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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04                                                
Internet Printing Protocol Working Group                    Tom Hastings
INTERNET DRAFT                                                     Xerox
Expires 10 April 2000                                       Ira McDonald
                                                              High North
                                                         10 October 1999

        Internet Printing Protocol/1.1: Notifications over SNMP
                 <draft-ietf-ipp-not-over-snmp-00.txt>


    Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1999). All Rights Reserved.


Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.  Internet-Drafts are working
   documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas,
   and its working groups.  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   To view the list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories, see
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.


Abstract

   This document is a submission to the Internet Printing Protocol
   Working Group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).
   Comments should be submitted to the ipp@pwg.org mailing list.

   This document proposes a mapping of IPP notifications over SNMP,
   using new Printer Event and Job Event traps (to be added to the PWG
   Job Monitoring MIB [PWG-JOB]).  This mapping may be used to deliver
   printer notifications for any printer (not just IPP-capable ones) and
   also job notifications for any job (not just ones submitted via IPP).

   This document proposes:  (2) SNMP traps; (1) SNMP textual convention;
   and (4) SNMP leaf objects (for use in trap bindings).









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Table of Contents

1.  Introduction ...............................................       3
  1.1.  Terminology for Conformance ............................       3
2.  SNMP Network Management Framework ..........................       3
3.  Managed Object Mapping .....................................       3
  3.1.  SNMP Mapping for IPP Printer Events ....................       3
  3.2.  SNMP Mapping for IPP Job Events ........................       4
  3.3.  Rules for Encoding Notifications .......................       4
  3.4.  Registration for IPP Notifications .....................       5
    3.4.1.  Registration via IPP ...............................       5
    3.4.2.  Registration via SNMP ..............................       5
  3.5.  Relationship to other MIBs .............................       6
    3.5.1.  IETF Host Resources MIB (RFC 1514) .................       6
    3.5.2.  IETF Printer MIB (RFC 1759) ........................       6
    3.5.3.  Printer MIB v2 (work-in-progress) ..................       6
4.  Managed Object Definitions .................................       8
  4.1.  Printer Event Trap .....................................       8
    4.1.1.  jmPrinterEventV2Event (notification) ...............       8
  4.2.  Job Event Trap .........................................       9
    4.2.1.  jmJobEventV2Event (notification) ...................       9
  4.3.  Trigger Events .........................................      10
    4.3.1.  JmTriggerEventTC (textual convention) ..............      10
  4.4.  Event Objects ..........................................      11
    4.4.1.  jmEventTriggerEvent (object) .......................      11
    4.4.2.  jmEventSubscriptionID (object) .....................      11
    4.4.3.  jmEventSubscriberUserName (object) .................      12
    4.4.4.  jmEventSubscriberUserData (object) .................      12
5.  IANA Considerations ........................................      13
6.  Internationalization Considerations ........................      13
7.  Security Considerations ....................................      13
8.  References .................................................      14
9.  Intellectual Property Notice ...............................      14
10.  Authors' Addresses ........................................      14
11.  Full Copyright Statement ..................................      15
















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1.  Introduction

   The IPP protocol [IPP-PRO] supports passive monitoring of IPP Printer
   and Job objects, via client polling of IPP object attributes using
   the 'Get-Printer-Attributes' and 'Get-Job-Attributes' operations.

   This IPP Notifications over SNMP mapping supports dynamic monitoring
   of IPP Printer and Job objects, via server generation of SNMP traps.


   1.1.  Terminology for Conformance

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted per [RFC-2119].


2.  SNMP Network Management Framework

   See:  Section 1 'Introduction' and section 2 'Management Information'
         of IETF Coexistence between SNMPv1 and SNMPv2 [RFC-1908].

   See:  Section 1.1 'SNMPv1', section 1.2 'SNMPv2', and section 1.3
         'SNMPv3' of IETF Coexistence between SNMP Versions [V3-COEX].


