IPR Working Group                                                S. Brim
Internet-Draft                                       Cisco Systems, Inc.
Expires: August 19, 2003                               February 18, 2003

     Guidelines for Working Groups on Intellectual Property Issues

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 19, 2003.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003). All Rights Reserved.


   This memo lays out a conceptual framework and rules of thumb useful
   for working groups dealing with IPR issues. It documents specific
   examples of how IPR issues have been dealt with in the IETF.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  The Problem  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   3.  The Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   4.  Case Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   4.1 IPS WG (IP Storage)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   4.2 PEM and PKI issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   4.3 CDI WG (Content Distribution Internetworking)  . . . . . . . .  6
   4.4 VRRP (Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol)  . . . . . . . . . .  6
   4.5 Secure Shell (SecSH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   4.6 IDN (Internationalized Domain Name)  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   5.  General Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   5.1 Types of IPR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   5.2 When to think about IPR  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   5.3 IPR as a Technology Evaluation Factor  . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   5.4 Patents versus Pending Patents Applied For . . . . . . . . . . 11
   5.5 Applicability: It's Hard to Prove a Negative . . . . . . . . . 11
   5.6 No Universal License Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   5.7 Third Party Disclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   6.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . 16

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1. Introduction

   This memo lays out a conceptual framework and rules of thumb for
   working groups dealing with IPR issues.  The goal is to achieve a
   balance between the needs of IPR claimants and the implementers of
   the Internet which is appropriate to current times.  As part of
   trying to distill out principles for dealing with IPR in IETF working
   groups, it provides case studies of treatments of IPR issues that
   have already been worked out.  In other words, it documents the
   running code of the IETF process.

   This memo does not describe IPR procedures for document authors or
   IPR claimants.  Those are covered in two other memos, on IPR in the
   IETF [5] and submitters' rights [6]. Rather, this memo is for working
   groups that are trying to decide what to do about IPR-protected
   technology contributions.

2. The Problem

   Traditionally the IETF has tried to avoid technologies which were
   "protected" through IPR claims. However, compromises have been made
   since before the IETF was born.  The "common knowledge" of the IETF,
   that IPR-protected technology was anathema, has never dealt with the
   fact that the Internet has run on IPR-protected technologies from the
   beginning.  Nowadays the majority of the useful technologies brought
   to the IETF have some sort of IPR claim associated with them.

   It will always be better for the Internet to develop standards based
   on technology which can be used without concern about selective or
   costly licensing.  However, increasingly, choosing a technology which
   is not protected by IPR over an alternative that is may produce a
   weaker Internet.  Sometimes there simply isn't any technology in an
   area that is not IPR-protected. It is not always the wrong choice to
   select IPR-protected technology, if the choice is made knowingly,
   after considering the alternatives and taking the IPR issues into

   The IETF is not a membership organization.  Other standards making
   bodies may have membership agreements that member organizations must
   sign and adhere to in order to participate.  Membership agreements
   may include strict procedures for dealing with IPR, or perhaps a
   requirement that technology must be licensed royalty-free.  This is
   currently not possible in the IETF.

   Even if the IETF had membership agreements, they would be difficult
   to formulate in a way that covered IPR problems, because the IETF's
   work includes technology from other sources and because the IETF
   collaborates with organizations that work with different approaches

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   to intellectual property. The IETF can encounter four different IPR
   situations, at almost any time during the life of a document:

   o  A document submitter notes its IPR claim regarding the contents of
      the document.

   o  An IETF participant claims that the contents of a document are
      covered by their own IPR.

   o  IPR is noted, by the author of a document or by a different IETF
      participant, that is claimed by an organization that does not
      participate in the IETF at all.

   o  An organization that does not participate in the IETF, but that
      monitors its activities, discovers that a document intersects that
      organization's established or pending intellectual property
      claims. It may come forward right away, or wait and let the IETF
      work progress.

   The IETF does not have detailed rules for each situation. Working
   groups have essentially only one rule they can invoke -- about
   individuals not participating in activities related to a technology
   if they do not disclose known IPR. Other than that a working group
   only has recommendations and requests.

