Internet Draft                                                Mark Bakke
<draft-ietf-ips-iscsi-slp-02.txt>                                  Cisco
Expires May 2002
                                                                Joe Czap
                                                              Jim Hafner
                                                            John Hufferd
                                                      Kaladhar Voruganti
                                                             Howard Hall
                                                            Jack Harwood
                                                             Yaron Klein
                                                        Marjorie Krueger
                                                         Lawrence Lamers
                                                      San Valley Systems
                                                             Todd Sperry
                                                            Joshua Tseng

                                                           November 2001

            Finding iSCSI Targets and Name Servers Using SLP

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet- Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at

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   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2001).  All Rights Reserved.


   The iSCSI protocol provides a way for hosts to access SCSI devices
   over an IP network.  This document defines the use of the Service
   Location Protocol (SLP) by iSCSI hosts, devices, and management
   services, along with the SLP service type templates that describe the
   services they provide.

1.  Acknowledgements

   This draft was produced by the iSCSI Naming and Discovery team,
   including Joe Czap, Jim Hafner, John Hufferd, and Kaladhar Voruganti
   (IBM), Howard Hall (Pirus), Jack Harwood (EMC), Yaron Klein (Sanrad),
   Marjorie Krueger (HP), Lawrence Lamers (San Valley), Todd Sperry
   (Adaptec), and Joshua Tseng (Nishan).  Thanks also to Julian Satran
   (IBM) for suggesting the use of SLP for iSCSI discovery, and to Matt
   Peterson (Caldera) and James Kempf (Sun) for reviewing the document
   from an SLP perspective.

2.  Introduction

   iSCSI [iSCSI] is a protocol used to transport SCSI [SAM2] commands,
   data, and status across an IP network.  This protocol is connection-
   oriented, and is currently defined over TCP.  iSCSI uses a client-
   server relationship.  The client end of the connection is an
   initiator, and sends SCSI commands; the server end of the connection
   is called a target, and receives and executes the commands.

   There are several methods an iSCSI initiator can use to find the
   targets to which it should connect.  Two of these methods can be
   accomplished without the use of SLP:

   - Each target and its address can be statically configured on the

   - Each address providing targets can be configured on the initiator;
     iSCSI provides a mechanism by which the initiator can query the
     address for a list of targets.

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   The above methods are further defined in "iSCSI Naming and Discovery
   Requirements" [NDT].

   Each of the above methods requires a small amount of configuration to
   be done on each initiator.  The ability to discover targets and name
   services without having to configure initiators is a desirable
   feature.  The Service Location Protocol (SLP) [SLP] is an IETF
   standards track protocol that provides several features that will
   simplify locating iSCSI services.  This document describes how SLP
   can be used in iSCSI environments to discover targets, addresses
   providing targets, and storage management servers.

   This draft is a work in progress.  Searching for the string "WORK" in
   this document should find anything that is not considered to be
   complete.  The following items are still open:

   - Need to add RFC 3082 interaction.  An initiator that is already up
     and running must be notified within a reasonable amount of time
     when a new target becomes available to it.  This may be due to a
     storage device booting, a network interface being added to the
     device, a new target being created on the device, or the initiator
     being added to the access-list of an existing device.  Work is
     under way to determine the best way to do this, either using the
     experimental RFC 3082 or some modification thereof.  Note that it
     is a non-goal for SLP to notify an initiator when a target or one
     of its service URLs is no longer accessible; the initiator will
     find this out soon enough if it cares to attempt access to the
     target.  Note that RFC 3082 takes care of a device booting, adding
     a new interface or target (and hence, a service URL), but not the
     access-list change.

   - Add comments about lifetime of URLs and how it is used.  URLs are
     registered with a finite lifetime.  If the lifetime is too long, a
     lot of stale URLs may hang around; if it is too short, SLP
     participants will spend too much time re-registering the same old
     URLs.  There is a definite recommendation by the SLP folks to stick
     with the default; I have to go look it up to see what it is.

   - SLP can be set up to use either Unicast or Multicast.  Add a
     discussion on when to use each.

   - Storage Name Service or Storage Management Service?  Need to settle
     on a generic name for things like this.

