IP Performance Measurement                                     C. Paasch
Internet-Draft                                                  R. Meyer
Intended status: Experimental                                S. Cheshire
Expires: September 5, 2022                                    O. Shapira
                                                              Apple Inc.
                                                               M. Mathis
                                                             Google, Inc
                                                          March 04, 2022


                Responsiveness under Working Conditions
                   draft-ietf-ippm-responsiveness-00

Abstract

   For many years, a lack of responsiveness, variously called lag,
   latency, or bufferbloat, has been recognized as an unfortunate, but
   common symptom in today's networks.  Even after a decade of work on
   standardizing technical solutions, it remains a common problem for
   the end users.

   Everyone "knows" that it is "normal" for a video conference to have
   problems when somebody else at home is watching a 4K movie or
   uploading photos from their phone.  However, there is no technical
   reason for this to be the case.  In fact, various queue management
   solutions (fq_codel, cake, PIE) have solved the problem.

   Our networks remain unresponsive, not from a lack of technical
   solutions, but rather a lack of awareness of the problem.  We believe
   that creating a tool whose measurement matches people's every day
   experience will create the necessary awareness, and result in a
   demand for products that solve the problem.

   This document specifies the "RPM Test" for measuring responsiveness.
   It uses common protocols and mechanisms to measure user experience
   especially when the network is under working conditions.  The
   measurement is expressed as "Round-trips Per Minute" (RPM) and should
   be included with throughput (up and down) and idle latency as
   critical indicators of network quality.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute




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   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on September 5, 2022.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.1.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Design Constraints  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   4.  Measuring Responsiveness Under Working Conditions . . . . . .   5
     4.1.  Working Conditions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       4.1.1.  From single-flow to multi-flow  . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       4.1.2.  Parallel vs Sequential Uplink and Downlink  . . . . .   6
       4.1.3.  Reaching saturation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       4.1.4.  Final "Working Conditions" Algorithm  . . . . . . . .   7
     4.2.  Measuring Responsiveness  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       4.2.1.  Aggregating the Measurements  . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       4.2.2.  Statistical Confidence  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   5.  Interpreting responsiveness results . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     5.1.  Elements influencing responsiveness . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       5.1.1.  Client side influence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       5.1.2.  Network influence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       5.1.3.  Server side influence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     5.2.  Root-causing Responsiveness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   6.  RPM Test Server API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13



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   8.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   9.  Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   10. Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14

1.  Introduction

   For many years, a lack of responsiveness, variously called lag,
   latency, or bufferbloat, has been recognized as an unfortunate, but
   common symptom in today's networks [Bufferbloat].  Solutions like
   fq_codel [RFC8290] or PIE [RFC8033] have been standardized and are to
   some extent widely implemented.  Nevertheless, people still suffer
   from bufferbloat.

   Although significant, the impact on user experience can be transitory
   - that is, its effect is not always present.  Whenever a network is
   actively being used at its full capacity, buffers can fill up and
   create latency for traffic.  The duration of those full buffers may
   be brief: a medium-sized file transfer, like an email attachment or
   uploading photos, can create bursts of latency spikes.  An example of
   this is lag occurring during a videoconference, where a connection is
   briefly shown as unstable.

   These short-lived disruptions make it hard to narrow down the cause.
   We believe that it is necessary to create a standardized way to
   measure and express responsiveness.

   Existing network measurement tools could incorporate a responsiveness
   measurement into their set of metrics.  Doing so would also raise the
   awareness of the problem and make the standard "network quality
   measures" of throughput, idle latency, and responsiveness.

1.1.  Terminology

   A word about the term "bufferbloat" - the undesirable latency that
   comes from a router or other network equipment buffering too much
   data.  This document uses the term as a general description of bad
   latency, using more precise wording where warranted.

   "Latency" is a poor measure of responsiveness, since it can be hard
   for the general public to understand.  The units are unfamiliar
   ("what is a millisecond?") and counterintuitive ("100 msec - that
   sounds good - it's only a tenth of a second!").

