % pre.content "#PCDATA|A|HR|BR|%font|%phrase|SPAN|BDO">



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           %SDAPREF; "&#RE;"

   <!-- <BR>       Line break      -->

   <!ELEMENT SPAN - - (%text)*>
           %SDAFORM; "other #Attlist"

   <!-- <SPAN>     Generic container        -->

   <!ELEMENT Q - - (%text)*>
           %SDAPREF; '"'
           %SDASUFF; '"'

   <!-- <Q>        Short quotation                         -->

   <!ELEMENT BDO - - (%text)+>
           LANG   NAME      #IMPLIED
           DIR    (ltr|rtl) #REQUIRED
           %SDAPREF "Bidi Override #Attval(DIR): "
           %SDASUFF "End Bidi"

   <!-- <BDO>     Control bidirectionnal text             -->

           %SDAPREF "Superscript(#content)"
           %SDAPREF "Subscript(#content)"

   <!-- <SUP>      Superscript              -->
   <!-- <SUB>      Subscript                -->

   <!--========= Link Markup ======================-->

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   <!ENTITY % linkType "NAMES">

   <!ENTITY % linkExtraAttributes
           "REL %linkType #IMPLIED
           REV %linkType #IMPLIED

   <![ %HTML.Recommended [
           <!ENTITY % A.content   "(%text)*"
           -- <H1><a name="xxx">Heading</a></H1>
                   is preferred to
              <a name="xxx"><H1>Heading</H1></a>

   <!ENTITY % A.content   "(%heading|%text)*">

   <!ELEMENT A     - - %A.content -(A)>
           %SDAPREF; "<Anchor: #AttList>"
   <!-- <A>                Anchor; source/destination of link      -->
   <!-- <A NAME="...">     Name of this anchor                     -->
   <!-- <A HREF="...">     Address of link destination             -->
   <!-- <A URN="...">      Permanent address of destination        -->
   <!-- <A REL=...>        Relationship to destination             -->
   <!-- <A REV=...>        Relationship of destination to this     -->
   <!-- <A TITLE="...">    Title of destination (advisory)         -->
   <!-- <A METHODS="...">  Operations on destination (advisory)    -->
   <!-- <A CHARSET="...">  Charset of destination (advisory)       -->

   <!--========== Images ==========================-->

           ALIGN (top|middle|bottom) #IMPLIED

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           %SDAPREF; "<Fig><?SDATrans Img: #AttList>#AttVal(Alt)</Fig>"

   <!-- <IMG>              Image; icon, glyph or illustration      -->
   <!-- <IMG SRC="...">    Address of image object                 -->
   <!-- <IMG ALT="...">    Textual alternative                     -->
   <!-- <IMG ALIGN=...>    Position relative to text               -->
   <!-- <IMG ISMAP>        Each pixel can be a link                -->

   <!--========== Paragraphs=======================-->

   <!ELEMENT P     - O (%text)*>
           %SDAFORM; "Para"

   <!-- <P>        Paragraph       -->

   <!--========== Headings, Titles, Sections ===============-->

           DIR  (ltr|rtl) #IMPLIED
           %SDAPREF; "&#RE;&#RE;"

   <!-- <HR>       Horizontal rule -->

   <!ELEMENT ( %heading )  - -  (%text;)*>
           %SDAFORM; "H1"
           %SDAFORM; "H2"
           %SDAFORM; "H3"

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           %SDAFORM; "H4"
           %SDAFORM; "H5"
           %SDAFORM; "H6"

   <!-- <H1>       Heading, level 1 -->
   <!-- <H2>       Heading, level 2 -->
   <!-- <H3>       Heading, level 3 -->
   <!-- <H4>       Heading, level 4 -->
   <!-- <H5>       Heading, level 5 -->
   <!-- <H6>       Heading, level 6 -->

   <!--========== Text Flows ======================-->

   <![ %HTML.Forms [
           <!ENTITY % block.forms "BLOCKQUOTE | FORM | ISINDEX">

   <!ENTITY % block.forms "BLOCKQUOTE">

   <![ %HTML.Deprecated [
           <!ENTITY % preformatted "PRE | XMP | LISTING">

   <!ENTITY % preformatted "PRE">

   <!ENTITY % block "P | %list | DL
           | %preformatted
           | %block.forms">