     The following modifications have been made since draft-01:

   - Removed the mgmt-ipaddress attribute from the template; if FQDN is
     not available, the IP address may be returned in its place as a

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     dotted-decimal string.

   - Added example for finding targets that will allow access to any

   - Updated Security Considerations to reference the IP storage
     security draft.

3.  Notation Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

4.  Terminology

   Here are some definitions that may aid readers that are unfamiliar
   with either SLP, SCSI, or iSCSI.  Some of these definitions have been
   reproduced from [RFC2608] and "Finding an RSIP Server with SLP"

   User Agent (UA)            A process working on the client's behalf
                              to establish contact with some service.
                              The UA retrieves service information from
                              the Service Agents or Directory Agents.

   Service Agent (SA)         A process working on behalf of one or more
                              services to advertise the services and
                              their capabilites.

   Directory Agent (DA)       A process which collects service
                              advertisements.  There can only be one DA
                              present per given host.

   Scope                      A named set of services, typically making
                              up a logical administrative group.

   Service Advertisement      A URL, attributes, and a lifetime
                              (indicating how long the advertisement is
                              valid), providing service access
                              information and capabilities description
                              for a particular service.

   Initiator                  A logical entity, typically within a host,
                              that sends SCSI commands to targets to be
                              executed.  An initiator is usually present

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                              in the form of a device driver.

   Target                     A logical entity, typically within a
                              storage controller or gateway, that
                              receives SCSI commands from an initiator
                              and executes them.  A target includes one
                              or more Logical Units (LUs); each LU is a
                              SCSI device, such as a disk or tape drive.

   iSCSI Name                 A UTF-8 character string which serves as a
                              unique identifier for iSCSI initiators and
                              targets.  Its format and usage is further
                              defined in [NDT].

   iSCSI Client               A logical entity, typically a host, which
                              includes at least one iSCSI Initiator.

   iSCSI Server               A logical entity, typically a storage
                              controller or gateway, which includes at
                              least one iSCSI Target.

   Storage Management Server  An addressible entity that provides
                              management services that benefit an iSCSI
                              environment.  "Storage management server"
                              is used as a generic term, rather than a
                              specific protocol or service.

5.  Using SLP for iSCSI Service Discovery

   Two entities are involved in iSCSI discovery.  The end result is that
   an iSCSI initiator (e.g. a host) discovers iSCSI targets, usually
   provided by storage controllers or gateways.

   iSCSI targets are registered with SLP as a set of service URLs, one
   for each address on which the target may be accessed.  Initiators
   discover these targets using SLP service requests.  Targets that do
   not directly support SLP, or are under the control of a management
   service, may be registered by a proxy service agent as part of the
   software providing this service.

   iSCSI entities may also use SLP to discover higher-level management
   services where needed.

   This section first describes the use of SLP for discovery of targets
   by iSCSI initiators, and then describes the use of SLP to discover
   storage management servers.

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   This document assumes that SLPv2 will be used when discovering iSCSI-
   related services; no attempt is made to include support for SLPv1.

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5.1.  Discovering iSCSI Targets using SLP

   The following diagram shows the relationship between iSCSI clients,
   servers, initiators, and targets.  An iSCSI client includes at least
   one iSCSI initiator, and an SLP user agent (UA).  An iSCSI server
   includes at least one iSCSI target, and an SLP service agent (SA).
   Some entities, such as extended copy engines, include both initiators
   and targets.  These include both an SA, for its targets to be
   discovered, and a UA, for its intiator(s) to discover other targets.

              |          iSCSI Client           |
              |         +-----------+           |
              |         | iSCSI     |           |
              |         | initiator |           |
              |         | "myhost"  |           |
              |         +-----------+           |
              |                                 |
              | iSCSI Driver             |  UA  |
              |           TCP/UDP/IP            |
              |  Interface 1   |   Interface 2  |
                       |               |
     +------------+    |               |    +------------+
     |   SLP DA   |    |               |    |  SLP DA    |
     | (optional) |----+  IP Networks  +----| (optional) |
     +------------+    |               |    +------------+
                       |               |
              |   Interface 1   |   Interface 2   |
              |    |    |
              |            TCP/UDP/IP             |
              |       iSCSI Driver        |  SA   |
              |                                   |
              | +--------+ +--------+ +---------+ |
              | | iSCSI  | | iSCSI  | |  iSCSI  | |
              | | target | | target | |  target | |
              | | "one"  | | "two"  | | "three" | |
              | +--------+ +--------+ +---------+ |
              |            iSCSI Server           |

