IPng Working Group                                         Matt Crawford
Internet Draft                                                  Fermilab
                                                       Christian Huitema
                                                           Susan Thomson
                                                       December 15, 1998

                   DNS Extensions to Support IP Version 6

Status of this Memo

    This document is an Internet-Draft.  Internet-Drafts are working
    documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas,
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    Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

1.  Abstract

    This document defines the changes that need to be made to the Domain
    Name System to support hosts running IP version 6 (IPv6).  The
    changes include a new resource record type to store an IPv6 address
    in a manner which expedites network renumbering, and updated
    definitions of existing query types that return Internet addresses
    as part of additional section processing.

    For lookups keyed on IPv6 addresses (often called reverse lookups),
    this document defines a new domain to hold the top-level delegation
    information and a zone structure which allows a zone to be used
    without modification for parallel copies of an address space (as for
    a multihomed provider or site) and across network renumbering

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2.  Introduction

    Current support for the storage of Internet addresses in the Domain
    Name System (DNS) [DNSCF, DNSIS] cannot easily be extended to
    support IPv6 addresses [AARCH] since applications assume that
    address queries return 32-bit IPv4 addresses only.  In addition,
    maintenance of address information in the DNS is one of several
    obstacles which have prevented site and provider renumbering from
    being feasible.

    To support the storage of IPv6 addresses without impeding
    renumbering we define the following extensions.

    o   A new resource record type, "A6", is defined to map a domain
        name to an IPv6 address, with a provision for indirection for
        leading "prefix" bits.

    o   Existing queries that perform additional section processing to
        locate IPv4 addresses are redefined to do that processing for
        both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses.

    o   A new domain, IP6.INT, is defined to support lookups based on
        IPv6 address.

    o   A new prefix-delegation method is defined, relying on new DNS
        features [BITLBL, DNAME].

    The changes are designed to be compatible with existing
    applications.  The existing support for IPv4 addresses is retained.
    Transition issues related to the coexistence of both IPv4 and IPv6
    addresses in DNS are discussed in [TRANS].

    This memo proposes a replacement for the specification in RFC 1886
    and a departure from current implementation practices.  The changes
    are designed to facilitate network renumbering and multihoming.
    Domains employing the A6 record for IPv6 addresses can have
    automatically-genrerated AAAA records to ease transition.  It is
    expected that after a reasonable period, RFC 1886 will become

    The next three major sections of this document are an overview of
    the facilities defined or employed by this specification, the
    specification itself, and examples of use.

    The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
    document are to be interpreted as described in [KWORD].  The key
    word "SUGGESTED" signifies a strength between MAY and SHOULD: it is

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    believed that compliance with the suggestion has tangible benefits
    in most instances.

3.  Overview

    This section provides an overview of the DNS facilities for storage
    of IPv6 addresses and for lookups based on IPv6 address, including
    those defined here and elsewhere.

3.1.  Name-to-Address Lookup

    IPv6 addresses are stored in one or more A6 resource records.  A
    single A6 record may include a complete IPv6 address, or a
    contiguous portion of an address and information leading to one or
    more prefixes.  Prefix information comprises a prefix length and a
    DNS name which is in turn the owner of one or more A6 records
    defining the prefix or prefixes which are needed to form one or more
    complete IPv6 addresses.  When the prefix length is zero, no DNS
    name is present and all the leading bits of the address are
    significant.  There may be multiples levels of indirection and the
    existence of multiple A6 records at any level multiplies the number
    of IPv6 addresses which are formed.

    An application looking up an IPv6 address will generally cause the
    DNS resolver to access several A6 records, and multiple IPv6
    addresses may be returned even if the queried name was the owner of
    only one A6 record.  The authenticity [DNSSEC] of the returned
    address(es) cannot be directly verified.  The A6 records which
    contributed to the address(es) may of course be verified if signed.

3.2.  Underlying Mechanisms for Reverse Lookups

    This section describes the new DNS features which this document
    exploits.  This section is an overview, not a specification of those
    features.  The reader is directed to the referenced documents for
    more details on each.

3.2.1.  Delegation on Arbitrary Boundaries

    This new scheme for reverse lookups relies on a new type of DNS
    label called the "bit-string label" [BITLBL].  This label compactly
    represents an arbitrary string of bits which is treated as a
    hierarchical sequence of one-bit domain labels.  Resource records
    can thereby be stored on arbitrary bit-boundaries.