   Instead, we create the term "Responsiveness under working conditions"
   to make it clear that we are measuring all, not just idle,
   conditions, and use "round-trips per minute" as the metric.  The
   advantage of round-trips per minute are two-fold: First, it allows



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   for a metric that is "the higher the better".  This kind of metric is
   often more intuitive for end-users.  Second, the range of the values
   tends to be around the 4-digit integer range which is also a value
   easy to compare and read, again allowing for a more intuitive use.
   Finally, we abbreviate the measurement to "RPM", a wink to the
   "revolutions per minute" that we use for cars.

   This document defines an algorithm for the "RPM Test" that explicitly
   measures responsiveness under working conditions.

2.  Design Constraints

   There are many challenges around measurements on the Internet.  They
   include the dynamic nature of the Internet, the diverse nature of the
   traffic, the large number of devices that affect traffic, and the
   difficulty of attaining appropriate measurement conditions.

   Internet paths are changing all the time.  Daily fluctuations in the
   demand make the bottlenecks ebb and flow.  To minimize the
   variability of routing changes, it's best to keep the test duration
   relatively short.

   TCP and UDP traffic, or traffic on ports 80 and 443, may take
   significantly different paths on the Internet and be subject to
   entirely different Quality of Service (QoS) treatment.  A good test
   will use standard transport layer traffic - typical for people's use
   of the network - that is subject to the transport's congestion
   control that might reduce the traffic's rate and thus its buffering
   in the network.

   Traditionally, one thinks of bufferbloat happening on the routers and
   switches of the Internet.  However, the networking stacks of the
   clients and servers can have huge buffers.  Data sitting in TCP
   sockets or waiting for the application to send or read causes
   artificial latency, and affects user experience the same way as
   "traditional" bufferbloat.

   Finally, it is important to note that queueing only happens behind a
   slow "bottleneck" link in the network, and only occurs when
   sufficient traffic is present.  The RPM Test must ensure that buffers
   are actually full for a sustained period, and only then make repeated
   latency measurements in this particular state.

3.  Goals

   The algorithm described here defines an RPM Test that serves as a
   good proxy for user experience.  This means:




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   1.  Today's Internet traffic primarily uses HTTP/2 over TLS.  Thus,
       the algorithm should use that protocol.

       As a side note: other types of traffic are gaining in popularity
       (HTTP/3) and/or are already being used widely (RTP).  Traffic
       prioritization and QoS rules on the Internet may subject traffic
       to completely different paths: these could also be measured
       separately.

   2.  The Internet is marked by the deployment of countless middleboxes
       like transparent TCP proxies or traffic prioritization for
       certain types of traffic.  The RPM Test must take into account
       their effect on DNS-request [RFC1035], TCP-handshake [RFC0793],
       TLS-handshake, and request/response.

   3.  The test result should be expressed in an intuitive, nontechnical
       form.

   4.  Finally, to be useful to a wide audience, the measurement should
       finish within a short time frame.  Our target is 20 seconds.

4.  Measuring Responsiveness Under Working Conditions

   To make an accurate measurement, the algorithm must reliably put the
   network in a state that represents those "working conditions".  Once
   the network has reached that state, the algorithm can measure its
   responsiveness.  The following explains how the former and the latter
   are achieved.

4.1.  Working Conditions

   There are many different ways to define the state of "working
   conditions" to measure responsiveness.  There is no one true answer
   to this question.  It is a tradeoff between using realistic traffic
   patterns and pushing the network to its limits.

   In this document we aim to generate a realistic traffic pattern by
   using standard HTTP transactions but exploring the worst-case
   scenario by creating multiple of these transactions and using very
   large data objects in these HTTP transactions.