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   In the above drawing, the iSCSI server has three iSCSI targets that
   the client could discover, named "one", "two" and "three".  The iSCSI
   client has an iSCSI initiator with the name "myhost".  The iSCSI
   client may use the initiator name in its SLP Service Requests as a
   filter to discover only targets that are configured to accept iSCSI
   connections from "myhost".

   Each iSCSI target and initiator has a unique name, called an iSCSI
   Name.  This identifier is the same regardless of the network path
   (through adapter cards, networks, interfaces on the storage device)
   over which the target is discovered and accessed.  For this example,
   the iSCSI names "one" and "two", and "three" are used for the
   targets; the initiator uses the name "myhost".  An actual iSCSI name
   would incorporate more structure, including a naming authority, and
   is not described here.

   Each of the iSCSI targets in the drawing can appear at two addresses,
   since two network interfaces are present.  Each target, would have
   two service URLs.

   An iSCSI target URL consists of its fully qualified host name or IP
   address, the TCP port on which it is listening, and its iSCSI name.
   An iSCSI server must register each of its individual targets at each
   of its network addresses.

   The iSCSI server constructs a service advertisement of the type
   "service:iscsi:target" for each of the service URLs it wishes to
   register.  The advertisement contains a lifetime, along with other
   attributes which are defined in the service template.

   If the server in the above drawing is listening at TCP port 5003 for
   both network addresses, the service URLs registered would be:







   The remainder of the discovery procedure is identical to that used by
   any client/server pair implementing SLP:

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   1. If an SLP DA is found, the SA contacts the DA and registers
      the advertisement.  If no DA is found, the SA maintains the
      advertisement itself, answering multicast UA queries

   2. When the iSCSI initiator requires contact information for an
      iSCSI target, the UA either contacts the DA using unicast or
      the SA using multicast.  If a UA is configured with the address
      of the SA, it may avoid multicast and contact an SA using
      unicast.  The UA includes a query based on
      the attributes to indicate the characteristics of the
      target(s) it requires.

   3. Once the UA has the host name or address of the iSCSI server
      as well as the port number and iSCSI Target Name, it can begin the
      normal iSCSI login to the target.

   As information contained in the iSCSI target template may exceed
   common network datagram sizes, the SLP implementation for both UAs
   and SAs supporting this template MUST implement SLP over TCP.

   In some networks, the use of multicast for discovery purposes is
   either unavailable or not allowed.  Such networks include public or
   service-provider networks that are placed in between an iSCSI client
   and server; these are probably most common between two iSCSI
   gateways, one at a storage service provider site, and one at a
   customer site.

   In these networks, an initiator may, instead or in addition to its DA
   configuration, allow the addresses of one or more SAs to be
   configured.  The initiator would then make unicast SLP service
   requests directly to these SAs, without the use of multicast to first
   discover them.

   This functionality is well within the scope of the current SLP
   protocol.  However, it does have two consequences for implementors:

   - A service-agent responding to requests for iSCSI targets MUST
     implement SLP over TCP; UDP only is not enough.

   - An initiator configured to make direct, unicast requests to an
     SA will have to add this to the SLP API, if it is following the
     service location API defined in [RFC2614].

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5.2.  Discovering Storage Management Services using SLP

   Storage management servers can be built to manage and control access
   to targets in a variety of ways.  They can also provide extended
   services beyond discovery, which could include storage allocation and
   management.  None of these services are defined here; the intent of
   this document is to allow these services to be discovered by both
   clients and servers, in addition to the target discovery already
   being performed.

   The following drawing shows an iSCSI client, an iSCSI server, and a
   storage management server.  To simplify the drawing, the second IP
   network is not shown, but is assumed to exist.  The storage
   management server would use its own protocol (smsp) to provide
   capabilities to iSCSI clients and servers; these clients and servers
   can both use SLP to discover the storage management server.