   <!ENTITY % flow "(%text|%block)*">

   <!ENTITY % pre.content "#PCDATA | A | HR | BR | SPAN | BDO">
   <!ELEMENT PRE - - (%pre.content)*>

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           WIDTH NUMBER #implied
           %SDAFORM; "Lit"

   <!-- <PRE>              Preformatted text               -->
   <!-- <PRE WIDTH=...>    Maximum characters per line     -->

   <![ %HTML.Deprecated [

   <!ENTITY % literal "CDATA"
           -- historical, non-conforming parsing mode where
              the only markup signal is the end tag
              in full

   <!ELEMENT (XMP|LISTING) - -  %literal>
           %SDAFORM; "Lit"
           %SDAPREF; "Example:&#RE;"
           %SDAFORM; "Lit"
           %SDAPREF; "Listing:&#RE;"

   <!-- <XMP>              Example section         -->
   <!-- <LISTING>          Computer listing        -->

   <!ELEMENT PLAINTEXT - O %literal>
   <!-- <PLAINTEXT>        Plain text passage      -->

           %SDAFORM; "Lit"

   <!--========== Lists ==================-->

   <!ELEMENT DL    - -  (DT | DD)+>
           %SDAFORM; "List"

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           %SDAPREF; "Definition List:"

   <!ELEMENT DT    - O (%text)*>
           %SDAFORM; "Term"

   <!ELEMENT DD    - O %flow>
           %SDAFORM; "LItem"

   <!-- <DL>               Definition list, or glossary    -->
   <!-- <DL COMPACT>       Compact style list              -->
   <!-- <DT>               Term in definition list         -->
   <!-- <DD>               Definition of term              -->

   <!ELEMENT (OL|UL) - -  (LI)+>
           %SDAFORM; "List"
           %SDAFORM; "List"
   <!-- <UL>               Unordered list                  -->
   <!-- <UL COMPACT>       Compact list style              -->
   <!-- <OL>               Ordered, or numbered list       -->
   <!-- <OL COMPACT>       Compact list style              -->

   <!ELEMENT (DIR|MENU) - -  (LI)+ -(%block)>
           %SDAFORM; "List"
           %SDAPREF; "<LHead>Directory</LHead>"

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           %SDAFORM; "List"
           %SDAPREF; "<LHead>Menu</LHead>"

   <!-- <DIR>              Directory list                  -->
   <!-- <DIR COMPACT>      Compact list style              -->
   <!-- <MENU>             Menu list                       -->
   <!-- <MENU COMPACT>     Compact list style              -->

   <!ELEMENT LI    - O %flow>
           %SDAFORM; "LItem"

   <!-- <LI>               List item                       -->

   <!--========== Document Body ===================-->

   <![ %HTML.Recommended [
           <!ENTITY % body.content "(%heading|%block|HR|ADDRESS|IMG)*"
           -- <h1>Heading</h1>
              <p>Text ...
                   is preferred to
              Text ...

   <!ENTITY % body.content "(%heading | %text | %block |
                                    HR | ADDRESS)*">

   <!ELEMENT BODY O O  %body.content>

   <!-- <BODY>     Document body   -->

   <!ELEMENT BLOCKQUOTE - - %body.content>
           %SDAFORM; "BQ"

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   <!-- <BLOCKQUOTE>       Quoted passage  -->

   <!ELEMENT ADDRESS - - (%text|P)*>
           %SDAFORM; "Lit"
           %SDAPREF; "Address:&#RE;"

   <!-- <ADDRESS>  Address, signature, or byline   -->

   <!--======= Forms ====================-->

   <![ %HTML.Forms [

   <!ELEMENT FORM - - %body.content -(FORM) +(INPUT|SELECT|TEXTAREA)>
           METHOD (%HTTP-Method) GET
           ENCTYPE %Content-Type; "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"
           %SDAPREF; "<Para>Form:</Para>"
           %SDASUFF; "<Para>Form End.</Para>"

   <!-- <FORM>                     Fill-out or data-entry form     -->
   <!-- <FORM ACTION="...">        Address for completed form      -->
   <!-- <FORM METHOD=...>          Method of submitting form       -->
   <!-- <FORM ENCTYPE="...">       Representation of form data     -->

                           RADIO | SUBMIT | RESET |
                           IMAGE | HIDDEN | FILE )">
           TYPE %InputType TEXT
           ALIGN (top|middle|bottom) #IMPLIED