3.  Managed Object Mapping



   3.1.  SNMP Mapping for IPP Printer Events

   IPP Printer event attribute         Printer/Job MIB object mapping
   ---------------------------         ------------------------------
   version-number                      [no mapping - not useful]
   status-code                         [implicit in generated trap]
   request-id                          [request-id in SNMP trap header]
   attributes-charset                  [no mapping - strings are UTF-8]
   attributes-natural-language         [no mapping - no text bindings]
   printer-uri                         [prtChannelInformation in PMv2]
   printer-name                        [prtGeneralPrinterName in PMv2]
   job-id                              jmJobIndex in OID instance suffix
   job-name                            jobName
   trigger-event                       jmEventTriggerEvent
   trigger-time                        [time-stamp in SNMP trap header]
   trigger-date-time                   hrSystemDate in Host Res MIB
   subscription-id                     jmEventSubscriptionID
   subscriber-user-name                jmEventSubscriberUserName
   subscriber-user-data                jmEventSubscriberUserData

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   printer-state                       hrDeviceStatus in Host Res MIB
                                       hrPrinterStatus in Host Res MIB
   printer-state-reasons               hrPrinterDetectedErrorState
                                       in Host Res MIB
   printer-is-accepting-jobs           [no mapping]


   3.2.  SNMP Mapping for IPP Job Events

   IPP Job event attribute             Printer/Job MIB object mapping
   -----------------------             ------------------------------
   version-number                      [no mapping - not useful]
   status-code                         [implicit in generated trap]
   request-id                          [request-id in SNMP trap header]
   attributes-charset                  [no mapping - strings are UTF-8]
   attributes-natural-language         [no mapping - no text bindings]
   printer-uri                         [prtChannelInformation in PMv2]
   printer-name                        [prtGeneralPrinterName in PMv2]
   job-id                              jmJobIndex in OID instance suffix
   job-name                            jobName
   trigger-event                       jmEventTriggerEvent
   trigger-time                        [time-stamp in SNMP trap header]
   trigger-date-time                   hrSystemDate in Host Res MIB
   subscription-id                     jmEventSubscriptionID
   subscriber-user-name                jmEventSubscriberUserName
   subscriber-user-data                jmEventSubscriberUserData
   job-state                           jmJobState
   job-state-reasons                   jmJobStateReasons1
                                       jmJobStateReasons2
                                       jmJobStateReasons3
                                       jmJobStateReasons4

   [job-completed|state-changed|purged - extra bindings]
   job-k-octets-processed              jmJobKOctetsProcessed
   job-impressions-completed           jmJobImpressionsCompleted
   job-media-sheets-completed          sheetsCompleted

   [job-progress - extra bindings]
   job-collation-type                  jobCollationType
   sheet-completed-copy-number         sheetCompletedCopyNumber
   sheet-completed-document-number     sheetCompletedDocumentNumber
   impressions-interpreted             impressionsInterpreted
   impressions-completed-current-copy  impressionsCompletedCurrentCopy


   3.3.  Rules for Encoding Notifications

   Over some transports and/or media, the variable-bindings of these
   SNMP traps MAY not fit the MTU (maximum transmission unit) size.
   Conforming IPP Notification generators SHALL perform this procedure
   to ensure that all variable-bindings of these SNMP traps are always

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   included in the generated SNMP trap packet:

   1)  Truncate all strings specified for variable-bindings
       to the reduced maximum sizes that are specified in their
       corresponding OBJECT clauses in their MODULE-COMPLIANCE.
   1a) If all variable-bindings now fit within the MTU,
       then exit this procedure and generate the SNMP trap.
   2)  Truncate the next one of the following string objects to
       the empty string (zero length in the ASN.1 BER encoding),
       in the order listed:
       - 'prtChannelInformation' (from Printer MIB v2 [PRT-MIB2])
       - 'prtGeneralPrinterName' (from Printer MIB v2 [PRT-MIB2])
       - 'jmEventSubscriberUserName'
       - 'jmEventSubscriberUserData'
       - 'jmAttributeValue...jobName.1'
   2a) If all variable-bindings now fit within the MTU,
       then exit this procedure and generate the SNMP trap.
   2b) If all variable-bindings do NOT fit within the MTU,
       then repeat step (2) for next string object.
   3)  If all variable-bindings do NOT fit within the MTU,
       then -> logic error (variable-bindings MUST now fit).