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      |         iSCSI Client      |
      |                           |
      |       +-----------+       |
      |       | iSCSI     |       |
      |       | initiator |       |
      |       +-----------+       |
      |                           |
      +---------------+------+----+      +------------+
      | iSCSI Driver  | smsp | UA |      |  SLP DA    |
      +---------------+------+----+      |            |
      |        TCP/UDP/IP         |      | (optional) |
      +---------------+------+----+      +------------+
               |                               |
               |   IP Network                  |
               |                          |
               |                          |
      +---------------+-----------+     +---------------------+
      |        TCP/UDP/IP         |     | TCP/UDP/IP          |
      +---------------+------+----+     +---------------------+
      | iSCSI Driver  | smsp | UA |     |   SA    |   smsp    |
      +---------------+------+----+     +---------------------+
      |                           |     |                     |
      | +--------+ +--------+     |     | storage mgmt server |
      | | iSCSI  | | iSCSI  |     |     |                     |
      | | target | | target |     |     +---------------------+
      | |   1    | |   2    |     |
      | +--------+ +--------+     |
      |                           |
      |     iSCSI Server          |

   Note the difference between the storage management server model and
   the previously-defined target discovery model.  When target discovery
   was used, the iSCSI Server implemented an SA, to be discovered by the
   initiator's UA.  In the storage management server model, the iSCSI
   clients and servers both implement UAs, and the management server
   implements the SA.

   A storage management server's URL contains the domain name or IP
   address and TCP port.  No other information is required.

   The storage management server constructs a service advertisement of
   the type "service:iscsi:sms" for each of the addresses at which it
   appears.  The advertisement contains the URL, a lifetime, along with
   other attributes which are defined in the service template.

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   The remainder of the discovery procedure is identical to that used to
   discover iSCSI targets, except that both initiators and targets would
   normally be "clients" of the storage management service.

   Targets that support a storage management service implement a UA in
   addition to the SA.  A target may alternatively just implement the
   UA, and allow the storage management service to advertise its targets
   appropriately by providing an SA and registering the appropriate
   service:iscsi:target registrations on the target's behalf; the target
   device would not have to advertise its own targets.  This has no
   impact on the initiator.

   This allows the initiators' discovery of targets to be completely
   interoperable regardless of which storage management service is used,
   or whether one is used at all, or whether the target registrations
   are provided directly by the target or by the management service.

5.3.  NAT and NAPT Considerations

   Since SLP provides IP address and TCP port information within its
   payload, the addresses an SA or DA advertise may not be the same as
   those a UA must use if a Network Address(/Port) Translation
   (NAT/NAPT) device is present between the UA and the SA.  This may
   result in the UA discovering address information that is unusable.
   Here are a few recommendations to handle this:

   - Use a fully-qualified domain name instead of IP address in service
     URLs and in the mgmt-entity attribute.

   - Stick with the default, IANA-assigned iSCSI TCP port number in
     service URLs, wherever possible.

   - If advertising service URLs through a NAT/NAPT device, and the
     FQDN, IP address, or TCP port will be translated, the NAT/NAPT
     device can provide an SLP proxy capability to do the translation.

5.4.  Implementation Considerations

   This section will answer common questions for those who are not too
   familiar with SLP.

   Where are the templates used?  By the implementor; don't need to be
   installed in a DA (not like a MIB).

   Who makes use of the templates?

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   - Implementor of iSCSI host drivers / adapters / devices
   - Network Administrator (DHCP and DA)
   - Storage Administrator (DA and SA)

   Integrating SLP DA or SA within a storage management server

   When to use multicast and/or unicast

   Using DHCP to bootstrap SLP discovery

6.  iSCSI SLP Templates

   Three templates are provided: an iSCSI target template, a management
   service template, and an abstract template to encapsulate the two.

6.1.  The iSCSI Abstract Service Type Template

   This template defines the abstract service "service:iscsi".  It is
   used as a top-level service to encapsulate all other iSCSI-related

   Name of submitter: Mark Bakke
   Language of service template: en
   Security Considerations:
     See the security considerations of the concrete service types.

   Template Text:
   -------------------------template begins here-----------------------


     This is an abstract service type.  The purpose of the iscsi
     service type is to encompass all of the services used to support
     the iSCSI protocol.

     url-path=  ;  Depends on the concrete service type.

