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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 rfc2331                         Standards Track
ION WG                                                          M. Maher
Category: internet-draft                                        May 1997
draft-ietf-ion-sig-uni4.0-04.txt               Expires: November 1, 1997



   ATM Signalling Support for IP over ATM - UNI Signalling 4.0 Update


Status of this Memo


   This document is an Internet-Draft.  Internet-Drafts are working
   documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas,
   and its working groups.  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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   ftp.isi.edu (US West Coast).

Abstract

   This memo describes how to efficiently use the ATM call control
   signalling procedures defined in UNI Signalling 4.0 [SIG40] to
   support IP over ATM environments as described in RFC 1577 [LAUB94]
   and in [LUC97]. Among the new features found in UNI Signalling 4.0
   are Available Bit Rate signalling and traffic parameter negotiation.
   This draft highlights the features of UNI Signalling 4.0 that provide
   IP entities capabilities for requesting ATM service in sites with SVC
   support, whether it is private ATM or publicly provisioned ATM, in
   which case the SVC support is probably configured inside PVPs.

   This document is only relevant to IP when used as the well known
   "best effort" connectionless service. In particular, this means that
   this document does not pertain to IP in the presence of implemented
   IP Integrated Services.  The topic of IP with Integrated Services
   over ATM will be handled by a different specification or set of
   specifications being worked on in the ISSLL WG.

   This specification is follow-on to RFC 1755, "ATM Signaling Support



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   for IP over ATM", which is based on UNI 3.1 signalling [UNI95].
   Readers are assumed to be familiar with RFC 1755.

                             Table of Contents

     1.  Conventions ...............................................   2
     2.  Overview ..................................................   3
     3.  Use of Protocol Procedures ................................   3
         3.1  VC Teardown...........................................   3
     4.  Overview of Call Establishment Message Content ............   3
     5.  Description of Information Elements .......................   4
         5.1  ATM Adaptation Layer Parameters ......................   4
         5.2  Broadband Low Layer Information  .....................   5
         5.3  Traffic Management Issues and Related IEs.............   5
              5.3.1  ATM Traffic Descriptor ........................   7
                     5.3.1.1  Tagging vs. Dropping .................   7
              5.3.2  Traffic Parameter Negotiation ..................  8
              5.3.3  Broadband Bearer Capability ....................  8
              5.3.4  QoS Parameter ..................................  9
                     5.3.4.1  Signalling of Individual QoS Parameters  9
         5.6  ATM Addressing Information ...........................   9
     6.  ABR Signalling In More Detail  ............................   9
     7.  Frame Discard Capability ..................................  10
     8.  Security Consideration ....................................  10
     9.  Open Issues ...............................................  10
     10. Acknowledgements...........................................  11
     11. References ................................................  11
     12. Authors ...................................................  12
     Appendix A  Sample Signalling Messages ........................  13
     Appendix B  ABR and nrt-VBR Signalling Guidelines for IP Routers 15
     Appendix C  Combinations of Traffic Related Parameters ........  18




   1.  Conventions

   The following language conventions are used in the items of specifi-
   cation in this document:

   o   MUST, SHALL, or MANDATORY -- the item is an absolute requirement
       of the specification.

   o   SHOULD or RECOMMEND -- this item SHOULD generally be followed for
       all but exceptional circumstances.

   o   MAY or OPTIONAL -- the item is truly optional and MAY be followed
       or ignored according to the needs of the implementor.



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   2.  Overview

   UNI Signalling version 4.0 (SIG 4.0) is the ATM Forum follow-on
   specification to UNI 3.1 signalling (UNI 3.1). Among the new features
   in SIG 4.0, those of particular interest to IP over ATM environments
   are:

       o Available Bit Rate (ABR) Signalling for Point-to-Point Calls
       o Traffic Parameter Negotiation
       o Frame Discard Support
       o Leaf Initiated Join (LIJ) Capability
       o ATM Anycast Capability
       o Switched Virtual Path (VP) Service

   This draft highlights the first three capabilities listed above. The
   last three capabilities are not discussed because models for their
   use in IP over ATM environments have not yet been defined or IP
   imposes no special requirements on them.


   3.  Use of Protocol Procedures

   Section 3 in RFC 1755 introduces requirements of virtual circuit (VC)
   management intended to prevent VC thrashing, excessive VC consump-
   tion, and other related problems. This section updates RFC 1755's
   requirements related to VC teardown.


   3.1.  VC Teardown

   In environments running layer 3 (L3) signalling protocols, such as
   RSVP [RSVP], over ATM, data VCs might correspond to L3 reserved flows
   (even if the VC is a 'best effort' VC). In such environments it is
   beneficial for VCs to be torn down only when the L3 reservation has
   expired. In other words, it is more efficient for the sender of a L3
   reserved flow to initiate VC tear-down when the receiver(s) has
   ceased refreshing the reservation.  To support such L3 behavior, sys-
   tems implementing a Public ATM UNI interface and serving as the
   _called_ party of a VCC MUST NOT use an inactivity timer on such a
   VCC by default.  A system MAY use an inactivity timer on such a VCC
   if configured to do so.