   This allows to create a stable state of working conditions during
   which the network is used at its nearly full capacity, without
   generating DoS-like traffic patterns (e.g., UDP flooding).  When
   reaching these stable conditions (called "saturation") the latency on
   the network is stable enough to allow to measure the responsiveness
   during that time.  Thus, the algorithm must detect when the network
   is reaching this point of saturation to trigger the latency probes.



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   Finally, as end-user usage of the network evolves to newer protocols
   and congestion control algorithms, it is important that the working
   conditions also can evolve to continuously represent a realistic
   traffic pattern.

4.1.1.  From single-flow to multi-flow

   A single TCP connection may not be sufficient to reach the capacity
   of a path.  For example, the 4MB constraints on TCP window size
   constraints may not fill the pipe.  Additionally, traditional loss-
   based TCP congestion control algorithms react aggressively to packet
   loss by reducing the congestion window.  This reaction (intended by
   the protocol design) decreases the queueing within the network,
   making it hard to reach the path's capacity.

   The goal of the RPM Test is to keep the network in working conditions
   in a sustained and persistent way.  It uses multiple TCP connections
   and gradually adds more TCP flows until saturation is reached.

4.1.2.  Parallel vs Sequential Uplink and Downlink

   Poor responsiveness can be caused by queues in either (or both) the
   upstream and the downstream direction.  Furthermore, both paths may
   differ significantly due to access link conditions (e.g., 5G
   downstream and LTE upstream) or the routing changes within the ISPs.
   To measure responsiveness under working conditions, the algorithm
   must explore both directions.

   One approach could be to measure responsiveness in the uplink and
   downlink in parallel.  It would allow for a shorter test run-time.

   However, a number of caveats come with measuring in parallel:

   o  Half-duplex links may not permit simultaneous uplink and downlink
      traffic.  This means the test might not reach the path's capacity
      in both directions at once and thus not expose all the potential
      sources of low responsiveness.

   o  Debuggability of the results becomes harder: During parallel
      measurement it is impossible to differentiate whether the observed
      latency happens in the uplink or the downlink direction.

   Thus, we recommend testing uplink and downlink sequentially.
   Parallel testing is considered a future extension.







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4.1.3.  Reaching saturation

   The RPM Test gradually increases the number of TCP connections and
   measures "goodput" - the sum of actual data transferred across all
   connections in a unit of time.  When the goodput stops increasing, it
   means that the network is used at its full capacity, meaning the path
   is saturated.  At this point we are creating the worst-case scenario
   within the limits of the realistic traffic pattern.

   The algorithm notes that throughput gradually increases until TCP
   connections complete their TCP slow-start phase.  At that point,
   throughput eventually stalls usually due to receive window
   limitations.  The only means to further increase throughput is by
   adding more TCP connections to the pool of load-generating
   connections.  If new connections leave the throughput the same,
   saturation has been reached and - more importantly - the working
   condition is stable.

4.1.4.  Final "Working Conditions" Algorithm

   The following algorithm reaches working conditions of a network by
   using HTTP/2 upload (POST) or download (GET) requests of infinitely
   large files.  The algorithm is the same for upload and download and
   uses the same term "load-generating connection" for each.  The
   actions of the algorithm take place at regular intervals.  For the
   current draft the interval is defined as one (1) second.

   Where

   o  i: The index of the current interval. i is initialized to 0 when
      the algorithm begins and increases by one for each interval.

   o  instantaneous aggregate goodput at interval p: The number of total
      bytes of data transferred within interval p.  If p is less than 0,
      the number of total bytes of data transferred within the interval
      is considered to be 0.

   o  moving average aggregate goodput at interval p: The average of the
      number of total bytes of data transferred in the instantaneous
      average aggregate goodput at intervals p - x, for all 0<=x<4.

   o  moving average stability during the period between intervals b and
      e: Whether or not the differences between the moving average
      aggregate goodput at interval x and the moving average aggregate
      goodput at interval x+1 (for all b<=x<e) is less than 5%.

   the steps of the algorithm are:




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   o  Create four (4) load-generating connections.

   o  At each interval:

      *  Compute the instantaneous aggregate goodput at interval i.

