T. Pusateri
INTERNET DRAFT                                          Juniper Networks
Obsoletes: RFC 1075                                       September 1996
draft-ietf-idmr-dvmrp-v3-03                       Expires: February 1997

               Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft. Internet-Drafts are working
   documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas,
   and its working groups. Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as `'work in progress.''

   To learn the current status of any Internet-Draft, please check the
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   munnari.oz.au (Pacific Rim), ds.internic.net (US East Coast), or
   ftp.isi.edu (US West Coast).


   DVMRP is an Internet routing protocol that provides an efficient
   mechanism for connectionless datagram delivery to a group of hosts
   across an internetwork. It is a distributed protocol that dynamically
   generates IP multicast delivery trees using a technique called
   Reverse Path Multicasting (RPM) [Deer90]. This document is an update
   to Version 1 of the protocol specified in RFC 1075 [Wait88].

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1.  Introduction

1.1.  Reverse Path Multicasting

   Datagrams follow multicast delivery trees from a source to all
   members of a multicast group [Deer89], replicating the packet only at
   necessary branches in the delivery tree. The trees are calculated and
   updated dynamically to track the membership of individual groups.
   When a datagram arrives on an interface, the reverse path to the
   source of the datagram is determined by examining a unicast routing
   table of known source networks. If the datagram arrives on an
   interface that would be used to transmit unicast datagrams back to
   the source, then it is forwarded to the appropriate list of
   downstream interfaces.  Otherwise, it is not on the optimal delivery
   tree and should be discarded. In this way duplicate packets can be
   filtered when loops exist in the network topology. The source
   specific delivery trees are automatically pruned back as group
   membership changes or leaf routers determine that no group members
   are present.  This keeps the delivery trees to the minimum branches
   necessary to reach all of the group members. New sections of the tree
   can also be added dynamically as new members join the multicast group
   by grafting the new sections onto the delivery trees.

1.2.  IP-IP Tunnels

   Because not all IP routers support native multicast routing, DVMRP
   includes direct support for tunneling IP Multicast datagrams through
   routers. The IP Multicast datagrams are encapsulated in unicast IP
   packets and addressed to the routers that do support native multicast
   routing. DVMRP treats tunnel interfaces in an identical manner to
   physical network interfaces. More information on encapsulated tunnels
   can be found in [Perk96].

1.3.  Document Overview

   Section 2 provides an overview of the protocol and the different
   message types exchanged by DVMRP routers. Those who wish to gain a
   general understanding of the protocol but are not interested in the
   more precise details may wish to only read this section.  Section 3
   explains the detailed operation of the protocol to accommodate

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   developers needing to provide interoperable implementations.
   Included in Appendix A, is a summary of the DVMRP parameters. A
   section on DVMRP support for tracing and troubleshooting is the topic
   of Appendix B.  Finally, a short DVMRP version compatibility section
   is provided in Appendix C to assist with backward compatibility

2.  Protocol Overview

   DVMRP can be summarized as a "broadcast & prune" multicast routing
   protocol. It performs Reverse Path Forwarding checks to determine
   when multicast traffic should be forwarded to downstream interfaces.
   In this way, minimum spanning trees can be formed to reach all group
   members from each source network of multicast traffic.

2.1.  Neighbor Discovery

   Neighbor DVMRP routers can be discovered dynamically by sending
   Neighbor Probe Messages on local multicast capable network interfaces
   and tunnel pseudo interfaces. These messages are sent periodically to
   the All-DVMRP-Routers IP Multicast group address. This address falls
   into the range of IP Multicast addresses that are to remain on the
   locally attached IP network and therefore are not forwarded by
   multicast routers. Protocol messages sent across tunnels should be
   encapsulated in the same way as data packets to allow for navigation
   through firewalls.

   Beginning with Version 3 of DVMRP outlined in this document, each
   Neighbor Probe message should contain the list of Neighbor DVMRP
   routers for which Neighbor Probe messages have been received. In this
   way, Neighbor DVMRP routers can ensure that they are seen by each
   other. Care must be taken to interoperate with older implementations
   of DVMRP that do not include this list of neighbors.  It can be
   assumed that older implementations of DVMRP will safely ignore this
   list of neighbors in the Probe message.  Therefore, it is not
   necessary to send both old and new types of Neighbor Probes.

2.2.  Source Location

   When an IP Multicast datagram is received by a router running DVMRP,
   it first looks up the interface of the DVMRP unicast route back to
   the source of the datagram.  This interface is called the upstream

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   interface. If the datagram arrived on the correct upstream interface,
   then it is a candidate for forwarding to one or more downstream
   interfaces. If the datagram did not arrive on the anticipated
   upstream interface, it is discarded. This check is known as a reverse
   path forwarding check and must be performed by all DVMRP routers.

   In order to ensure that all DVMRP routers have a consistent view of
   the unicast path back to a source, a unicast routing table is
   propagated to all DVMRP routers as an integral part of the protocol.
   Each router advertises the network number and mask of the interfaces
   it is directly connected to as well as relaying the routes received
   from neighbor routers. DVMRP allows for an interface metric to be
   configured on all physical and tunnel interfaces. When a route is
   received, the metric of the upstream interface over which the
   datagram was received must be added to the metric of the route being
   propagated. This adjusted metric should be computed before the route
   is compared to the metric of the current next hop gateway.

   Although there is certainly additional overhead associated with
   propagating a separate unicast routing table, it does provide two
   nice features. First, since all DVMRP routers are using the same
   unicast routing protocol, there are no inconsistencies between
   routers when determining the upstream interface (aside from normal
   convergence issues related to distance vector routing protocols).  By
   placing the burden of synchronization on the protocol as opposed to
   the network manager, DVMRP reduces the risk of creating routing loops
   or blackholes due to disagreement between neighbor routers on the
   upstream interface.

