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Versions: 00                                                            
INTERNET-DRAFT                                          Adam M. Costello
draft-ietf-idn-amc-ace-o-00.txt                              2001-Mar-19
Expires 2001-Sep-19

                         AMC-ACE-O version 0.0.3

Status of this Memo

    This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
    all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

    Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
    Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note
    that other groups may also distribute working documents as
    Internet-Drafts.

    Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
    months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents
    at any time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as
    reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

    The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
    http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt

    The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
    http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html

    Distribution of this document is unlimited.  Please send comments
    to the author at amc@cs.berkeley.edu, or to the idn working
    group at idn@ops.ietf.org.  A non-paginated (and possibly
    newer) version of this specification may be available at
    http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~amc/charset/amc-ace-o

Abstract

    AMC-ACE-O is a reversible map from a sequence of Unicode [UNICODE]
    characters to a sequence of letters (A-Z, a-z), digits (0-9), and
    hyphen-minus (-), henceforth called LDH characters.  Such a map
    (called an "ASCII-Compatible Encoding", or ACE) might be useful for
    internationalized domain names [IDN], because host name labels are
    currently restricted to LDH characters by [RFC952] and [RFC1123].

    AMC-ACE-O is similar to AMC-ACE-M [AMCACEM00] but is simpler and
    slightly less efficient.

    Besides domain names, there might also be other contexts where it is
    useful to transform Unicode characters into "safe" (delimiter-free)
    ASCII characters.  (If other contexts consider hyphen-minus to be
    unsafe, a different character could be used to play its role, like
    underscore.)

Contents

    Features
    Name
    Overview
    Base-32 characters
    Encoding and decoding algorithms
    Signature
    Case sensitivity models
    Comparison with RACE, BRACE, LACE, DUDE, AMC-ACE-M
    Example strings
    Security considerations
    Credits
    References
    Author
    Example implementation

Features

    Uniqueness:  Every Unicode string maps to at most one LDH string.

    Completeness:  Every Unicode string maps to an LDH string.
    Restrictions on which Unicode strings are allowed, and on length,
    may be imposed by higher layers.

    Efficient encoding:  The ratio of encoded size to original size is
    small for all Unicode strings.  This is important in the context
    of domain names because [RFC1034] restricts the length of a domain
    label to 63 characters.

    Simplicity:  The encoding and decoding algorithms are reasonably
    simple to implement.  The goals of efficiency and simplicity are at
    odds; AMC-ACE-O aims at a good balance between them.

    Case-preservation:  If the Unicode string has been case-folded prior
    to encoding, it is possible to record the case information in the
    case of the letters in the encoding, allowing a mixed-case Unicode
    string to be recovered if desired, but a case-insensitive comparison
    of two encoded strings is equivalent to a case-insensitive
    comparison of the Unicode strings.  This feature is optional; see
    section "Case sensitivity models".

    Readability:  The letters A-Z and a-z and the digits 0-9 appearing
    in the Unicode string are represented as themselves in the label.
    This comes for free because it usually the most efficient encoding
    anyway.

Name

    AMC-ACE-O is a working name that should be changed if it is adopted.
    (The O merely indicates that it is the fifteenth ACE devised by this
    author.  BRACE was the third.  D-L and N did not deliver enough
    efficiency to justify their complexity.)  Rather than waste good
    names on experimental proposals, let's wait until one proposal is
    chosen, then assign it a good name.  Suggestions (assuming the
    primary use is in domain names):

        UniHost
        UTF-D ("D" for "domain names")
        UTF-37 (there are 37 characters in the output repertoire)
        NUDE (Normal Unicode Domain Encoding)

Overview

    AMC-ACE-O maps characters to characters--it does not consume or
    produce code points, code units, or bytes, although the algorithm
    makes use of code points, and implementations will of course need to
    represent the input and output characters somehow, usually as bytes
    or other code units.

    Each character in the Unicode string is represented by an
    integral number of characters in the encoded string.  There is no
    intermediate bit string or octet string.

    The encoded string alternates between two modes: literal mode and
    base-32 mode.  LDH characters in the Unicode string are encoded
    literally, except that hyphen-minus is doubled.  Non-LDH characters
    in the Unicode string are encoded using base-32, in which each
    character of the encoded string represents five bits (a "quintet").
    A non-paired hyphen-minus in the encoded string indicates a mode
    change.

    In base-32 mode a variable-length code sequence of one to five
    quintets represents a delta, which is added to a reference point
    to yield a Unicode code point, which in turn represents a Unicode
    character.  (Surrogates, which are code units used by UTF-16 in
    pairs to refer to code points, are not used with AMC-ACE-O.)  There
    is one reference point for each code length; they are chosen by the
    encoder based on the input string and declared at the beginning
    of the encoded string, and never change.  Locality among the code
    points is discovered and exploited by the encoder to make the
    encoding more compact.

Base-32 characters

        "a" =  0 = 0x00 = 00000         "s" = 16 = 0x10 = 10000
        "b" =  1 = 0x01 = 00001         "t" = 17 = 0x11 = 10001
        "c" =  2 = 0x02 = 00010         "u" = 18 = 0x12 = 10010
        "d" =  3 = 0x03 = 00011         "v" = 19 = 0x13 = 10011
        "e" =  4 = 0x04 = 00100         "w" = 20 = 0x14 = 10100
        "f" =  5 = 0x05 = 00101         "x" = 21 = 0x15 = 10101
        "g" =  6 = 0x06 = 00110         "y" = 22 = 0x16 = 10110
        "h" =  7 = 0x07 = 00111         "z" = 23 = 0x17 = 10111
        "i" =  8 = 0x08 = 01000         "2" = 24 = 0x18 = 11000
        "j" =  9 = 0x09 = 01001         "3" = 25 = 0x19 = 11001
        "k" = 10 = 0x0A = 01010         "4" = 26 = 0x1A = 11010
        "m" = 11 = 0x0B = 01011         "5" = 27 = 0x1B = 11011
        "n" = 12 = 0x0C = 01100         "6" = 28 = 0x1C = 11100
        "p" = 13 = 0x0D = 01101         "7" = 29 = 0x1D = 11101
        "q" = 14 = 0x0E = 01110         "8" = 30 = 0x1E = 11110
        "r" = 15 = 0x0F = 01111         "9" = 31 = 0x1F = 11111

    The digits "0" and "1" and the letters "o" and "l" are not used, to
    avoid transcription errors.

    All decoders must recognize both the uppercase and lowercase
    forms of the base-32 characters.  The case may or may not convey
    information, as described in section "Case sensitivity models".

Encoding and decoding algorithms

    The algorithms are given below as commented pseudocode.  All
    ordering of bits and quintets is big-endian (most significant
    first).  The >> and << operators used below mean bit shift, as in
    C.  For >> there is no question of logical versus arithmetic shift
    because AMC-ACE-O makes no use of negative numbers.

    primitives:
      to_codepoint()   # maps a character to a Unicode code point
      from_codepoint() # maps a Unicode code point to a character
        # These are no-ops if the implementation represents characters
        # using Unicode code points.

    subroutine names:
      encode           # main encoding function
      decode           # main decoding function
      find_refpoint    # scan the reference points for a suitable one
      encode_point     # encode one code point as base-32
      decode_point     # decode one code point from base-32
      choose_refpoints # choose good reference points for the input
      census           # used by choose_refpoints
      encode_refpoints # encode the reference points
      decode_refpoints # decode the reference points
      bootstrap        # used by en/decode_refpoints

    shared variables:  # All others are local to each subroutine.
      the input/output strings taken/returned by encode() and decode()
      array refpoint[1..5]  # refpoint[k] is for sequences of length k
      # The rest are used only by the encoder:
      array prefix[1..3]    # prefix[k] is used to encode refpoint[k]
      integers best_count, best_refpoint

    constants:
      array special_refpoint[0..7] =
        0x20, 0x50, 0x70, 0xA0, 0xC0, 0xE0, 0x140, 0x270
          # Generally, prefix[k] << (4*k) == refpoint[k],
          # but for prefix[2] == 0xD8..0xDF, refpoint[2] ==
          # special_refpoint[0..7] respectively.  These prefixes would
          # not otherwise be used because they correspond to surrogates.
          # These special reference points are used to assist the Latin
          # script because, unlike almost every other small script,
          # Latin is split across multiple rows with inconvenient
          # boundaries, and therefore has a hard time compressing well.