      *  Compute the moving average aggregate goodput at interval i.

      *  If the moving average aggregate goodput at interval i is more
         than a 5% increase over the moving average aggregate goodput at
         interval i - 1, the network has not yet reached saturation.

         +  If no load-generating connections have been added within the
            last four (4) intervals, add four (4) more load-generating
            connections.

      *  Else, the network has reached saturation with the existing
         load-generating connections.  The current state is a candidate
         for stable working conditions.

         +  If a) there have been load-generating connections added in
            the past four (4) intervals and b) there has been moving
            average stability during the period between intervals i-4
            and i, then the network has reached stable saturation and
            the algorithm terminates.

         +  Otherwise, add four (4) more load-generating connections.

   In Section 3, it is mentioned that one of the goals is that the test
   finishes within 20 seconds.  It is left to the implementation what to
   do when saturation is not reached within that time-frame.  For
   example, an implementation might gather a provisional responsiveness
   measurement or let the test run for longer.

   Note: It is tempting to envision an initial base round-trip time
   (RTT) measurement and adjust the intervals as a function of that RTT.
   However, experiments have shown that this makes the saturation
   detection extremely unstable in low RTT environments.  In the
   situation where the "unloaded" RTT is in the single-digit millisecond
   range, yet the network's RTT increases under load to more than a
   hundred milliseconds, the intervals become much too low to accurately
   drive the algorithm.

4.2.  Measuring Responsiveness

   Once the network is in a consistent working conditions, the RPM Test
   must "probe" the network multiple times to measure its
   responsiveness.



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   Each RPM Test probe measures:

   1.  The responsiveness of the different steps to create a new
       connection, all during working conditions.

       To do this, the test measures the time needed to make a DNS
       request, establish a TCP connection on port 443, establish a TLS
       context using TLS1.3 [RFC8446], and send and receive a one-byte
       object with a HTTP/2 GET request.  It repeats these steps
       multiple times for accuracy.

   2.  The responsiveness of the network and the client/server
       networking stacks for the load-generating connections themselves.

       To do this, the load-generating connections multiplex an HTTP/2
       GET request for a one-byte object to get the end-to-end latency
       on the connections that are using the network at full speed.

4.2.1.  Aggregating the Measurements

   The algorithm produces sets of 5 times for each probe, namely: DNS
   handshake, TCP handshake, TLS handshake, HTTP/2 request/response on
   separate (idle) connections, HTTP/2 request/response on load-
   generating connections.  This fine-grained data is useful, but not
   necessary for creating a useful metric.

   To create a single "Responsiveness" (e.g., RPM) number, this first
   iteration of the algorithm gives an equal weight to each of these
   values.  That is, it sums the five time values for each probe, and
   divides by the total number of probes to compute an average probe
   duration.  The reciprocal of this, normalized to 60 seconds, gives
   the Round-trips Per Minute (RPM).

4.2.2.  Statistical Confidence

   The number of probes necessary for statistical confidence is an open
   question.  One could imagine a computation of the variance and
   confidence interval that would drive the number of measurements and
   balance the accuracy with the speed of the measurement itself.

5.  Interpreting responsiveness results

   The described methodology uses a high-level approach to measure
   responsiveness.  By executing the test with regular HTTP requests a
   number of elements come into play that will influence the result.
   Contrary to more traditional measurement methods the responsiveness
   metric is not only influenced by the properties of the network but
   can significantly be influenced by the properties of the client and



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   the server implementations.  This section describes how the different
   elements influence responsiveness and how a user may differentiate
   them when debugging a network.

5.1.  Elements influencing responsiveness

   Due to the HTTP-centric approach of the measurement methodology a
   number of factors come into play that influence the results.  Namely,
   the client-side networking stack (from the top of the HTTP-layer all
   the way down to the physical layer), the network (including potential
   transparent HTTP "accelerators"), and the server-side networking
   stack.  The following outlines how each of these contributes to the
   responsiveness.