   Second, by propagating its own unicast routing table, DVMRP makes it
   convenient to have separate paths for unicast vs.  multicast
   datagrams. Although, ideally, many network managers would prefer to
   keep their unicast and multicast traffic aligned, tunneled multicast
   topologies may prevent this causing the unicast and multicast paths
   to diverge.  Additionally, service providers may prefer to keep the
   unicast and multicast traffic separate for routing policy reasons as
   they experiment with IP multicast routing and begin to offer it as a
   service. For these benefits, DVMRP has chosen to accept the
   additional overhead of propagating unicast routes.

2.3.  Dependent Downstream Routers

   In addition to providing a consistent view of source networks, the
   exchange of unicast routes in DVMRP provides one other important
   feature. DVMRP uses the unicast route exchange as a mechanism for
   upstream routers to determine if any downstream routers depend on

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   them for forwarding from particular source networks. DVMRP
   accomplishes this by using a well known technique called "Poison
   Reverse". If a downstream router selects an upstream router as the
   best next hop to a particular source network, this is indicated by
   echoing back the route to the upstream router with a metric equal to
   the original metric plus infinity. When the upstream router receives
   the report and sees a metric that lies between infinity and twice
   infinity, it can then add the downstream router from which it
   received the report to a list of dependent routers for this source.

   This list of dependent routers per source network built by the
   "Poison Reverse" technique will provide the foundation necessary to
   determine when it is appropriate to prune back the IP source specific
   multicast trees.

2.4.  Building Multicast Trees

   As previously mentioned, when an IP multicast datagram arrives, the
   upstream interface is determined by looking up the interface that
   would be used if a datagram was being sent back to the source of the
   datagram. If the upstream interface is correct, then a DVMRP router
   will forward the datagram to a list of downstream interfaces.

2.4.1.  Adding Leaf Networks

   Initially, the DVMRP router must consider all of the remaining IP
   multicast capable interfaces (including tunnels) on the router.  If
   the downstream interface under consideration is a leaf network (has
   no other IP multicast routers on it), then the IGMP local group
   database must be consulted. DVMRP routers can easily determine if a
   directly attached network is a leaf network by keeping a list of all
   routers from which DVMRP Router Probe messages have been received on
   the interface. Obviously, it is necessary to refresh this list and
   age out entries received from routers that are no longer being
   refreshed. The IGMP local group database is maintained by an elected
   IP multicast router on each physical, multicast capable network. The
   details of the election procedure are discussed in [Fenn96]. If the
   destination group address is listed in the local group database, then
   the interface should be included in the list of downstream
   interfaces.  If there are no group members on the interface, then the
   interface can be pruned from the candidate list.

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2.4.2.  Adding Non-Leaf Networks

   Initially, all non-leaf networks should be included in the downstream
   interface list when a forwarding cache entry is first being created.
   This allows all downstream routers to be aware of traffic destined
   for a particular (source, group) pair. The downstream routers will
   then have the option to prune and graft this (source, group) pair to
   and from the multicast delivery tree as requirements change from
   their downstream routers and local group members.

2.5.  Pruning Multicast Trees

   As mentioned above, routers at the edges with leaf networks will
   prune their leaf interfaces that have no group members associated
   with an IP multicast datagram. If a router prunes all of its
   downstream interfaces, it can notify the upstream router that it no
   longer wants traffic destined for a particular (source, group) pair.
   This is accomplished by sending a DVMRP Prune message upstream to the
   router it expects to forward datagrams from a particular source.
   Recall that a downstream router will inform an upstream router that
   it depends on the upstream router to receive datagrams from
   particular source networks by using the "Poison Reverse" technique
   during the exchange of unicast routes. This method allows the
   upstream router to build a list of downstream routers on each
   interface that are dependent upon it for datagrams from a particular
   source network.  If the upstream router receives prune messages from
   each one of the dependent downstream routers on an interface, then
   the upstream router can in turn prune this interface from its
   downstream interface list.  If the upstream router is able to prune
   all of its downstream interfaces in this way, it can then send a
   DVMRP Prune message to its upstream router. This continues until the
   minimum tree necessary to reach all of the receivers remains.  Since
   IP multicast routers may be restarted at any time and lose state
   information about existing prunes, it is necessary to limit the life
   of a prune and periodically resume the flooding procedure.  This will
   reinitiate the prune mechanism and the cycle will continue.  When a
   router decides to prune one of its downstream interfaces, it will set
   a timer to indicate the lifetime of the prune. If all of its
   downstream interfaces become pruned off the multicast delivery tree
   and a DVMRP Prune message is sent upstream, the lifetime of the prune
   will be equal to the minimum of the remaining lifetimes of the pruned

   Pruning downstream interfaces is also necessary to prevent duplicate
   packets from arriving on a multi-access network when there are

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   parallel paths back to a source. Since the routers use the "Poison
   Reverse" technique during unicast route exchange, they will establish
   which router will forward multicast traffic to the shared network and
   prune the appropriate downstream interfaces based on the metrics of
   the unicast routes exchanged.

2.6.  Grafting Multicast Trees

   Once a tree branch has been pruned from a multicast delivery tree,
   packets from the pruned (source, group) pair will no longer be
   forwarded.  However, since IP multicast supports dynamic group
   membership, new hosts may join the multicast group.  In this case,
   DVMRP routers will need a mechanism to undo the prunes that are in
   place from the host back to the first branch that was pruned from the
   multicast tree.  This is accomplished with a DVMRP Graft message. A
   router will send a Graft message to its upstream neighbor if a group
   join occurs for a group that currently has pruned sources.  Separate
   Graft messages must be sent to the appropriate upstream neighbor for
   each source that has been pruned.  Since there would be no way to
   tell if a Graft message sent upstream was lost or the source simply
   quit sending traffic, it is necessary to acknowledge each Graft
   message with a DVMRP Graft Ack message.  If an acknowledgment is not
   received within a Graft Time-out period, the Graft message should be
   retransmitted. Duplicate Graft Ack messages should simply be ignored.

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3.  Detailed Protocol Operation

   This section contains a detailed description of DVMRP. It covers
   sending and receiving of DVMRP messages as well as the generation and
   maintenance of IP Multicast forwarding cache entries.

