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Versions: 00 01 02 03 rfc2382                                           
          Internet Engineering Task Force                E. Crawley, Editor
          Internet Draft                                   (Argon Networks)
          draft-ietf-issll-atm-framework-01.txt                   L. Berger
                                                             (Fore Systems)
                                                                  S. Berson
                                                                   F. Baker
                                                            (Cisco Systems)
                                                                  M. Borden
                                                   (New Oak Communications)
                                                                J. Krawczyk
                                                (ArrowPoint Communications)
                                                          Novemver 18, 1997
                A Framework for Integrated Services and RSVP over ATM
          Status of this Memo
          This document is an Internet Draft.  Internet Drafts are working
          documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its
          Areas, and its Working Groups. Note that other groups may also
          distribute working documents as Internet Drafts).
          Internet Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
          months. Internet Drafts may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by
          other documents at any time.  It is not appropriate to use
          Internet Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than
          as a "working draft" or "work in progress."
          To learn the current status of any Internet-Draft, please check
          the ``1id-abstracts.txt'' listing contained in the Internet-
          Drafts Shadow Directories on ds.internic.net (US East Coast),
          nic.nordu.net (Eur4ope), ftp.isi.edu (US West Coast), or
          munnari.oz.au (Pacific Rim).
          This document outlines the issues and framework related to
          providing IP Integrated Services with RSVP over ATM. It provides
          an overall approach to the problem(s) and related issues.  These
          issues and problems are to be addressed in further documents from
          the ISATM subgroup of the ISSLL working group.
          Editor's Note
          This document is the merger of two previous documents, draft-
          ietf-issll-atm-support-02.txt by Berger and Berson and draft-
          crawley-rsvp-over-atm-00.txt by Baker, Berson, Borden, Crawley,
          and Krawczyk.  The former document has been split into this
          document and a set of documents on RSVP over ATM implementation
          requirements and guidelines.
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          1. Introduction
          The Internet currently has one class of service normally referred
          to as "best effort."  This service is typified by first-come,
          first-serve scheduling at each hop in the network.  Best effort
          service has worked well for electronic mail, World Wide Web (WWW)
          access, file transfer (e.g. ftp), etc.  For real-time traffic
          such as voice and video, the current Internet has performed well
          only across unloaded portions of the network.  In order to
          provide quality real-time traffic, new classes of service and a
          QoS signalling protocol are being introduced in the Internet
          [1,6,7], while retaining the existing best effort service.  The
          QoS signalling protocol is RSVP [1], the Resource ReSerVation
          Protocol and the service models
          One of the important features of ATM technology is the ability to
          request a point-to-point Virtual Circuit (VC) with a specified
          Quality of Service (QoS).  An additional feature of ATM
          technology is the ability to request point-to-multipoint VCs with
          a specified QoS.  Point-to-multipoint VCs allows leaf nodes to be
          added and removed from the VC dynamically and so provides a
          mechanism for supporting IP multicast. It is only natural that
          RSVP and the Internet Integrated Services (IIS) model would like
          to utilize the QoS properties of any underlying link layer
          including ATM, and this draft concentrates on ATM.
          Classical IP over ATM [10] has solved part of this problem,
          supporting IP unicast best effort traffic over ATM.  Classical IP
          over ATM is based on a Logical IP Subnetwork (LIS), which is a
          separately administered IP subnetwork.  Hosts within an LIS
          communicate using the ATM network, while hosts from different
          subnets communicate only by going through an IP router (even
          though it may be possible to open a direct VC between the two
          hosts over the ATM network).  Classical IP over ATM provides an
          Address Resolution Protocol (ATMARP) for ATM edge devices to
          resolve IP addresses to native ATM addresses.  For any pair of
          IP/ATM edge devices (i.e. hosts or routers), a single VC is
          created on demand and shared for all traffic between the two
          devices.  A second part of the RSVP and IIS over ATM problem, IP
          multicast, is being solved with MARS [5], the Multicast Address
          Resolution Server.
          MARS compliments ATMARP by allowing an IP address to resolve into
          a list of native ATM addresses, rather than just a single
          The ATM Forum's LAN Emulation (LANE) [17, 20] and Multiprotocol
          Over ATM (MPOA) [18] also address the support of IP best effort
          traffic over ATM through similar means.
          A key remaining issue for IP in an ATM environment is the
          integration of RSVP signalling and ATM signalling in support of
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          Internet Draft Framework for IntServ and RSVP over ATMNovember 1997
          the Internet Integrated Services (IIS) model.  There are two main
          areas involved in supporting the IIS model, QoS translation and
          VC management. QoS translation concerns mapping a QoS from the
          IIS model to a proper ATM QoS, while VC management concentrates
          on how many VCs are needed and which traffic flows are routed
          over which VCs.
          1.1 Structure and Related Documents
          This document provides a guide to the issues for IIS over ATM.
          It is intended to frame the problems that are to be addressed in
          further documents. In this document, the modes and models for
          RSVP operation over ATM will be discussed followed by a
          discussion of management of ATM VCs for RSVP data and control.
          Lastly, the topic of encapsulations will be discussed in relation
          to the models presented.
          This document is part of a group of documents from the ISATM
          subgroup of the ISSLL working group related to the operation of
          IntServ and RSVP over ATM.  [14] discusses the mapping of the
          IntServ models for Controlled Load and Guaranteed Service to ATM.