   Since every case is unique, and there are close to no general rules,
   working groups need a great deal of freedom in dealing with IPR
   issues.  However, some amount of consistency is important so that
   both contributors and users of eventual standards can know what to

3. The Approach

   The goal of this memo is not to make rules.  It is to give working
   groups as much information as possible to make informed decisions,
   and then step out of the way.  The other IPR working group memos (see
   the IPR Working Group charter page [1]) lay out what needs to be done
   once a particular piece of technology is selected as a working group
   draft.  That doesn't help when a working group is trying to decide
   whether to select a technology or not in the first place. Thus this
   third memo.  We want to build a conceptual framework, a new set of
   "common knowledge", to make it easier for working groups to deal with
   intellectual property issues.

   To do so, we first present "case studies" in Section 4 -- real events
   that have happened in recent years, and how different working groups
   dealt with them -- plus notes on possible lessons to be learned.  In
   Section 5, we expand on these lessons and try to extract general

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4. Case Studies

   The best way to know what works in dealing with IPR is to look at
   past attempts to do so.  The following are selected as cases from
   which general lessons might be extracted.  Other lessons might be
   extracted from other cases, but the cases below cover all of the
   important ones.

4.1 IPS WG (IP Storage)

   The IPS Working Group evaluated technology developed outside of the
   working group, "secure remote password" (SRP, RFC2945 [4]).  At the
   time, there was one known IPR claim, and the proposed licensing terms
   were apparently reasonable.  SRP had become a proposed standard
   without going through any working group, so IETF participants may
   have been less likely to notice it in order to make statements about
   IPR.  In any case, two more possible IPR claims were uncovered after
   the IPS working group had already decided to make SRP required.  One
   of the possible IPR claimants did not make a strong IPR claim itself,
   and did not want to take the time to determine whether it actually
   had a claim, though it acknowledged it might have a claim.  In both
   cases it was difficult to obtain concrete information on possible
   licensing terms, even though words like "reasonable" and
   "non-discriminatory" were used in the IPR statements. Rumors of what
   they might be like did not sound good.  The working group
   participants took the claims, potential and otherwise, very
   seriously, and decided not to use SRP after all, even though they had
   already chosen it based on other criteria.


   o  IPR claims may appear at any time in the standards process.

   o  Take impreciseness seriously.  Attempt to get clarification on
      both IPR claims and licensing terms.

4.2 PEM and PKI issues

   PEM (Privacy-Enhanced Mail) wanted to use public key technology.  In
   the mid-90s, the basic principles of public key infrastructure had
   been patented for years.  The patent holder had shown a tendency to
   actively enforce its rights, and to prefer software sales to
   licensing.  This was seen as a significant potential issue, one which
   could possibly interfere with the easy development of the Internet.
   However, there was no alternative technology that came close to its

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   capabilities.  Adopting an alternative would have damaged the
   Internet's health and flexibility even more than adopting a
   technology with IPR claims.  The case was so compelling that the
   working group participants decided to move forward on standardizing
   it and even requiring it.

   One factor which was noted was that the patents were mature, and
   would expire within a few years. That meant that although the impact
   might be significant to start with, it would not be in the long run.
   This lowered the perceived risk of using the IPR-protected


   o  IPR is just one issue in deciding whether to adopt a technology.

   o  IPR is not an all or nothing issue.  There are different types and
      levels of IPR protection.

   o  The IPR's lifecycle phase can be a consideration.

4.3 CDI WG (Content Distribution Internetworking)

   The CDI Working Group laid out an overall architecture and found that
   a number of included technologies had IPR claims associated with
   them, based on work done before the working group was started.  The
   working group participants decided there was little chance of
   producing alternative technologies which were as useful and which did
   not run up against these IPR claims.  As usual, there was no good way
   to evaluate claims and possible licensing terms until after the
   technology had been completely specified (at the earliest).

   Working group participants generally thought they had a good idea
   what to expect from each other, and that the ultimate benefits of
   using the technologies outweighed the IPR issues. The working group
   participants decided not to consider IPR as an issue at all in
   determining which technologies to adopt.


   o  Past experience can be used as a significant factor in evaluating
      the possible impact of IPR.