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           ACCEPT CDATA #IMPLIED --list of content types --
           ACCEPT-CHARSET CDATA #IMPLIED --list of charsets --
           %SDAPREF; "Input: "

   <!-- <INPUT>                    Form input datum                -->
   <!-- <INPUT TYPE=...>           Type of input interaction       -->
   <!-- <INPUT NAME=...>           Name of form datum              -->
   <!-- <INPUT VALUE="...">        Default/initial/selected value  -->
   <!-- <INPUT SRC="...">          Address of image                -->
   <!-- <INPUT CHECKED>            Initial state is "on"           -->
   <!-- <INPUT SIZE=...>           Field size hint                 -->
   <!-- <INPUT MAXLENGTH=...>      Data length maximum             -->
   <!-- <INPUT ALIGN=...>          Image alignment                 -->

           %SDAFORM; "List"
           "<LHead>Select #AttVal(Multiple)</LHead>"

   <!-- <SELECT>                   Selection of option(s)          -->
   <!-- <SELECT NAME=...>          Name of form datum              -->
   <!-- <SELECT SIZE=...>          Options displayed at a time     -->
   <!-- <SELECT MULTIPLE>          Multiple selections allowed     -->

           %SDAFORM; "LItem"
           "Option: #AttVal(Value) #AttVal(Selected)"

   <!-- <OPTION>                   A selection option              -->
   <!-- <OPTION SELECTED>          Initial state                   -->
   <!-- <OPTION VALUE="...">       Form datum value for this option-->


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           ACCEPT-CHARSET CDATA #IMPLIED -- list of charsets --
           %SDAFORM; "Para"
           %SDAPREF; "Input Text -- #AttVal(Name): "

   <!-- <TEXTAREA>                 An area for text input          -->
   <!-- <TEXTAREA NAME=...>        Name of form datum              -->
   <!-- <TEXTAREA ROWS=...>        Height of area                  -->
   <!-- <TEXTAREA COLS=...>        Width of area                   -->


   <!--======= Document Head ======================-->

   <![ %HTML.Recommended [
           <!ENTITY % head.extra "">
   <!ENTITY % head.extra "& NEXTID?">

   <!ENTITY % head.content "TITLE & ISINDEX? & BASE? %head.extra">

   <!ELEMENT HEAD O O  (%head.content) +(META|LINK)>
           %attrs;           >

   <!-- <HEAD>     Document head   -->

           %SDAFORM; "Ti"    >

   <!-- <TITLE>    Title of document -->

           %SDAPREF; "Linked to : #AttVal (TITLE) (URN) (HREF)>"    >

   <!-- <LINK>             Link from this document                 -->
   <!-- <LINK HREF="...">  Address of link destination             -->
   <!-- <LINK URN="...">   Lasting name of destination             -->

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   <!-- <LINK REL=...>     Relationship to destination             -->
   <!-- <LINK REV=...>     Relationship of destination to this     -->
   <!-- <LINK TITLE="..."> Title of destination (advisory)         -->
   <!-- <LINK CHARSET="..."> Charset of destination (advisory)     -->
   <!-- <LINK METHODS="..."> Operations allowed (advisory)         -->

      "<Para>[Document is indexed/searchable.]</Para>">

   <!-- <ISINDEX>          Document is a searchable index          -->

           HREF CDATA #REQUIRED     >

   <!-- <BASE>             Base context document                   -->
   <!-- <BASE HREF="...">  Address for this document               -->

           N CDATA #REQUIRED     >

   <!-- <NEXTID>           Next ID to use for link name            -->
   <!-- <NEXTID N=...>     Next ID to use for link name            -->

           NAME        NAME    #IMPLIED
           CONTENT     CDATA   #REQUIRED    >

   <!-- <META>                     Generic Meta-information        -->
   <!-- <META HTTP-EQUIV=...>      HTTP response header name       -->
   <!-- <META NAME=...>            Meta-information name           -->
   <!-- <META CONTENT="...">       Associated information          -->

   <!--======= Document Structure =================-->

   <![ %HTML.Deprecated [
           <!ENTITY % html.content "HEAD, BODY, PLAINTEXT?">
   <!ENTITY % html.content "HEAD, BODY">

   <!ELEMENT HTML O O  (%html.content)>
   <!ENTITY % version.attr "VERSION CDATA #FIXED '%HTML.Version;'">

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           %SDAFORM; "Book"

   <!-- <HTML>                     HTML Document   -->

7.2. SGML Declaration for HTML

   <!SGML  "ISO 8879:1986"
           SGML Declaration for HyperText Markup Language version 2.x
           (HTML 2.x = HTML 2.0 + i18n).