          [15 and 16] discuss detailed implementation requirements and
          guidelines for RSVP over ATM, respectively.  While these
          documents may not address all the issues raised in this document,
          they should provide enough information for development of
          solutions for IntServ and RSVP over ATM.
          1.2 Terms
          Several term used in this document are used in many contexts,
          often with different meaning.  These terms are used in this
          document with the following meaning:
          - Sender is used in this document to mean the ingress point to
            the ATM network or "cloud".
          - Receiver is used in this document to refer to the egress point
            from the ATM network or "cloud".
          - Reservation is used in this document to refer to an RSVP
            initiated request for resources. RSVP initiates requests for
            resources based on RESV message processing. RESV messages that
            simply refresh state do not trigger resource requests.
            Resource requests may be made based on RSVP sessions and RSVP
            reservation styles.  RSVP styles dictate whether the reserved
            resources are used by one sender or shared by multiple
            senders. See [1] for details of each. Each new request is
            referred to in this document as an RSVP reservation, or simply
          - Flow is used to refer to the data traffic associated with a
            particular reservation.  The specific meaning of flow is RSVP
            style dependent. For shared style reservations, there is one
            flow per session. For distinct style reservations, there is
            one flow per sender (per session).
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          2. Issues Regarding the Operation of RSVP and IntServ over ATM
          The issues related to RSVP and IntServ over ATM fall into several
          general classes:
          - How to make RSVP run over ATM now and in the future
          - When to set up a virtual circuit (VC) for a specific Quality
            of Service (QoS) related to RSVP
          - How to map the IntServ models to ATM QoS models
          - How to know that an ATM network is providing the QoS necessary
            for a flow
          - How to handle the many-to-many connectionless features of IP
            multicast and RSVP in the one-to-many connection-oriented
            world of ATM
          2.1 Modes/Models for RSVP and IntServ over ATM
          [3] Discusses several different models for running IP over ATM
          networks.  [17, 18, and 20] also provide models for IP in ATM
          environments.  Any one of these models would work as long as the
          RSVP control packets (IP protocol 46) and data packets can follow
          the same IP path through the network.  It is important that the
          RSVP PATH messages follow the same IP path as the data such that
          appropriate PATH state may be installed in the routers along the
          path.  For an ATM subnetwork, this means the ingress and egress
          points must be the same in both directions for the RSVP control
          and data messages.  Note that the RSVP protocol does not require
          symmetric routing.  The PATH state installed by RSVP allows the
          RESV messages to "retrace" the hops that the PATH message
          crossed.  Within each of the models for IP over ATM, there are
          decisions about using different types of data distribution in ATM
          as well as different connection initiation.  The following
          sections look at some of the different ways QoS connections can
          be set up for RSVP.
          2.1.1 UNI 3.x and 4.0
          In the User Network Interface (UNI) 3.0 and 3.1 specifications
          [8,9] and 4.0 specification, both permanent and switched virtual
          circuits (PVC and SVC) may be established with a specified
          service category (CBR, VBR, and UBR for UNI 3.x and VBR-rt and
          ABR for 4.0) and specific traffic descriptors in point-to-point
          and point-to-multipoint configurations.  Additional QoS
          parameters are not available in UNI 3.x and those that are
          available are vendor-specific.  Consequently, the level of QoS
          control available in standard UNI 3.x networks is somewhat
          limited.  However, using these building blocks, it is possible to
          use RSVP and the IntServ models. ATM 4.0 with the Traffic
          Management (TM) 4.0 specification [21] allows much greater
          control of QoS.  [14] provides the details of mapping the IntServ
          models to UNI 3.x and 4.0 service categories and traffic
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 Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs)
          PVCs emulate dedicated point-to-point lines in a network, so the
          operation of RSVP can be identical to the operation over any
          point-to-point network.  The QoS of the PVC must be consistent
          and equivalent to the type of traffic and service model used.
          The devices on either end of the PVC have to provide traffic
          control services in order to multiplex multiple flows over the
          same PVC.  With PVCs, there is no issue of when or how long it
          takes to set up VCs, since they are made in advance but the
          resources of the PVC are limited to what has been pre-allocated.
          PVCs that are not fully utilized can tie up ATM network resources
          that could be used for SVCs.
          An additional issue for using PVCs is one of network engineering.
          Frequently, multiple PVCs are set up such that if all the PVCs
          were running at full capacity, the link would be over-subscribed.
          This frequently used "statistical multiplexing gain" makes
          providing IIS over PVCs very difficult and unreliable.  Any
          application of IIS over PVCs has to be assured that the PVCs are
          able to receive all the requested QoS.
 Switched Virtual Circuits (SVCs)
          SVCs allow paths in the ATM network to be set up "on demand".
          This allows flexibility in the use of RSVP over ATM along with
          some complexity.  Parallel VCs can be set up to allow best-effort
          and better service class paths through the network, as shown in
          Figure 1.  The cost and time to set up SVCs can impact their use.
          For example, it may be better to initially route QoS traffic over
          existing VCs until a SVC with the desired QoS can be set up for
          the flow.  Scaling issues can come into play if a single RSVP
          flow is used per VC, as will be discussed in Section The
          number of VCs in any ATM device may also be limited so the number
          of RSVP flows that can be supported by a device can be strictly
          limited to the number of VCs available, if we assume one flow per
          VC.  Section 4 discusses the topic of VC management for RSVP in
          greater detail.