4.4 VRRP (Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol)

   The working group was standardizing VRRP based on a protocol

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   developed outside the IETF.  The IPR claimant supported that protocol
   and stated that it would license its IPR for that protocol if it
   became the standard, but not for the similar protocol the working
   group was developing.  The working group participants decided to go
   ahead and standardize its protocol anyway.  The IPR claimant has only
   claimed its patent when someone else claimed a patent against it.
   There is no evidence that the working group participants actually
   thought about the implications of the IPR when it went ahead with its
   choice of protocol.


   o  IPR claims should never be disregarded without good cause.  Due
      diligence should be done to understand the consequences of each

4.5 Secure Shell (SecSH)

   This was primarily a trademark issue, not a patent issue, since the
   patent issue had been worked out outside of the IETF.  The holder of
   a trademark wanted the IETF to stop using "SSH" in the names and
   bodies of its proposed standards.  The working group participants
   thought through the details of the claims, and possible implications
   and risks, and decided to go ahead and continue using the names as
   they are now.  This issue is still being worked through.


   o  Working group participants can evaluate IPR claims not only for
      their possible validity, but also for the risk of misjudging that
      validity.  The impact of honoring the IPR claim may be major or

4.6 IDN (Internationalized Domain Name)

   The IDN working group dealt with a number of IPR claims. Several were
   made which did not overlap with the technology -- the IPR claimants
   said the patents were being announced just in case the working group
   decided to go that way. In one case, even though a patent was
   announced as purely defensive, the working group participants
   investigated the claims themselves. They concluded that it did not

   In one case, an IPR claimer asserted that the working group's
   documents, and in fact the IETF as a whole, were infringing on its
   rights.  Individual working group participants consulted with their

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   legal advisers, concluded that the claims would not overlap the
   working group's developing technology, and decided to ignore the
   claims.  This was reflected in the direction the group as a whole
   decided to take.

   In another case, patent claims were asserted that appeared to be
   derived from WG discussion and impact, rather than vice versa (or
   independent discovery).  The claimants were known to be following the
   WG's work when the ideas were proposed, and their patent filing was
   considerably subsequent to that time.

   In 2000 the IDN working group discovered a patent that some
   participants thought might apply to one of their main drafts. If it
   did, it could affect their work profoundly -- to the extent that some
   suggested that if they could not work out reasonable licensing terms
   with the IPR claimant they might just disband.  As a group and
   individually, participants corresponded with IPR claimant in order to
   get an explicit statement of licensing terms, preferably
   royalty-free.  By doing so they gained a better understanding of just
   which WG activities were seen as infringing on the patent, and at
   least some understanding of the IPR claimant's intentions and
   philosophy.  Since the patent holder seemed to have an interest in
   using the patent for profit, the group discussed the issues on its
   mailing list. They overtly talked about how they could change their
   proposed technology to avoid having to contest the patent, and the
   extent to which the patent might be countered by claims of prior art.
   Meanwhile, individually they were talking to their legal advisors.
   Gradually, a collective opinion formed that the working group
   documents did not infringe on the patent.  Since then, the patent has
   been ignored.  However, they are keeping a watchful eye out for
   continuation patents which might have already been submitted.


   o  It's sometimes beneficial to push IPR claimants to find out what
      they think their claims cover and what their licensing terms are.

   o  Possibilities of prior art should be considered.

   o  It's all right, and sometimes beneficial, to discuss IPR claims
      and gather information about possible prior art on the group list.
      The results of such discussion can be considered when deciding
      whether to develop a technology (but remember that neither the
      IETF nor any working group takes a stand on such claims as a body,
      and the group is not the best place to get legal advice).

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5. General Principles

   Given the case studies above, here are a few principles that working
   groups can start with in dealing with IPR.  Of course every working
   group needs to follow its own consensus, and actual treatments will
   vary as much as they have in the past. However, every working group
   also needs to take IPR seriously, and follow these general

5.1 Types of IPR

   A primer on the different types of IPR would be large, unreliable,
   and redundant with other Working Group documents [2][5][6].  For
   informal exploration, see those documents and other relevant sources
   on the web.  Readers with more serious concerns should consult their
   legal advisors.  In the United States, briefly:

   o  Trademarks indicate the sources of goods.  Servicemarks indicate
      the sources of services.  They protect the use of particular marks
      or similar marks.

   o  Copyrights protect the expressions of ideas (not the ideas
      themselves), in almost any form, and allow "fair use".  Copyrights
      expire but they can be renewed.

   o  Patents protect "inventions".  They expire (utility patents expire
      after 20 years), but follow-on patents can cover similar
      technologies and can have nearly the same implications for use in
      the Internet as the original patents.