   3.4.  Registration for IPP Notifications

   IPP Clients may register for IPP Notifications delivered via SNMP by
   either of the following methods:


   3.4.1.  Registration via IPP

   IPP Create-Subscription and Job creation (Create-Job, Print-Job,
   Print-URI) operations MAY be used to create per-Printer or per-Job
   IPP Subscription objects and MAY specify

     'notify-recipient' = 'ipp-snmp://hostname[.port]'


   3.4.2.  Registration via SNMP

   SNMP Set-Request operations MAY be used to create appropriate rows in
   the SNMP Notification MIB defined in [RFC-2573] and MAY specify:

   1)  'snmpNotifyTag'
       - tag of this notification - see 'snmpTargetAddrTagList' below
       - example "jmPrinterEventV2Event" or "jmJobEventV2Event"
   2)  'snmpNotifyType'
       - notification sent using either SNMP Trap (unacknowledged)
         or SNMP Inform-Request (acknowledged)
   3)  'snmpNotifyStorageType'
       - row persistence of this registration

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   SNMP Set-Request operations MAY be used to create appropriate rows in
   the SNMP Target MIB defined in [RFC-2573] and MAY specify:

   1)  'snmpTargetAddrTDomain' and 'snmpTargetAddrTAddress'
       - target transport protocol and address (equivalent to URI)
   2)  'snmpTargetAddressTimeout' and 'snmpTargetAddrRetryCount'
       - retry timeout and limit (for acknowledged notifications
         delivered using SNMP Inform-Request rather than SNMP Trap)
   3)  'snmpTargetAddrTagList'
       - tags of notifications to be sent to this target (client)
       - example value "jmPrinterEventV2Event jmJobEventV2Event"
   4)  'snmpTargetAddrParamsEntry'
       - notification security and SNMP protocol version
   5)  'snmpTargetAddrStorageType'
       - row persistence of this registration


   3.5.  Relationship to other MIBs



   3.5.1.  IETF Host Resources MIB (RFC 1514)

   The 'jmPrinterEventV2Event' trap defined in this document includes a
   'hrDeviceStatus' object for a device of type 'hrDevicePrinter'.  The
   'jmPrinterEventV2Event' trap defined in this document includes four
   objects from the IETF HR MIB [RFC-1514] in the variable-bindings:

   - 'hrDeviceStatus' --> IPP 'printer-state'
   - 'hrPrinterStatus' --> IPP 'printer-state'
   - 'hrPrinterDetectedErrorState' --> IPP 'printer-state-reasons'
   - 'hrSystemDate' --> IPP 'printer-current-time'


   3.5.2.  IETF Printer MIB (RFC 1759)

   The 'jmPrinterEventV2Event' trap defined in this document includes a
   'hrDeviceStatus' object for a device of type 'hrDevicePrinter'.  The
   appropriate 'hrDeviceIndex' to use in the companion IETF Printer MIB
   [RFC-1759] is indicated by the instance suffix of the variable's OID.