    function encode(input string):
      if any input character's codepoint is outside 0..10FFFF then fail
        # Too-large values could cause array bounds errors later.
      choose_refpoints()
      encode_refpoints()
      let literal = false
      for each character in the input string (in order) do begin
        if the character is hyphen-minus then output two hyphen-minuses
        else if the character is an LDH character then begin
          if not literal then output hyphen-minus and toggle literal
          output the character
        end
        else begin
          if literal then output hyphen-minus and toggle literal
          encode_point(to_codepoint(character))
        end
      end
      return the output string

    function decode(input string):
      decode_refpoints()
      let literal = false
      while not end-of-input do begin
        if the next character is hyphen-minus then begin
          consume the character
          if the next character is hyphen-minus then consume it
          else toggle literal
        end
        else if literal then consume character and output it
        else output from_codepoint(decode_point())
      end
      let check = encode(the output string)
      if check != the input string then fail
        # This comparison must be case-insensitive if ACEs are always
        # compared case-insensitively (which is true of domain names),
        # case-sensitive otherwise.  See also section "Case sensitivity
        # models".  This check is necessary to guarantee the uniqueness
        # property (there cannot be two distinct encoded strings
        # representing the same Unicode string).
      return the output string

    function find_refpoint(start,n):
      let i = start
      while n < refpoint[k] or (n - refpoint[k]) >> (4*k) != 0
        do increment i
      return i

    procedure encode_point(n):
      let k = find_refpoint(1,n)
      let delta = n - refpoint[k]
      extract the k least significant nybbles of delta
        # A nybble is 4 bits.
      prepend 0 to the last nybble and prepend 1 to the rest
      output the base-32 characters corresponding to the quintets

    function decode_point():
      input characters and convert them to quintets until a quintet
        beginning with 0 is obtained (expect at most four quintets
        beginning with 1)
      fail upon encountering anything unexpected
      let k = the number of quintets obtained
      strip the first bit of each quintet
      concatenate the resulting nybbles to form delta
      return refpoint[k] + delta

    procedure encode_refpoints():
        # refpoint[4..5] always end up as 0 and 0x10000.
        # refpoint[1..3] are implied by prefix[1..3], which are encoded
        # in reverse order because that often yields a compact encoding.
      let refpoint[1..2] = 0, 0x10
      for k = 3 down to 1 do begin
        encode_point(prefix[k])
        bootstrap(k, prefix[k])
      end

    procedure decode_refpoints():
      let refpoint[1..5] = 0, 0x10, 0, 0, 0x10000
      for k = 3 down to 1 do bootstrap(k, decode_point())

    procedure bootstrap(k,p):
        # The prefixes need to be left-shifted to become reference
        # points.  As this happens, the current reference points often
        # become helpful for encoding/decoding the next prefix.
      for j = 4 down to 2 do let refpoint[j] = refpoint[j-1] << 4
      if k == 2 and 0xD8 <= p <= 0xDF
      then let refpoint[1] = special_refpoint[p - 0xD8] >> 4
      else let refpoint[1] = p << 4

    procedure choose_refpoints():
        # First choose refpoint[1] so that it will be used as often as
        # possible, then choose refpoint[2] similarly, then refpoint[3].
      let refpoint[1..5] = 0, 0, 0, 0, 0x10000
      let prefix[1..3] = 0, 0, 0, 0
      for k = 1 to 3 do begin
        let best_count = 0
        let best_refpoint = 0
        # Try the input code point prefixes, then the special prefixes:
        for each input character in order
          do census(k, to_codepoint(character) >> (4*k))
        if k == 2 then for i = 0 to 7 do census(k, 0xD8 + i)
        if k == 3 then census(k,0xD)
        let refpoint[k] = best_refpoint
      end

    function census(k,p):
        # Determine how many times the reference point corresponding to
        # prefix p would be used to encode input characters and other
        # reference points if it were chosen as refpoint[k], and update
        # best_count, best_refpoint, and prefix[k] accordingly.
      if k == 2 and 0xD8 <= p <= 0xDF
      then let refpoint[k] = special_refpoint[p - 0xD8]
      else let refpoint[k] = p << (4*k)
      let count = the number of non-LDH input characters for which
        find_refpoint(1, to_codepoint(character)) == k
        # Don't forget the non-LDH requirement.
      increment count once for each i such that 1 <= i <= k and
        find_refpoint(i+1, prefix[i] << (4*i)) == k
      if count > best_count then begin
        let best_count = count
        let best_refpoint = refpoint[k]
        let prefix[k] = p
      end

Signature

    The issue of how to distinguish ACE strings from unencoded strings
    is largely orthogonal to the encoding scheme itself, and is
    therefore not specified here.  In the context of domain name labels,
    a standard prefix and/or suffix (chosen to be unlikely to occur
    naturally) would presumably be attached to ACE labels.  (In that
    case, it would probably be good to forbid the encoding of Unicode
    strings that appear to match the signature, to avoid confusing
    humans about whether they are looking at a Unicode string or an ACE
    string.)

    In order to use AMC-ACE-O in domain names, the choice of signature
    must be mindful of the requirement in [RFC952] that labels never
    begin or end with hyphen-minus.  The raw encoded string will never
    begin with a hyphen-minus, and will end with a hyphen-minus iff the
    Unicode string ends with a hyphen-minus.  If the Unicode strings
    are forbidden from ending with hyphen-minus (which seems prudent
    anyway), then there is no problem.  Otherwise, AMC-ACE-O would need
    to use a suffix as the signature.

    It appears that "---" is extremely rare in domain names; among the
    four-character prefixes of all the second-level domains under .com,
    .net, and .org, "---" never appears at all.  Therefore, perhaps the
    signature should be of the form ?--- (prefix) or ---? (suffix),
    where ? could be "u" for Unicode, or "i" for internationalized, or
    "a" for ACE, or maybe "q" or "z" because they are rare.

Case sensitivity models

    The higher layer must choose one of the following four models.

    Models suitable for domain names:

      * Case-insensitive:  Before a string is encoded, all its non-LDH
        characters must be case-folded so that any strings differing
        only in case become the same string (for example, strings could
        be forced to lowercase).  Folding LDH characters is optional.
        The case of base-32 characters and literal-mode characters is
        arbitrary and not significant.  Comparisons between encoded
        strings must be case-insensitive.  The original case of non-LDH
        characters cannot be recovered from the encoded string.

      * Case-preserving:  The case of the Unicode characters is not
        considered significant, but it can be preserved and recovered,
        just like in non-internationalized host names.  Before a string
        is encoded, all its non-LDH characters must be case-folded
        as in the previous model.  LDH characters are naturally able
        to retain their case attributes because they are encoded
        literally.  The case attribute of a non-LDH character is
        recorded in the last of the base-32 characters that represent
        it, which is guaranteed to be a letter rather than a digit.
        If the base-32 character is uppercase, it means the Unicode
        character is caseless or should be forced to uppercase after
        being decoded (which is a no-op if the case folding already
        forces to uppercase).  If the base-32 character is lowercase,
        it means the Unicode character is caseless or should be forced
        to lowercase after being decoded (which is a no-op if the case
        folding already forces to lowercase).  The case of the other
        base-32 characters in a multi-quintet encoding is arbitrary
        and not significant.  Only uppercase and lowercase attributes
        can be recorded, not titlecase.  Comparisons between encoded
        strings must be case-insensitive, and are equivalent to
        case-insensitive comparisons between the Unicode strings.  The
        intended mixed-case Unicode string can be recovered as long as
        the encoded characters are unaltered, but altering the case of
        the encoded characters is not harmful--it merely alters the case
        of the Unicode characters, and such a change is not considered
        significant.

        In this model, the input to the encoder and the output of the
        decoder can be the unfolded Unicode string (in which case the
        encoder and decoder are responsible for performing the case
        folding and recovery), or can be the folded Unicode string
        accompanied by separate case information (in which case the
        higher layer is responsible for performing the case folding and
        recovery).  Whichever layer performs the case recovery must
        first verify that the Unicode string is properly folded, to
        guarantee the uniqueness of the encoding.

        It is not very difficult to extend the nameprep algorithm
        [NAMEPREP03] to remember case information.

    The case-insensitive and case-preserving models are interoperable.
    If a domain name passes from a case-preserving entity to a
    case-insensitive entity, the case information will be lost, but
    the domain name will still be equivalent.  This phenomenon already
    occurs with non-internationalized domain names.

    Models unsuitable for domain names, but possibly useful in other
    contexts:

      * Case-sensitive:  Unicode strings may contain both uppercase and
        lowercase characters, which are not folded.  Base-32 characters
        must be lowercase.  Comparisons between encoded strings must be
        case-sensitive.

      * Case-flexible:  Like case-preserving, except that the choice
        of whether the case of the Unicode characters is considered
        significant is deferred.  Therefore, base-32 characters must
        be lowercase, except for those used to indicate uppercase
        Unicode characters.  Comparisons between encoded strings may be
        case-sensitive or case-insensitive, and such comparisons are
        equivalent to the corresponding comparisons between the Unicode
        strings.

Comparison with RACE, BRACE, LACE, DUDE, AMC-ACE-M

    In this section we compare AMC-ACE-O and five other ACEs: RACE
    [RACE03], BRACE [BRACE00], LACE [LACE01], DUDE [DUDE01], and
    AMC-ACE-M [AMCACEM00].  We do not include SACE [SACE], UTF-5 [UTF5],
    or UTF-6 [UTF6] in the comparison, because SACE appears obviously
    too complex, UTF-5 appears obviously too inefficient, and UTF-6 can
    never be more efficient than its similarly simple successor, DUDE.