5.2 When to think about IPR

   This memo does not describe IPR procedures for document authors or
   IPR claimants.  Rather, this memo is for working groups that are
   trying to decide what to do about IPR claims related to their work.
   A working group as a whole needs to think about IPR issues:

   o  when examining a technology, and deciding whether to initiate work
      on it.

   o  when deciding whether to adopt a draft as a working group

   o  when choosing between two or more working group drafts that use
      different technologies.

   o  when deciding whether to depend on a technology developed outside

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      the working group.

   o  when comparing different kinds of IPR protection.

   At each of these times, the working group should solicit disclosure
   of IPR claims and licensing terms.  A working group's job will be a
   lot easier if IPR details are discovered early, but it should realize
   that IPR claims may appear at any time.  Working groups should
   anticipate that an IPR claimant might choose not to participate in
   the IETF, but instead to monitor from a distance while the relevant
   technology is being discussed and evaluated.  Actual IPR claims may
   therefore depend upon when a claimant steps forward during the course
   of a WG's deliberations.

5.3 IPR as a Technology Evaluation Factor

   How do you weigh IPR claims against other issues when deciding
   whether to adopt a technology?

   The ultimate goal of the IETF is to promote the overall health,
   robustness, flexibility and utility of the Internet infrastructure.
   We base architectural decisions on our long-term extrapolations of
   requirements by thinking in these terms.  When considering a
   particular technology, we compare it with other technologies not just
   for its elegance of design in and of itself, but also for how it fits
   in the bigger picture.  This is done at multiple levels.  It is
   examined for how it fits into the overall design of the working
   group's output, how it fits into the particular Internet
   infrastructure area, how it fits with work going on in other areas,
   and how it fits in the long view of the Internet architecture.

   Similarly, when evaluating a technology, working group participants
   consider IPR claims on it (including possible copyright issues with
   text describing it).  The issue is not whether a particular piece of
   technology is IPR-protected -- we use IPR-protected technology every
   minute.  The question is how much the IPR protection will limit the
   technology's usefulness in building a robust, highly useful Internet.
   Thus, the only significant questions are: is the IPR claim relevant,
   and if so what are the terms under which the technology can be used?
   When technology is free from IPR protection the answer is easy.  When
   it is IPR-protected, some terms make the IPR issues insignificant
   compared to the engineering issues.  Other terms can make a
   technology unusable even if it is perfect otherwise.

   The problem with IPR as a technology evaluation factor is that it is
   unlikely that a working group, as an entity, can ever claim to have
   reached consensus on most IPR issues.  The IETF as a whole, and a
   working group as a whole, takes no stance on the validity of any IPR

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   claim.  It would be inappropriate for a working group chair to
   declare that consensus had been reached that, for example, a
   company's patent was invalid.  Individual participants will need to
   use whatever legal advice resources they have access to to form their
   own individual opinions.  Discussions about the validity of IPR can
   take place under the auspices of the working group, in particular
   about relative risks of technology choices. Individual participants
   can take these discussions into account.  The working group as a body
   may not take a stance on validity, but it may make choices based on
   perceived risk.

5.4 Patents versus Pending Patents Applied For

   The IETF does not (cannot) expect IPR claimants to tell a working
   group specifically how they think a particular patent applies. If a
   patent has already been granted, the IETF can reasonably expect
   disclosure of the patent number, which will allow working group
   participants to explore details of the claims. If a patent has not
   yet been granted (or if knowledge of the patent is restricted, e.g.
   for security reasons), significantly less information is available.
   In most countries patent applications are published 18 months after
   they are filed, but in the USA that can be avoided if the applicant
   does not also file outside the USA.  In some countries applications
   are a matter of public record, but details of pending claims can be
   modified at any time by the claim submitter before the patent is
   granted.  It is not known before then what rights will actually be
   granted.  Finally, rights can be contested in court, and nothing is
   final until the courts decide.  All the IETF can expect regarding a
   pending patent is disclosure that it exists and possibly some
   statement about licensing terms.

5.5 Applicability: It's Hard to Prove a Negative

   Working group participants must make their own decisions about what
   level of confidence they need as to whether IPR is applicable.
   However, perfect knowledge is not a worthwhile goal.