5.1.1.  Client side influence

   As the driver of the measurement, the client-side networking stack
   can have a large influence on the result.  The biggest influence of
   the client comes when measuring the responsiveness in the uplink
   direction.  Load-generation will cause queue-buildup in the transport
   layer as well as the HTTP layer.  Additionally, if the network's
   bottleneck is on the first hop, queue-buildup will happen at the
   layers below the transport stack (e.g., NIC firmware).

   Each of these queue build-ups may cause latency and thus low
   responsiveness.  A well-designed networking stack would ensure that
   queue-buildup in the TCP layer layer is kept at a bare minimum with
   solutions like TCP_NOTSENT_LOWAT [draft-ietf-tcpm-rfc793bis].  At the
   HTTP/2 layer it is important that the load-generating data is not
   interfering with the latency-measuring probes.  For example, the
   different streams should not be stacked one after the other but
   rather be allowed to be multiplexed for optimal latency.  The queue-
   buildup at these layers would only influence latency on the probes
   that are sent on the load-generating connections.

   Below the transport layer many places have a potential queue build-
   up.  It is important to keep these queues at reasonable sizes or that
   they implement techniques like FQ-Codel.  Depending on the techniques
   used at these layers, the queue build-up can influence latency on
   probes sent on load-generating connections as well as separate
   connections.  If flow-queuing is used at these layers, the impact on
   separate connections will be negligible.

5.1.2.  Network influence

   The network obviously is a large driver for the responsiveness
   result.  Propagation delay from the client to the server as well as
   queuing in the bottleneck node will cause latency.  Beyond these



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   traditional sources of latency, other factors may influence the
   results as well.  Many networks deploy transparent TCP Proxies,
   firewalls doing deep packet-inspection, HTTP "accelerators",... As
   the methodology relies on the use of HTTP/2, the responsiveness
   metric will be influenced by such devices as well.

   The network will influence both kinds of latency probes that the
   responsiveness tests sends out.  Depending on the network's use of
   Smart Queue Management and whether this includes flow-queuing or not,
   the latency probes on the load-generating connections may be
   influenced differently than the probes on the separate connections.

5.1.3.  Server side influence

   Finally, the server-side introduces the same kind of influence on the
   responsiveness as the client-side.  With the difference that the
   responsiveness will be impacted during the downlink load generation.

5.2.  Root-causing Responsiveness

   Once an RPM result has been generated one might be tempted to try to
   localize the source of a potential low responsiveness.  The
   responsiveness measurement is however aimed at providing a quick,
   top-level view of the responsiveness under working conditions the way
   end-users experience it.  Localizing the source of low responsiveness
   involves however a set of different tools and methodologies.

   Nevertheless, the responsiveness test allows to gain some insight
   into what the source of the latency is.  The previous section
   described the elements that influence the responsiveness.  From there
   it became apparent that the latency measured on the load-generating
   connections and the latency measured on separate connections may be
   different due to the different elements.

   For example, if the latency measured on separate connections is much
   less than the latency measured on the load-generating connections, it
   is possible to narrow down the source of the additional latency on
   the load-generating connections.  As long as the other elements of
   the network don't do flow-queueing, the additional latency must come
   from the queue build-up at the HTTP and TCP layer.  This is because
   all other bottlenecks in the network that may cause a queue build-up
   will be affecting the load-generating connections as well as the
   separate latency probing connections in the same way.








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6.  RPM Test Server API

   The RPM measurement uses standard protocols: no new protocol is
   defined.

   Both the client and the server MUST support HTTP/2 over TLS 1.3.  The
   client MUST be able to send a GET request and a POST.  The server
   MUST be able to respond to both of these HTTP commands.  Further, the
   server endpoint MUST be accessible through a hostname that can be
   resolved through DNS.  The server MUST have the ability to provide
   content upon a GET request.  Both client and server SHOULD use loss-
   based congestion controls like Cubic.  The server MUST use a packet
   scheduling algorithm that minimizes internal queueing to avoid
   affecting the client's measurement.