    Complexity is hard to measure.  This author would subjectively
    describe the complexity of the algorithms as:

        RACE, LACE, DUDE: fairly simple but not trivial
               AMC-ACE-O: moderate
               AMC-ACE-M: fairly complex
                   BRACE: complex

    AMC-ACE-O is very similar to AMC-ACE-M, but is simpler because it
    discards the "wide" encoding style, and uses a different method for
    choosing and encoding the reference points that has fewer special
    cases and more reuse of logic already needed for encoding the
    Unicode characters.

    Implementations can be long and straightforward, or short and
    subtle, but for whatever it's worth, here are the code sizes of
    three of the algorithms that were implemented by this author in
    similar styles:

      AltDUDE: 130 lines @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
         DUDE: 135 lines @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
    AMC-ACE-O: 234 lines @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
    AMC-ACE-M: 324 lines @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

    (AltDUDE [AltDUDE00] is a variant of DUDE that is not worth
    including separately in the rest of the comparison because it is
    practically identical to DUDE.  Not counted in the code sizes are
    blank lines, lines containing only comments or only a single brace,
    and wrapper code for testing.  BRACE was also implemented by this
    author, but it was a less general implementation, with bounded input
    and output sizes.)

    If a different implementation style were to alter the code sizes
    additively, or multiplicatively, or a combination thereof, AMC-ACE-O
    would remain about halfway between DUDE and AMC-ACE-M.

    Case preservation support:

        DUDE, AMC-ACE-M, AMC-ACE-O:  all characters
                             BRACE:  only the letters A-Z, a-z
                        RACE, LACE:  none

    RACE, BRACE, and LACE transform the Unicode string to an
    intermediate bit string, then into a base-32 string, so there is
    no particular alignment between the base-32 characters and the
    Unicode characters.  DUDE, AMC-ACE-M, and AMC-ACE-O do not have
    this intermediate stage, and enforce alignment between the base-32
    characters and the Unicode characters, which facilitates the case
    preservation.

    The relative efficiency of the various algorithms is suggested
    by the sizes of the encodings in section "Example strings".  The
    lengths of examples A-K (which are the same sentence translated into
    a languages from a variety of language families using a variety
    of scripts) are shown graphically below for each ACE, scaled by a
    factor of 0.4 so they fit on one line, and sorted so they look like
    a cummulative distribution.  The fictional "Super-ACE" encodes its
    input using whichever of the other six ACEs is shortest for that
    input.

    RACE:
      A Arabic      29 @@@@@@@@@@@@
      B Chinese     31 @@@@@@@@@@@@
      J Taiwanese   31 @@@@@@@@@@@@
      D Hebrew      37 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      H Russian     47 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      E Hindi       50 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      F Japanese    60 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      I Spanish     66 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      C Czech       68 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      G Korean      79 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      K Vietnamese 112 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

    LACE:
      B Chinese     28 @@@@@@@@@@@
      A Arabic      31 @@@@@@@@@@@@
      J Taiwanese   31 @@@@@@@@@@@@
      D Hebrew      39 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      H Russian     48 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      E Hindi       52 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      F Japanese    52 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      C Czech       58 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      I Spanish     68 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      G Korean      79 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      K Vietnamese 109 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

    DUDE:
      A Arabic      25 @@@@@@@@@@
      B Chinese     26 @@@@@@@@@@
      D Hebrew      33 @@@@@@@@@@@@@
      J Taiwanese   36 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      H Russian     38 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      C Czech       43 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      F Japanese    49 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      E Hindi       58 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      I Spanish     59 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      K Vietnamese  81 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      G Korean      89 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

    AMC-ACE-O:
      B Chinese     24 @@@@@@@@@@
      A Arabic      28 @@@@@@@@@@@
      J Taiwanese   30 @@@@@@@@@@@@
      D Hebrew      31 @@@@@@@@@@@@
      C Czech       34 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      H Russian     40 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      F Japanese    41 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      I Spanish     49 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      E Hindi       54 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      K Vietnamese  69 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      G Korean      80 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

    BRACE:
      B Chinese     22 @@@@@@@@@
      A Arabic      26 @@@@@@@@@@
      J Taiwanese   27 @@@@@@@@@@@
      D Hebrew      33 @@@@@@@@@@@@@
      C Czech       36 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      F Japanese    40 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      H Russian     42 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      E Hindi       45 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      I Spanish     48 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      K Vietnamese  72 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      G Korean      78 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

    AMC-ACE-M:
      B Chinese     23 @@@@@@@@@
      J Taiwanese   27 @@@@@@@@@@@
      A Arabic      28 @@@@@@@@@@@
      D Hebrew      31 @@@@@@@@@@@@
      C Czech       34 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      H Russian     38 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      F Japanese    42 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      I Spanish     48 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      E Hindi       54 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      K Vietnamese  69 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      G Korean      71 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

    Super-ACE:
      B Chinese     22 @@@@@@@@@
      A Arabic      25 @@@@@@@@@@
      J Taiwanese   27 @@@@@@@@@@@
      D Hebrew      31 @@@@@@@@@@@@
      C Czech       34 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      H Russian     38 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      F Japanese    40 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      E Hindi       45 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      I Spanish     48 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      K Vietnamese  69 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      G Korean      71 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

    totals:
             RACE: 610 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
             LACE: 595 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
             DUDE: 537 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
        AMC-ACE-O: 480 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
            BRACE: 469 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
        AMC-ACE-M: 465 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
        Super-ACE: 450 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

    worst cases:
             RACE: 112 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
             LACE: 109 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
             DUDE:  89 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
        AMC-ACE-O:  80 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
            BRACE:  78 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
        AMC-ACE-M:  71 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
        Super-ACE:  71 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

    The totals and worst cases above give more weight to languages
    that produce longer encodings, which arguably yields a good metric
    (because being efficient for easy languages is arguably less
    important than being efficient for difficult languages).  We can
    alternatively give each language equal weight by dividing each
    output length by the corresponding Super-ACE output length.  This
    method yields:

    totals:
           RACE: 14.9 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
           LACE: 14.5 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
           DUDE: 13.0 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      AMC-ACE-O: 11.7 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
          BRACE: 11.4 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      AMC-ACE-M: 11.4 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      Super-ACE: 11.0 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

    worst cases:
           RACE: 2.00 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
           LACE: 1.71 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
           DUDE: 1.33 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      AMC-ACE-O: 1.20 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      AMC-ACE-M: 1.20 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
          BRACE: 1.11 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
      Super-ACE: 1.00 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

    No matter which way we average, the results suggest that DUDE is
    preferrable to RACE and LACE, because it has similar simplicity, is
    more efficient, and has better support for case preservation.

    The results also suggest that AMC-ACE-M is preferrable to BRACE,
    because it has similar efficiency, is a little simpler, and has
    better support for case preservation.

    DUDE, AMC-ACE-O, and AMC-ACE-M are progressively more complex and
    more efficient, and have equal support for case preservation.  The
    choice depends on how much efficiency is required and how much
    complexity is acceptable.

    The efficiency gap between AMC-ACE-M and AMC-ACE-O is mostly due
    to the Korean (Hangul) string.  Of the 15 characters by which the
    AMC-ACE-M total beats the AMC-ACE-O total, 9 come from that string,
    for which AMC-ACE-M had an output length of 71, compared to about 80
    for all the other ACEs.

Example strings

    In the ACE encodings below, signatures (like "bq--" for RACE) are
    not shown.  Non-LDH characters in the Unicode string are forced to
    lowercase before being encoded using BRACE, RACE, and LACE.  For
    RACE and LACE, the letters A-Z are likewise forced to lowercase.
    UTF-8 and UTF-16 are included for length comparisons, with non-ASCII
    bytes shown as "?".  AMC-ACE-M and AMC-ACE-O are abbreviated AMC-M
    and AMC-O.  Backslashes show where line breaks have been inserted in
    ACE strings too long for one line.  The RACE and LACE encodings are
    courtesy of Mark Davis's online UTF converter [UTFCONV] (slightly
    modified to remove the length restrictions).

    The first several examples are all translations of the sentence "Why
    can't they just speak in <language>?" (courtesy of Michael Kaplan's
    "provincial" page [PROVINCIAL]).  Word breaks and punctuation have
    been removed, as is often done in domain names.

    (A) Arabic (Egyptian):
        U+0644 U+064A U+0647 U+0645 U+0627 U+0628 U+062A U+0643 U+0644
        U+0645 U+0648 U+0634 U+0639 U+0631 U+0628 U+064A U+061F

        DUDE:   m44qnli7oqk3kloj4phi8kahf
        BRACE:  28akcjwcmp3ciwb4t3ngd4nbaz
        AMC-O:  ageekhfuhuiukdefivevjvbuiktr
        AMC-M:  agiekhfuhuiukdefivevjvbuiktr
        RACE:   azceur2fe4ucuq2eivediojrfbfb6
        LACE:   cedeisshiutsqksdircuqnbzgeueuhy
        UTF-16: ??????????????????????????????????
        UTF-8:  ??????????????????????????????????