3.1.  Protocol Header

   DVMRP packets are  encapsulated in IP datagrams, with an IP protocol
   number of 2 (IGMP) as specified in the Assigned Numbers RFC [Reyn94].
   All fields are transmitted in Network Byte Order. DVMRP packets use a
   common protocol header that specifies the IGMP [Fenn96] Packet Type
   as hexadecimal 0x13 (DVMRP). A diagram of the common protocol header

                  0         8          16              23
                 | Type    |  Code   |      Checksum      |
                 |(0x13)   |         |                    |
                 |     Reserved      |  Minor   | Major   |
                 |                   | Version  |Version  |

                     Figure 1 - Common Protocol Header

   A Major Version of 3 and a Minor Version of 0xFF should be used to
   indicate compliance with this specification.  The value of the Code
   field determines the DVMRP packet type.  Currently, there are codes
   allocated for DVMRP protocol message types as well as protocol
   analysis and troubleshooting packets.  The protocol message Codes

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       Code     Packet Type                  Description
        1     DVMRP Probe       for neighbor discovery
        2     DVMRP Report      for unicast route exchange
        7     DVMRP Prune       for pruning multicast delivery trees
        8     DVMRP Graft       for grafting multicast delivery trees
        9     DVMRP Graft Ack   for acknowledging graft messages

                 Table 1 - Standard Protocol Packet Types

   There are additional codes used for protocol analysis and
   troubleshooting. These codes are discussed in Appendix B.  The
   Checksum is the 16-bit one's complement of the one's complement sum
   of the DVMRP message. The checksum of the DVMRP message should be
   calculated with the checksum field set to zero.

3.2.  Probe Messages

   When a DVMRP router is configured to run on an interface (physical or
   tunnel), it sends local IP Multicast discovery packets to inform
   other DVMRP routers that it is operational. These discovery packets
   are called DVMRP Probes and they serve three purposes.

   1. Probes provide a mechanism for DVMRP routers to locate each other.
      DVMRP sends a list of detected neighbors in the Probe message.
      This list of DVMRP neighbors provides a foundation for neighbor
      prune list.  If no DVMRP neighbors are found, the network is
      considered to be a leaf network. A DVMRP router should discard all
      other protocol packets from a neighbor until it seen its own
      address in the neighbors Probe list.

   2. They provide a way for DVMRP routers to determine the capabilities
      of each other. This may be deduced from the major and minor
      version numbers in the Probe packet or directly from the
      capability flags.  These flags were first introduced to allow
      optional protocol features.  This specification now mandates the
      use of Generation IDs and pruning and, therefore, provides no
      optional capabilities. Other capability flags were used for
      tracing and troubleshooting and are no longer a part of the actual
      protocol. These are now defined in an appendix.

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   3. Probes provide a keep-alive function in order to quickly detect
      neighbor loss. DVMRP probes sent on each multicast capable
      interface configured for DVMRP SHOULD have an interval of 10
      seconds. The neighbor time-out interval SHOULD be set at 35
      seconds. This allows fairly early detection of a lost neighbor yet
      provides tolerance for busy multicast routers. These values MUST
      be coordinated between all DVMRP routers on a physical network

3.2.1.  Router Capabilities

   In the past, there have been many versions of DVMRP in use with a
   wide range of capabilities. Practical considerations require a
   current implementation to interoperate with these older
   implementations that don't formally specify their capabilities and
   are not compliant with this specification.  For instance, for major
   versions less than 3, it can be assumed that the neighbor does not
   support pruning.  The formal capability flags were first introduced
   in an well known implementation (Mrouted version 3.5) in an attempt
   to take the guess work out which features are supported by a
   neighbor. These flags are no longer necessary since they are now a
   required part of the protocol, however, special consideration is
   necessary to not confuse older implementations that expect these
   flags to be set.  Appendix C was written to assist with these and
   other backward compatibility issues.

   Only two of the flags were used for actual protocol operation. The
   other three assigned flags were used for troubleshooting purposes
   which are now documented in a separate specification. All of the bits
   marked "U" in the Figure below are now unused. They may be defined in
   the future and MUST be set to 0. Bit positions 1, 2, and 3 MUST be
   set to 1 for backward compatibility. They were used to specify the
   PRUNE, GENID, and MTRACE bits.  The first two, PRUNE and GENID, are
   now required features. The MTRACE bit must be set so existing
   implementations will not assume this neighbor does not support
   multicast traceroute. However, since this bit is now reserved and set
   to 1, newer implementations should not use this bit in the Probe
   message to determine if multicast traceroute is supported by a
   neighbor. The bits marked S and L stand for SNMP and LEAF bits.
   Since they are only used by troubleshooting applications, they have
   been removed from the DVMRP protocol messages.

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     0                           8    9    10   S    M    G    P    L
    |        Reserved          | U  | U  | U  | U  | 1  | 1  | 1  | U  |

                     Figure 2 - Probe Capability Flags

3.2.2.  Generation ID

   If a DVMRP router is restarted, it must immediately exchange unicast
   routing tables with all of its neighbors.  If a neighbor doesn't
   automatically detect that the neighbor has restarted, then it will
   not send its entire routing table immediately. Instead, it will
   spread the updates over an entire routing update interval. In order
   for the neighbor to detect a router that is restarted, a non-
   decreasing number is placed in the periodic probe message called the
   generation ID. If a router detects an increase in the generation ID
   of a neighbor, it should exchange its entire unicast routing table
   with the neighbor.  A time of day clock provides a good source for a
   non-decreasing 32 bit integer.

   If a router detects that a neighbor has changed its generation ID, it
   should assume that the neighbor has restarted. This means that any
   prune information received from that router is no longer valid and
   should be flushed. If this prune state has caused prune information
   to be sent upstream, a graft will need to be sent upstream just as
   though a new member has joined below. Once data begins to be
   delivered downstream, if the downstream router again decides to be
   pruned from the delivery tree, a new prune can be sent upstream at
   this time.

3.2.3.  Neighbor Addresses

   As a DVMRP router sees Probe messages from its DVMRP neighbors, it
   records the neighbor addresses on each interface and places them in
   the Probe message sent on the particular interface. This allows the
   neighbor router to know that its probes have been received by the
   sending router.