                                         Data Flow ==========>
                                 |     |      -------------->  +----+
                                 | Src |    -------------->    | R1 |
                                 |    *|  -------------->      +----+
                                 +-----+       QoS VCs
                                  VC  ||
                                Figure 1: Data Flow VC Initiation
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          While RSVP is receiver oriented, ATM is sender oriented.  This
          might seem like a problem but the sender or ingress point
          receives RSVP RESV messages and can determine whether a new VC
          has to be set up to the destination or egress point.
 Point to MultiPoint
          In order to provide QoS for IP multicast, an important feature of
          RSVP, data flows must be distributed to multiple destinations
          from a given source.  Point-to-multipoint VCs provide such a
          mechanism.  It is important to map the actions of IP multicasting
          and RSVP (e.g. IGMP JOIN/LEAVE and RSVP RESV/RESV TEAR) to add
          party and drop party functions for ATM.  Point-to-multipoint VCs
          as defined in UNI 3.x have a single service class for all
          destinations.  This is contrary to the RSVP "heterogeneous
          receiver" concept.  It is possible to set up a different VC to
          each receiver requesting a different QoS, as shown in Figure 2.
          This again can run into scaling and resource problems when
          managing multiple VCs on the same interface to different
                                     +------> | R1 |
                                     |        +----+
                                     |        +----+
                        +-----+ -----+   +--> | R2 |
                        |     | ---------+    +----+        Receiver
          Request Types:
                        | Src |                             ---->  QoS 1
          and QoS 2
                        |     | .........+    +----+        ....>  Best-
                        +-----+ .....+   +..> | R3 |
                                     :        +----+
                                 /\  :
                                 ||  :        +----+
                                 ||  +......> | R4 |
                                 ||           +----+
                            IP Mulicast
                              Figure 2: Types of Multicast Receivers
          RSVP sends messages both up and down the multicast distribution
          tree.  In the case of a large ATM cloud, this could result in a
          RSVP message implosion at an ATM ingress point with many
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          ATM 4.0 expands on the point-to-multipoint VCs by adding a Leaf
          Initiated Join (LIJ) capability. LIJ allows an ATM end point to
          join into an existing point-to-multipoint VC without necessarily
          contacting the source of the VC.  This can reduce the burden on
          the ATM source point for setting up new branches and more closely
          matches the receiver-based model of RSVP and IP multicast.
          However, many of the same scaling issues exist and the new
          branches added to a point-to-multipoint VC must use the same QoS
          as existing branches.
 Multicast Servers
          IP-over-ATM has the concept of a multicast server or reflector
          that can accept cells from multiple senders and send them via a
          point-to-multipoint VC to a set of receivers.  This moves the VC
          scaling issues noted previously for point-to-multipoint VCs to
          the multicast server.  Additionally, the multicast server will
          need to know how to interpret RSVP packets or receive instruction
          from another node so it will be able to provide VCs of the
          appropriate QoS for the RSVP flows.
          2.1.2 Hop-by-Hop vs. Short Cut
          If the ATM "cloud" is made up a number of logical IP subnets
          (LISs), then it is possible to use "short cuts" from a node on
          one LIS directly to a node on another LIS, avoiding router hops
          between the LISs. NHRP [4], is one mechanism for determining the
          ATM address of the egress point on the ATM network given a
          destination IP address. It is a topic for further study to
          determine if significant benefit is achieved from short cut
          routes vs. the extra state required.
          2.1.3 Future Models
          ATM is constantly evolving.  If we assume that RSVP and IntServ
          applications are going to be wide-spread, it makes sense to
          consider changes to ATM that would improve the operation of RSVP
          and IntServ over ATM.  Similarly, the RSVP protocol and IntServ
          models will continue to evolve and changes that affect them
          should also be considered.  The following are a few ideas that
          have been discussed that would make the integration of the
          IntServ models and RSVP easier or more complete.  They are
          presented here to encourage continued development and discussion
          of ideas that can help aid in the integration of RSVP, IntServ,
          and ATM.
 Heterogeneous Point-to-MultiPoint
          The IntServ models and RSVP support the idea of "heterogeneous
          receivers"; e.g., not all receivers of a particular multicast
          flow are required to ask for the same QoS from the network, as
          shown in Figure 2.
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          The most important scenario that can utilize this feature occurs
          when some receivers in an RSVP session ask for a specific QoS
          while others receive the flow with a best-effort service.  In
          some cases where there are multiple senders on a shared-
          reservation flow (e.g., an audio conference), an individual
          receiver only needs to reserve enough resources to receive one
          sender at a time.  However, other receivers may elect to reserve
          more resources, perhaps to allow for some amount of "over-
          speaking" or in order to record the conference (post processing
          during playback can separate the senders by their source
          In order to prevent denial-of-service attacks via reservations,
          the service models do not allow the service elements to simply
          drop non-conforming packets.  For example, Controlled Load
          service model [7] assigns non-conformant packets to best-effort
          status (which may result in packet drops if there is congestion).