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    Examples in section 6 will employ the following textual
    representation for bit-string labels, which is a subset of the
    syntax defined in [BITLBL].  A base indicator "x" for hexadecimal
    and a sequence of hexadecimal digits is enclosed between "\[" and
    "]".  The bits denoted by the digits represent a sequence of one-bit
    domain labels ordered from most to least significant.  (This is the
    opposite of the order they would appear if listed one bit at a time,
    but it appears to be a convenient notation.)  The digit string may
    be followed by a slash ("/") and a decimal count.  If omitted, the
    implicit count is equal to four times the number of hexadecimal

    Consecutive bit-string labels are equivalent (up to the limit
    imposed by the size of the bit count field) to a single bit-string
    label containing all the bits of the consecutive labels in the
    proper order.  As an example, either of the following domain names
    could be used in a QCLASS=IN, QTYPE=PTR query to find the name of
    the node with IPv6 address 3ffe:7c0:40:9:a00:20ff:fe81:2b32.



    Note that bits are left-justified in a hexadecimal string.

3.2.2.  Reusable Zones

    DNS address space delegation is implemented not by zone cuts and NS
    records, but by a new analogue to the CNAME record, called the DNAME
    resource record [DNAME].  The DNAME record provides alternate naming
    to an entire subtree of the domain name space, rather than to a
    single node.  It causes some suffix of a queried name to be
    substituted with a name from the DNAME record's RDATA.

    For example, a resolver or server providing recursion, while looking
    up a QNAME a.b.c.d.e.f may encounter a DNAME record

                         d.e.f.     DNAME     w.xy.

    which will cause it to look for a.b.c.w.xy.

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4.  Specifications

4.1.  The A6 Record Type

    The A6 record type is specific to the IN (Internet) class and has
    type number 38 (decimal).

4.1.1.  Format

    The RDATA portion of the A6 record contains two or three fields.

            |Prefix len.|  Address suffix  |    Prefix name    |
            | (1 octet) |  (0..16 octets)  |  (0..255 octets)  |

    o   A prefix length, encoded as an eight-bit unsigned integer with
        value between 0 and 128 inclusive.

    o   An IPv6 address suffix, encoded in network order (high-order
        octet first).  There MUST be exactly enough octets in this field
        to contain a number of bits equal to 128 minus prefix length,
        with 0 to 7 leading pad bits to make this field an integral
        number of octets.

    o   The name of the prefix, encoded as a domain name.  This name
        MUST NOT be compressed unless some future specification permits
        it, and then possibly only under certain circumstances.

    The domain name component SHALL NOT be present if the prefix length
    is zero.  The address suffix component SHALL NOT be present if the
    prefix length is 128.

    It is SUGGESTED that an A6 record intended for use as a prefix for
    other A6 records have all the insignificant trailing bits in its
    address suffix field set to zero.

4.1.2.  Processing

    A query with QTYPE=A6 causes type A and type AAAA additional section
    processing for the QNAME, and type A6 and type NS additional section
    processing for the DNS name, if present, in its RDATA field.  When
    and if the type AAAA record becomes deprecated, the type AAAA
    additional section processing for type A6 queries SHOULD be omitted

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    from new implementations of this specification.

    It is an error for a A6 record with prefix length L1 > 0 to refer to
    a domain name which owns a A6 record with a prefix length L2 > L1.
    If such a situation is encountered by a resolver, the A6 record with
    the offending (larger) prefix length MUST be ignored.  Robustness
    precludes signalling an error if addresses can still be formed from
    valid A6 records, but it is SUGGESTED that zone maintainers from
    time to time check all the A6 records their zones reference.

4.1.3.  Textual Representation

    The textual representation of the RDATA portion of the A6 resource
    record in a zone file comprises two or three fields separated by

    o   A prefix length, represented as a decimal number between 0 and
        128 inclusive,

    o   the textual representation of the host's IPv6 address as defined
        in [AARCH], or a suffix of that address, and

    o   a domain name, if the prefix length is not zero.