    (B) Chinese (simplified):
        U+4ED6 U+4EEC U+4E3A U+4EC0 U+4E48 U+4E0D U+8BF4 U+4E2D U+6587

        UTF-16: ??????????????????
        BRACE:  kgcqqsgp26i5h4zn7req5i
        AMC-M:  uqj7g8nvk6awispn9wupdnh
        AMC-O:  eqpg8nvk6awisp259eupyx2h
        DUDE:   ked6ucjas0k8gdobf4ke2dm587
        UTF-8:  ???????????????????????????
        LACE:   azhnn3b2ybea2aml6qau4libmwdq
        RACE:   3bhnmtxmjy5e5qcojbha3c7ujywwlby

    (C) Czech: Pro<ccaron>prost<ecaron>nemluv<iacute><ccaron>esky

        <ccaron> = U+010D
        <ecaron> = U+011B
        <iacute> = U+00ED

        UTF-8:  Pro??prost??nemluv????esky
        AMC-O:  piq-Pro-p-prost-9m-nemluv-6pp-esky
        AMC-M:  g26-Pro-p-prost-9m-nemluv-6pp-esky
        BRACE:  i32-Pro-u-prost-8y-nemluv-29f3n-esky
        DUDE:   N0imfh0dg70imfn3kh1bg6eltsn5mudh0dg65n3mbn9
        UTF-16: ????????????????????????????????????????????
        LACE:   amaha4tpaeaq2biaobzg643uaearwbyanzsw23dvo3wqcainaqagk43\
                lpe
        RACE:   ah7xb73s75xq373q75zp6377op7xig77n37wl73n75wp65p7o3762dp\
                7mx7xh73l754q

    (D) Hebrew:
        U+05DC U+05DE U+05D4 U+05D4 U+05DD U+05E4 U+05E9 U+05D5 U+05D8
        U+05DC U+05D0 U+05DE U+05D3 U+05D1 U+05E8 U+05D9 U+05DD U+05E2
        U+05D1 U+05E8 U+05D9 U+05EA

        AMC-O:  afpnqeep8e8jfinaqdb8ijp8cb8ij8k
        AMC-M:  af4nqeep8e8jfinaqdb8ijp8cb8ij8k
        DUDE:   ldcukktu4pt5osgujhu8t9tu2t1u8t9ua
        BRACE:  27vkyp7bgwmbpfjgc4ynx5nd8xsp5nd9c
        RACE:   axon5vgu3xsotvoy3tin5u6r5dm53ywr5dm6u
        LACE:   cyc5zxwu2to6j2ov3donbxwt2huntxpc2hunt2q
        UTF-8:  ????????????????????????????????????????????
        UTF-16: ????????????????????????????????????????????

    (E) Hindi:
        U+092F U+0939 U+0932 U+094B U+0917 U+0939 U+093F U+0928 U+094D
        U+0926 U+0940 U+0915 U+094D U+092F U+094B U+0902 U+0928 U+0939
        U+0940 U+0902 U+092C U+094B U+0932 U+0938 U+0915 U+0924 U+0947
        U+0939 U+0948 U+0902  (Devanagari)

        BRACE:  2b7xtenqdr7zc6uma2pmcz7ibage237kdemicnk9gei32
        RACE:   bextsmslc44t6kcnezabktjpjmbcqokaaiwewmrycuseookiai
        LACE:   dyes6ojsjmltspzijuteafknf5fqekbziabcyszshaksirzzjaba
        AMC-O:  ajeurvjvcmthvjvruipugatfpurmscuivjascunmvcvitfuehvjisc
        AMC-M:  ajhurbvcwmthbhuiwpugitfwpurwmscuibiscunwmvcatfuerbwisc
        DUDE:   p2fj9ikbh7j9vi8kdi6k0h5kdifkbg2i8j9k0g2ickbj2oh5i4k7j9k\
                8g2
        UTF-16: ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????\
                ?????
        UTF-8:  ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????\
                ???????????????????????????????????

    (F) Japanese:
        U+306A U+305C U+307F U+3093 U+306A U+65E5 U+672C U+8A9E U+3092
        U+8A71 U+3057 U+3066 U+304F U+308C U+306A U+3044 U+306E U+304B
        (kanji and hiragana)

        UTF-16: ????????????????????????????????????
        BRACE:  ji8nr5zj8uqth7v97mjchakwcg7dqemw88nj5gbe
        AMC-O:  gvagkxnzr3dkx8fzun243q3c24zbxhgwr2nkweqwm
        AMC-M:  bsnkxnzr3dkyx8fyzun243q3c24zbxhgwr2nkweqwm
        DUDE:   j06alcnfp3mam5e5n2coa9ej092oa71j057m6kfocmak4mekb
        LACE:   auyguxd7snvaczpfaftsyamktyatbeqbrjyqqmcxmzhyy2senzfq
        UTF-8:  ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????
        RACE:   3aygumc4gb7tbezqnjs6kzzmrkpdbeukoeyfomdggbhtbdbqniyeimd\
                ogbfq

    (G) Korean:
        U+C138 U+ACC4 U+C758 U+BAA8 U+B4E0 U+C0AC U+B78C U+B4E4 U+C774
        U+D55C U+AD6D U+C5B4 U+B97C U+C774 U+D574 U+D55C U+B2E4 U+BA74
        U+C5BC U+B9C8 U+B098 U+C88B U+C744 U+AE4C  (Hangul syllables)

        UTF-16: ????????????????????????????????????????????????
        UTF-8:  ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????\
                ?????????????????
        AMC-M:  yhxcj2w6exiaxi68acfn92n68ezehk6xypdpwam6zehmwhk648eavwd\
                p6aqi23ieemweywn
        BRACE:  y394qebjusrcndbs82pkvstf96sxufcr7ffr4vbgdwsxufcx8pdktgb\
                gmnsqydmk7im56arju6pt82
        LACE:   77atrlgey5mlvkfu4dakzn4mwtsmo5gvlsww3rnuxf6mo5gvotkvzmx\
                exj2mlpfzzcyjrsely5ck4ta
        RACE:   3datrlgey5mlvkfu4dakzn4mwtsmo5gvlsww3rnuxf6mo5gvotkvzmx\
                exj2mlpfzzcyjrsely5ck4ta
        AMC-O:  m6hwq6tvi466exi44ia6s4nz2neze7xxn47yp6x5e3znze7xze7xxnu\
                8e4ze6x5n36is3i622mwe48wn
        DUDE:   s138qcc4s758raa8ke0s0acr78cke4s774t55cqd6ds5b4r97cs774t\
                574lcr2e4q74s5bcr9c8g98s88bn44qe4c

    (H) Russian:
        U+041F U+043E U+0447 U+0435 U+043C U+0443 U+0436 U+0435 U+043E
        U+043D U+0438 U+043D U+0435 U+0433 U+043E U+0432 U+043E U+0440
        U+044F U+0442 U+043F U+043E U+0440 U+0443 U+0441 U+0441 U+043A
        U+0438  (Cyrillic)

        DUDE:   K3fuk7j5sk3j6lutotljuiuk0vijfuk0jhhjao
        AMC-M:  aehHgrvfemvgvfgfafvfvdgvcgiwrkhgimjjca
        AMC-O:  aedRqwhfnwdgfqpipfdqcqwawrwcrqwawdwbwbki
        BRACE:  269xyjvcyafqfdwyr3xfd8z8byi6z39xyi692s7ug2
        RACE:   aq7t4rzvhrbtmnj6hu4d2njthyzd4qcpii7t4qcdifatuoa
        LACE:   dqcd6pshgu6egnrvhy6tqpjvgm7depsaj5bd6psainaucory
        UTF-16: ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????\
                ???
        UTF-8:  ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????
                ???

    (I) Spanish: Porqu<eacute>nopuedensimplementehablarenEspa<ntilde>ol

        <eacute> = U+00E9
        <ntilde> = U+00F1

        UTF-8:  Porqu??nopuedensimplementehablarenEspa??ol
        AMC-M:  aa7-Porqu-b-nopuedensimplementehablarenEspa-j-ol
        BRACE:  22x-Porqu-9-nopuedensimplementehablarenEspa-j-ol
        AMC-O:  aaq-Porqu-j-nopuedensimplementehablarenEspa-9b-ol
        DUDE:   N0mfn2hlu9mevn0lm5klun3m9tn0mcltlun4m5ohishn2m5uLn3gm1v\
                1mfs
        RACE:   abyg64troxuw433qovswizloonuw24dmmvwwk3tumvugcytmmfzgk3t\
                fonygd4lpnq
        LACE:   faaha33sof26s3tpob2wkzdfnzzws3lqnrsw2zloorswqylcnrqxezl\
                omvzxayprn5wa
        UTF-16: ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????\
                ?????????????????????????