   --------------------------template ends here------------------------

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6.2.  The iSCSI Target Concrete Service Type Template

   This template defines the service "service:iscsi:target".  An entity
   containing iSCSI targets that wishes them discovered via SLP would
   register each of them, with each of their addresses, as this service

   Initiators (and perhaps management services) wishing to discover
   targets in this way will generally use one of the following queries:

   1. Find a specific target, given its iSCSI Target Name:

        Service: service:iscsi:target
        Scope:   initiator-scope-list
        Query:   (

   2. Find all of the iSCSI Target Names that may allow access to a
      given initiator:

        Service: service:iscsi:target
        Scope:   initiator-scope-list
        Query:   (

   3. Find all of the iSCSI Target Names that may allow access to
      any initiator:

        Service: service:iscsi:target
        Scope:   initiator-scope-list
        Query:   (access-list=iscsi)

   4. Find the iSCSI Target Names from which the given initiator is
      allowed to boot:

        Service: service:iscsi:target
        Scope:   initiator-scope-list
        Query:   (

   5. In addition, a management service may wish to discover all

        Service: service:iscsi:target
        Scope:   management-server-scope-list
        Query:   <empty-string>

   More details on booting from an iSCSI target are defined in [BOOT].

   Name of submitter: Mark Bakke
   Language of service template: en

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   Security Considerations:
     See later section.

   Template Text:
   -------------------------template begins here-----------------------


     This is concrete service type.  The iscsi:target service type is used
     to register individual target addresses to be discovered by others.
     UAs will generally search for these by including one of the following:
     - the iSCSI target name
     - the iSCSI initiator name (must be in the access-list of the target)
     - the service URL

     url-path   =  ipaddr [ : tcpport ] / iscsi-name
     ipaddr     =  DNS host name or ip address
     tcpport    =  decimal tcp port number
     iscsi-name =  iSCSI target name
     ; The iscsi-name part of the URL is required and must be the iSCSI
     ; name of the target being registered.
     ; A device representing multiple targets must individually
     ; register each target/address combination with SLP.
     ; Example:
     ;   service:iscsi:target://

   iscsi-name = string
   # The iSCSI Name of this target.
   # This must match the iscsi-name in the url-path.

   portal-group = integer
   # The iSCSI portal group tag for this address.  Addresses sharing
   # the same iscsi-name and portal-group tag can be used within the
   # same iSCSI session.  Portal groups are described in [ISCSI].

   transports = string M L
     # This is a list of transport protocols that the registered
     # entity supports.  iSCSI is currently supported over TCP,
     # but it is anticipated that it could be supported over other
     # transports, such as SCTP, in the future.

   mgmt-entity = string O

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   # The fully qualified domain name, or IP address in dotted-decimal
   # notation, of the management interface of the entity containing
   # this target.
   # WORK - Should this be a URL?
   #  snmp://
   #  telnet://

   alias = string O
   # The alias string contains a descriptive name of the target.

   access-list = string M
   # A list of iSCSI Initiator Names that can access this target.
   # Normal iSCSI names will be 50 characters or less; max length is 255.
   # Normally, only one or a few values will be in the list.
   # Using the equivalence search on this will evaluate to "true"
   # if any one of the items in this list matches the query.
   # If this list contains the default name "iscsi", any initiator
   # is allowed to access this target.

   boot-list = string M O
   # A list of iSCSI Initiator Names that can boot from this target.
   # This list works precisely like the access-list attribute.  A name appearing
   # in this list must either appear in the access-list, or the
   # access-list must contain the initiator name "iscsi".  Otherwise, an
   # initiator will be unable to find its boot target.
   # If boot-list contains the name "iscsi", any host can boot from it,
   # but I am not sure if this is useful to anyone.
   # If this attribute is not registered, this target is not "bootable".
   # Note that the LUN the host boots from is not specified here; a
   # host will generally attempt to boot from LUN 0.
   # It is quite possible that other attributes will need to be defined
   # here for booting as well.