            BASESET  "ISO Registration Number 176//CHARSET
                      ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 UCS-2 with
                      implementation level 3//ESC 2/5 2/15 4/5"
            DESCSET  0   9     UNUSED
                     9   2     9
                     11  2     UNUSED
                     13  1     13
                     14  18    UNUSED
                     32  95    32
                     127 1     UNUSED
                     128 32    UNUSED
                     160 65376 160

                   TOTALCAP        150000
                   GRPCAP          150000
                   ENTCAP          150000

            SHUNCHAR CONTROLS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
                    17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 127
            BASESET  "ISO 646:1983//CHARSET
                      International Reference Version
                      (IRV)//ESC 2/5 4/0"
            DESCSET  0 128 0


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                     RE            13
                     RS            10
                     SPACE         32
                     TAB SEPCHAR    9

            NAMING   LCNMSTRT ""
                     UCNMSTRT ""
                     LCNMCHAR ".-"
                     UCNMCHAR ".-"
                     NAMECASE GENERAL YES
                              ENTITY  NO
                     SHORTREF SGMLREF
            NAMES    SGMLREF
                     ATTSPLEN 2100
                     LITLEN   1024
                     NAMELEN  72    -- somewhat arbitrary; taken from
                                   internet line length conventions --
                     PILEN    1024
                     TAGLVL   100
                     TAGLEN   2100
                     GRPGTCNT 150
                     GRPCNT   64

       DATATAG  NO
       RANK     NO
       SIMPLE   NO
       CONCUR   NO
       SUBDOC   NO
       FORMAL   YES
     APPINFO    "SDA"  -- conforming SGML Document Access application

7.3. ISO Latin 1 entity set

   The following public text lists each of the characters specified in
   the Added Latin 1 entity set, along with its name, syntax for use,

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   and description. This list is derived from ISO Standard
   8879:1986//ENTITIES Added Latin 1//EN. HTML includes the entire
   entity set, and adds entities for all missing characters in the right
   part of ISO-8859-1.

    <!-- (C) International Organization for Standardization 1986
         Permission to copy in any form is granted for use with
         conforming SGML systems and applications as defined in
         ISO 8879, provided this notice is included in all copies.
    <!-- Character entity set. Typical invocation:
         <!ENTITY % ISOlat1 PUBLIC
           "ISO 8879-1986//ENTITIES Added Latin 1//EN//HTML">
    <!ENTITY nbsp   CDATA "&#160;" -- no-break space -->
    <!ENTITY iexcl  CDATA "&#161;" -- inverted exclamation mark -->
    <!ENTITY cent   CDATA "&#162;" -- cent sign -->
    <!ENTITY pound  CDATA "&#163;" -- pound sterling sign -->
    <!ENTITY curren CDATA "&#164;" -- general currency sign -->
    <!ENTITY yen    CDATA "&#165;" -- yen sign -->
    <!ENTITY brvbar CDATA "&#166;" -- broken (vertical) bar -->
    <!ENTITY sect   CDATA "&#167;" -- section sign -->
    <!ENTITY uml    CDATA "&#168;" -- umlaut (dieresis) -->
    <!ENTITY copy   CDATA "&#169;" -- copyright sign -->
    <!ENTITY ordf   CDATA "&#170;" -- ordinal indicator, feminine -->
    <!ENTITY laquo  CDATA "&#171;" -- angle quotation mark, left -->
    <!ENTITY not    CDATA "&#172;" -- not sign -->
    <!ENTITY shy    CDATA "&#173;" -- soft hyphen -->
    <!ENTITY reg    CDATA "&#174;" -- registered sign -->
    <!ENTITY macr   CDATA "&#175;" -- macron -->
    <!ENTITY deg    CDATA "&#176;" -- degree sign -->
    <!ENTITY plusmn CDATA "&#177;" -- plus-or-minus sign -->
    <!ENTITY sup2   CDATA "&#178;" -- superscript two -->
    <!ENTITY sup3   CDATA "&#179;" -- superscript three -->
    <!ENTITY acute  CDATA "&#180;" -- acute accent -->
    <!ENTITY micro  CDATA "&#181;" -- micro sign -->
    <!ENTITY para   CDATA "&#182;" -- pilcrow (paragraph sign) -->
    <!ENTITY middot CDATA "&#183;" -- middle dot -->
    <!ENTITY cedil  CDATA "&#184;" -- cedilla -->
    <!ENTITY sup1   CDATA "&#185;" -- superscript one -->
    <!ENTITY ordm   CDATA "&#186;" -- ordinal indicator, masculine -->
    <!ENTITY raquo  CDATA "&#187;" -- angle quotation mark, right -->
    <!ENTITY frac14 CDATA "&#188;" -- fraction one-quarter -->
    <!ENTITY frac12 CDATA "&#189;" -- fraction one-half -->
    <!ENTITY frac34 CDATA "&#190;" -- fraction three-quarters -->
    <!ENTITY iquest CDATA "&#191;" -- inverted question mark -->
    <!ENTITY Agrave CDATA "&#192;" -- capital A, grave accent -->