   4.  Overview of Call Establishment Message Content

   Signalling messages are structured to contain mandatory and optional
   variable length information elements (IEs).  A SETUP message which
   establishes an ATM connection to be used for IP and multiprotocol



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   interconnection calls MUST contain the following IEs:

        AAL Parameters
        ATM Traffic Descriptor
        Broadband Bearer Capability
        Broadband Low Layer Information
        QoS Parameter
        Called Party Number
        Calling Party Number

   and MAY, under certain circumstance contain the following IEs :

        Calling Party Subaddress
        Called Party Subaddress
        Transit Network Selection

        (New in SIG 4.0:)
        Minimum Acceptable ATM Traffic Descriptor
        Alternative ATM Traffic Descriptor
        ABR Setup Parameters
        ABR Additional Parameters
        Connection Scope Selection
        Extended QoS Parameters
        End-to-End Transit Delay

   In SIG 4.0, like UNI 3.1, the AAL Parameters and the Broadband Low
   Layer Information IEs are optional in a SETUP message.  However, in
   support of IP over ATM these two IEs MUST be included. Appendix A
   shows a sample setup message.


   5.  Description of Information Elements

   This section describes the coding of, and procedures surrounding,
   information elements in SETUP and CONNECT messages. The first two IEs
   described, ATM Adaptation Layer Parameters and Broadband Low Layer
   Information, are categorized as having significance only to the end-
   points of an ATM call supporting IP. That is, the network does not
   process these IEs.


   5.1.  ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) Parameters

   The AAL Parameters IE carries information about the ATM adaptation
   layer to be used on the connection. The parameters specified in this
   IE are the same as specified in [PER95].





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          Format and field values of AAL Parameters IE

          ----------------------------------------------------------
          | aal_parameters                                         |
          ----------------------------------------------------------
          |  aal_type                    5        (AAL 5)          |
          |  fwd_max_sdu_size_identifier 140                       |
          |  fwd_max_sdu_size            65,535   (desired IP MTU) |
          |  bkw_max_sdu_size_identifier 129                       |
          |  bkw_max_sdu_size            65,535   (desired IP MTU) |
          |  sscs_type identifier        132                       |
          |  sscs_type                   0        (null SSCS)      |
          ----------------------------------------------------------

   This shows maximum size MTUs.  In practice, most sites have used 9180
   IP MTUs for ATM [RFC1626].


   5.2.  Broadband Low Layer Information

   Selection of an encapsulation to support IP over an ATM VCC is done
   using the Broadband Low Layer Information (B-LLI) IE, along with the
   AAL Parameters IE, and the B-LLI negotiation procedure.  B-LLI nego-
   tiation is described in [PER95] in Appendix D. The procedures remain
   the same for this SIG 4.0 based specification.

          Format of B-LLI IE indicating LLC/SNAP encapsulation

          ----------------------------------------------------------
          | bb_low_layer_information                               |
          ----------------------------------------------------------
          |  layer_2_id                 2                          |
          |  user_information_layer     12  (lan_llc - ISO 8802/2) |
          ----------------------------------------------------------



   5.3.  Traffic Management Issues and Related IEs

   The ATM Forum Traffic Management Sub-working group has completed ver-
   sion 4.0 of their specification [TMGT40]. This latest version focuses
   primarily on the definition of the ABR service category. As opposed
   to the Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR) traffic class, ABR uses a rate-
   based flow control mechanism to assure certain traffic guarantees
   (bandwidth and delay).  There has been much debate on whether IP
   benefits from ABR, and if so, how IP should use ABR. The IP
   Integrated Services (IIS) and RSVP models in IP add complexity to
   this issue because mapping IIS traffic classes to ATM traffic classes



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   is not straightforward.

   This document attempts only to present the required IP to ATM signal-
   ling interface for IP over ATM systems that do not support IIS as
   yet.  It is an attempt to cause IP over ATM vendors to support enough
   options for signalling the traffic characteristics of VCs serving
   non-IIS IP datagrams. This specification also aims to give guidance
   to ATM system administrators so that they can configure their IP over
   ATM entities to conform to the varied services that their ATM pro-
   vider may have sold to them.  By definition, IP without IIS cannot be
   expected to provide a signalling interface that is flexible and
   allows application specific traffic descriptors. The topic of IP over
   ATM signalling for IP _with_ IIS is to be presented in other specifi-
   cations being produced by the ISSLL WG of the IETF.


   An IP over ATM interface may be configured to support all the defined
   ATM Service Categories (ASC). They are:

    - CBR
    - CBR with CLR specified (loss-permitting CBR)
    - ABR
    - UBR
    - real time VBR
    - non-real time VBR

   The ATM Traffic Descriptor IE, Broadband Bearer Capability IE, and
   the QoS Parameter IE together define the signalling view of ATM
   traffic management. Additionally, the Extended QoS parameters IE and
   the End-to-end Transit Delay IE may be used to provide more specifics
   about traffic requirements, however this note does not provide expli-
   cit recommendations on their use.  Annex 9 of [SIG40] describes a set
   of allowable combinations of traffic and QoS related paramenters
   defined for SIG 4.0.  This set includes all forms of non-IIS IP sig-
   nalling configurations that MUST be implemented in ATM endsystems to
   accommodate varied sites' needs. The principle is that IP over ATM
   service may be available in different sites by different types of
   procured ATM service; for one site, a CBR PVP might be cost-effective
   and then the SVCs that IP over ATM without IIS must establish must be
   CBR.  Similarly, VBR or ABR PVPs could be provisioned.  The intent of
   this document is to specify the use of the most sensible parameters
   within this non-IIS configuration.  For instance, for non-IIS VBR,
   the SCR value may need to be hand-configured for IP users, or for
   ABR, the PCR value may be link-rate with a 0 MCR.