    (J) Taiwanese:
        U+4ED6 U+5011 U+7232 U+4EC0 U+9EBD U+4E0D U+8AAA U+4E2D U+6587

        UTF-16: ??????????????????
        UTF-8:  ???????????????????????????
        AMC-M:  uqj7g2tbgtu6a385pspnxkupdnh
        BRACE:  kgcqui49gatc2wyrn8y7cndgte9
        AMC-O:  eqpgxstbzuvc6a385psp244kupyx2h
        RACE:   3bhnmuaroize5qe6xvha3cvkjywwlby
        LACE:   75hnmuaroize5qe6xvha3cvkjywwlby
        DUDE:   ked6l011n232kec0pebdke0doaaake2dm587

    (K) Vietnamese:
        Ta<dotbelow>isaoho<dotbelow>kh<ocirc>ngth<ecirc><hookabove>chi\
        <hookabove>no<acute>iti<ecirc><acute>ngVi<ecirc><dotbelow>t

        <dotbelow>  = U+0323
        <ocirc>     = U+00F4
        <ecirc>     = U+00EA
        <hookabove> = U+0309
        <acute>     = U+0301

        UTF-8:  Ta??isaoho??kh??ngth????chi??no??iti????ngVi????t
        AMC-O:  aava-Ta-vud-isaoho-vud-kh-9e-ngth-8kj-chi-j-no-b-iti-8k\
                b-ngVi-8kvud-t
        AMC-M:  ada-Ta-ud-isaoho-ud-kh-s9e-ngth-s8kj-chi-j-no-b-iti-s8k\
                b-ngVi-s8kud-t
        BRACE:  i54-Ta-8-isaoho-ay-kh-29n-ngth-s2xa6i-chi-k-no-2g-iti-2\
                9c29-ngVi-25p48-t
        UTF-16: ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????\
                ?????????????????????
        DUDE:   N4m1j23g69n3m1vovj23g6bov4menn4m8uaj09g63opj09g6evj01g6\
                9n4m9uaj01g6enN6m9uaj23g74
        LACE:   aiahiyibamrqmadjonqw62dpaebsgcaannupi3thoruouaidbebqay3\
                ineaqgcicabxg6aidaecaa2lunhvacaybauag4z3wnhvacazdaeahi
        RACE:   ap7xj73bep7wt73t75q76377nd7w6i77np7wr77u75xp6z77ot7wr77\
                kbh7wh73i75uqt73o75xqd73j752p62p75ia763x7m77xn73j77vch7\
                3u

    The next several examples are all names of Japanese music artists,
    song titles, and TV programs, just because the author happens to
    have them handy (but Japanese is useful for providing examples
    of single-row text, two-row text, ideographic text, and various
    mixtures thereof).

    (L) 3<nen>B<gumi><kinpachi><sensei>  (Japanese TV program title)

        <nen>              = U+5E74                       (kanji)
        <gumi>             = U+7D44                       (kanji)
        <kinpachi><sensei> = U+91D1 U+516B U+5148 U+751F  (kanji)

        UTF-16: ????????????????
        UTF-8:  3???B???????????????
        AMC-M:  utk-3-8ze-B-hkenqtymwifi9
        BRACE:  u-3-ygj-b-ynb6gjc7pp4k5p5w
        AMC-O:  fb8h-3-e-B-z7we3t7bymwizxtr
        DUDE:   j3le74G062nd44p1d1l16bk8n51f
        RACE:   3aadgxtuabrh2rer2fiwwukioupq
        LACE:   74adgxtuabrh2rer2fiwwukioupq

    (M) <amuro><namie>-with-SUPER-MONKEYS  (Japanese music group name)

        <amuro><namie> = U+5B89 U+5BA4 U+5948 U+7F8E U+6075  (kanji)

        UTF-8:  ??????????????????-with-SUPER-MONKEYS
        AMC-M:  u5m2j4etwif6q2zf---with--SUPER--MONKEYS
        AMC-O:  fmij4e3wiz92qyszf---with--SUPER--MONKEYS
        BRACE:  uvj7fuaqcahy982xa---with--SUPER--MONKEYS
        DUDE:   lb89q4p48nf8em075-g077m9n4m8-N3LGM5N2-MdVURLN9J
        UTF-16: ????????????????????????????????????????????????
        LACE:   ajnytjablfeac74oafqhkeyafv3qm5difvzxk4dfoiww233onnsxs4y
        RACE:   3bnysw5elfeh7dtaouac2adxabuqa5aanaac2adtab2qa4aamuaheab\
                nabwqa3yanyagwadfab4qa4y

    (N) Hello-Another-Way-<sorezore><no><basho>  (Japanese song title)

        <sorezore><no> = U+305D U+308C U+305E U+308C U+306E  (hiragana)
        <basho>        = U+5834 U+6240                       (kanji)

        UTF-8:  Hello-Another-Way-?????????????????????
        BRACE:  ji7-Hello--Another--Way---v3jhaefvd2ufj62
        AMC-O:  daf-Hello--Another--Way---p2nq2nyqx2veyuwa
        AMC-M:  bsk-Hello--Another--Way---p2nq2nyqx2veyuwa
        DUDE:   M8lssv-Huvn4m8ln2-Nm1n9-j05docleocmel834m240
        UTF-16: ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
        LACE:   ciagqzlmnrxs2ylon52gqzlsfv3wc6jnauyf3dc6rrxacwbuafrea
        RACE:   3aagqadfabwaa3aan4ac2adbabxaa3yaoqagqadfabzaaliao4agcad\
                zaawtaxjqrqyf4memgbxfqndcia

    (O) <hitotsu><yane><no><shita>2  (Japanese TV program title)

        <hitotsu> = U+3072 U+3068 U+3064  (hiragana)
        <yane>    = U+5C4B U+6839         (kanji)
        <no>      = U+306E                (hiragana)
        <shita>   = U+4E0B                (kanji)

        UTF-16: ????????????????
        UTF-8:  ?????????????????????2
        AMC-O:  dagzciex6wmy2vjqw8sm-2
        AMC-M:  bsnzciex6wmy2vjqw8sm-2
        BRACE:  ji96u56uwbhf2wqxnw4s-2
        DUDE:   j072m8klc4bm839j06eke0bg032
        RACE:   3ayhemdigbsfys3iheyg4tqlaaza
        LACE:   74yhemdigbsfys3iheyg4tqlaaza

    (P) Maji<de>Koi<suru>5<byou><mae> (Japanese song title)

        <de>        = U+3067         (hiragana)
        <suru>      = U+3059 U+308B  (hiragana)
        <byou><mae> = U+79D2 U+524D  (kanji)

        UTF-8:  Maji???Koi??????5??????
        UTF-16: ??????????????????????????
        AMC-M:  bsm-Maji-r-Koi-b2m-5-z37cxuwp
        BRACE:  ji8-Maji-g-Koi-qe7x-5-wx7p6ma
        AMC-O:  dag-Maji-h-Koi-xj2m-5-z37cxuwp
        DUDE:   Mdhqpj067G06bvpj059obg035n9d2l24d
        RACE:   3aag2adbabvaa2jqm4agwadpabutawjqrmadk6oskjgq
        LACE:   74ag2adbabvaa2jqm4agwadpabutawjqrmadk6oskjgq

    (Q) <pafii>de<runba>  (Japanese song title)

        <pafii> = U+30D1 U+30D5 U+30A3 U+30FC  (katakana)
        <runba> = U+30EB U+30F3 U+30D0         (katakana)

        UTF-16: ??????????????
        BRACE:  3iu8pazt-de-pygi
        AMC-O:  dapbf4d9n-de-8m9da
        AMC-M:  bs3jp4d9n-de-8m9di
        RACE:   gdi5li7475sp6zpl6pia
        DUDE:   j0d1lq3vcg064lj0ebv3t0
        UTF-8:  ????????????de?????????
        LACE:   aqyndvnd7qbaazdfamyox46q

    (R) <sono><supiido><de>  (Japanese song title)

        <sono>    = U+305D U+306E                (hiragana)
        <supiido> = U+30B9 U+30D4 U+30FC U+30C9  (katakana)
        <de>      = U+3067                       (hiragana)

        RACE:   gbow5oou7tewo
        UTF-16: ??????????????
        BRACE:  bidprdmp9wt7mi
        LACE:   a4yf23vz2t6mszy
        AMC-O:  dagxpq5j7e9n6jh
        AMC-M:  bsmfyq5j7e9n6jr
        DUDE:   j05dmer9t4vcs9m7
        UTF-8:  ?????????????????????

    The last example is an ASCII string that breaks not only the
    existing rules for host name labels but also the rules proposed in
    [NAMEPREP03] for internationalized domain names.

    (S) -> $1.00 <-

        UTF-8:  -> $1.00 <-
        DUDE:   -jei0kj1iej0gi0jc-
        RACE:   aawt4ibegexdambahqwq
        LACE:   bmac2praeqys4mbqea6c2
        UTF-16: ??????????????????????
        AMC-O:  aac--vqae-1-q-00-avn--
        AMC-M:  aae--vqae-1-q-00-avn--
        BRACE:  229--t2b4-1-w-00-i9i--

Security considerations

    Users expect each domain name in DNS to be controlled by a single
    authority.  If a Unicode string intended for use as a domain label
    could map to multiple ACE labels, then an internationalized domain
    name could map to multiple ACE domain names, each controlled by
    a different authority, some of which could be spoofs that hijack
    service requests intended for another.  Therefore AMC-ACE-O is
    designed so that each Unicode string has a unique encoding.