          Emulating these behaviors over an ATM network is problematic and
          needs to be studied.  If a single maximum QoS is used over a
          point-to-multipoint VC, resources could be wasted if cells are
          sent over certain links where the reassembled packets will
          eventually be dropped.  In addition, the "maximum QoS" may
          actually cause a degradation in service to the best-effort
          The term "variegated VC" has been coined to describe a point-to-
          multipoint VC that allows a different QoS on each branch. This
          approach seems to match the spirit of the Integrated Service and
          RSVP models, but some thought has to be put into the cell drop
          strategy when traversing from a "bigger" branch to a "smaller"
          one.  The "best-effort for non-conforming packets" behavior must
          also be retained.  Early Packet Discard (EPD) schemes must be
          used so that all the cells for a given packet can be discarded at
          the same time rather than discarding only a few cells from
          several packets making all the packets useless to the receivers.
 Lightweight Signalling
          Q.2931 signalling is very complete and carries with it a
          significant burden for signalling in all possible public and
          private connections.  It might be worth investigating a lighter
          weight signalling mechanism for faster connection setup in
          private networks.
 QoS Renegotiation
          Another change that would help RSVP over ATM is the ability to
          request a different QoS for an active VC.  This would eliminate
          the need to setup and tear down VCs as the QoS changed.  RSVP
          allows receivers to change their reservations and senders to
          change their traffic descriptors dynamically.  This, along with
          the merging of reservations, can create a situation where the QoS
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          Internet Draft Framework for IntServ and RSVP over ATMNovember 1997
          needs of a VC can change.  Allowing changes to the QoS of an
          existing VC would allow these features to work without creating a
          new VC.  In the ITU-T ATM specifications [24,25], some cell rates
          can be renegotiated or changed. Specifically, the Peak Cell Rate
          (PCR) of an existing VC can be changed and, in some cases, QoS
          parameters may be renegotiated during the call setup phase. It is
          unclear if this is sufficient for the QoS renegotiation needs of
          the IntServ models.
 Group Addressing
          The model of one-to-many communications provided by point-to-
          multipoint VCs does not really match the many-to-many
          communications provided by IP multicasting.  A scaleable mapping
          from IP multicast addresses to an ATM "group address" can address
          this problem.
 Label Switching
          The MultiProtocol Label Switching (MPLS) working group is
          discussing methods for optimizing the use of ATM and other
          switched networks for IP by encapsulating the data with a header
          that is used by the interior switches to achieve faster
          forwarding lookups.  [22] discusses a framework for this work.
          It is unclear how this work will affect IntServ and RSVP over
          label switched networks but there may be some interactions.
          2.1.4 QoS Routing
          RSVP is explicitly not a routing protocol.  However, since it
          conveys QoS information, it may prove to be a valuable input to a
          routing protocol that can make path determinations based on QoS
          and network load information.  In other words, instead of asking
          for just the IP next hop for a given destination address, it
          might be worthwhile for RSVP to provide information on the QoS
          needs of the flow if routing has the ability to use this
          information in order to determine a route.  Other forms of QoS
          routing have existed in the past such as using the IP TOS and
          Precedence bits to select a path through the network.  Some have
          discussed using these same bits to select one of a set of
          parallel ATM VCs as a form of QoS routing.  ATM routing has also
          considered the problem of QoS routing through the Private
          Network-to-Network Interface (PNNI) [26] routing protocol for
          routing ATM VCs on a path that can support their needs.  The work
          in this area is just starting and there are numerous issues to
          consider.  [23], as part of the work of the QoSR working group
          frame the issues for QoS Routing in the Internet.
          2.2 Reliance on Unicast and Multicast Routing
          RSVP was designed to support both unicast and IP multicast
          applications.  This means that RSVP needs to work closely with
          multicast and unicast routing.  Unicast routing over ATM has been
          addressed [10] and [11].  MARS [5] provides multicast address
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          resolution for IP over ATM networks, an important part of the
          solution for multicast but still relies on multicast routing
          protocols to connect multicast senders and receivers on different
          2.3 Aggregation of Flows
          Some of the scaling issues noted in previous sections can be
          addressed by aggregating several RSVP flows over a single VC if
          the destinations of the VC match for all the flows being
          aggregated.  However, this causes considerable complexity in the
          management of VCs and in the scheduling of packets within each VC
          at the root point of the VC.  Note that the rescheduling of flows
          within a VC is not possible in the switches in the core of the
          ATM network. Virtual Paths (VPs) can be used for aggregating
          multiple VCs. This topic is discussed in greater detail as it
          applies to multicast data distribution in section
          2.4 Mapping QoS Parameters
          The mapping of QoS parameters from the IntServ models to the ATM
          service classes is an important issue in making RSVP and IntServ
          work over ATM.  [14] addresses these issues very completely for
          the Controlled Load and Guaranteed Service models.  An additional
          issue is that while some guidelines can be developed for mapping
          the parameters of a given service model to the traffic
          descriptors of an ATM traffic class, implementation variables,
          policy, and cost factors can make strict mapping problematic.
          So, a set of workable mappings that can be applied to different
          network requirements and scenarios is needed as long as the
          mappings can satisfy the needs of the service model(s).
          2.5 Directly Connected ATM Hosts
          It is obvious that the needs of hosts that are directly connected
          to ATM networks must be considered for RSVP and IntServ over ATM.