   3.5.3.  Printer MIB v2 (work-in-progress)

   The 'jmPrinterEventV2Event' trap defined in this document includes
   two objects from the (work-in-progress) Printer MIB v2 [PRT-MIB2] in
   the variable-bindings:



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   - 'prtGeneralPrinterName' --> IPP 'printer-name'
   - 'prtChannelInformation' --> IPP 'printer-uri'


















































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4.  Managed Object Definitions



   4.1.  Printer Event Trap

   --  Printer Event Group (Cond Mandatory)
   --
   --  Implementation of this group is conditionally mandatory;
   --  mandatory for systems which send this Printer event via SNMP.

   jmPrinterEventV1Enterprise OBJECT-IDENTITY
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "The value of the enterprise-specific OID in an SNMPv1 trap
           for a 'basic-printer-event' sent by this managed system."
       ::= { jobmonMIBNotifications 1 }

   jmPrinterEventV2EventPrefix
       OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { jmPrinterEventV1Enterprise 0 }

   jmPrinterEventV2Event NOTIFICATION-TYPE
       OBJECTS {
           jmEventTriggerEvent,
           jmEventSubscriptionID,
           jmEventSubscriberUserName,
           jmEventSubscriberUserData,
           hrDeviceStatus,
           hrPrinterStatus,
           hrPrinterDetectedErrorState
       }
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This SMIv2 trap corresponds to an IPP 'basic-printer-event'.

           This trap is sent when requested by a prior subscription for
           the included printer-level 'jmEventTriggerEvent'.

           Additional variable-bindings SHALL be appended to this trap
           for all printer-level events:
           - Systems that support 'jobName' SHALL add
             'jmAttributeValue...jobName.1' (if job-level subscription)
           - Systems that support 'hrSystemDate' defined in
             the IETF Host Resources MIB (RFC 1514) SHALL add
             'hrSystemDate' (corresponds to IPP 'printer-current-time')

           Additional variable-bindings SHOULD be appended to this trap
           for all printer-level events:
           - Systems that support 'prtChannelInformation' defined in

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             the (work-in-progress) Printer MIB v2 [PRT-MIB2] SHOULD add
             'prtChannelInformation' (corresponds to IPP 'printer-uri')
           - Systems that support 'prtGeneralPrinterName' defined in
             the (work-in-progress) Printer MIB v2 [PRT-MIB2] SHOULD add
             'prtGeneralPrinterName' (corresponds to IPP 'printer-name')

           Systems MAY add other variable-bindings from any MIB."
       ::= { jmPrinterEventV2EventPrefix 1 }


   4.2.  Job Event Trap

   --  Job Event Group (Cond Mandatory)
   --
   --  Implementation of this group is conditionally mandatory;
   --  mandatory for systems which send this Job event via SNMP.

   jmJobEventV1Enterprise OBJECT-IDENTITY
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "The value of the enterprise-specific OID in an SNMPv1 trap
           for a 'basic-job-event' sent by this managed system."
       ::= { jobmonMIBNotifications 2 }

   jmJobEventV2EventPrefix
       OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { jmJobEventV1Enterprise 0 }

   jmJobEventV2Event NOTIFICATION-TYPE
       OBJECTS {
           jmEventTriggerEvent,
           jmEventSubscriptionID,
           jmEventSubscriberUserName,
           jmEventSubscriberUserData,
           jmJobState,
           jmJobStateReasons1
       }
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "This SMIv2 trap corresponds to an IPP 'basic-job-event'.

           This trap is sent when requested by a prior subscription for
           the included job-level 'jmEventTriggerEvent'.

           Additional variable-bindings SHALL be appended to this trap
           for all job-level events:
           - Systems that support 'jobName' SHALL add
             'jmAttributeValue...jobName.1'
           - Systems that support 'jobStateReasonsN' SHALL add
             'jmAttributeValue...jobStateReasonsN.1'
           - Systems that support 'hrSystemDate' defined in
             the IETF Host Resources MIB (RFC 1514) SHALL add

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             'hrSystemDate' (corresponds to IPP 'printer-current-time')