   For the reader's convenience, we have replicated the tables found in
   Annex 9 of [SIG40] in Appendix C of this document. Ideally this docu-
   ment could recommend specific values for the various table parameters



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   that would offer the most sensible IP over ATM service. Nevertheless,
   it is not possible to mandate specific values given the varied
   scenarios of procured ATM service.


   5.3.1.  ATM Traffic Descriptor

   Even with the newly defined ABR ASC, the most convenient model for
   supporting IP still corresponds to the best effort capability, the
   UBR ASC. The rationale for this assertion stems from the fact that a
   non-IIS IP service has no notion of the performance requirements of
   the higher layers it supports. Therefore, if a a site's configuration
   allows use of UBR, users SHOULD signal for it using the IE's and
   parameters pertaining to the UBR ATC.  See Appendix C for the list of
   those IE's and parameters.

   Although we consider the UBR ASC the most natural ASC for best-effort
   IP, ATM vendors that implement VBR and ABR services could possibly
   create hooks for convenient use of these services. If this is the
   case, IP routers may perhaps have the most to gain from use of VBR or
   ABR services because of the large aggregated traffic volume they are
   required to forward. See Appendix B for detailed suggestions on VBR
   and ABR signalling for IP routers.  We simply note here that, in sup-
   port of ABR service, two new subfields have been added in SIG 4.0 to
   the Traffic Descriptor IE. These fields are the forward and backward
   'Minimum Cell Rate' fields.


   5.3.1.1.  Tagging vs. Dropping

   The Traffic Descriptor IE contains a 'tagging' subfield used for
   indicating whether the network is allowed to tag the source's data
   cells. Tagging in the network may occur during periods of congestion
   or when the source's traffic has violated the traffic contract for
   the connection. See Section 4 of [TMGT40] for an explanation of ATM
   connection conformance and the Usage Parameter Control (UPC) func-
   tion.

   SIG 4.0 and TMGT 4.0 define two modes of UBR, UBR.1 which disables
   tagging and UBR.2 which enables tagging (see Appendix C).  In some
   network environments there is no potential for UBR traffic sources to
   violate the connection traffic contract because, either the user's
   terminal equipment supports traffic shaping, or the network does not
   enforce PCR.  In such environments, the user SHOULD specify 'no tag-
   ging' in the SETUP message (UBR.1).  Specifying 'no tagging' indi-
   cates to the network that cells should be dropped during periods of
   congestion instead of being randomly marked/tagged as low priority.
   Cells of packets that the source itself has marked as low priority



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   are dropped first, thereby preserving the source's characterization
   of the traffic.

   On the other hand, when the network applies PCR to the UPC function,
   meaning it enforces PCR, and traffic shaping is not enabled at the
   source, the source has the potential to violate the traffic contract
   and SHOULD therefore signal for tagging (UBR.2). Tagging allows the
   source's non-conforming cells to be tagged and forwarded instead of
   dropped.


   5.3.2.  Traffic Parameter Negotiation

   SIG 4.0 allows certain traffic parameters to be negotiated during the
   call establishment phase Traffic parameters cannot be 'renegotiated'
   after the call is active. Two new IEs make negotiation possible:

     - the Minimum Acceptable ATM Traffic Descriptor IE allows
       negotiation of PCR parameters

     - the Alternative ATM Traffic Descriptor IE allows negotiation of
       other traffic parameters

   A SETUP or CONNECT message may include ONLY one of the above IEs.
   That is, the calling party may only offer an 'alternative' or
   'minimum' to the requested traffic parameters. (See Section 8 of
   [SIG40].) IP over ATM entities SHOULD take advantage of this capabil-
   ity whenever possible. In order to do so, IP over ATM entities SHOULD
   specify PCR _equal_ to the link rate in the ATM Traffic Descriptor IE
   of the SETUP message and a minimum of zero PCR in the Minimum Accept-
   able ATM Traffic Descriptor IE.


   5.3.3.  Broadband Bearer Capability

   A new field in UNI signalling 4.0 called, 'ATM Transfer Capability'
   (ATC), has been defined in the Broadband Bearer Capability IE for the
   purpose of explicitly specifying the desired ATM traffic category.
   The figure below shows the allowable ATC values.












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          Format and field values of Broadband Bearer Capability IE

          -------------------------------------------------------------
          | bb_bearer_capability                                      |
          ------------------------------------------------------------|
          |  spare                       0                            |
          |  bearer_class                bcob-x,c,a or VP             |
          |  transfer_capability         cbr, rt-vbr, nrt-vbr, abr    |
          |  susceptibility_to_clipping  0     (not suscept)          |
          |  spare                       0                            |
          |  user_plane_configuration    pt-to-pt, pt-to-mpt          |
          -------------------------------------------------------------


   5.3.4.  QoS Parameter

   Inclusion of the QoS Parameter IE is not mandatory in SIG 4.0.  It
   may be omitted from a SETUP message _if and only if_ the Extended QoS
   Parameters IE is included (see next section). This specification
   makes no explicit recommendation on the use of the QoS related IEs.


   5.3.4.1.  Two IEs for Signalling of Individual QoS Parameters

   SIG 4.0 allows for signalling of individual QoS parameters for the
   purpose of giving the the network and called party a more exact
   description of the desired delay and cell loss characteristics. The
   two individual QoS related IEs, Extended QoS Parameters IE and End-
   to-End Transit Delay IE, can be used in the SETUP and CONNECT signal-
   ling messages in place of the 'generic' QoS Parameter IE. Note that
   inclusion of these two IEs depends on the type of ATM service
   category requested (see Annex 9 in [SIG40]).