    However, there can still be multiple Unicode representations of the
    "same" text, for various definitions of "same".  This problem is
    addressed to some extent by the Unicode standard under the topic
    of canonicalization, but some text strings may be misleading or
    ambiguous to humans when used as domain names, such as strings
    containing dots, slashes, at-signs, etc.  These issues are being
    further studied under the topic of "nameprep" [NAMEPREP03].

Credits

    AMC-ACE-O reuses a number of preexisting techniques.

    The basic encoding of integers to nybbles to quintets to base-32
    comes from UTF-5 [UTF5], and the particular variant used here comes
    from AMC-ACE-M [AMCACEM00].

    The idea of avoiding 0, 1, o, and l in base-32 strings was taken
    from SFS [SFS].

    The idea of encoding deltas from reference points declared at the
    beginning of the encoded string was taken from RACE (of which
    the latest version is [RACE03]), which may have gotten the idea
    from Unicode Technical Standard #6 [UTS6].  The latter also uses
    predefined reference points in the Latin range.

    From BRACE [BRACE00] comes the idea of switching between literal
    mode and base-32 mode, and the technique of counting how many code
    points fall within a window (as opposed to checking whether all do).

    The general idea of using the alphabetic case of base-32 characters
    to record the desired case of the Unicode characters was suggested
    by this author, and first applied to the UTF-5-style encoding in
    DUDE (of which the latest version is [DUDE01]).

    The bootstrapping method of encoding reference points, which does
    not require them to nest but takes advantage of nesting when it
    occurs, is new in AMC-ACE-O.

References

    [AltDUDE00] Adam Costello, "AltDUDE version 0.0.2", 2001-Mar-19,
    draft-ietf-idn-altdude-00.

    [AMCACEM00] Adam Costello, "AMC-ACE-M version 0.1.0", 2001-Feb-12,
    draft-ietf-idn-amc-ace-m-00.

    [BRACE00] Adam Costello, "BRACE: Bi-mode Row-based
    ASCII-Compatible Encoding for IDN version 0.1.2", 2000-Sep-19,
    draft-ietf-idn-brace-00.

    [DUDE01] Mark Welter, Brian Spolarich, "DUDE: Differential Unicode
    Domain Encoding", 2001-Mar-02, draft-ietf-idn-dude-01.

    [IDN] Internationalized Domain Names (IETF working group),
    http://www.i-d-n.net/, idn@ops.ietf.org.

    [LACE01] Paul Hoffman, Mark Davis, "LACE: Length-based ASCII
    Compatible Encoding for IDN", 2001-Jan-05, draft-ietf-idn-lace-01.

    [NAMEPREP03] Paul Hoffman, Marc Blanchet, "Preparation
    of Internationalized Host Names", 2001-Feb-24,
    draft-ietf-idn-nameprep-03.

    [PROVINCIAL] Michael Kaplan, "The 'anyone can be provincial!' page",
    http://www.trigeminal.com/samples/provincial.html.

    [RACE03] Paul Hoffman, "RACE: Row-based ASCII Compatible Encoding
    for IDN", 2000-Nov-28, draft-ietf-idn-race-03.

    [RFC952] K. Harrenstien, M. Stahl, E. Feinler, "DOD Internet Host
    Table Specification", 1985-Oct, RFC 952.

    [RFC1034] P. Mockapetris, "Domain Names - Concepts and Facilities",
    1987-Nov, RFC 1034.

    [RFC1123] Internet Engineering Task Force, R. Braden (editor),
    "Requirements for Internet Hosts -- Application and Support",
    1989-Oct, RFC 1123.

    [SACE] Dan Oscarsson, "Simple ASCII Compatible Encoding (SACE)",
    draft-ietf-idn-sace-*.

    [SFS] David Mazieres et al, "Self-certifying File System",
    http://www.fs.net/.

    [UNICODE] The Unicode Consortium, "The Unicode Standard",
    http://www.unicode.org/unicode/standard/standard.html.

    [UTF5] James Seng, Martin Duerst, Tin Wee Tan, "UTF-5, a
    Transformation Format of Unicode and ISO 10646", draft-jseng-utf5-*.

    [UTF6] Mark Welter, Brian W. Spolarich, "UTF-6 - Yet Another
    ASCII-Compatible Encoding for IDN", draft-ietf-idn-utf6-*.

    [UTS6] Misha Wolf, Ken Whistler, Charles Wicksteed,
    Mark Davis, Asmus Freytag, "Unicode Technical Standard
    #6: A Standard Compression Scheme for Unicode",
    http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr6/.

    [UTFCONV] Mark Davis, "UTF Converter",
    http://www.macchiato.com/unicode/convert.html.

Author

    Adam M. Costello <amc@cs.berkeley.edu>
    http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~amc/


Example implementation


/******************************************/
/* amc-ace-o.c 0.0.0 (2001-Mar-17-Sat)    */
/* Adam M. Costello <amc@cs.berkeley.edu> */
/******************************************/

/* This is ANSI C code (C89) implementing AMC-ACE-O version 0.0.*. */


/************************************************************/
/* Public interface (would normally go in its own .h file): */

#include <limits.h>

enum amc_ace_status {
  amc_ace_success,
  amc_ace_invalid_input,
  amc_ace_output_too_big
};

enum case_sensitivity { case_sensitive, case_insensitive };

#if UINT_MAX >= 0x10FFFF
typedef unsigned int u_code_point;
#else
typedef unsigned long u_code_point;
#endif

enum amc_ace_status amc_ace_o_encode(
  unsigned int input_length,
  const u_code_point *input,
  const unsigned char *uppercase_flags,
  unsigned int *output_size,
  char *output );

    /* amc_ace_o_encode() converts Unicode to AMC-ACE-O.  The input   */
    /* must be represented as an array of Unicode code points         */
    /* (not code units; surrogate pairs are not allowed), and the     */
    /* output will be represented as null-terminated ASCII.  The      */
    /* input_length is the number of code points in the input.  The   */
    /* output_size is an in/out argument: the caller must pass        */
    /* in the maximum number of characters that may be output         */
    /* (including the terminating null), and on successful return     */
    /* it will contain the number of characters actually output       */
    /* (including the terminating null, so it will be one more than   */
    /* strlen() would return, which is why it is called output_size   */
    /* rather than output_length).  The uppercase_flags array must    */
    /* hold input_length boolean values, where nonzero means the      */
    /* corresponding Unicode character should be forced to uppercase  */
    /* after being decoded, and zero means it is caseless or should   */
    /* be forced to lowercase.  Alternatively, uppercase_flags may    */
    /* be a null pointer, which is equivalent to all zeros.  The      */
    /* letters a-z and A-Z are always encoded literally, regardless   */
    /* of the corresponding flags.  The encoder always outputs        */
    /* lowercase base-32 characters except when nonzero values        */
    /* of uppercase_flags require otherwise, so the encoder is        */
    /* compatible with any of the case models.  The return value      */
    /* may be any of the amc_ace_status values defined above; if      */
    /* not amc_ace_success, then output_size and output may contain   */
    /* garbage.  On success, the encoder will never need to write an  */
    /* output_size greater than input_length*5+10, because of how the */
    /* encoding is defined.                                           */

enum amc_ace_status amc_ace_o_decode(
  enum case_sensitivity case_sensitivity,
  char *scratch_space,
  const char *input,
  unsigned int *output_length,
  u_code_point *output,
  unsigned char *uppercase_flags );

    /* amc_ace_o_decode() converts AMC-ACE-O to Unicode.  The input   */
    /* must be represented as null-terminated ASCII, and the output   */
    /* will be represented as an array of Unicode code points.        */
    /* The case_sensitivity argument influences the check on the      */
    /* well-formedness of the input string; it must be case_sensitive */
    /* if case-sensitive comparisons are allowed on encoded strings,  */
    /* case_insensitive otherwise (see also section "Case sensitivity */
    /* models" of the AMC-ACE-O specification).  The scratch_space    */
    /* must point to space at least as large as the input, which will */
    /* get overwritten (this allows the decoder to avoid calling      */
    /* malloc()).  The output_length is an in/out argument: the       */
    /* caller must pass in the maximum number of code points that     */
    /* may be output, and on successful return it will contain the    */
    /* actual number of code points output.  The uppercase_flags      */
    /* array must have room for at least output_length values, or it  */
    /* may be a null pointer if the case information is not needed.   */
    /* A nonzero flag indicates that the corresponding Unicode        */
    /* character should be forced to uppercase by the caller, while   */
    /* zero means it is caseless or should be forced to lowercase.    */
    /* The letters a-z and A-Z are output already in the proper case, */
    /* but their flags will be set appropriately so that applying the */
    /* flags would be harmless.  The return value may be any of the   */
    /* amc_ace_status values defined above; if not amc_ace_success,   */
    /* then output_length, output, and uppercase_flags may contain    */
    /* garbage.  On success, the decoder will never need to write     */
    /* an output_length greater than the length of the input (not     */
    /* counting the null terminator), because of how the encoding is  */
    /* defined.                                                       */