           Additional variable-bindings SHOULD be appended to this trap
           for all job-level events:
           - Systems that support 'prtChannelInformation' defined in
             the (work-in-progress) Printer MIB v2 [PRT-MIB2] SHOULD add
             'prtChannelInformation' (corresponds to IPP 'printer-uri')
           - Systems that support 'prtGeneralPrinterName' defined in
             the (work-in-progress) Printer MIB v2 [PRT-MIB2] SHOULD add
             'prtGeneralPrinterName' (corresponds to IPP 'printer-name')

           Additional variable-bindings SHALL be appended to this trap
           for 'jobCompleted', 'jobStateChanged', or 'jobPurged':
           - Systems SHALL add
             'jmJobKOctetsProcessed'
             'jmJobImpressionsCompleted'
           - Systems that support 'sheetsCompleted' SHALL add
             'jmAttributeValue...sheetsCompleted.1'

           Additional variable-bindings SHALL be appended to this trap
           for 'jobProgress':
           - Systems that support the respective attributes SHALL add
             'jmAttributeValue...jobCollationType.1'
             'jmAttributeValue...sheetCompletedCopyNumber.1'
             'jmAttributeValue...sheetCompletedDocumentNumber.1'
             'jmAttributeValue...impressionsInterpreted.1'
             'jmAttributeValue...impressionsCompletedCurrentCopy.1'

           Systems MAY add other variable-bindings from any MIB."
       ::= { jmJobEventV2EventPrefix 1 }


   4.3.  Trigger Events

   JmTriggerEventTC ::= TEXTUAL-CONVENTION
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "The trigger event type associated with this event.

           See:    Section 5.2 'notify-events' and
                   Section 7 'Notification Content' in [IPP-NOT]."
       SYNTAX      INTEGER {
           other(1),
           unknown(2),
           none(3),                        -- SHOULD not be used
           printerRestarted(11),           -- 'printer-restarted'
           printerShutdown(12),            -- 'printer-shutdown'
           printerStateChanged(13),        -- 'printer-state-changed'
           printerMediaChanged(14),        -- 'printer-media-changed'
           printerConfigChanged(15),       -- 'printer-config-changed'
           printerQueueChanged(16),        -- 'printer-queue-changed'

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           printerNoLongerFull(17),        -- 'printer-no-longer-full'
           printerAlmostIdle(18),          -- 'printer-almost-idle'
           jobCreated(21),                 -- 'job-created'
           jobCompleted(22),               -- 'job-completed'
           jobStateChanged(23),            -- 'job-state-changed'
           jobConfigChanged(24),           -- 'job-config-changed'
           jobPurged(25),                  -- 'job-purged'
           jobProgress(26)                 -- 'job-progress'
       }


   4.4.  Event Objects

   --  Event Group (Cond Mandatory)
   --
   --  Implementation of this group is conditionally mandatory;
   --  mandatory for systems which support Job events via SNMP.

   jmEvent             OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { jobmonMIBObjects 5 }

   jmEventTriggerEvent OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      JmTriggerEventTC
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "The trigger event type associated with this event.

           Conformance:  This trigger event type SHALL be valid and
           consistent with [IPP-NOT].

           See:    Section 5.2 'notify-events' and
                   Section 7 'Notification Content' in [IPP-NOT]."
   --  DEFVAL intentionally omitted - trigger event SHALL be valid
       ::= { jmEvent 1 }

   jmEventSubscriptionID OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      Integer32 (0..2147483647)
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "The subscription identifier associated with this event
           or zero (if none).

           Conformance:    This subscription identifier SHALL be valid
           and non-zero, if available on this managed system.

           See:    Section 5.8 'subscription-id' and
                   Section 7 'Notification Content' in [IPP-NOT]."
       DEFVAL      { 0 }                   -- no subscription ID
       ::= { jmEvent 2 }


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   jmEventSubscriberUserName OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      JmUTF8StringTC (SIZE (0..63))   -- 1023 in [IPP-MOD]
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "The subscriber user name associated with this event
           or the empty string (if none).