          Functionality for RSVP over ATM must not assume that an ATM host
          has all the functionality of a router, but such things as MARS
          and NHRP clients would be worthwhile features.  A host must
          managed VCs just like any other ATM sender or receiver as
          described later in section 4.
          2.6 Accounting and Policy Issues
          Since RSVP and IntServ create classes of preferential service,
          some form of administrative control and/or cost allocation is
          needed to control access.  There are certain types of policies
          specific to ATM and IP over ATM that need to be studied to
          determine how they interoperate with the IP and IntServ policies
          being developed.  Typical IP policies would be that only certain
          users are allowed to make reservations.  This policy would
          translate well to IP over ATM due to the similarity to the
          mechanisms used for Call Admission Control (CAC).  There may be a
          need for policies specific to IP over ATM.  For example, since
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          signalling costs in ATM are high relative to IP, an IP over ATM
          specific policy might restrict the ability to change the
          prevailing QoS in a VC.  If VCs are relatively scarce, there also
          might be specific accounting costs in creating a new VC.  The
          work so far has been preliminary, and much work remains to be
          done.  The policy mechanisms outlined in [12] and [13] provide
          the basic mechanisms for implementing policies for RSVP and
          IntServ over any media, not just ATM.
          3. Framework for IntServ and RSVP over ATM
          Now that we have defined some of the issues for IntServ and RSVP
          over ATM, we can formulate a framework for solutions.  The
          problem breaks down to two very distinct areas; the mapping of
          IntServ models to ATM service categories and QoS parameters and
          the operation of RSVP over ATM.
          Mapping IntServ models to ATM service categories and QoS
          parameters is a matter of determining which categories can
          support the goals of the service models and matching up the
          parameters and variables between the IntServ description and the
          ATM description(s).  Since ATM has such a wide variety of service
          categories and parameters, more than one ATM service category
          should be able to support each of the two IntServ models.  This
          will provide a good bit of flexibility in configuration and
          deployment.  [14] examines this topic completely.
          The operation of RSVP over ATM requires careful management of VCs
          in order to match the dynamics of the RSVP protocol.  VCs need to
          be managed for both the RSVP QoS data and the RSVP signalling
          messages.  The remainder of this document will discuss several
          approaches to managing VCs for RSVP and [15] and [16] discuss
          their application for implementations in term of interoperability
          requirement and implementation guidelines.
          4. RSVP VC Management
          This section provides more detail on the issues related to the
          management of SVCs for RSVP and IntServ.
          4.1 VC Initiation
          As discussed in section, there is an apparent mismatch
          between RSVP and ATM. Specifically, RSVP control is receiver
          oriented and ATM control is sender oriented.  This initially may
          seem like a major issue, but really is not.  While RSVP
          reservation (RESV) requests are generated at the receiver, actual
          allocation of resources takes place at the subnet sender. For
          data flows, this means that subnet senders will establish all QoS
          VCs and the subnet receiver must be able to accept incoming QoS
          VCs, as illustrated in Figure 1.  These restrictions are
          consistent with RSVP version 1 processing rules and allow senders
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          to use different flow to VC mappings and even different QoS
          renegotiation techniques without interoperability problems.
          The use of the reverse path provided by point-to-point VCs by
          receivers is for further study. There are two related issues. The
          first is that use of the reverse path requires the VC initiator
          to set appropriate reverse path QoS parameters. The second issue
          is that reverse paths are not available with point-to-multipoint
          VCs, so reverse paths could only be used to support unicast RSVP
          4.2 Data VC Management
          Any RSVP over ATM implementation must map RSVP and RSVP
          associated data flows to ATM Virtual Circuits (VCs). LAN
          Emulation [17], Classical IP [10] and, more recently, NHRP [4]
          discuss mapping IP traffic onto ATM SVCs, but they only cover a
          single QoS class, i.e., best effort traffic. When QoS is
          introduced, VC mapping must be revisited. For RSVP controlled QoS
          flows, one issue is VCs to use for QoS data flows.
          In the Classic IP over ATM and current NHRP models, a single
          point-to-point VC is used for all traffic between two ATM
          attached hosts (routers and end-stations).  It is likely that
          such a single VC will not be adequate or optimal when supporting
          data flows with multiple QoS types. RSVP's basic purpose is to
          install support for flows with multiple QoS types, so it is
          essential for any RSVP over ATM solution to address VC usage for
          QoS data flows, as shown in Figure 1.
          RSVP reservation styles must also be taken into account in any VC
          usage strategy.
          This section describes issues and methods for management of VCs
          associated with QoS data flows. When establishing and maintaining
          VCs, the subnet sender will need to deal with several
          complicating factors including multiple QoS reservations,
          requests for QoS changes, ATM short-cuts, and several multicast
          specific issues. The multicast specific issues result from the
          nature of ATM connections. The key multicast related issues are
          heterogeneity, data distribution, receiver transitions, and end-
          point identification.