   5.4.  ATM Addressing Information

   ATM addressing information is carried in the Called Party Number,
   Calling Party Number, and, under certain circumstance, Called Party
   Subaddress, and Calling Party Subaddress IE. The ATM Forum ILMI
   Specification 4.0 [ILMI40] provides the procedure for an ATM endsys-
   tem to learn its own ATM address from the ATM network, for use in
   populating the Calling Party Number IE.








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          Format and field values of Called Party Number IE

          ----------------------------------------------------------
          | called_party_number                                    |
          ----------------------------------------------------------
          |  type_of_number      (international number / unknown)  |
          |  addr_plan_ident     (ISDN / ATM Endsystem Address)    |
          |  addr_number         (E.164 / ATM Endsystem Address)   |
          ----------------------------------------------------------


   6.  ABR Signalling In More Detail

   The IEs and procedures pertaining to ABR signalling are briefly
   described in this section. Nevertheless, this document makes no
   specific recommendation on when to use the ABR service category for
   IP VCCs or give suggestions on appropriate values for the various
   parameters in the ABR related IEs.

   Two new IEs have been defined for ABR signalling:

      o ABR Setup Parameters
      o ABR Additional Parameters

   These IEs may be optionally included in a SETUP or CONNECT message.
   The ABR Setup Parameters IE contains the following subfields:

      - Forward/Backward ABR Initial Cell Rate
      - Forward/Backward ABR Transient Buffer Exposure
      - Cumulative RM Fixed Round Trip Time
      - Forward/Backward Rate Increment Factor
      - Forward/Backward Rate Decrease Factor

   The ABR Additional Parameters IE contains one subfield:

      - Forward/Backward Additional Parameters Record

   The Additional Parameters Record value is a compressed encoding of a
   set of ABR parameters (see [SIG40] and [ABRS]).


   7.  Frame Discard Capability

   The frame discard capability in SIG 4.0 is primarily based on the
   'Partial and Early Packet Discard' strategy [ROM94]. Its use is
   defined for any of the ATM services, except for loss-less CBR.  Frame
   discard signalling MUST be supported by all IP over ATM entities and
   it is RECOMMENDED that frame discard be signalled for all IP SVCs



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   because it has been proven to increase throughput under network
   congestion. Signalling for frame discard is done by setting the frame
   discard bit in the 'Traffic Management Options' subfield in the
   Traffic Descriptor IE.  It is possible that not all network entities
   in the SVC path support frame discard, but it is required that they
   all forward the signalling.



   8.  Security Considerations

   The ATM Forum Security sub-working group is currently defining secu-
   rity mechanisms in ATM. The group has yet to produce a specification,
   therefore it is premature to begin defining IP over ATM signalling's
   use of ATM security.  IP Security (RFC1825) can be applied to IP
   datagrams over any medium.


   9.  Open Issues

   Description of Leaf Initiated Join (LIJ) signalling is not discussed
   because the use of LIJ in IP over ATM environments have not yet been
   defined.


   10.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank the members of the ION working group
   for their input. Special thanks to K.K. Ramakrishnan and Kerry Fen-
   dick who contributed Appendix B of this document.

REFERENCES

   [PER95] Perez*, M. et al, "ATM Signaling Support for IP over ATM",
       RFC1755, February 1995   (* see author's information below)

   [LAUB93] Laubach, M., "Classical IP and ARP over ATM", RFC1577,
       Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, December 1993

   [LUC97] "NBMA Next Hop Resolution Protocol (NHRP)", Luciani, Katz,
       Piscitello, Cole, draft-ietf-rolc-nhrp-11.txt. work in progress.

   [UNI95] ATM Forum, "ATM User-Network Interface Specification Version
       3.1", Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1995

   [SIG40] ATM Forum, "ATM User-Network Interface (UNI) Signalling
       Specification Version 4.0", af-sig-0061.000, finalized July 1996;
       available at ftp://ftp.atmforum.com/pub.



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   [ABRS] ATM Forum, "Addendum to UNI Signalling v4.0 for ABR Parameter
       Negotiation", af-sig-0076.000; available at
       ftp://ftp.atmforum.com/pub.

   [TMGT40] ATM Forum, "Traffic Management Specification Version 4.0",
       af-tm-0056.000, finalized April 1996; available at
       ftp://ftp.atmforum.com/pub.

   [ABRT] ATM Forum, "Addendum to Traffic Management v4.0 for ABR Param-
       eter Negotiation", af-tm-0077.000; available at
       ftp://ftp.atmforum.com/pub.

   [ILMI40] ATM Forum, "Integrated Local Management Interface (ILMI)
       Specification Version 4.0", af-ilmi-0065.000, finalized September
       1996; available at ftp://ftp.atmforum.com/pub.

   [RSVP] R. Braden, L. Zhang, S. Berson, S. Herzog and S. Jamin,
       "Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) - Version 1 Functional
       Specification", Internet Draft, May 1997, <draft-ietf-rsvp-spec-
       15.txt>

   [BRAD89] Braden, R., Editor, "Requirements for Internet Hosts -- Com-
       munication Layers", RFC 1122, USC/Information Science Institute,
       October 1989.

   [BRAD94] Braden, R., Clark, D, Shenker, S., "Integrated Service in
       the Internet Architecture:  An Overview", RFC 1633,
       USC/Information Science Institute, June 1994.