   --------------------------template ends here------------------------

6.3.  iSCSI Storage Management Service Templates

   This template defines the service "service:iscsi:sms".  An entity
   supporting one or more iSCSI management service protocols may
   register itself with SLP as this service type.

   iSCSI clients and servers wishing to discover storage management
   services using SLP will usually search for them by the protocol(s)

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   they support:

        Service: service:iscsi:sms
        Scope:   initiator-scope-list
        Query:   (protocols=isns)

   Name of submitter: Mark Bakke
   Language of service template: en
   Security Considerations:
     See later section.

   Template Text:
   -------------------------template begins here-----------------------


     This is a concrete service type.  The iscsi:sms service type
     provides the capability for entities supporting iSCSI to discover
     appropriate management services.

     url-path   = ; The URL of the management service.  Defined in RFC 2608.

   protocols = string M L
   # The list of protocols supported by this name service.  This
   # list may be expanded in the future.  There is no default.
   # "isns"  - This management service supports the use of the iSNS
   #           protocol for access management, health monitoring, and
   #           discovery management services.  This protocol is defined
   #           in [ISNS].

   --------------------------template ends here------------------------

7.  Security Considerations

   Service type templates provide information that is used to interpret
   information obtained by clients through SLP. If the iSCSI templates
   are modified or if false templates are distributed, iSCSI targets and
   name servers may not correctly register themselves, or iSCSI clients
   may not be able to interpret service information.

   SLP provides an authentication mechanism for UAs to assure that
   service advertisments only come from trusted SAs. [RFC2608]  If trust

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   is an issue, particularly with respect to the information sought by
   the client about IPSEC and IKE support, then SLP authentication
   should be enabled in the network.

   Once a target or management server is discovered, authentication and
   authorization are handled by the iSCSI protocol, or by the management
   server's protocol.  It is the responsibility of the providers of
   these services to ensure that an inappropriately advertised or
   discovered service does not compromise their security.

7.1.  IPsec Integration

   Although SLPv2 security provides authentication, it does not provide

   The use of IPsec and IKE for SLPv2 is discussed in [IPS-SEC], and is
   a work in progress.  It will be discussed further here in a
   subsequent draft revision.

8.  Summary

   This document describes how SLP can be used by iSCSI initiators to
   find iSCSI targets and storage management servers.  Service type
   templates for iSCSI targets and storage management servers are

9.  References

[RFC2608]   E. Guttman, C. Perkins, J. Veizades, M. Day.  Service
            Location Protocol, version 2  RFC 2608, July 1999.

[RFC2609]   E. Guttman, C. Perkins, J. Kempf.  Service Templates and
            service: Schemes  RFC 2609, July 1999.

[RFC2614]   J. Kempf, E. Guttman.  An API for Service Location
              RFC 2614, June 1999.

[RFC2119]   S. Bradner.  Key Words for Use in RFCs to Indicate
            Requirement Levels.  RFC 2119, March 1997.

[RFC3082]   J. Kempf, J Goldschmidt.  Notification and Subscription for
            SLP.  RFC 3082, March 2001.

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[ISCSI]     J. Satran, et. al.  "iSCSI", draft-ietf-ips-iscsi-08.txt,
            September 2001.

[SAM2]      ANSI T10.  "SCSI Architectural Model 2", March 2000.

[NDT]       K. Voruganti, et. al.  "iSCSI Naming and Discovery", draft-
            ietf-ips-iscsi-name-disc-03, July 2001.

[ISNS]      J. Tseng, et. al.  "Internet Storage Name Service",
            draft-ietf-ips-isns-05, November 2001.

[BOOT]      P. Sarkar, D. Missimer, C. Sapuntzakis.  "A Standard for
            Bootstrapping Clients using the iSCSI Protocol",
            draft-ietf-ips-iscsi-boot-03, August 2001.

[RSIP]      Kempf, J., Montenegro, G., "Finding an RSIP Server with
            SLP", draft-ietf-nat-rsip-slp-00, February 2000.

[IPS-SEC]   B. Aboba, et. al., "Securing iSCSI, iFCP, and FCIP",
            draft-ietf-ips-security-04, October 2001.

Author's  Address:

       Mark Bakke
       Cisco Systems, Inc.
       6450 Wedgwood Road
       Maple Grove, MN
       USA 55311

       Voice:  +1 763-398-1000

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