   In general, a working group should strive to find out about all IPR
   claims related to technologies it is considering, and at least the
   general facts about licensing terms for each case -- for example
   whether the terms will be "reasonable and non-discriminatory".
   Working group participants should also investigate possibilities of
   prior art which would counter the IPR claims.  However, even if the
   working group participants do exhaustive searches, both externally
   and internally to their employers, it is impossible to prove that a
   particular technology is not covered by a particular IPR claim, let
   alone proving that it is not covered by any IPR claim.  Anything a
   working group adopts may, in the future, turn out to be

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   IPR-protected, although the IPR claim may not be discovered until
   years later.  Claims are open to interpretation even after rights are
   granted.  Drafts can be very fluid, even up to the time of last call,
   and IPR issues may unknowingly be taken on at any time.  Absolute
   certainty about IPR claims is extremely rare.

   However, the level of confidence needed to consider IPR when
   evaluating a technology is often not hard to get to.  There are cases
   where risk is high (e.g. where licensing terms may be onerous) and
   thus a high level of confidence about applicability is needed, but
   history shows that most of the time "rough" confidence is good
   enough.  In any case, perfect confidence is usually impossible.

   In all cases, licensing terms are a more significant consideration
   than the validity of the IPR claims.  Most of the time licensing
   terms are reasonable and do not limit the usefulness of the
   technology.  It is difficult to be sure about the validity of IPR
   claims.  If the licensing terms can be determined to be reasonable,
   then the IPR claims become much less important.

5.6 No Universal License Terms

   Licensing terms vary across a range from prohibitive to no license
   required at all.  In general there are four classes of situation
   which will be encountered.

   o  No license - licenses per se are not available. Local regulations,
      if any, apply.

   o  Public domain - the technology is explicitly made available to
      all, without any IPR claims.

   o  General "free" license - the technology is made available free of
      charge.  There may be terms which specify conditions for use of
      the technology, for example regarding redistribution.  There is a
      form of this license which invokes "reciprocity", in which the
      technology may be used as long as the licensee allows the IPR
      claimant to use the licensee's technology in the same area under
      comparable terms.  A requirement for general reciprocity is also
      possible, under which the technology is made available as long as
      the licensee does not enforce any IPR claims against the licenser.

   o  "Reasonable and non-discriminatory" (RAND) terms - the license is
      granted based on some terms which may include reciprocity.  The
      terms can vary tremendously.  Even when IPR claims do use words
      such as "reasonable", "fair", and "non-discriminatory", working
      groups should keep in mind that these words have no objective
      legal definition, at least not in this context.

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   Many IPR claimants do not like to publish specific terms under which
   they will issue licenses. They may use standard terms for many
   licensees, but they prefer to negotiate terms for some.  Therefore,
   do not expect any IPR disclosure statement to lay out detailed
   blanket terms for licensing.

   If an IPR disclosure statement lists only vague terms, that doesn't
   mean the terms that will be offered in individual licenses will be
   any worse than those offered in an IPR claim that makes very specific
   statements. Obviously, if an IPR claimant refuses to suggest any
   terms at all, the working group is going to have trouble evaluating
   the future utility of the technology.

   Recall that words such as "reasonable", "fair", and
   "non-discriminatory" have no objective legal or financial definition.
   Also, IPR claimants have occasionally asserted that there were
   already sufficient licenses for a particular technology to meet
   "reasonable" multisource and competitiveness requirements and, hence,
   that refusing to grant any licenses to new applicants was both fair
   and nondiscriminatory.  The best way to find out what an IPR claimant
   really means by those terms is to ask, explicitly.  It also helps to
   gather knowledge about licenses actually issued, for that technology
   or for others, and about other experiences with the IPR claimant.

   Despite the fact that IPR claimants often don't like to publish
   explicit terms, there are levels of vagueness, and individuals and
   even working groups can sometimes successfully push an IPR claimant
   toward less vagueness.  The employers of IETF participants all know
   that that IETF prefers explicit terms, and do feel pressure to
   produce them.