   [HEIN93] Heinanen, J., "Multiprotocol Encapsulation over ATM Adapta-
       tion Layer 5", RFC 1483, Telecom Finland, July 1993.

   [ISO8473] ISO/IEC 8473, Information processing systems - Data commun-
       ications - Protocol for providing the connectionless-mode network
       service, 1988.

   [ISO9577] Information Technology - Telecommunication and information
       exchange between systems - Protocol identification in the network
       layer ISO/IEC TR9577 (International Standards Organization:
       Geneva, 1990)

   [ROM94] Romanow, A., and Floyd, S., Dynamics of TCP Traffic over ATM
       Networks.  IEEE JSAC, V. 13 N. 4, May 1995, p. 633-641. Abstract.
       An earlier version appeared in SIGCOMM '94, August 1994, pp. 79-
       88.

Author's Address




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   Maryann P. Maher (formerly Maryann Perez)
   {maher@isi.edu}
   USC/ISI
   4350 N. Fairfax Drive, Suite 620
   Arlington VA 22203














































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   Appendix A. A Sample SIG 4.0 SETUP Message

      +--------------------------------------------------------------------+
                                    SETUP

        Information Elements/
          Fields                         Value/(Meaning)
        --------------------             ---------------

       aal_parameters
          aal_type                         5        (AAL 5)
          fwd_max_sdu_size_ident         140
          fwd_max_sdu_size               (xmit IP MTU value)
          bkw_max_sdu_size_ident         129
          bkw_max_sdu_size         (recv IP MTU, 0 for disallowing return traffic)
          sscs_type identifier           132
          sscs_type                        0        (null SSCS)

       traffic_descriptor
          fwd_peak_cell_rate_0_1_ident   132
          fwd_peak_cell_rate_0_1         (link rate)
          bkw_peak_cell_rate_0_1_ident   133
          bkw_peak_cell_rate_0_1         (link rate)
          traff_mngt_options_ident       191
          fwd_frame_discard                1    (on)
          bkw_frame_discard                1    (on if return traffic indicated)
          spare                            0
          tagging_bkw                      1    (on)
          tagging_fwd                      1    (on if return traffic indicated)
          best_effort_indication         190    (on)

       minimum_acceptable_traffic_descriptor
          fwd_peak_cell_rate_0_1_ident   132
          fwd_peak_cell_rate_0_1           0
          bkw_peak_cell_rate_0_1_ident   133
          bkw_peak_cell_rate_0_1           0

       bb_bearer_capability     /* a coding for specifying UBR like service */
          spare                            0
          bearer_class                    16      (BCOC-X)
          spare                            0
          atm_transfer_capability         10      (nrt-vbr)
          susceptibility_to_clipping       0      (not susceptible to clipping)
          spare                            0
          user_plane_configuration         0      (point_to_point)






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       bb_low_layer_information
          layer_2_id                       2
          user_information_layer          12       (lan_llc - ISO 8802/2)


       qos_parameter
          qos_class_fwd                    0        (class 0)
          qos_class_bkw                    0        (class 0)

       called_party_number
          type_of_number                   (international number / unknown)
          addr_plan_ident                  (ISDN / ATM Endsystem Address)
          number                           (E.164 / ATM Endsystem Address)

       calling_party_number
          type_of_number                   (international number / unknown)
          addr_plan_ident                  (ISDN / ATM Endsystem Address)
          presentation_indic               (presentation allowed)
          spare                            0
          screening_indic                  (user_provided verified and passed)
          number                           (E.164 / ATM Endsystem Address)

      +--------------------------------------------------------------------+

                                  Figure 1.
                        Sample contents of SETUP message

























Maher                                                          [Page 15]


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   Appendix B. ABR and VBR Signalling Guidelines for IP Routers

   When ATM is used to interconnect routers that are supporting a best
   effort service, the ATM connection typically carries an aggregation
   of IP flows, e.g., all best effort IP traffic between a pair of
   routers. With the efforts undertaken by ATM to be more "packet
   friendly" (e.g., frame discard), it is useful to examine ways that a
   VC can provide service comparable to or better than that of a dedi-
   cated or leased "link" in terms of performance and packet loss.

   For ATM connections used to interconnect routers, a non-zero
   bandwidth reservation may be required to achieve consistently ade-
   quate performance for the aggregate set of flows.  The support of
   bandwidth commitments for an ATM connection carrying IP traffic helps
   to assure that a certain fraction of each link's capacity is reserved
   for the total IP traffic between the routers.  Reserving bandwidth
   for the aggregation of best-effort traffic between a pair of routers
   is analogous to provisioning a particular link bandwidth between the
   routers. There are at least 3 service classes defined in the ATM
   Traffic Management specification that provide varying degrees of
   capability that are suitable for interconnecting IP routers: UBR, ABR
   and VBR non-real-time.  Although the use of best-effort service (UBR)
   at the ATM layer is the most straightforward and uncomplicated, it
   lacks the capability to enforce bandwidth commitments.

   Note that we are talking of providing a "virtual link" between
   routers, for the aggregate traffic. The provisioning is for the
   aggregate. It is therefore distinct from the per-flow bandwidth
   reservations that might be appropriate for Integrated Services.