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    <!ENTITY Aacute CDATA "&#193;" -- capital A, acute accent -->
    <!ENTITY Acirc  CDATA "&#194;" -- capital A, circumflex accent -->
    <!ENTITY Atilde CDATA "&#195;" -- capital A, tilde -->
    <!ENTITY Auml   CDATA "&#196;" -- capital A, dieresis or umlaut mark -->
    <!ENTITY Aring  CDATA "&#197;" -- capital A, ring -->
    <!ENTITY AElig  CDATA "&#198;" -- capital AE diphthong (ligature) -->
    <!ENTITY Ccedil CDATA "&#199;" -- capital C, cedilla -->
    <!ENTITY Egrave CDATA "&#200;" -- capital E, grave accent -->
    <!ENTITY Eacute CDATA "&#201;" -- capital E, acute accent -->
    <!ENTITY Ecirc  CDATA "&#202;" -- capital E, circumflex accent -->
    <!ENTITY Euml   CDATA "&#203;" -- capital E, dieresis or umlaut mark -->
    <!ENTITY Igrave CDATA "&#204;" -- capital I, grave accent -->
    <!ENTITY Iacute CDATA "&#205;" -- capital I, acute accent -->
    <!ENTITY Icirc  CDATA "&#206;" -- capital I, circumflex accent -->
    <!ENTITY Iuml   CDATA "&#207;" -- capital I, dieresis or umlaut mark -->
    <!ENTITY ETH    CDATA "&#208;" -- capital Eth, Icelandic -->
    <!ENTITY Ntilde CDATA "&#209;" -- capital N, tilde -->
    <!ENTITY Ograve CDATA "&#210;" -- capital O, grave accent -->
    <!ENTITY Oacute CDATA "&#211;" -- capital O, acute accent -->
    <!ENTITY Ocirc  CDATA "&#212;" -- capital O, circumflex accent -->
    <!ENTITY Otilde CDATA "&#213;" -- capital O, tilde -->
    <!ENTITY Ouml   CDATA "&#214;" -- capital O, dieresis or umlaut mark -->
    <!ENTITY times  CDATA "&#215;" -- multiply sign -->
    <!ENTITY Oslash CDATA "&#216;" -- capital O, slash -->
    <!ENTITY Ugrave CDATA "&#217;" -- capital U, grave accent -->
    <!ENTITY Uacute CDATA "&#218;" -- capital U, acute accent -->
    <!ENTITY Ucirc  CDATA "&#219;" -- capital U, circumflex accent -->
    <!ENTITY Uuml   CDATA "&#220;" -- capital U, dieresis or umlaut mark -->
    <!ENTITY Yacute CDATA "&#221;" -- capital Y, acute accent -->
    <!ENTITY THORN  CDATA "&#222;" -- capital Thorn, Icelandic -->
    <!ENTITY szlig  CDATA "&#223;" -- small sharp s, German (sz ligature) -->
    <!ENTITY agrave CDATA "&#224;" -- small a, grave accent -->
    <!ENTITY aacute CDATA "&#225;" -- small a, acute accent -->
    <!ENTITY acirc  CDATA "&#226;" -- small a, circumflex accent -->
    <!ENTITY atilde CDATA "&#227;" -- small a, tilde -->
    <!ENTITY auml   CDATA "&#228;" -- small a, dieresis or umlaut mark -->
    <!ENTITY aring  CDATA "&#229;" -- small a, ring -->
    <!ENTITY aelig  CDATA "&#230;" -- small ae diphthong (ligature) -->
    <!ENTITY ccedil CDATA "&#231;" -- small c, cedilla -->
    <!ENTITY egrave CDATA "&#232;" -- small e, grave accent -->
    <!ENTITY eacute CDATA "&#233;" -- small e, acute accent -->
    <!ENTITY ecirc  CDATA "&#234;" -- small e, circumflex accent -->
    <!ENTITY euml   CDATA "&#235;" -- small e, dieresis or umlaut mark -->
    <!ENTITY igrave CDATA "&#236;" -- small i, grave accent -->
    <!ENTITY iacute CDATA "&#237;" -- small i, acute accent -->
    <!ENTITY icirc  CDATA "&#238;" -- small i, circumflex accent -->
    <!ENTITY iuml   CDATA "&#239;" -- small i, dieresis or umlaut mark -->
    <!ENTITY eth    CDATA "&#240;" -- small eth, Icelandic -->