   It has been shown that in buggy or malfunctioning multicast
   implementations, one-way neighbor relationships can form. A router
   receives a route report from a neighbor and sends back poison reverse

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   routes but the neighbor does not know about the router.  Since the
   neighbor does not have the router listed as a dependent downstream
   router, black holes can form.

   In order to minimize this condition, a router can delay sending route
   reports directly to a neighbor until the neighbor includes the
   routers address in its probe messages.

   Since a router should not accept route reports from a neighbor until
   it has seen its own address in the neighbors probe address list, it
   is important that a router send a probe with the neighbors address in
   it before sending the neighbor any route reports.  Implementations
   written before this specification will not wait before sending route
   reports nor will they ignore reports sent.  Therefore, reports from
   these implementations SHOULD be accepted whether or not a probe with
   the routers address has been received.

3.2.4.  Probe Packet Format

   The Probe packet is variable in length depending on the number of
   neighbor IP addresses included. The length of the IP packet can be
   used to determine the number of neighbors in the Probe message.  The
   current Major Version is 3. To maintain compatibility with previous
   versions, implementations of Version 3 must include pruning and
   grafting of multicast trees. Non-pruning implementations SHOULD NOT
   be implemented at this time.

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                      7             15        23         31
              |  Type   |     Code     |      Checksum      |
              | (0x13)  |    (0x1)     |                    |
              |         |              |          |         |
              |Reserved | Capabilities |  Minor   | Major   |
              |                                             |
              |               Generation ID                 |
              |                                             |
              |           Neighbor IP Address 1             |
              |                                             |
              |           Neighbor IP Address 2             |
              |                                             |
              |                     ...                     |
              |                                             |
              |           Neighbor IP Address N             |

                   Figure 3 - DVMRP Probe Packet Format

3.2.5.  Designated Router Election

   Since it is wasteful to have more than a single router sending IGMP
   Host Membership Queries on a given physical network, a single router
   on each physical network is elected as the Designated Querier. This
   election used to be a part of DVMRP. However, this is now handled as
   a part of the IGMP protocol in version 2 and later. Therefore, DVMRP
   Version 3 requires the use of IGMP Version 2 or later specifying that
   the Designated Querier election is performed as a part of IGMP.

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3.3.  Building Forwarding Cache Entries

   In order to create optimal multicast delivery trees, IP Multicast was
   designed to keep separate forwarding cache entries for each (source
   network, destination group) pair.  Because the possible combinations
   of these is quite large, forwarding cache entries are generated on
   demand as data arrives at a multicast router. Since the IP forwarding
   decision is made on a hop by hop basis (as with the unicast case), it
   is imperative that each multicast router has a consistent view of the
   reverse path back to the source network.  For this reason, DVMRP
   includes its own unicast routing protocol.

3.3.1.  Determining the upstream interface

   When a multicast packet arrives, a DVMRP router will use the internal
   DVMRP unicast routing table to determine which interface leads back
   to the source. If the packet did not arrive on that interface, it
   should be discarded without further processing. Each multicast
   forwarding entry should cache the upstream interface for a particular
   source host or source network after looking this up in the DVMRP
   unicast routing table.

3.3.2.  Determining the downstream interface list

   The downstream interface list is built from the remaining list of
   multicast capable interfaces. Any interfaces designated as leaf
   networks and do not have members of the particular multicast group
   can be automatically pruned from list of downstream interfaces.  The
   remaining interfaces will either have downstream DVMRP routers or
   directly attached group members. These interfaces may be pruned in
   the future if it is determined that there are no group members
   anywhere along the entire tree branch.

3.4.  Unicast Route Exchange

   It was mentioned earlier that since not all IP routers support IP
   multicast forwarding, it is necessary to tunnel IP multicast
   datagrams through these routers. One effect of using these
   encapsulated tunnels is that IP multicast traffic may not be aligned
   with IP unicast traffic. This means that a multicast datagram from a
   particular source can arrive on a different (logical) interface than

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   the expected upstream interface based on traditional unicast routing.

   The unicast routing information propagated by DVMRP is used
   exclusively for determining the reverse path back to the source of
   multicast traffic. Tunnels pseudo-interfaces are considered to be
   distinct for the purpose of determining upstream and downstream
   interfaces.  The routing information that is propagated by DVMRP
   contains a list of unicast source networks and an appropriate metric.
   The metric used is a hop count which is incremented by the cost of
   the incoming interface metric. Traditionally, physical interfaces use
   a metric of 1 while the metric of a tunnel interface varies with the
   distance and bandwidth in the path between the two tunnel endpoints.
   Users are encouraged to configure tunnels with the same metric in
   each direction to create symmetric routing and provide for easier
   problem determination although the protocol does not strictly enforce

3.4.1.  Route Packing and Ordering

   Since DVMRP Route Reports may need to refresh several thousand routes
   each Report interval, routers MUST attempt to spread the routes
   reported across the whole route update interval. This reduces the
   chance of synchronized route reports causing routers to become
   overwhelmed for a few seconds each report interval. Since the route
   report interval is 60 seconds, it is suggested that the total number
   routes being updated be split across multiple Route Reports sent at
   regular intervals. One implementation splits all unicast routes
   across 6 Report periods sent at 10 second intervals. Route Reports
   MUST contain source network/mask pairs sorted first by increasing
   network mask and then by increasing source network within each
   possible mask value.

   In order to pack more source networks into a route report, source
   networks are often represented by less than 4 octets. The number of
   non-zero bytes in the mask value is used to determine the number of
   octets used to represent each source network within that particular
   mask value. For instance if the mask value of is being
   reported, the source networks would only contain 2 octets each. DVMRP
   assumes that source networks will never be aggregated into networks
   whose prefix length is less than 8. Therefore, it does not carry the
   first octet of the mask in the Route Report since, given this
   assumption, the first octet will always be 0xFF.  This means that the
   netmask value will always be represented in 3 octets. This method of
   specifying source network masks is compatible with techniques
   described in [Rekh93] and [Full93] to group traditional Class C
   networks into super-nets and to allow different subnets of the same

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   Class A network to be discontinuous. In this notation, the default
   route is represented as the least three significant octets of the
   netmask [00 00 00], followed by one octet for the network number

3.4.2.  Unicast Route Metrics

   For each source network reported, a route metric is associated with
   the unicast route being reported.  The metric is the sum of the
   outgoing interface metrics between the router originating the report
   and the source network. For the purposes of DVMRP, Infinity is
   defined to be 32.  This limits the breadth across the whole DVMRP
   network and is necessary to place an upper bound on the convergence
   time of the protocol.