   If working group participants are dissatisfied with the confidence
   level they can obtain directly about licensing terms for a particular
   technology, they can possibly extrapolate from history.  As part of
   the standards process as described in RFC2026 [2], in order for
   licensed technology to become a draft standard, at least two
   independent licenses need to have been issued.  If the IPR claimant
   for the technology the working group is considering has licensed
   other technology in the past, there is a record of the sorts of terms
   they are willing to grant, at least in those two specific cases. This
   sort of thing is weak but everything counts, and it may be some

5.7 Third Party Disclosure

   Formal procedures for third party disclosures are the same as those
   outlined in [5].  However, before those procedures are followed some
   preliminary explorations are a good idea.  Third party disclosure is

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   a potential denial of service threat to the working group, and
   therefore it is good form to proceed slowly.

   In general a potential discloser should exchange mail with the
   working group chair(s) first, to open the way for discussion.  Also,
   if the potential discloser is not sure if the IPR claim applies, this
   is the time to reach some kind of agreement with the working group
   chairs before saying anything publicly.  After discussion with the
   working group chairs, they should bring the issue to the attention of
   the working group, and to the attention of the IPR claimant if doing
   so is not too difficult.  Such discussion should help the potential
   discloser to become more sure, one way or the other.  If they are
   sure the discovered IPR claim applies, and the IPR claimant does not
   submit a firstparty disclosure itself, then they have a
   responsibility to submit a third party disclosure.

   Intellectual property often applies to more than one working group.
   A person thinking of third party disclosure should consider what
   other working groups might be affected, and communicate with them in
   the same manner.

   Don't bring up IPR issues that are unrelated to the areas where the
   WG is focusing at that time.  Don't bring claims to the WG's
   attention just in case it might go there in a few months, only if it
   has implications for current work. Messages to the working group list
   should be substantive and a single message should focus on a specific
   issue.  They can reference multiple claims or patents related to that

   Working group participants should be aware that third party
   disclosure can be used, knowingly or unknowingly, to defocus and
   distract the working group and hinder its progress.  They should
   evaluate 3rd party claims accordingly.  WG chairs should be willing
   and able to discipline those they think are using the third party
   disclosure system inappropriately. Those who think they are being
   unfairly blocked may take the matter up with the Area Directors and/
   or the IESG.

   All of the criteria for evaluating IPR claims discussed in the
   sections above apply in the case of third party disclosures as well,
   to the extent they can be practiced.

6. Security Considerations

   This memo relates to IETF process, not any particular technology.
   There are security considerations when adopting any technology,
   whether IPR-protected or not.  A working group should take those
   security considerations into account as one part of evaluating the

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   technology, just as IPR is one part, but they are not issues of
   security with IPR procedures.

   There may be security issues with procedures for dealing with IPR,
   but they are not technical.  They have more to do with
   unintentionally revealing corporate intellectual property through
   human activity than risking anything when using a protocol.

Informative References

   [1]  IETF, "IPR Working Group web page", 2002, <http://www.ietf.org/

   [2]  Bradner, S., "The Internet Standards Process -- Revision 3", BCP
        9, RFC 2026, October 1996.

   [3]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
        Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [4]  Wu, T., "The SRP Authentication and Key Exchange System", RFC
        2945, September 2000.

   [5]  Bradner, S., "Intellectual Property Rights in IETF Technology",
        draft-ietf-ipr-technology-rights-01 (work in progress), February

   [6]  Bradner, S., "IETF Rights in Submissions",
        draft-ietf-ipr-submission-rights-01 (work in progress), February

Author's Address

   Scott Brim
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   146 Honness Lane
   Ithaca, NY  14850

   EMail: sbrim@cisco.com

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Intellectual Property Statement

   The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any
   intellectual property or other rights that might be claimed to
   pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in
   this document or the extent to which any license under such rights
   might or might not be available; neither does it represent that it
   has made any effort to identify any such rights. Information on the
   IETF's procedures with respect to rights in standards-track and
   standards-related documentation can be found in BCP-11. Copies of
   claims of rights made available for publication and any assurances of
   licenses to be made available, or the result of an attempt made to
   obtain a general license or permission for the use of such
   proprietary rights by implementors or users of this specification can
   be obtained from the IETF Secretariat.

   The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
   copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary
   rights which may cover technology that may be required to practice
   this standard. Please address the information to the IETF Executive

Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003). All Rights Reserved.

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   This document and the information contained herein is provided on an

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   Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the
   Internet Society.

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