   Even best-effort IP flows, when supported on an aggregate basis, have
   some broad service goals. The primary one is that of keeping packet
   loss rate reasonably small. A service class that strives to achieve
   this, keeping in mind the tradeoff between complexity and adequate
   service, is desirable. It has been recommended in this draft that UBR
   be the default service for this. UBR with (some form of) packet dis-
   card has the desirable goal of being simple in function, and it
   appears that vendors will be supporting it. However, when available,
   it may be quite worthwhile to consider ABR and VBR non-real-time ser-
   vice classes.

   Because AAL5 frames with missing cells are discarded by the receiver,
   ATM bandwidth commitments are most useful if supported in the form of
   a committed rate of cell delivery in complete, non-errored AAL5
   frames delivered to the receiver. In addition, it is desirable for
   the ATM connection to deliver additional complete frames, beyond this
   commitment, on a best-effort basis.




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   These characteristics can be achieved through the ABR service
   category through the use of a Minimum Cell Rate, if the ABR service
   is supported by the ATM endpoints and if efficient frame discard is
   supported at the ABR source. The mechanisms put in place for the ABR
   service strive to keep loss quite low within the ATM network.

   The parameters that should be specified by the end system are (i) the
   Peak Cell Rate (likely the link rate), (ii) the Minimum Cell Rate
   (the committed rate), and (iii) the Cumulative RM Fixed Round-Trip
   Time The remaining parameter values, if left unspecified by the cal-
   ling party, are selected by the network or are chosen from the
   default values specified in the ATM Forum Traffic Management specifi-
   cation.

   Parameters (i) and (ii) are contained in the mandatory Traffic
   Descriptor IE, whereas parameter (iii) is contained in the mandatory
   ABR Setup Parameters IE. Other paramenters in the ABR Setup Parame-
   ters IE may be omitted. (Note that the third IE which pertains to ABR
   signalling, the ABR Additional Parameters IE, is an optional IE and
   therefore need not be included.) Parameter (iii) is dependent on the
   hardware of the end system, so that the default value specified for
   that hardware should be used. In the absense of such a default, a
   value of zero MAY be specified by the end system. Entities using ABR
   connections for IP over ATM SHOULD take advantage of parameter nego-
   tiation by specifying Peak Cell Rate equal to the link rate in the
   ATM Traffic Descriptor IE of the SETUP message. The value selected
   for the Minimum Cell Rate is implementation specific. Note that the
   MCR also MAY be negotiated if an MCR parameter is included by the end
   system in the Minimum Acceptable ATM Traffic Descriptor IE.  The use
   of MCR negotiation by the end system is implementation specific.
   Also, note that Frame Discard MAY be requested for ABR connections as
   well as for UBR connections. Although the ABR service attempts to
   minimize cell loss, the use of Frame Discard may improve throughput
   when cell loss is not eliminated.

   ATM recognizes in addition to the service class (UBR, ABR, etc.), a
   notion of a QoS class. The QoS class specifies the type of guarantee
   requested of the network when the call is setup. This is distinct
   from the service class requested for the connection, and the specifi-
   cation of the traffic parameters (which specify what the source's
   traffic will look like).  QoS class 0 is the "simplest", and is
   called the Unspecified QoS class.  In the context of ABR (and VBR
   non-realtime below), we are only concerned with the QoS class provid-
   ing an assurance of acceptable loss behavior for the connection.

   The Unspecified QoS Class (QoS Class 0) MUST be requested for ABR
   connections. In this context, QoS Class 0 corresponds to a network-
   specific objective for the cell loss ratio.  Networks in general are



Maher                                                          [Page 17]


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   expected to support a low Cell Loss Ratio for ABR sources that adjust
   cell flow in response to control information.

   The VBR-nrt service category provides an alternate means of achieving
   these characteristics.  These characteristics may be obtained with
   VBR-nrt connections for which (i) the VBR.3 conformance definition is
   used, (ii) a Sustainable Cell Rate (SCR) and Maximum Burst Size
   (MBS), and Peak Cell Rate (PCR) are specified, and (iii) both tagging
   and frame discard are requested.  A request for tagging indicates
   that best-effort delivery is desired for traffic offered in excess of
   the SCR and MBS.  A request for frame discard indicates to the net-
   work that the user desires allocations of committed and excess
   bandwidth to translate into corresponding throughputs at the frame
   level.

   As with UBR connections, entities using VBR-nrt connections for IP
   over ATM should take advantage of parameter negotiation by specifying
   PCR equal to the link rate in the ATM Traffic Descriptor IE of the
   SETUP message and PCR equal to SCR in the Minimum Acceptable Traffic
   descriptor. The selection of SCR, MBS, and CLR (cell loss ratio)
   should be implementation specific. However, for IP over ATM, an MBS
   value of N*(Maximum MTU) is RECOMMENDED, where N>=1 with a default of
   2 and where Maximum MTU is equal to 192 cells (consistent with an IP
   MTU size of 9180 bytes [RFC1626]).



























Maher                                                          [Page 18]


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   Appendix C. Combinations of Traffic Related Parameters

   This appendix contains a copy of the five tables found in Annex 9 of
   [SIG40] which show the allowable combinations of traffic and QoS related
   parameters in a SIG 4.0 SETUP message.