/**********************************************************/
/* Implementation (would normally go in its own .c file): */

#include <string.h>

/* is_ldh(codept) returns 1 if the code point represents an LDH   */
/* character (ASCII letter, digit, or hyphen-minus), 0 otherwise. */

static int is_ldh(u_code_point codept)
{
  return codept >  122 ? 0 :
         codept >=  97 ? 1 :
         codept >   90 ? 0 :
         codept >=  65 ? 1 :
         codept >   57 ? 0 :
         codept >=  48 ? 1 :
         codept ==  45      ;
}

/* is_AtoZ(c) returns 1 if c is an         */
/* uppercase ASCII letter, zero otherwise. */

static unsigned char is_AtoZ(char c)
{
  return c >= 65 && c <= 90;
}

/* unequal(case_sensitivity,s1,s2) returns 0 if the strings s1 and s2 */
/* are equal, 1 otherwise.  If case_sensitivity is case_insensitive,  */
/* then ASCII A-Z are considered equal to a-z respectively.           */

static int unequal(
  enum case_sensitivity case_sensitivity, const char *s1, const char *s2 )
{
  char c1, c2;

  if (case_sensitivity != case_insensitive) return strcmp(s1,s2) != 0;

  for (;;) {
    c1 = *s1;
    c2 = *s2;
    if (c1 >= 65 && c1 <= 90) c1 += 32;
    if (c2 >= 65 && c2 <= 90) c2 += 32;
    if (c1 != c2) return 1;
    if (c1 == 0) return 0;
    ++s1, ++s2;
  }
}

/* base32[q] is the lowercase base-32 character representing  */
/* the number q from the range 0 to 31.  Note that we cannot  */
/* use string literals for ASCII characters because an ANSI C */
/* compiler does not necessarily use ASCII.                   */

static const char base32[] = {
  97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107,     /* a-k */
  109, 110,                                               /* m-n */
  112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122,  /* p-z */
  50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57                          /* 2-9 */
};

/* base32_decode(c) returns the value of a base-32 character, in the */
/* range 0 to 31, or the constant base32_invalid if c is not a valid */
/* base-32 character.                                                */

enum { base32_invalid = 32 };

static unsigned int base32_decode(char c)
{
  if (c < 50) return base32_invalid;
  if (c <= 57) return c - 26;
  if (c < 97) c += 32;
  if (c < 97 || c == 108 || c == 111 || c > 122) return base32_invalid;
  return c - 97 - (c > 108) - (c > 111);
}

/* The decoder_state and encoder_state structures contains         */
/* variables that are shared among several of the functions below. */

struct decoder_state {
  const char *in_next;                   /* unread part of ACE input      */
  u_code_point refpoint[6];              /* reference points, [0] unused  */
};

struct encoder_state {
  char *out_next, *out_end;              /* unwritten part of ACE output  */
  const u_code_point *in_start, *in_end; /* entire Unicode input          */
  u_code_point refpoint[6], prefix[4];   /* reference points and prefixes */
  unsigned int best_count;               /* max found so far by census()  */
  u_code_point best_refpoint;            /* corresponding reference point */
};

/* refpoint[k] is for base-32 sequences of length k, and prefix[k]  */
/* is used to encode refpoint[k].  Generally, prefix[k] << (4*k)    */
/* == refpoint[k], but for prefix[2] == 0xD8 + i, where i = 0..7,   */
/* refpoint[2] == special_refpoint[i].  These prefixes, which would */
/* otherwise correspond to surrogates, are instead used to encode   */
/* special reference points that help the Latin script compress     */
/* better, because unlike most other small scripts it is split      */
/* across multiple rows with inconvenient boundaries.               */

static const u_code_point special_refpoint[] =
  { 0x20, 0x50, 0x70, 0xA0, 0xC0, 0xE0, 0x140, 0x270 };

/* find_refpoint(refpoint,start,n) scans the refpoint array, starting */
/* at position start, for a reference point suitable for encoding n,  */
/* and returns the index of the first match.                          */

unsigned int find_refpoint(
  u_code_point refpoint[6], u_code_point start, u_code_point n )
{
  while ((n - refpoint[start]) >> (4*start) != 0) ++start;
  return start;
}

/* encode_point(state,n) encodes n as a sequence of base-32         */
/* characters representing a delta from a reference point.  The     */
/* delta divided into a big-endian sequence of nybbles; each nybble */
/* is expanded to a quintet with a highest bit of 0 for the last    */
/* nybble, 1 for the others; and the quintets are mapped to base-32 */
/* characters.  Returns amc_ace_success or amc_ace_output_too_big.  */

enum amc_ace_status encode_point(struct encoder_state *state, u_code_point n)
{
  unsigned int k, i;

  k = find_refpoint(state->refpoint, 1, n);
  if (state->out_end - state->out_next < k) return amc_ace_output_too_big;
  n -= state->refpoint[k];
  i = k - 1;
  state->out_next[i] = base32[n & 0xF];

  while (i > 0) {
    n >>= 4;
    state->out_next[--i] = base32[0x10 | (n & 0xF)];
  }

  state->out_next += k;
  return amc_ace_success;
}

/* decode_point(state,n) is the reverse of encode_point(): it */
/* consumes base-32 characters and writes the code point into */
/* *n.  Returns amc_ace_success or amc_ace_invalid_input.     */

enum amc_ace_status decode_point(struct decoder_state *state, u_code_point *n)
{
  u_code_point q, delta = 0;
  unsigned int k = 0;

  do {
    if (k >= 5) return amc_ace_invalid_input;
    q = base32_decode(state->in_next[k++]);
    if (q == base32_invalid) return amc_ace_invalid_input;
    delta = (delta << 4) | (q & 0xF);
  } while (q > 0xF);

  state->in_next += k;
  *n = state->refpoint[k] + delta;
  return amc_ace_success;
}

/* census(state,k,p) sets refpoint[k] to the reference point  */
/* corresponding to prefix p, then calculates how many times  */
/* that reference point would get used, and sets prefix[k] to */
/* p if the result exceeds the previous maximum.              */

void census(struct encoder_state *state, unsigned int k, u_code_point p)
{
  unsigned int count, i;
  u_code_point *refpoint = state->refpoint, *prefix = state->prefix;
  const u_code_point *in;

  refpoint[k] =
    k == 2 && p - 0xD8 <= 7  ?  special_refpoint[p - 0xD8]  :  p << (4*k);

  /* count times used to encode input code points: */

  for (count = 0, in = state->in_start;  in < state->in_end;  ++in) {
    if (!is_ldh(*in) && find_refpoint(refpoint, 1, *in) == k) ++count;
  }

  /* count times used to encode other reference points: */

  for (i = 1;  i < k;  ++i) {
    if (find_refpoint(refpoint, i+1, prefix[i] << (4*i)) == k) ++count;
  }

  if (count > state->best_count) {
    state->best_count = count;
    state->best_refpoint = refpoint[k];
    prefix[k] = p;
  }
}

/* bootstrap(refpoint,k,p) adjusts the existing reference points so */
/* they can be used for encoding/decoding another reference point.  */

void bootstrap(u_code_point refpoint[6], unsigned int k, u_code_point p)
{
  unsigned int j;

  for (j = 4;  j >= 2;  --j) refpoint[j] = refpoint[j-1] << 4;
  refpoint[1] =
    k == 2 && p - 0xD8 <= 7  ?  special_refpoint[p - 0xD8] >> 4  :  p << 4;
}

/* Main encode function: */

enum amc_ace_status amc_ace_o_encode(
  unsigned int input_length,
  const u_code_point *input,
  const unsigned char *uppercase_flags,
  unsigned int *output_size,
  char *output )
{
  struct encoder_state dummy = {0} /* all zeros */, *state = &dummy;
  const u_code_point *in, *in_end;
  char *out_end;
  unsigned int k, i;
  u_code_point codept;
  enum amc_ace_status status;
  unsigned int literal;  /* boolean */

  /* Initialization: */

  state->out_next = output;
  state->out_end = out_end = output + *output_size;
  state->in_start = input;
  state->in_end = in_end = input + input_length;

  /* Verify that all code points are in 0..10FFFF: */

  for (in = input;  in < in_end;  ++in) {
    if (*in > 0x10FFFF) return amc_ace_invalid_input;
  }