   As seen in the packet format below, Route Reports do not contain a
   count of the number of routes reported for each netmask. Instead, the
   high order bit of the metric is used to signify the last route being
   reported for a particular mask value. If a metric is read with the
   high order bit of the 8-bit value set and if the end of the message
   has not been reached, the next value will be a new netmask to be
   applied to the subsequent list of routes. This technique uses less
   octets in the Route Report message.

3.4.3.  Unicast Route Dependencies

   In order for pruning to work correctly, each DVMRP router needs to
   know which downstream routers depend on it for receiving datagrams
   from particular source networks.  Initially, when a new datagram
   arrives from a particular source/group pair, it is flooded to all
   downstream interfaces that have DVMRP neighbors who have indicated a
   dependency on the receiving DVMRP router for that particular source.
   A downstream interface can only be pruned when it has received Prune
   messages from each of the dependent routers on that interface. Each
   downstream router uses a method called Poison Reverse to indicate to
   the upstream router which source networks it expects to receive from
   the upstream router. The downstream router indicates this by echoing
   back the source networks it expects to receive from the upstream
   router with infinity added to the advertised metric. This means that
   the legal values for the metric now become between 1 and (2 x
   Infinity - 1) or 1 and 63. Values between 1 and 31 indicate reachable
   unicast source networks. The value Infinity (32)indicates the source
   network is not reachable. Values between 33 and 63 indicate that the
   downstream router originating the Report is depending upon the

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   upstream router to provide multicast datagrams from the corresponding
   source network.

3.4.4.  Sending Route Reports

   Full Route Reports MUST be sent out every Route Report Interval.  In
   addition, flash updates MAY be sent between full route reports.
   Flash updates can reduce the chances of routing loops and black holes
   occurring when source networks become unreachable through a
   particular path.  Flash updates need only contain the source networks
   that have changed. It is not necessary to report all of the source
   networks from a particular mask value when sending an update.

   A DVMRP router should not send a Route Report to a neighbor until it
   has seen its own address in the neighbors Probe neighbor list. See
   Appendix C for exceptions.

3.4.5.  Receiving Route Reports

   After receiving a route report, a check should be made to verify it
   is from a known neighbor. Neighbors are learned via received Probe
   messages which also indicate the capabilities of the neighbor.
   Therefore, route reports from unknown neighbors are discarded.

   Some older implementations did not sort the routes contained in the
   update.  Therefore, Version 3 implementations MUST be able to handle
   these reports.

   If a route is not refreshed within 140 seconds (2 x Route Report
   Interval + 20), then it can be replaced with the next best route to
   the same source. If, after 200 seconds (3 x Route Report Interval +
   20), the route has not been refreshed, then it should be expired.

   Each route in the report is then parsed and processed according to
   the following rules:

   A. If the route is new and the metric is less than infinity, the
      route should be added.

   B. If the route already exists, several checks must be performed.

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      1. New metric < infinity

         a. New metric > existing metric

            If the new metric is greater than the existing metric then
            check to see if the same neighbor is reporting the route. If
            so, update the metric.  Otherwise, discard the route.

         b. New metric < existing metric

            Update the metric for the route and if the neighbor
            reporting the route is different, update the neighbor. A
            flash update should be sent to the new neighbor indicating
            downstream dependence and to the existing neighbor
            withdrawing downstream dependence of the route.

         c. New metric = existing metric

            If the neighbor reporting the route is the same as the
            existing route, then simply refresh the route. If the new
            neighbor has a lower IP address, then update the route. New
            and existing neighbors should be notified of any changes in
            downstream dependencies.

      2. New metric = infinity

         a. New gateway = existing gateway

            If the existing metric was less than infinity, the route is
            now unreachable.  Update the route and notify any dependent
            neighbors of the change.

         b. New gateway != existing gateway

            The route can be ignored since the existing gateway has a
            metric better than or equal to this gateway.

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      3. infinity < New metric < 2 x infinity

         In this case, the neighbors considers the receiving router to
         be upstream for the route and is indicating it is dependent on
         the receiving router.

         a. Neighbor on down stream interface

            If the neighbor is considered to be on a downstream
            interface for that route, then the neighbor should be
            registered as a downstream dependent router for that route.

         b. Neighbor not on down stream interface

            If the receiving router thinks the neighbor is on the
            upstream interface, then a routing loop has occured and the
            indication of downstream dependency should be ignored and
            the detected loop should be logged.

      4. 2 x infinity <= New metric

         If the metric is greater than or equal to 2 x infinity, the
         metric is illegal and the route should be ignored.

3.4.6.  Route Report Packet Format

   The format of a sample Route Report Packet is shown in Figure 4
   below. The packet shown is an example of how the source networks are
   packed into a Report. The number of octets in each Source Network
   will vary depending on the mask value.  The values below are only an
   example for clarity and are not intended to represent the format of
   every Route Report.