          4.2.1 Reservation to VC Mapping
          There are various approaches available for mapping reservations
          on to VCs.  A distinguishing attribute of all approaches is how
          reservations are combined on to individual VCs.  When mapping
          reservations on to VCs, individual VCs can be used to support a
          single reservation, or reservation can be combined with others on
          to "aggregate" VCs.  In the first case, each reservation will be
          supported by one or more VCs.  Multicast reservation requests may
          translate into the setup of multiple VCs as is described in more
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          detail in section 4.2.2.  Unicast reservation requests will
          always translate into the setup of a single QoS VC.  In both
          cases, each VC will only carry data associated with a single
          reservation.  The greatest benefit if this approach is ease of
          implementation, but it comes at the cost of increased (VC) setup
          time and the consumption of greater number of VC and associated
          When multiple reservations are combined onto a single VC, it is
          referred to as the "aggregation" model. With this model, large
          VCs could be set up between IP routers and hosts in an ATM
          network. These VCs could be managed much like IP Integrated
          Service (IIS) point-to-point links (e.g. T-1, DS-3) are managed
          now.  Traffic from multiple sources over multiple RSVP sessions
          might be multiplexed on the same VC.  This approach has a number
          of advantages. First, there is typically no signalling latency as
          VCs would be in existence when the traffic started flowing, so no
          time is wasted in setting up VCs.  Second, the heterogeneity
          problem (section 4.2.2) in full over ATM has been reduced to a
          solved problem. Finally, the dynamic QoS problem (section 4.2.7)
          for ATM has also been reduced to a solved problem.
          The aggregation model can be used with point-to-point and point-
          to-multipoint VCs.  The problem with the aggregation model is
          that the choice of what QoS to use for the VCs may be difficult,
          without knowledge of the likely reservation types and sizes but
          is made easier since the VCs can be changed as needed.
          4.2.2 Unicast Data VC Management
          Unicast data VC management is much simpler than multicast data VC
          management but there are still some similar issues.  If one
          considers unicast to be a devolved case of multicast, then
          implementing the multicast solutions will cover unicast.
          However, some may want to consider unicast-only implementations.
          In these situations, the choice of using a single flow per VC or
          aggregation of flows onto a single VC remains but the problem of
          heterogeneity discussed in the following section is removed.
          4.2.3 Multicast Heterogeneity
          As mentioned in section and shown in figure 2, multicast
          heterogeneity occurs when receivers request different qualities
          of service within a single session.  This means that the amount
          of requested resources differs on a per next hop basis. A related
          type of heterogeneity occurs due to best-effort receivers.  In
          any IP multicast group, it is possible that some receivers will
          request QoS (via RSVP) and some receivers will not. In shared
          media networks, like Ethernet, receivers that have not requested
          resources can typically be given identical service to those that
          have without complications.  This is not the case with ATM. In
          ATM networks, any additional end-points of a VC must be
          explicitly added. There may be costs associated with adding the
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          best-effort receiver, and there might not be adequate resources.
          An RSVP over ATM solution will need to support heterogeneous
          receivers even though ATM does not currently provide such support
          RSVP heterogeneity is supported over ATM in the way RSVP
          reservations are mapped into ATM VCs.  There are four alternative
          approaches this mapping. There are multiple models for supporting
          RSVP heterogeneity over ATM.  Section examines the
          multiple VCs per RSVP reservation (or full heterogeneity) model
          where a single reservation can be forwarded onto several VCs each
          with a different QoS. Section presents a limited
          heterogeneity model where exactly one QoS VC is used along with a
          best effort VC.  Section examines the VC per RSVP
          reservation (or homogeneous) model, where each RSVP reservation
          is mapped to a single ATM VC.  Section describes the
          aggregation model allowing aggregation of multiple RSVP
          reservations into a single VC.
 Full Heterogeneity Model
          RSVP supports heterogeneous QoS, meaning that different receivers
          of the same multicast group can request a different QoS.  But
          importantly, some receivers might have no reservation at all and
          want to receive the traffic on a best effort service basis.  The
          IP model allows receivers to join a multicast group at any time
          on a best effort basis, and it is important that ATM as part of
          the Internet continue to provide this service. We define the
          "full heterogeneity" model as providing a separate VC for each
          distinct QoS for a multicast session including best effort and
          one or more qualities of service.
          Note that while full heterogeneity gives users exactly what they
          request, it requires more resources of the network than other
          possible approaches. The exact amount of bandwidth used for
          duplicate traffic depends on the network topology and group
 Limited Heterogeneity Model
          We define the "limited heterogeneity" model as the case where the
          receivers of a multicast session are limited to use either best
          effort service or a single alternate quality of service.  The
          alternate QoS can be chosen either by higher level protocols or
          by dynamic renegotiation of QoS as described below.
          In order to support limited heterogeneity, each ATM edge device
          participating in a session would need at most two VCs.  One VC
          would be a point-to-multipoint best effort service VC and would
          serve all best effort service IP destinations for this RSVP
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          The other VC would be a point to multipoint VC with QoS and would
          serve all IP destinations for this RSVP session that have an RSVP
          reservation established.
          As with full heterogeneity, a disadvantage of the limited
          heterogeneity scheme is that each packet will need to be
          duplicated at the network layer and one copy sent into each of
          the 2 VCs.  Again, the exact amount of excess traffic will depend
          on the network topology and group membership. If any of the
          existing QoS VC end-points cannot upgrade to the new QoS, then
          the new reservation fails though the resources exist for the new
 Homogeneous and Modified Homogeneous Models
          We define the "homogeneous" model as the case where all receivers
          of a multicast session use a single quality of service VC. Best-
          effort receivers also use the single RSVP triggered QoS VC.  The
          single VC can be a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint as
          appropriate. The QoS VC is sized to provide the maximum resources
          requested by all RSVP next-hops.