  /* Choose the reference points:  Choose refpoint[1] so that it will */
  /* be used as often as possible, then choose refpoint[2] similarly, */
  /* then refpoint[3].                                                */

  state->refpoint[5] = 0x10000;
  /* refpoint[1..4] and prefix[1..3] are already 0 */

  for (k = 1;  k <= 3;  ++k) {
    state->best_count = 0;
    state->best_refpoint = 0;
    /* Try prefixes of the input code points, then the special prefixes: */
    for (in = input;  in < in_end;  ++in) census(state, k, *in >> (4*k));
    if (k == 2) for (i = 0;  i <= 7;  ++i) census(state, k, 0xD8 + i);
    if (k == 3) census(state, k, 0xD);
    state->refpoint[k] = state->best_refpoint;
  }

  /* Encode the reference points: */

  state->refpoint[1] = 0;
  state->refpoint[2] = 0x10;

  for (k = 3;  k >= 1;  --k) {
    status = encode_point(state, state->prefix[k]);
    if (status != amc_ace_success) return status;
    bootstrap(state->refpoint, k, state->prefix[k]);
  }

  /* Main encoding loop: */

  literal = 0;

  for (i = 0;  i < input_length;  ++i) {
    codept = input[i];

    if (codept == 45) {
      /* hyphen-minus is doubled */
      if (state->out_end - state->out_next < 2) return amc_ace_output_too_big;
      *state->out_next++ = 45;
      *state->out_next++ = 45;
    }
    else if (is_ldh(codept)) {
      /* encode LDH character literally */

      if (!literal) {
        /* switch to literal mode by outputting hyphen-minus */
        if (out_end - state->out_next < 1) return amc_ace_output_too_big;
        *state->out_next++ = 45;
        literal = 1;
      }

      if (out_end - state->out_next < 1) return amc_ace_output_too_big;
      *state->out_next++ = codept;
    }
    else {
      /* encode non-LDH character using base-32 */

      if (literal) {
        /* switch to base-32 mode by outputting hyphen-minus */
        if (out_end - state->out_next < 1) return amc_ace_output_too_big;
        *state->out_next++ = 45;
        literal = 0;
      }

      status = encode_point(state,codept);
      if (status != amc_ace_success) return status;
      /* the last base-32 character can record the uppercase flag: */
      if (uppercase_flags && uppercase_flags[i]) state->out_next[-1] -= 32;
    }
  }

  /* null terminator: */
  if (out_end - state->out_next < 1) return amc_ace_output_too_big;
  *state->out_next++ = 0;
  *output_size = state->out_next - output;
  return amc_ace_success;
}

/* Main decode function: */

enum amc_ace_status amc_ace_o_decode(
  enum case_sensitivity case_sensitivity,
  char *scratch_space,
  const char *input,
  unsigned int *output_length,
  u_code_point *output,
  unsigned char *uppercase_flags )
{
  struct decoder_state dummy = {0} /* all zeros */, *state = &dummy;
  unsigned int k, next_out, max_out, input_size, scratch_size;
  enum amc_ace_status status;
  u_code_point p;
  unsigned int literal;  /* boolean */
  char c;

  /* Initialization: */

  state->in_next = input;
  next_out = 0;
  max_out = *output_length;

  /* Decode the reference points: */

  state->refpoint[2] = 0x10;
  state->refpoint[5] = 0x10000;
  /* refpoint[1,3,4] are already 0 */

  for (k = 3;  k >= 1;  --k) {
    status = decode_point(state, &p);
    if (status != amc_ace_success) return status;
    bootstrap(state->refpoint, k, p);
  }

  /* Main decoding loop: */

  literal = 0;

  for (;;) {
    c = *state->in_next;
    if (c == 0) break;

    if (c == 45 /* hyphen-minus */) {
      if (*++state->in_next == 45) {
        /* double hyphen-minus represents a hyphen-minus */
        ++state->in_next;
        if (max_out - next_out < 1) return amc_ace_output_too_big;
        if (uppercase_flags) uppercase_flags[next_out] = 0;
        output[next_out++] = 45;
      }
      else {
        /* unpaired hyphen-minus toggles mode */
        literal = !literal;
      }
    }
    else {
      if (literal) {
        /* copy literal character to the output */
        ++state->in_next;
        if (max_out - next_out < 1) return amc_ace_output_too_big;
        output[next_out] = c;
      }
      else {
        /* decode one base-32 code point */
        status = decode_point(state, output + next_out);
        if (status != amc_ace_success) return status;
      }

      if (uppercase_flags) {
        uppercase_flags[next_out] = is_AtoZ(state->in_next[-1]);
      }

      ++next_out;
    }
  }

  /* Re-encode the output and compare to the input: */

  input_size = state->in_next - input + 1;
  scratch_size = input_size;
  status = amc_ace_o_encode(next_out, output, uppercase_flags,
                            &scratch_size, scratch_space);
  if (status != amc_ace_success ||
      scratch_size != input_size ||
      unequal(case_sensitivity, scratch_space, input)
     ) return amc_ace_invalid_input;

  *output_length = next_out;
  return amc_ace_success;
}


/******************************************************************/
/* Wrapper for testing (would normally go in a separate .c file): */

#include <assert.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>

/* For testing, we'll just set some compile-time limits rather than */
/* use malloc(), and set a compile-time option rather than using a  */
/* command-line option.                                             */

enum {
  unicode_max_length = 256,
  ace_max_size = 256,
  test_case_sensitivity = case_insensitive  /* suitable for host names */
};


static void usage(char **argv)
{
  fprintf(stderr,
    "%s -e reads big-endian UTF-32 and writes AMC-ACE-O ASCII.\n"
    "%s -d reads AMC-ACE-O ASCII and writes big-endian UTF-32.\n"
    "UTF-32 is extended: bit 31 is used as force-to-uppercase flag.\n"
    , argv[0], argv[0]);
  exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}


static void fail(const char *msg)
{
  fputs(msg,stderr);
  exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
}

static const char too_big[] =
  "input or output is too large, recompile with larger limits\n";
static const char invalid_input[] = "invalid input\n";
static const char io_error[] = "I/O error\n";


int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
  enum amc_ace_status status;
  int r;

  if (argc != 2) usage(argv);
  if (argv[1][0] != '-') usage(argv);
  if (argv[1][2] != '\0') usage(argv);

  if (argv[1][1] == 'e') {
    u_code_point input[unicode_max_length];
    unsigned char uppercase_flags[unicode_max_length];
    char output[ace_max_size];
    unsigned int input_length, output_size;
    int c0, c1, c2, c3;

    /* Read the UTF-32 input string: */

    input_length = 0;

    for (;;) {
      c0 = getchar();
      c1 = getchar();
      c2 = getchar();
      c3 = getchar();
      if (ferror(stdin)) fail(io_error);

      if (c1 == EOF || c2 == EOF || c3 == EOF) {
        if (c0 != EOF) fail("input not a multiple of 4 bytes\n");
        break;
      }

      if (input_length == unicode_max_length) fail(too_big);

      if ((c0 != 0 && c0 != 0x80)
          || c1 < 0 || c1 > 0x10
          || c2 < 0 || c2 > 0xFF
          || c3 < 0 || c3 > 0xFF ) {
        fail(invalid_input);
      }

      input[input_length] = ((u_code_point) c1 << 16) |
                            ((u_code_point) c2 <<  8) | (u_code_point) c3;
      uppercase_flags[input_length] = (c0 >> 7);
      ++input_length;
    }

    /* Encode, and output the result: */

    output_size = ace_max_size;
    status = amc_ace_o_encode(input_length, input, uppercase_flags,
                              &output_size, output);
    if (status == amc_ace_invalid_input) fail(invalid_input);
    if (status == amc_ace_output_too_big) fail(too_big);
    assert(status == amc_ace_success);
    r = fputs(output,stdout);
    if (r == EOF) fail(io_error);
    return EXIT_SUCCESS;
  }

  if (argv[1][1] == 'd') {
    char input[ace_max_size], scratch[ace_max_size];
    u_code_point output[unicode_max_length], codept;
    unsigned char uppercase_flags[unicode_max_length];
    unsigned int output_length, i;

    /* Read the AMC-ACE-O ASCII input string: */

    fgets(input, ace_max_size, stdin);
    if (ferror(stdin)) fail(io_error);
    if (!feof(stdin)) fail(too_big);

    /* Decode, and output the result: */

    output_length = unicode_max_length;
    status = amc_ace_o_decode(test_case_sensitivity, scratch, input,
                              &output_length, output, uppercase_flags);
    if (status == amc_ace_invalid_input) fail(invalid_input);
    if (status == amc_ace_output_too_big) fail(too_big);
    assert(status == 0);

    for (i = 0;  i < output_length;  ++i) {
      r = putchar(uppercase_flags[i] ? 0x80 : 0);
      if (r == EOF) fail(io_error);
      codept = output[i];
      r = putchar(codept >> 16);
      if (r == EOF) fail(io_error);
      r = putchar((codept >> 8) & 0xFF);
      if (r == EOF) fail(io_error);
      r = putchar(codept & 0xFF);
      if (r == EOF) fail(io_error);
    }

    return EXIT_SUCCESS;
  }

  usage(argv);
  return EXIT_SUCCESS;  /* not reached, but quiets a compiler warning */
}



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