      +--------------------------------------------------------------------+
      |ATM Service Category|                     CBR                       |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Conformance        |CBR.1 (note 10)|   (note 4)    |   (note 4)    |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Bearer Capability  |               |               |               |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | BB Bearer Class    |  A |  X  | VP |  A |  X  | VP^|  A |  X  | VP^|
      |--------------------|---------------|----|-----|----|----|-----|----|
      | ATM Transfer       |               |    | 4,5,|    |    | 4,5,|    |
      | Capability (note 1)|       7       | abs| or 6|  5 | abs| or 6|  5 |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Traffic Descriptor |               |               |               |
      |  for a given dir.  |               |               |               |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | PCR (CLP=0)        |               |               |       S       |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | PCR (CLP=0+1)      |       S       |       S       |       S       |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | SCR, MBS (CLP=0)   |               |               |               |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | SCR, MBS (CLP=0+1) |               |               |               |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Best Effort        |               |               |               |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Tagging            |       N       |       N       |      Y/N      |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Frame Discard      |      Y/N      |      Y/N      |      Y/N      |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | QoS Classes        |       *       |       *       |       *       |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Transit Delay      |       O       |       O       |       O       |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Peak-to-Peak CDV   |       O       |       O       |       O       |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | CLR (CLP=0)~       |               |       O       |       O       |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | CLR (CLP=0+1)~     |       O       |               |               |
      +--------------------------------------------------------------------+






Maher                                                          [Page 19]


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      +--------------------------------------------------------------------+
      |ATM Service Category|                 Real Time VBR                 |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Conformance        |VBR.1 (note 10)|     VBR.2     |     VBR.3     |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Bearer Capability  |               |               |               |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | BB Bearer Class    |  C |  X  | VP |  C |  X  | VP |  C |  X  | VP |
      |--------------------|---------------|----|-----|----|----|-----|----|
      | ATM Transfer       |               |    |  1  |    |    |  1  |    |
      | Capability         |      19       |  9 | or 9|  9 |  9 | or 9|  9 |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Traffic Descriptor |               |               |               |
      |  for a given dir.  |               |               |               |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | PCR (CLP=0)        |               |               |               |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | PCR (CLP=0+1)      |       S       |       S       |       S       |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | SCR, MBS (CLP=0)   |               |       S       |       S       |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | SCR, MBS (CLP=0+1) |      S        |               |               |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Best Effort        |               |               |               |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Tagging            |       N       |       N       |      Y/N      |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Frame Discard      |      Y/N      |      Y/N      |      Y/N      |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | QoS Classes        |       *       |       *       |       *       |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Transit Delay(nt.2)|       O       |       O       |       O       |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Peak-to-Peak CDV   |       O       |       O       |       O       |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | CLR (CLP=0)~       |               |       O       |       O       |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | CLR (CLP=0+1)~     |       O       |               |               |
      +--------------------------------------------------------------------+












Maher                                                          [Page 20]


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      +--------------------------------------------------------------------+
      |ATM Service Category|                 Real Time VBR                 |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Conformance        |  (note 4,7)   |   (note 4,8)  |    (note 4)   |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Bearer Capability  |               |               |               |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | BB Bearer Class    |       X       |       X       |   X | C or VP^|
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|-----|---------|
      | ATM Transfer       |               |               |     |         |
      | Capability         |    1 or 9     |     1 or 9    | 1or9|    9    |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Traffic Descriptor |               |               |               |
      |  for a given dir.  |               |               |               |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | PCR (CLP=0)        |       S       |               |               |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | PCR (CLP=0+1)      |       S       |       S       |       S       |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | SCR, MBS (CLP=0)   |               |               |               |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | SCR, MBS (CLP=0+1) |               |               |       S       |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Best Effort        |               |               |               |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Tagging            |      Y/N      |       N       |       N       |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Frame Discard      |      Y/N      |      Y/N      |      Y/N      |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | QoS Classes        |       *       |       *       |       *       |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Transit Delay(nt.2)|       O       |       O       |       O       |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Peak-to-Peak CDV   |       O       |       O       |       O       |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | CLR (CLP=0)~       |       O       |       O       |       O       |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | CLR (CLP=0+1)~     |               |               |               |
      +--------------------------------------------------------------------+












Maher                                                          [Page 21]


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      +--------------------------------------------------------------------+
      |ATM Service Category|               Non-Real Time VBR               |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Conformance        |VBR.1 (note 10)|     VBR.2     |     VBR.3     |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Bearer Capability  |               |               |               |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | BB Bearer Class    |  C |  X  | VP |C |    X   | VP|C |    X   | VP|
      |--------------------|---------------|--|--------|---|--|--------|---|
      | ATM Transfer       |               |  |abs,0,2,|abs|  |abs,0,2,|abs|
      | Capability         |      11       |ab| 8,10   |10 |ab| 8,10   |10 |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Traffic Descriptor |               |               |               |
      |  for a given dir.  |               |               |               |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | PCR (CLP=0)        |               |               |               |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | PCR (CLP=0+1)      |       S       |       S       |       S       |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | SCR, MBS (CLP=0)   |               |       S       |       S       |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | SCR, MBS (CLP=0+1) |       S       |               |               |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Best Effort        |               |               |               |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Tagging            |       N       |       N       |       Y       |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Frame Discard      |      Y/N      |      Y/N      |      Y/N      |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | QoS Classes        |       *       |       *       |       *       |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Transit Delay(nt.2)|    (note 3)   |   (note 3)    |    (note 3)   |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Peak-to-Peak CDV   |               |               |               |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | CLR (CLP=0)~       |               |       O       |       O       |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | CLR (CLP=0+1)~     |       O       |               |               |
      +--------------------------------------------------------------------+












Maher                                                          [Page 22]