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    <!ENTITY ntilde CDATA "&#241;" -- small n, tilde -->
    <!ENTITY ograve CDATA "&#242;" -- small o, grave accent -->
    <!ENTITY oacute CDATA "&#243;" -- small o, acute accent -->
    <!ENTITY ocirc  CDATA "&#244;" -- small o, circumflex accent -->
    <!ENTITY otilde CDATA "&#245;" -- small o, tilde -->
    <!ENTITY ouml   CDATA "&#246;" -- small o, dieresis or umlaut mark -->
    <!ENTITY divide CDATA "&#247;" -- divide sign -->
    <!ENTITY oslash CDATA "&#248;" -- small o, slash -->
    <!ENTITY ugrave CDATA "&#249;" -- small u, grave accent -->
    <!ENTITY uacute CDATA "&#250;" -- small u, acute accent -->
    <!ENTITY ucirc  CDATA "&#251;" -- small u, circumflex accent -->
    <!ENTITY uuml   CDATA "&#252;" -- small u, dieresis or umlaut mark -->
    <!ENTITY yacute CDATA "&#253;" -- small y, acute accent -->
    <!ENTITY thorn  CDATA "&#254;" -- small thorn, Icelandic -->
    <!ENTITY yuml   CDATA "&#255;" -- small y, dieresis or umlaut mark -->


   [BRYAN88]      M. Bryan, "SGML -- An Author's Guide to the Standard
                  Generalized Markup Language", Addison-Wesley, Reading,

   [ERCS]         Extended Reference Concrete Syntax for SGML.

   [ETHNO]        "Ethnologue, Languages of the World", 12th Edition,
                  Barbara F. Grimes, editor, Summer Institute of Lin-
                  guistics, Dallas, 1992.

   [GOLD90]       C. F. Goldfarb, "The SGML Handbook", Y. Rubinsky, Ed.,
                  Oxford University Press, 1990.

   [HTTP-1.0]     T. Berners-Lee, R.T. Fielding, and H. Frystyk Nielsen,
                  "Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.0", Work in
                  progress (draft-ietf-http-v10-spec-04.txt), MIT/LCS,
                  UC Irvine, October 1995.

   [HTTP-1.1]     R.T. Fielding, H. Frystyk Nielsen, and T. Berners-Lee,
                  "Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1", Work in
                  progress (draft-ietf-http-v11-spec-01.txt), MIT/LCS,
                  January 1996.

   [ISO-639]      ISO 639:1988. Codes pour la représentation des noms de
                  langue.  Technical content in

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   [ISO-3166]     ISO 3166:1993. Codes pour la représentation des noms
                  de pays.

   [ISO-8601]     ISO 8601:1988.  Éléments de données et formats
                  d'échange -- Échange d'information -- Représentation
                  de la date et de l'heure.

   [ISO-8859-1]   ISO 8859-1:1987.  International Standard -- Informa-
                  tion Processing -- 8-bit Single-Byte Coded Graphic
                  Character Sets -- Part 1: Latin Alphabet No. 1.

   [ISO-8879]     ISO 8879:1986. International Standard -- Information
                  Processing -- Text and Office Systems -- Standard Gen-
                  eralized Markup Language (SGML).

   [ISO-10646]    ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993. International Standard -- Infor-
                  mation technology -- Universal Multiple-Octet Coded
                  Character Set (UCS) -- Part 1: Architecture and Basic
                  Multilingual Plane.