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                    7           15           23           31
          |   Type    |    Code    |        Checksum         |
          |  (0x13)   |   (0x2)    |                         |
          |       Reserved         |   Minor    |   Major    |
          |                        |  Version   |  Version   |
          |  Mask1    |   Mask1    |   Mask1    |    Src     |
          |  Octet2   |   Octet3   |   Octet4   |   Net11    |
          |  SrcNet11(cont.)...    |  Metric11  |    Src     |
          |                        |            |   Net12    |
          |  SrcNet12(cont.)...    |  Metric12  |   Mask2    |
          |                        |            |   Octet2   |
          |  Mask2    |   Mask2    |        SrcNet21         |
          |  Octet3   |   Octet4   |                         |
          |  SrcNet21(cont.)...    |  Metric21  |   Mask3    |
          |                        |            |   Octet2   |
          |  Mask3    |   Mask3    |           ...           |
          |  Octet3   |   Octet4   |                         |

             Figure 4 - Example Route Report Packet Format

3.5.  Pruning

   DVMRP is described as a flood and prune multicast routing protocol
   since datagrams are initially sent out all dependent downstream
   interfaces and then pruned back to only the downstream interfaces
   that are on a reverse shortest path to a receiver. Prunes are data
   driven and are sent in response to receiving unwanted multicast
   traffic at the leafs of the multicast tree rooted at a particular
   source network.

3.5.1.  Leaf Networks

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   Detection of leaf networks is very important to the pruning process.
   Routers at the end of a source specific multicast delivery tree must
   detect that there are no further downstream routers. This detection
   mechanism is covered above in section 3.2 titled DVMRP Probe
   Messages.  If there are no group members present for a particular
   multicast datagram received, the leaf routers will start the pruning
   process by pruning their downstream interfaces and sending a prune to
   the upstream router for that source.

3.5.2.  Source Networks

   It is important to note that prunes are specific to a group and
   source network. A prune sent upstream triggered by traffic received
   from a particular source applies to all sources on that network. It
   is not currently possible to prune only one or a subset of hosts on a
   source network for a particular group. All or none of the sources
   must be pruned.

3.5.3.  Receiving a Prune

   When a prune is received, the following steps should be taken:

   1.  Determine if a Probe has been received from this router recently.

   2.  If not, discard prune since there is no prior state about this

   3.  If so, make sure the neighbor is capable of pruning (based on
       received Probe message).

   4.  Since Prune messages are fixed length, ensure the prune message
       contains the correct amount of data.

   5.  Extract the source address, group address, and prune time-out

   6.  If there is no current state information for the (source, group)
       pair, then ignore the prune.

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   7.  Verify that the prune was received from a dependent neighbor for
       the source network. If not, discard the prune.

   8.  Determine if a prune is currently active from the same dependent
       neighbor for this (source, group) pair.

   9.  If so, reset the timer to the new time-out value.  Otherwise,
       create state for the new prune and set a timer for the prune

   10. Determine if all dependent downstream routers on the interface
       from which the prune was received have now sent prunes.

   11. If so, then determine if there are group members active on the

   12. If no group members are found, then prune the interface.

   13. If all downstream interfaces have now been pruned, send a prune
       to the RPF neighbor on the upstream interface.

3.5.4.  Sending a Prune

   When sending a prune upstream, the following steps should be taken:

   1. Decide if upstream neighbor is capable of receiving prunes.

   2. If not, then proceed no further.

   3. Stop any pending Grafts awaiting acknowledgments.

   4. Determine the prune lifetime. This value should be the minimum of
      the prune lifetimes remaining from the downstream neighbors and
      the default prune lifetime.

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   5. Form and transmit the packet to the upstream neighbor for the

3.5.5.  Retransmitting a Prune

   By increasing the prune lifetime to ~2 hours, the effect of a lost
   prune message becomes more apparent. Therefore, an implementation MAY
   want to retransmit prunes messages using exponential backoff for the
   lifetime of the prune if traffic is still arriving on the upstream

   One way to implement this would be to send a prune, install a
   negative cache entry for 3 seconds while waiting for the prune to
   take effect. Then remove the forward cache entry. If traffic
   continues to arrive, a new forwarding cache request will be
   generated. The prune can be resent with the remaining prune lifetime
   and a negative cache entry can be installed for 6 seconds. After
   this, the negative cache entry is removed. This procedure is repeated
   while each time doubling the length of time the negative cache entry
   is installed.

3.5.6.  Prune Packet Format

   In addition to the standard IGMP and DVMRP headers, a Prune Packet
   contains three additional fields: the source host IP address, the
   destination group IP address, and the Prune Lifetime in seconds.

   The Prune Lifetime is a derived value calculated as the minimum of
   the default prune lifetime (2 hours) and the remaining lifetimes of
   of any downstream prunes received for the same cache entry. A router
   with no downstream dependent neighbors would use the the default
   prune lifetime.

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                      7           15           23           31
            |   Type    |    Code    |        Checksum         |
            |  (0x13)   |   (0x7)    |                         |
            |       Reserved         |   Minor    |   Major    |
            |                 Source Address                   |
            |                  Group Address                   |
            |                 Prune Lifetime                   |

                      Figure 5 - Prune Packet Format

3.6.  Grafting

   Once a multicast delivery tree has been pruned back, DVMRP Graft
   messages are necessary to join new receivers onto the multicast tree.
   Graft messages are sent upstream from the new receiver's first-hop
   router until a point on the multicast tree is reached.  Graft
   messages are re-originated between adjacent DVMRP routers and are not
   forwarded by DVMRP routers.  Therefore, the first-hop router does not
   know if the Graft message ever reaches the multicast tree.  To remedy
   this, each Graft message is acknowledged hop by hop. This ensures
   that the Graft message is not lost somewhere along the path between
   the receiver's first-hop router and the closest point on the
   multicast delivery tree.

3.6.1.  Grafting Each Source Network

   It is important to realize that prunes are source specific and are
   sent up different trees for each source.  Grafts are sent in response
   to a new Group Member which is not source specific. Therefore,
   separate Graft messages must be sent to the appropriate upstream
   routers to counteract each previous source specific prune that was

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3.6.2.  Sending a Graft

   As mentioned above, a Graft message sent to the upstream DVMRP router
   should be acknowledged hop by hop guaranteeing end-to-end delivery.
   If a Graft Acknowledgment is not received within the Graft
   Retransmission Time-out period, the Graft should be resent to the
   upstream router. The initial retransmission period is 5 seconds.  A
   binary exponential backoff policy is used on subsequent
   retransmissions.  In order to send a Graft message, the following
   steps should be taken:

   1. Verify a forwarding cache entry exists for the (source, group)
      pair and that a prune exists for the cache entry.