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      +--------------------------------------------------------------------+
      |ATM Service Category|               Non-Real Time VBR               |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Conformance        |  (note 4,7)   |   (note 4,8)  |    (note 4)   |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Bearer Capability  |               |               |               |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | BB Bearer Class    |   C   |   X   |   C   |   X   |C |    X   |VP^|
      |--------------------|-------|-------|-------|-------|--|--------|---|
      | ATM Transfer       |       |abs,0,2|       |abs,0,2|  |abs,0,2,|abs|
      | Capability         | abs   |8 or 10|       |8 or 10|ab| 8 or10 |10 |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Traffic Descriptor |               |               |               |
      |  for a given dir.  |               |               |               |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | PCR (CLP=0)        |       S       |               |               |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | PCR (CLP=0+1)      |       S       |       S       |       S       |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | SCR, MBS (CLP=0)   |               |               |               |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | SCR, MBS (CLP=0+1) |               |               |       S       |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Best Effort        |               |               |               |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Tagging            |     Y/N       |       N       |       N       |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Frame Discard      |      Y/N      |      Y/N      |      Y/N      |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | QoS Classes        |       *       |       *       |       *       |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Transit Delay(nt.2)|    (note 3)   |   (note 3)    |    (note 3)   |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Peak-to-Peak CDV   |               |               |               |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | CLR (CLP=0)~       |       O       |       O       |       O       |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | CLR (CLP=0+1)~     |               |               |               |
      +--------------------------------------------------------------------+












Maher                                                          [Page 23]


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      +--------------------------------------------------------------------+
      |ATM Service Category|     ABR       |              UBR              |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Conformance        |     ABR       |     UBR.1     |     UBR.2     |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Bearer Capability  |               |               |               |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | BB Bearer Class    |  C |  X  | VP |C |    X   | VP|C |    X   | VP|
      |--------------------|---------------|--|--------|---|--|--------|---|
      | ATM Transfer       |               |  |abs,0,2,|abs|  |abs,0,2,|abs|
      | Capability         |      12       |ab| 8,10   |10 |ab| 8,10   |10 |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Traffic Descriptor |               |               |               |
      |  for a given dir.  |               |               |               |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | PCR (CLP=0)        |               |               |               |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | PCR (CLP=0+1)      |       S       |       S       |       S       |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | SCR, MBS (CLP=0)   |               |       S       |       S       |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | SCR, MBS (CLP=0+1) |       S       |               |               |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | ABR MCR            |    (note 6)   |               |               |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Best Effort        |               |  S (note 9)   |   S (note 9)  |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Tagging            |       N       |       N       |       N       |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Frame Discard      |      Y/N      |      Y/N      |      Y/N      |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | QoS Classes        |       0       |       0       |       0       |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Transit Delay(nt.2)|               |               |               |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | Peak-to-Peak CDV   |               |               |               |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | CLR (CLP=0)~       |               |               |               |
      |--------------------|---------------|---------------|---------------|
      | CLR (CLP=0+1)~     |               |               |               |
      +--------------------------------------------------------------------+



      ab, abs = absent.

      Y/N = either "Yes" or "No" is allowed.




Maher                                                          [Page 24]


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      O = Optional. May be specified using:
               - an additional QoS parameter encoded i the Extended QoS parameters
                 information element or the end-to-end transit information
                 element; or,
               - objectives implied from the QoS class
               If an Extended QoS Parameters IE is not present in the message,
               then any value of this parameter is acceptable. If neither the
               parameter nor the Extended QoS Parameters IE is present, then the
               objective for this parameter is determined from the QoS class
               in the QoS Parameter IE.

      S = Specified.

      (blank) = Unspecified.

      * = allowed QoS class values are a network option. Class 0 is always
          for alignment with ITU-T.

      ^ = (note 5).

      ~ = (note 11).

      Note 1  - Values 0,1,2,4,6, and 8 are not used on transmission but shall
                be understood on reception.
      Note 2  - Maximum end-2-end transit delay objectives may only be specified
                for the forward direction.
      Note 3  - Maximum end-2-end transit delay objectives may be specified for
                the ATM Service Category of Non-real Time VBR for reasons of
                backward compatibility with ITU-T Recommendations.
      Note 4  - Included for reasons of backward compatibility with UNI 3.1 and
                ITU-T Recommendations. With these conformance definitions, the
                CLR commitment is only for the CLP=0 traffic stream.
      Note 5  - Included to allow switched virtual paths to use the UNI 3.1
                conformance definitions.
      Note 6  - Optional in the user-to-network direction. Specified in the
                network-to-user direction.
      Note 7  - This combination should be treated as if the received PCR (CLP=0)
                parameter were a SCR (CLP=0) parameter and a MBS (CLP=0) parameter
                with a value of 1.
      Note 8  - This combination should be treated as if an additional SCR (CLP=0)
                parameter were received with the same value as a PCR (CLP=0+1)
                parameter and a MBS (CLP=0) parameter
                with a value of 1.
      Note 9  - The best effort parameter applies to both the forward and backward
                directions.
      Note 10 - This combination should only be used when the CLR commitment on
                CLP=0+1 is required versus  CLR commitment on CLP=0 traffic, since
                these combinations are not supported by UNI 3.0/3.1 nor ITU-T



Maher                                                          [Page 25]


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                Q.2931.
      Note 11 - In this table the CLR commitment is shown as two entries to
                indicated explicitly whether the CLR commitment is for the CLP=0
                or the CLP=0+1 cells.















































Maher                                                          [Page 26]