   [NICOL]        G.T. Nicol, "The Multilingual World Wide Web", Elec-
                  tronic Book Technologies, 1995,

   [NICOL2]       G.T. Nicol, "MIME Header Supplemented File Type", Work
                  in progress, <draft-nicol-mime-header-type-00.txt>,
                  EBT, October 1995.

   [RFC1468]      J. Murai, M. Crispin and E. van der Poel, "Japanese
                  Character Encoding for Internet Messages", RFC 1468,
                  Keio University, Panda Programming, June 1993.

   [RFC1521]      N. Borenstein and N. Freed, "MIME (Multipurpose Inter-
                  net Mail Extensions) Part One: Mechanisms for Specify-
                  ing and Describing the Format of Internet Message Bod-
                  ies", RFC 1521, Bellcore, Innosoft, September 1993.

   [RFC1590]      J. Postel, "Media Type Registration Procedure", RFC
                  1590, USC/ISI, March 1994.

   [RFC1641]      D. Goldsmith, M.Davis, "Using Unicode with MIME", RFC
                  1641, Taligent inc., July 1994.

   [RFC1642]      D. Goldsmith, M. Davis, "UTF-7: A Mail-safe Transfor-
                  mation Format of Unicode", RFC 1642, Taligent inc.,
                  July 1994.

   [RFC1738]      T. Berners-Lee, L. Masinter, and M. McCahill, "Uniform

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                  Resource Locators (URL)", RFC 1738, CERN, Xerox PARC,
                  University of Minnesota, October 1994.

   [RFC1766]      H. Alverstrand, "Tags for the Identification of Lan-
                  guages", RFC 1766, UNINETT, March 1995.

   [RFC1866]      T. Berners-Lee and D. Connolly, "Hypertext Markup Lan-
                  guage - 2.0", RFC 1866, MIT/W3C, November 1995.

   [RFC1867]      E. Nebel and L. Masinter, "Form-based File Upload in
                  HTML", RFC 1867, Xerox Corporation, November 1995.
                  August 1995.

   [SQ91]         SoftQuad, "The SGML Primer", 3rd ed., SoftQuad Inc.,

   [TAKADA]       Toshihiro Takada, "Multilingual Information Exchange
                  through the World-Wide Web", Computer Networks and
                  ISDN Systems, Vol. 27, No. 2, Nov. 1994 , p. 235-241.

   [TEI]          TEI Guidelines for Electronic Text Encoding and Inter-
                  change.  <http://etext.virgina.edu/TEI.html>

   [UNICODE]      The Unicode Consortium, "The Unicode Standard --
                  Worldwide Character Encoding -- Version 1.0", Addison-
                  Wesley, Volume 1, 1991, Volume 2, 1992.  The BIDI
                  algorithm is in appendix A of volume 1, with correc-
                  tions in appendix D of volume 2.

   [UTF-8]        X/Open Company Ltd., "File System Safe UCS Transforma-
                  tion Format (FSS_UTF)", X/Open Preleminary Specifica-
                  tion, Document Number P316.  Also published in Unicode
                  Technical Report #4 and soon in an annex to ISO

   [VANH90]       E. van Hervijnen, "Practical SGML", Kluwer Academicq
                  Publishers Group, Norwell and Dordrecht, 1990.

Authors' Addresses

   François Yergeau
   Alis Technologies
   100, boul. Alexis-Nihon
   Suite 600
   Montréal  QC  H4M 2P2

   Tel: +1 (514) 747-2547

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   Fax: +1 (514) 747-2561
   EMail: fyergeau@alis.com

   Gavin Thomas Nicol
   Electronic Book Technologies, Japan
   1-29-9 Tsurumaki,

   Tel: +81-3-3230-8161
   Fax: +81-3-3230-8163
   EMail: gtn@ebt.com, gtn@twics.co.jp

   Glenn Adams
   118 Magazine Street
   Cambridge, MA 02139

   Tel: +1 (617) 864-5524
   Fax: +1 (617) 864-4965
   EMail: glenn@stonehand.com

   Martin J. Duerst
   Departement of Computer Science
   University of Zurich
   Winterthurerstrasse 190
   CH-8057 Zurich

   Tel: +41 1 257 43 16
   Fax: +41 1 363 00 35
   E-mail: mduerst@ifi.unizh.ch

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