   2. Verify that the upstream router is capable of receiving prunes
      (and therefore grafts).

   3. Add the graft to the retransmission timer list awaiting an

   4. Formulate and transmit the Graft packet.

3.6.3.  Receiving a Graft

   The actions taken when a Graft is received depends on the state in
   the receiving router for the (source, group) pair in the received
   Graft message. If the receiving router has prune state for the
   (source, group) pair, then it must acknowledge the received graft and
   send a subsequent graft to its upstream router.  If the receiving
   router has some pruned downstream interfaces but has not sent a prune
   upstream, then the receiving interface can simply be added to the
   list of downstream interfaces in the forwarding cache. A Graft
   Acknowledgment must also be sent back to the source of the Graft
   message.  If the receiving router has no state at all for the
   (source, group) pair, then datagrams arriving for the (source, group)
   pair should automatically be flooded when they arrive. A Graft
   Acknowledgment must be sent to the source of the Graft message.  If a
   Graft message is received from an unknown neighbor, it should be

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3.6.4.  Graft Packet Format

   The format of a Graft packet is show below:

                      7           15           23           31
            |   Type    |    Code    |        Checksum         |
            |  (0x13)   |   (0x8)    |                         |
            |       Reserved         |   Minor    |   Major    |
            |                 Source Address                   |
            |                  Group Address                   |

                      Figure 6 - Graft Packet Format

3.6.5.  Sending a Graft Acknowledgment

   A Graft Acknowledgment packet is sent to a downstream neighbor in
   response to receiving a Graft message. Grafts received from unknown
   neighbors should be discarded but all other correctly formatted Graft
   messages should be acknowledged. This is true even if no other action
   is taken in response to receiving the Graft to prevent the source
   from continually re-transmitting the Graft message.  The Graft
   Acknowledgment packet is identical to the Graft packet except that
   the DVMRP code in the common header is set to Graft Ack. This allows
   the receiver of the Graft Ack message to correctly identify which
   Graft was acknowledged and stop the appropriate retransmission timer.

3.6.6.  Receiving a Graft Acknowledgment

   When a Graft Acknowledgment is received, the (source, group) pair in
   the packet can be used to determine if a Graft was sent to this
   particular upstream router.  If no Graft was sent, the Graft Ack can
   simply be ignored.  If a Graft was sent, and the acknowledgment has
   come from the correct upstream router, then it has been successfully
   received and the retransmission timer for the Graft can be stopped.

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3.6.7.  Graft Acknowledgment Packet Format

   The format of a Graft Ack packet (which is identical to that of a
   Graft packet is show below:

                      7           15           23           31
            |   Type    |    Code    |        Checksum         |
            |  (0x13)   |   (0x9)    |                         |
            |       Reserved         |   Minor    |   Major    |
            |                 Source Address                   |
            |                  Group Address                   |

                    Figure 7 - Graft Ack Packet Format

3.7.  Interfaces

   Interfaces running DVMRP will either be multicast capable physical
   interfaces or encapsulated tunnel pseudo-interfaces. Physical
   interfaces may either be multi-access networks or point-to-point
   networks.  Tunnel interfaces are used when there are non-multicast
   capable routers between DVMRP neighbors. Multicast data traffic is
   sent between tunnel endpoints using IP-IP encapsulation.  The unicast
   IP addresses of the tunnel endpoints are used as the source and
   destination IP addresses in the outer IP header. The inner IP header
   remains unchanged from the original data packet.

   Since DVMRP Protocol messages are not encapsulated when sent between
   tunnel endpoints, they must always be sent directly to the unicast
   address of the tunneled neighbor.

4.  Security Considerations

   Security for DVMRP follows the general security architecture provided
   for the Internet Protocol [Atk95a]. This framework provides for both
   privacy and authentication. It recommends the use of the IP
   Authentication Header [Atk95b] to provide trusted neighbor

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   relationships. Confidentiality is provided by the addition of the IP
   Encapsulating Security Payload [Atk95c]. Please refer to these
   documents for the general architecture design as well as the specific
   implementation details.

5.  References

   [Atk95a]  Atkinson, R., "Security Architecture for the Internet
             Protocol", RFC 1825, August 1995.

   [Atk95b]  Atkinson, R., "IP Authentication Header", RFC 1826, August

   [Atk95c]  Atkinson, R., "IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)",
             RFC 1827, August 1995.

   [Deer89]  Deering, S., "Host Extensions for IP Multicasting", RFC
             1112, August 1989.

   [Deer90]  Deering, S., Cheriton, D., "Multicast Routing in Datagram
             Internetworks and Extended LANs",  ACM Transactions on
             Computer Systems, Vol. 8, No. 2, May 1990, Pages 85-110.

   [Fenn96]  Fenner, W., "Internet Group Management Protocol, Version
             2",  Work In Progress, February 1996.

   [Full93]  Fuller, V., T. Li, J. Yu, and K. Varadhan, "Classless
             Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR): an Address Assignment and
             Aggregation Strategy", RFC 1519, September 1993.

   [Perk96]  Perkins, C., IP Encapsulation within IP, Work in Progress,
             May 1996.

   [Rekh93]  Rekhter, Y., and T. Li, "An Architecture for IP Address
             Allocation with CIDR", RFC 1518, September 1993.

   [Reyn94]  Reynolds, J., Postel, J., "Assigned Numbers", STD 0002,
             October, 1994.

   [Wait88]  Waitzman, D., Partridge, C., Deering, S., "Distance Vector
             Multicast Routing Protocol",  RFC 1075, November 1988.

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6.  Author's Address

   Thomas Pusateri
   Juniper Networks, Inc.
   3260 Jay St.
   Santa Clara, CA  95051
   Phone:    (919) 558-0700
   EMail:    pusateri@jnx.com

7.  Acknowledgments

   The author would like to acknowledge the original designers of the
   protocol, Steve Deering, Craig Partridge, and David Waitzman.
   Version 3 of the protocol would not have been possible without the
   work of Ajit Thyagarajan and Bill Fenner.  Credit also goes to Dave
   LeRoy and Danny Mitzel for the careful review of this document.