           Note:  The natural language appropriate for text-to-speech
           of subscriber user name is orthogonal to the localized text
           context in IPP 'attributes-natural-language'.  The subscriber
           user name MAY include an in-line 'language tag' using Plane
           14 'language tag' characters proposed for ISO 10646/Unicode.

           Conformance:    This subscriber user name SHALL be valid
           and non-empty, if available on this managed system.

           See:    Section 4.3.6 'job-originating-user-name' and
                   Section 4.4.2 'uri-authentication-supported'
                   (usage of 'requesting-user-name') in [IPP-MOD];
                   Section 5.11 'subscriber-user-name' and
                   Section 7 'Notification Content' in [IPP-NOT]."
       DEFVAL      { ''H }                 -- no subscriber user name
       ::= { jmEvent 3 }

   jmEventSubscriberUserData OBJECT-TYPE
       SYNTAX      OCTET STRING (SIZE (0..63))     -- 63 in [IPP-NOT]
       MAX-ACCESS  read-only
       STATUS      current
       DESCRIPTION
           "The subscriber user data associated with this event
           or the empty string (if none).

           Conformance:    This subscriber user data SHALL be valid
           and conserved, if available on this managed system.

           See:    Section 5.4 'subscriber-user-data' and
                   Section 7 'Notification Content' in [IPP-NOT]."
       DEFVAL      { ''H }                 -- no subscriber user data
       ::= { jmEvent 4 }











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5.  IANA Considerations

   None - the only enumerated textual convention defined in this documen
   is proposed for addition to the PWG Job Monitoring MIB which is not a
   IETF standards track document.  The PWG does maintain a registration
   process for updates to the PWG Job Monitoring MIB.


6.  Internationalization Considerations

   The 'jmEventSubscriberUserName' text string defined in this document
   of type 'JmUTF8StringTC' (UTF-8 stream-encoded ISO 10646/Unicode text
   defined in the PWG Job Monitoring MIB [PWG-JOB].  The natural languag
   of this object is inherently ambiguous (as it usually contains some
   transform of a personal name).


7.  Security Considerations

   This IPP Notifications over SNMP mapping defines only 'read-only'
   objects.  It is suitable for use with any version of SNMP, as no upda
   security is required (because no configuration updates are supported)

   No sensitive information is available via IPP Notifications over SNMP


























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8.  References

   To be supplied.


9.  Intellectual Property Notice

   The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any
   intellectual property or other rights that might be claimed to
   pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in
   this document or the extent to which any license under such rights
   might or might not be available; neither does it represent that it
   has made any effort to identify any such rights.  Information on the
   IETF's procedures with respect to rights in standards-track and
   standards-related documentation can be found in BCP-11.  Copies of
   claims of rights made available for publication and any assurances of
   licenses to be made available, or the result of an attempt made to
   obtain a general license or permission for the use of such
   proprietary rights by implementers or users of this specification can
   be obtained from the IETF Secretariat.

   The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
   copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary
   rights which may cover technology that may be required to practice
   this standard.  Please address the information to the IETF Executive
   Director.


10.  Authors' Addresses

   Tom Hastings
   Xerox Corporation
   701 S Aviation Blvd, MS 834-03E
   El Segundo, CA  90245

   Phone: +1 310-333-6413
   Email: hastings@cp10.es.xerox.com


   Ira McDonald
   High North Inc
   221 Ridge Ave
   Grand Marais, MI  49839

   Phone: +1 906-494-2434 or +1 906-494-2697
   Email: imcdonal@sdsp.mc.xerox.com




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11.  Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1999).  All Rights Reserved.

   This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
   others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
   or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
   and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
   kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
   included on all such copies and derivative works.  However, this
   document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
   the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
   Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of
   developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for
   copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be
   followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than
   English.

   The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
   revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.

   This document and the information contained herein is provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING
   TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING
   BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION
   HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
   MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.























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