    The domain name MUST be absent if the prefix length is zero.  The
    IPv6 address MAY be be absent if the prefix length is 128.  A number
    of leading address bits equal to the prefix length SHOULD be zero,
    either implicitly (through the :: notation) or explicitly, as
    specified in section 4.1.1.

4.1.4.  Name Resolution Procedure

    To obtain the IPv6 address or addresses which belong to a given
    hostname, a DNS client MUST obtain one or more complete chains of A6
    records, each chain beginning with a record owned by the given
    hostname and including a record owned by the prefix name in that
    record, and so on recursively, ending with an A6 record with a
    prefix length of zero.  One IPv6 address is formed from one such
    chain by taking the value of each bit position from the earliest A6
    record which validly covers that position, as indicated by the
    prefix length.  The set of all IPv6 records for the given hostname
    comprises the addresses formed from all complete chains of A6
    records beginning at that hostname, discarding records which have
    invalid prefix lengths as defined in section 4.1.2.

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4.2.  Zone Structure for Reverse Lookups

    Very little of the new scheme's data actually appears under IP6.INT;
    only the first level of delegation needs to be under that domain.
    More levels of delegation could be placed under IP6.INT if some
    top-level delegations were done via NS records instead of DNAME
    records, but this would incur some cost in renumbering ease at the
    level of TLAs [AGGR].  Therefore, it is declared here that all
    address space delegations SHOULD be done by the DNAME mechanism
    rather than NS.

    In addition, since uniformity in deployment will simplify
    maintenance of address delegations, it is SUGGESTED that address and
    prefix information be stored immediately below a DNS label "IP6".
    Stated another way, conformance with this suggestion would mean that
    "IP6" is the first label in the RDATA field of DNAME records which
    support IPv6 reverse lookups.

    When any "reserved" or "must be zero" bits are adjacent to a
    delegation boundary, the higher-level entity MUST retain those bits
    in its own control and delegate only the bits over which the lower-
    level entity has authority.

    To find the name of a node given its IPv6 address, a DNS client MUST
    perform a query with QCLASS=IN, QTYPE=PTR on the name formed from
    the 128 bit address as one or more bit-string labels [BITLBL],
    followed by the two standard labels "IP6.INT".  If recursive service
    was not obtained from a server and the desired PTR record was not
    returned, the resolver MUST handle returned DNAME records as
    specified in [DNAME] and iterate.

5.  Modifications to Existing Query Types

    All existing query types that perform type A additional section
    processing, i.e. the name server (NS), mail exchange (MX), and
    mailbox (MB) query types, and the experimental AFS data base (AFSDB)
    and route through (RT) types, must be redefined to perform both type
    A and type A6 additional section processing.  These new definitions
    mean that a name server may add any relevant IPv4 addresses and any
    relevant A6 records available locally to the additional section of a
    response when processing any one of the above queries.

6.  Usage Illustrations

    This section provides examples of use of the mechanisms defined in
    the previous section.  All addresses and domains mentioned here are

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    intended to be fictitious and for illustrative purposes only.
    Example delegations will be on 4-bit boundaries solely for
    readability; this specification is indifferent to bit alignment.

    Use of the IPv6 aggregatable address format [AGGR] is assumed in the

6.1.  A6 Record Chains

    Let's take the example of a site X that is multi-homed to two
    "intermediate" providers A and B.  The provider A is itself multi-
    homed to two "transit" providers, C and D.  The provider B gets its
    transit service from a single provider, E.  For simplicity suppose
    that C, D and E all belong to the same top-level aggregate (TLA)
    with identifier (including format prefix) '2345', and the TLA
    authority at ALPHA-TLA.ORG assigns to C, D and E respectively the
    next level aggregate (NLA) prefixes 2345:00C0::/28, 2345:00D0::/28
    and 2345:000E::/32.

    C assigns the NLA prefix 2345:00C1:CA00::/40 to A, D assigns the
    prefix 2345:00D2:DA00::/40 to A and E assigns 2345:000E:EB00::/40 to

    A assigns to X the subscriber identification '11' and B assigns the
    subscriber identification '22'.  As a result, the site X inherits
    three address prefixes:

    o   2345:00C1:CA11::/48 from A, for routes through C.
    o   2345:00D2:DA11::/48 from A, for routes through D.
    o   2345:000E:EB22::/48 from B, for routes through E.