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8.  Appendix A - Constants & Configurable Parameters

   The following table provides a summary of the DVMRP timing

                     Parameter              Value (seconds)
             Probe Interval               10
             Neighbor Time-out Interval   35
             Route Report Interval        60
             Route Replacement Time       140
             Route Expiration Time        200
             Prune Lifetime               variable (< 2 hours)
             Graft Retransmission Time    5 with exp. backoff

                        Table 2 - Parameter Summary

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9.  Appendix B - Tracing and Troubleshooting support

   There are several packet types used to gather DVMRP specific
   information.  They are generally used for diagnosing problems or
   gathering topology information. The first two messages are now
   obsoleted and should not be used. The remaining two messages provide
   a request/response mechanism to determine the versions and
   capabilities of a particular DVMRP router.

         Code        Packet Type               Description
          3     DVMRP Ask Neighbors     Obsolete
          4     DVMRP Neighbors         Obsolete
          5     DVMRP Ask Neighbors 2   Request Neighbor List
          6     DVMRP Neighbors 2       Respond with Neighbor List

                     Table 3 - Debugging Packet Types

9.1.  DVMRP Ask Neighbors2

   The Ask Neighbors2 packet is a unicast request packet directed at a
   DVMRP router. The destination should respond with a unicast
   Neighbors2 message back to the sender of the Ask Neighbors2 message.

                  0         8          16              31
                 | Type    |  Code   |      Checksum      |
                 |(0x13)   | (0x5)   |                    |
                 |     Reserved      |  Minor   | Major   |
                 |                   | Version  |Version  |

                 Figure 8 - Ask Neighbors 2 Packet Format

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9.2.  DVMRP Neighbors2

   The format of a Neighbors2 response packet is shown below. This is
   sent as a unicast message back to the sender of an Ask Neighbors2
   message.  There is a common header at the top followed by the routers
   capabilities.  One or more sections follow that contain an entry for
   each logical interface.  The interface parameters are listed along
   with a variable list of neighbors learned on each interface.

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           0            8              16                    31
          |   Type    |     Code     |         Checksum         |
          |  (0x13)   |    (0x6)     |                          |
          | Reserved  | Capabilities |   Minor    |    Major    |
          |           |              |  Version   |   Version   |
          |                                                     |
          |                    Local Addr 1                     |
          |           |              |            |             |
          | Metric 1  | Threshold 1  |  Flags 1   | Nbr Count 1 |
          |                                                     |
          |                       Nbr 1                         |
          |                                                     |
          |                         ...                         |
          |                                                     |
          |                       Nbr m                         |
          |                                                     |
          |                    Local Addr N                     |
          |           |              |            |             |
          | Metric N  | Threshold N  |  Flags N   | Nbr Count N |
          |                                                     |
          |                       Nbr 1                         |
          |                                                     |
          |                         ...                         |
          |                                                     |
          |                       Nbr k                         |

                   Figure 9 - Neighbors 2 Packet Format

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   The capabilities of the local router are defined as follows:

            Bit    Flag                Description

            0     Leaf     This is a leaf router

            1     Prune    This router understands pruning

            2     GenID    This router sends Generation IDs

            3     Mtrace   This router handles Mtrace requests

                    Table 4 - DVMRP Router Capabilities

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   The flags associated with a particular interface are:

         Bit       Flag                   Description

         0     Tunnel         Neighbor reached via tunnel

         1     Source Route   Tunnel uses IP source routing

         2     Reserved       No longer used

         3     Down           Operational status down

         4     Disabled       Administrative status down

         5     Reserved       No longer used

         6     Leaf           No downstream neighbors on interface

                      Table 5 - DVMRP Interface flags

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   10.  Appendix C - Version Compatibility

      There have been two previous major versions of DVMRP with
      implementations still in circulation. If the receipt of a Probe
      message reveals a major version of 1 or 2, then it can be assumed
      that this neighbor does not support pruning or the use of the
      Generation ID in the Probe message.  However, since these older
      implementations are known to safely ignore the Generation ID and
      neighbor information in the Probe packet, it is not necessary to
      send specially formatted Probe packets to these neighbors.

      There were two minor versions (1 and 2) of major version 3 that
      did support pruning but did not support the Generation ID or
      capability flags. These special cases will have to be accounted

      Any other minor versions of major version 3 closely compare to
      this specification.

      In addition, cisco Systems is known to use their software major
      and minor release number as the DVMRP major and minor version
      number. These will typically be 10 or 11 for the major version
      number. Pruning was introduced in Version 11.

      Implementations prior to this specification may not wait to send
      route reports until probe messages have been received with the
      routers address listed. Reports SHOULD be sent to these neighbors
      without first requiring a received probe with the routers address
      in it as well as reports from these neighbors SHOULD be accepted.
      Although, this allows one-way neighbor relationships to occur, it
      does maintain backward compatibility.

Pusateri                                                       [Page 36]

                              Table of Contents

      1. Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
         1.1. Reverse Path Multicasting  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
         1.2. IP-IP Tunnels  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
         1.3. Document Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
      2. Protocol Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
         2.1. Neighbor Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
         2.2. Source Location  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
         2.3. Dependent Downstream Routers . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
         2.4. Building Multicast Trees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
         2.5. Pruning Multicast Trees  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
         2.6. Grafting Multicast Trees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
      3. Detailed Protocol Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
         3.1. Protocol Header  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
         3.2. Probe Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
         3.3. Building Forwarding Cache Entries  . . . . . . . . . .  14
         3.4. Unicast Route Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
         3.5. Pruning  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
         3.6. Grafting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
         3.7. Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
      4. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
      5. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
      6. Author's Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
      7. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
      8. Appendix A - Constants & Configurable Parameters  . . . . .  30
      9. Appendix B - Tracing and Troubleshooting support  . . . . .  31
         9.1. DVMRP Ask Neighbors2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
         9.2. DVMRP Neighbors2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
      10. Appendix C - Version Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . .  36

Pusateri                                                        [Page i]