   The server MUST respond to 4 URLs:

   1.  A "small" URL/response: The server must respond with a status
       code of 200 and 1 byte in the body.  The actual body content is
       irrelevant.

   2.  A "large" URL/response: The server must respond with a status
       code of 200 and a body size of at least 8GB.  The body can be
       bigger, and may need to grow as network speeds increases over
       time.  The actual body content is irrelevant.  The client will
       probably never completely download the object, but will instead
       close the connection after reaching working condition and making
       its measurements.

   3.  An "upload" URL/response: The server must handle a POST request
       with an arbitrary body size.  The server should discard the
       payload.

   4.  A configuration URL that returns a JSON [RFC8259] object with the
       information the client uses to run the test (sample below).
       Sample JSON:



{
  "version": 1,
  "urls": {
    "small_https_download_url": "https://networkquality.example.com/api/v1/small",
    "large_https_download_url": "https://networkquality.example.com/api/v1/large",
    "https_upload_url": "https://networkquality.example.com/api/v1/upload"
  }
}




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   The client begins the responsiveness measurement by querying for the
   JSON configuration.  This supplies the URLs for creating the load-
   generating connections in the upstream and downstream direction as
   well as the small object for the latency measurements.

7.  Security Considerations

   TBD

8.  IANA Considerations

   TBD

9.  Acknowledgments

   We would like to thank Rich Brown for his editorial pass over this
   I-D.  We also thank Erik Auerswald and Will Hawkins for their
   constructive feedback on the I-D.

10.  Informative References

   [Bufferbloat]
              Gettys, J. and K. Nichols, "Bufferbloat: Dark Buffers in
              the Internet", Communications of the ACM, Volume 55,
              Number 1 (2012) , n.d..

   [draft-ietf-tcpm-rfc793bis]
              Eddy, W., "Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
              Specification", Internet Engineering Task Force , n.d..

   [RFC0793]  Postel, J., "Transmission Control Protocol", STD 7,
              RFC 793, DOI 10.17487/RFC0793, September 1981,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc793>.

   [RFC1035]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and
              specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, DOI 10.17487/RFC1035,
              November 1987, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1035>.

   [RFC8033]  Pan, R., Natarajan, P., Baker, F., and G. White,
              "Proportional Integral Controller Enhanced (PIE): A
              Lightweight Control Scheme to Address the Bufferbloat
              Problem", RFC 8033, DOI 10.17487/RFC8033, February 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8033>.

   [RFC8259]  Bray, T., Ed., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data
              Interchange Format", STD 90, RFC 8259,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8259, December 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8259>.



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   [RFC8290]  Hoeiland-Joergensen, T., McKenney, P., Taht, D., Gettys,
              J., and E. Dumazet, "The Flow Queue CoDel Packet Scheduler
              and Active Queue Management Algorithm", RFC 8290,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8290, January 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8290>.

   [RFC8446]  Rescorla, E., "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol
              Version 1.3", RFC 8446, DOI 10.17487/RFC8446, August 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8446>.

Authors' Addresses

   Christoph Paasch
   Apple Inc.
   One Apple Park Way
   Cupertino, California 95014
   United States of America

   Email: cpaasch@apple.com


   Randall Meyer
   Apple Inc.
   One Apple Park Way
   Cupertino, California 95014
   United States of America

   Email: rrm@apple.com


   Stuart Cheshire
   Apple Inc.
   One Apple Park Way
   Cupertino, California 95014
   United States of America

   Email: cheshire@apple.com


   Omer Shapira
   Apple Inc.
   One Apple Park Way
   Cupertino, California 95014
   United States of America

   Email: oesh@apple.com





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   Matt Mathis
   Google, Inc
   1600 Amphitheatre Parkway
   Mountain View, CA  94043
   United States of America

   Email: mattmathis@google.com












































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