    Let us suppose that N is a node in the site X, that it is assigned
    to subnet number 1 in this site, and that it uses the interface
    identifier '1234:5678:9ABC:DEF0'.  In our configuration, this node
    will have three addresses:

    o   2345:00C1:CA11:0001:1234:5678:9ABC:DEF0
    o   2345:00D2:DA11:0001:1234:5678:9ABC:DEF0
    o   2345:000E:EB22:0001:1234:5678:9ABC:DEF0

    We will assume that the site X is represented in the DNS by the
    domain name X.EXAMPLE, while A, B, C, D and E are represented by
    A.NET, B.NET, C.NET, D.NET and E.NET.  In each of these domains, we
    assume a subdomain "IP6" that will hold the corresponding prefixes.
    The node N is identified by the domain name N.X.EXAMPLE.  The

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    following records would then appear in X's DNS.

           $ORIGIN X.EXAMPLE.
           N            A6 64 ::1234:5678:9ABC:DEF0 SUBNET-1.IP6
           SUBNET-1.IP6 A6 48 0:0:0:1::  IP6
           IP6          A6 48 0::0       SUBSCRIBER-X.IP6.A.NET.
           IP6          A6 48 0::0       SUBSCRIBER-X.IP6.B.NET.

    And elsewhere there would appear

         SUBSCRIBER-X.IP6.A.NET. A6 40 0:0:0011:: A.NET.IP6.C.NET.
         SUBSCRIBER-X.IP6.A.NET. A6 40 0:0:0011:: A.NET.IP6.D.NET.

         SUBSCRIBER-X.IP6.B.NET. A6 40 0:0:0022:: B-NET.IP6.E.NET.

         A.NET.IP6.C.NET. A6 28 0:0001:CA00:: C.NET.ALPHA-TLA.ORG.

         A.NET.IP6.D.NET. A6 28 0:0002:DA00:: D.NET.ALPHA-TLA.ORG.

         B-NET.IP6.E.NET. A6 32 0:0:EB00::    E.NET.ALPHA-TLA.ORG.

         C.NET.ALPHA-TLA.ORG. A6 0 2345:00C0::
         D.NET.ALPHA-TLA.ORG. A6 0 2345:00D0::
         E.NET.ALPHA-TLA.ORG. A6 0 2345:000E::

    Several more-or-less arbitrary assumptions are reflected in the
    above structure.  All of the following choices could have been made
    differently, according to someone's notion of convenience or an
    agreement between two parties.

        First, that site X has chosen to put subnet information in a
        separate A6 record rather than incorporate it into each node's
        A6 records.

        Second, that site X is referred to as "SUBSCRIBER-X" by both of
        its providers A and B.

        Third, that site X chose to indirect its provider information
        through A6 records at IP6.X.EXAMPLE containing no significant
        bits.  An alternative would have been to replicate each subnet
        record for each provider.

        Fourth, B and E used a slightly different prefix naming
        convention between themselves than did A, C and D.  Each
        hierarchical pair of network entities must arrange this naming
        between themselves.

        Fifth, that the upward prefix referral chain topped out at

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        ALPHA-TLA.ORG.  There could have been another level which
        assigned the TLA values and holds A6 records containing those

    Finally, the above structure reflects an assumption that address
    fields assigned by a given entity are recorded only in A6 records
    held by that entity.  Those bits could be entered into A6 records in
    the lower-level entity's zone instead, thus:

                 IP6.X.EXAMPLE. A6 40 0:0:11::   IP6.A.NET.
                 IP6.X.EXAMPLE. A6 40 0:0:22::   IP6.B.NET.

                 IP6.A.NET.     A6 28 0:1:CA00:: IP6.C.NET.
                 and so on.

    Or the higher-level entity could hold both sorts of A6 records and
    allow the lower-level entity to choose to record a copy of the
    delegated bits or refer to the higher-level entity's copy.  But the
    general rule of avoiding data duplication suggests that the proper
    place to store assigned values is with the entity that assigned

    It is possible, but not necessarily recommended, for a zone
    maintainer to forego the renumbering support afforded by the chaning
    of A6 records and to record entire IPv6 addresses within one zone

6.2.  Reverse Mapping Zones

    Supposing that address space assignments in the TLAs with Format
    Prefix (001) binary and IDs 0345, 0678 and 09AB were maintained in
    zones called ALPHA-TLA.ORG, BRAVO-TLA.ORG and CHARLIE-TLA.XY, then
    the IP6.INT zone would include

                $ORIGIN IP6.INT.
                \[x234500/24]   DNAME   IP6.ALPHA-TLA.ORG.
                \[x267800/24]   DNAME   IP6.BRAVO-TLA.ORG.
                \[x29AB00/24]   DNAME   IP6.CHARLIE-TLA.XY.