          This model matches the way the current RSVP specification
          addresses heterogeneous requests. The current processing rules
          and traffic control interface describe a model where the largest
          requested reservation for a specific outgoing interface is used
          in resource allocation, and traffic is transmitted at the higher
          rate to all next-hops. This approach would be the simplest method
          for RSVP over ATM implementations.
          While this approach is simple to implement, providing better than
          best-effort service may actually be the opposite of what the user
          desires.  There may be charges incurred or resources that are
          wrongfully allocated.  There are two specific problems. The first
          problem is that a user making a small or no reservation would
          share a QoS VC resources without making (and perhaps paying for)
          an RSVP reservation. The second problem is that a receiver may
          not receive any data.  This may occur when there is insufficient
          resources to add a receiver.  The rejected user would not be
          added to the single VC and it would not even receive traffic on a
          best effort basis.
          Not sending data traffic to best-effort receivers because of
          another receiver's RSVP request is clearly unacceptable.  The
          previously described limited heterogeneous model ensures that
          data is always sent to both QoS and best-effort receivers, but it
          does so by requiring replication of data at the sender in all
          cases.  It is possible to extend the homogeneous model to both
          ensure that data is always sent to best-effort receivers and also
          to avoid replication in the normal case.  This extension is to
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          add special handling for the case where a best-effort receiver
          cannot be added to the QoS VC.  In this case, a best effort VC
          can be established to any receivers that could not be added to
          the QoS VC. Only in this special error case would senders be
          required to replicate data.  We define this approach as the
          "modified homogeneous" model.
          The last scheme is the multiple RSVP reservations per VC (or
          aggregation) model. With this model, large VCs could be set up
          between IP routers and hosts in an ATM network. These VCs could
          be managed much like IP Integrated Service (IIS) point-to-point
          links (e.g. T-1, DS-3) are managed now. Traffic from multiple
          sources over multiple RSVP sessions might be multiplexed on the
          same VC. This approach has a number of advantages. First, there
          is typically no signalling latency as VCs would be in existence
          when the traffic started flowing, so no time is wasted in setting
          up VCs.   Second, the heterogeneity problem in full over ATM has
          been reduced to a solved problem. Finally, the dynamic QoS
          problem for ATM has also been reduced to a solved problem. This
          approach can be used with point-to-point and point-to-multipoint
          VCs. The problem with the aggregation approach is that the choice
          of what QoS to use for which of the VCs is difficult, but is made
          easier if the VCs can be changed as needed.
          4.2.4 Multicast End-Point Identification
          Implementations must be able to identify ATM end-points
          participating in an IP multicast group.  The ATM end-points will
          be IP multicast receivers and/or next-hops.  Both QoS and best-
          effort end-points must be identified.  RSVP next-hop information
          will provide QoS end-points, but not best-effort end-points.
          Another issue is identifying end-points of multicast traffic
          handled by non-RSVP capable next-hops. In this case a PATH
          message travels through a non-RSVP egress router on the way to
          the next hop RSVP node.  When the next hop RSVP node sends a RESV
          message it may arrive at the source over a different route than
          what the data is using. The source will get the RESV message, but
          will not know which egress router needs the QoS.  For unicast
          sessions, there is no problem since the ATM end-point will be the
          IP next-hop router.  Unfortunately, multicast routing may not be
          able to uniquely identify the IP next-hop router.  So it is
          possible that a multicast end-point can not be identified.
          In the most common case, MARS will be used to identify all end-
          points of a multicast group.  In the router to router case, a
          multicast routing protocol may provide all next-hops for a
          particular multicast group.  In either case, RSVP over ATM
          implementations must obtain a full list of end-points, both QoS
          and non-QoS, using the appropriate mechanisms.  The full list can
          be compared against the RSVP identified end-points to determine
          the list of best-effort receivers. There is no straightforward
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          solution to uniquely identifying end-points of multicast traffic
          handled by non-RSVP next hops.  The preferred solution is to use
          multicast routing protocols that support unique end-point
          identification.  In cases where such routing protocols are
          unavailable, all IP routers that will be used to support RSVP
          over ATM should support RSVP.  To ensure proper behavior,
          implementations should, by default, only establish RSVP-initiated
          VCs to RSVP capable end-points.
          4.2.5 Multicast Data Distribution
          Two models are planned for IP multicast data distribution over
          ATM.  In one model, senders establish point-to-multipoint VCs to
          all ATM attached destinations, and data is then sent over these
          VCs.  This model is often called "multicast mesh" or "VC mesh"
          mode distribution.  In the second model, senders send data over
          point-to-point VCs to a central point and the central point
          relays the data onto point-to-multipoint VCs that have been
          established to all receivers of the IP multicast group.  This
          model is often referred to as "multicast server" mode
          distribution. RSVP over ATM solutions must ensure that IP
          multicast data is distributed with appropriate QoS.
          In the Classical IP context, multicast server support is provided
          via MARS [5].  MARS does not currently provide a way to
          communicate QoS requirements to a MARS multicast server.