    Eight trailing zero bits have been included in each TLA ID to
    reflect the eight reserved bits in the current aggregatable global
    unicast addresses format [AGGR].

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6.2.1.  The TLA level

    ALPHA-TLA's assignments to network providers C, D and E are
    reflected in the reverse data as follows.

               \[xC/4].IP6.ALPHA-TLA.ORG.   DNAME  IP6.C.NET.
               \[xD/4].IP6.ALPHA-TLA.ORG.   DNAME  IP6.D.NET.
               \[x0E/8].IP6.ALPHA-TLA.ORG.  DNAME  IP6.E.NET.

6.2.2.  The ISP level

    The providers A through E carry the following delegation information
    in their zone files.

                \[x1CA/12].IP6.C.NET.  DNAME  IP6.A.NET.
                \[x2DA/12].IP6.D.NET.  DNAME  IP6.A.NET.
                \[xEB/8].IP6.E.NET.    DNAME  IP6.B.NET.
                \[x11/8].IP6.A.NET.    DNAME  IP6.X.EXAMPLE.
                \[x22/8].IP6.B.NET.    DNAME  IP6.X.EXAMPLE.

    Note that some domain names appear in the RDATA of more than one
    DNAME record.  In those cases, one zone is being used to map
    multiple prefixes.

6.2.3.  The Site Level

    Consider the customer X.EXAMPLE using IP6.X.EXAMPLE for address-to-
    name translations.  This domain is now referenced by two different
    DNAME records held by two different providers.

            $ORIGIN IP6.X.EXAMPLE.
            \[x0001/16]                    DNAME   SUBNET-1
            \[x123456789ABCDEF0].SUBNET-1  PTR     N.X.EXAMPLE.
            and so on.

    SUBNET-1 need not have been named in a DNAME record; the subnet bits
    could have been joined with the interface identifier.  But if
    subnets are treated alike in both the A6 records and in the reverse
    zone, it will always be possible to keep the forward and reverse
    definition data for each prefix in one zone.

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6.3.  Lookups

    A DNS resolver looking for a hostname for the address
    2345:00C1:CA11:0001:1234:5678:9ABC:DEF0 would acquire certain of the
    DNAME records shown above and would form new queries.  Assuming that
    it began the process knowing servers for IP6.INT, but that no server
    it consulted provided recursion and none had other useful additional
    information cached, the sequence of queried names and responses
    would be (all with QCLASS=IN, QTYPE=PTR):

    To a server for IP6.INT:

         \[x234500/24].IP6.INT. DNAME IP6.ALPHA-TLA.ORG.

    To a server for IP6.ALPHA-TLA.ORG:

         \[xC/4].IP6.ALPHA-TLA.ORG. DNAME IP6.C.NET.

    To a server for IP6.C.NET.:

         \[x1CA/12].IP6.C.NET. DNAME IP6.A.NET.

    To a server for IP6.A.NET.:

         \[x11/8].IP6.A.NET. DNAME IP6.X.EXAMPLE.

    To a server for IP6.X.EXAMPLE.:

         \[x0001/16].IP6.X.EXAMPLE. DNAME SUBNET-1.IP6.X.EXAMPLE.
         \[x123456789ABCDEF0/64].SUBNET-1.X.EXAMPLE. PTR N.X.EXAMPLE.

    All the DNAME (and NS) records acquired along the way can be cached
    to expedite resolution of addresses topologically near to this
    address.  And if another global address of N.X.EXAMPLE were resolved
    within the TTL of the final PTR record, that record would not have
    to be fetched again.

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6.4.  Deployment Note

    In the illustrations in section 6.1, hierarchically adjacent
    entities, such as a network provider and a customer, must agree on a
    DNS name which will own the definition of the delegated prefix(es).
    One simple convention would be to use a bit-string label
    representing exactly the bits which are assigned to the lower-level
    entity by the higher.  For example, "SUBSCRIBER-X" could be replaced
    by "\[x11/8]".  This would place the A6 record(s) defining the
    delegated prefix at exactly the same point in the DNS tree as the
    DNAME record associated with that delegation.  The cost of this
    simplification is that the lower-level zone must update its upward-
    pointing A6 records when it is renumbered.  This cost may be found
    quite acceptable in practice.

7.  Transition from AAAA Records

    Administrators of zones which contain A6 records can easily
    accommodate deployed resolvers which understand AAAA records but not
    A6 records.  Such administrators can do automatic generation of AAAA
    records for all of a zone's names which own A6 records by a process
    which mimics the resolution of a hostname to an IPv6 address (see
    section 4.1.4).  Attention must be paid to the TTL assigned to a
    generated AAAA record, which MUST be no more than the minimum of the
    TTLs of the A6 records that were used to form the IPv6 address in
    that records If the zone is secure [DNSSEC], the generated AAAA
    records SHOULD be signed along with the rest of the zone data.

    A zone-specific heuristic MAY be used to avoid generation of AAAA
    records for A6 records which record prefixes, although such
    superfluous records would be relatively few in number and harmless.
    Examples of such heuristics include omitting A6 records with a
    prefix length less than the largest value found in the zone file, or
    records with an address suffix field with a certain number of
    trailing zero bits.

    A server providing recursive service MAY be configurable to
    synthesize AAAA records from A6 records in response to clients' AAAA

8.  Security Considerations

    The signing authority [DNSSEC] for the A6 records which determine an
    IPv6 address is distributed among several entities, reflecting the
    delegation path of the address space which that address occupies.
    DNS Security is fully applicable to bit-string labels and DNAME

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    records.  However, just as with IPv4's IN-ADDR.ARPA, authentication
    of data in the reverse zones is not equivalent to authentication of
    any forward data.

9.  Acknowledgments

    The authors would like to thank the following persons for valuable
    discussions and reviews:  Jim Bound, Steve Deering, Robert Elz, Bob
    Fink, Olafur Gudmundsson, Bob Hinden, Bill Manning, Mike O'Dell and
    Ken Powell.

10.  References

    [AARCH]  Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
             Architecture", RFC 2373.

    [AGGR]   Hinden, R., O'Dell, M. and S. Deering, "An IPv6
             Aggregatable Global Unicast Address Format".  RFC 2374.

    [BITLBL] Crawford, M., "Binary Labels in the Domain Name System",
             currently draft-ietf-dnsind-binary-labels-03.txt.

    [DNAME]  Crawford, M., "Non-Terminal DNS Name Redirection",
             currently draft-ietf-dnsind-dname-00.txt.

    [DNSCF]  Mockapetris, P. V., "Domain names - concepts and
             facilities", RFC 1034.

    [DNSIS]  Mockapetris, P. V., "Domain names - implementation and
             specification", RFC 1035.

    [DNSSEC] Eastlake, D. 3rd and C. Kaufman, "Domain Name System
             Security Extensions", RFC 2065.

    [KWORD]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
             Requirement Levels," RFC 2119.

    [LOCOMP] Koch, P., "A New Scheme for the Compression of Domain
             Names", currently draft-ietf-dnsind-local-compression-

    [TRANS]  Gilligan, R. and E. Nordmark, "Transition Mechanisms for

Expires June 20, 1999       Crawford et al.                    [Page 14]

Internet Draft                  IPv6 DNS               December 15, 1998

             IPv6 Hosts and Routers", RFC 1933.

11.  Authors' Addresses

    Matt Crawford          Christian Huitema      Susan Thomson
    Fermilab               Bellcore               Bellcore
    MS 368                 MCC 1J236B             MCC 1C259B
    PO Box 500             445 South Street       445 South Street
    Batavia, IL 60510      Morristown, NJ 07960   Morristown, NJ 07960
    USA                    USA                    USA

    +1 630 840-3461        +1 201 829-4266        +1 201 829-4514
    crawdad@fnal.gov       huitema@bellcore.com   set@bellcore.com

Expires June 20, 1999       Crawford et al.                    [Page 15]