          Therefore, RSVP over ATM implementations must, by default,
          support "mesh-mode" distribution for RSVP controlled multicast
          flows.  When using multicast servers that do not support QoS
          requests, a sender must set the service, not global, break
          4.2.6 Receiver Transitions
          When setting up a point-to-multipoint VCs for multicast RSVP
          sessions, there will be a time when some receivers have been
          added to a QoS VC and some have not.  During such transition
          times it is possible to start sending data on the newly
          established VC.  The issue is when to start send data on the new
          VC.  If data is sent both on the new VC and the old VC, then data
          will be delivered with proper QoS to some receivers and with the
          old QoS to all receivers.  This means the QoS receivers can get
          duplicate data.  If data is sent just on the new QoS VC, the
          receivers that have not yet been added will lose information.
          So, the issue comes down to whether to send to both the old and
          new VCs, or to send to just one of the VCs.  In one case
          duplicate information will be received, in the other some
          information may not be received.
          This issue needs to be considered for three cases:
          - When establishing the first QoS VC
          - When establishing a VC to support a QoS change
          - When adding a new end-point to an already established QoS VC
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          The first two cases are very similar.  It both, it is possible to
          send data on the partially completed new VC, and the issue of
          duplicate versus lost information is the same. The last case is
          when an end-point must be added to an existing QoS VC.  In this
          case the end-point must be both added to the QoS VC and dropped
          from a best-effort VC.  The issue is which to do first.  If the
          add is first requested, then the end-point may get duplicate
          information.  If the drop is requested first, then the end-point
          may loose information.
          In order to ensure predictable behavior and delivery of data to
          all receivers, data can only be sent on a new VCs once all
          parties have been added.  This will ensure that all data is only
          delivered once to all receivers.  This approach does not quite
          apply for the last case. In the last case, the add operation
          should be completed first, then the drop operation.  This means
          that receivers must be prepared to receive some duplicate packets
          at times of QoS setup.
          4.2.7 Dynamic QoS
          RSVP provides dynamic quality of service (QoS) in that the
          resources that are requested may change at any time. There are
          several common reasons for a change of reservation QoS.
          1.             An existing receiver can request a new larger (or smaller)
          2.             A sender may change its traffic specification (TSpec), which
            can trigger a change in the reservation requests of the
          3.             A new sender can start sending to a multicast group with a
            larger traffic specification than existing senders, triggering
            larger reservations.
          4.             A new receiver can make a reservation that is larger than
            existing reservations.
          If the limited heterogeneity model is being used and the merge
          node for the larger reservation is an ATM edge device, a new
          larger reservation must be set up across the ATM network. Since
          ATM service, as currently defined in UNI 3.x and UNI 4.0, does
          not allow renegotiating the QoS of a VC, dynamically changing the
          reservation means creating a new VC with the new QoS, and tearing
          down an established VC. Tearing down a VC and setting up a new VC
          in ATM are complex operations that involve a non-trivial amount
          of processing time, and may have a substantial latency. There are
          several options for dealing with this mismatch in service.  A
          specific approach will need to be a part of any RSVP over ATM
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          The default method for supporting changes in RSVP reservations is
          to attempt to replace an existing VC with a new appropriately
          sized VC. During setup of the replacement VC, the old VC must be
          left in place unmodified. The old VC is left unmodified to
          minimize interruption of QoS data delivery.  Once the replacement
          VC is established, data transmission is shifted to the new VC,
          and the old VC is then closed. If setup of the replacement VC
          fails, then the old QoS VC should continue to be used. When the
          new reservation is greater than the old reservation, the
          reservation request should be answered with an error. When the
          new reservation is less than the old reservation, the request
          should be treated as if the modification was successful. While
          leaving the larger allocation in place is suboptimal, it
          maximizes delivery of service to the user. Implementations should
          retry replacing the too large VC after some appropriate elapsed
          One additional issue is that only one QoS change can be processed
          at one time per reservation. If the (RSVP) requested QoS is
          changed while the first replacement VC is still being setup, then
          the replacement VC is released and the whole VC replacement
          process is restarted. To limit the number of changes and to avoid
          excessive signalling load, implementations may limit the number
          of changes that will be processed in a given period.  One
          implementation approach would have each ATM edge device
          configured with a time parameter T (which can change over time)
          that gives the minimum amount of time the edge device will wait
          between successive changes of the QoS of a particular VC.  Thus
          if the QoS of a VC is changed at time t, all messages that would
          change the QoS of that VC that arrive before time t+T would be
          queued. If several messages changing the QoS of a VC arrive
          during the interval, redundant messages can be discarded. At time
          t+T, the remaining change(s) of QoS, if any, can be executed.
          This timer approach would apply more generally to any network
          structure, and might be worthwhile to incorporate into RSVP.
          The sequence of events for a single VC would be
          - Wait if timer is active
          - Establish VC with new QoS
          - Remap data traffic to new VC
          - Tear down old VC
          - Activate timer
          There is an interesting interaction between heterogeneous
          reservations and dynamic QoS. In the case where a RESV message is
          received from a new next-hop and the requested resources are
          larger than any existing reservation, both dynamic QoS and
          heterogeneity need to be addressed. A key issue is whether to
          first add the new next-hop or to change to the new QoS. This is a
          fairly straight forward special case. Since the older, smaller
          reservation does not support the new next-hop, the dynamic QoS
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          process should be initiated first. Since the new QoS is only
          needed by the new next-hop, it should be the first end-point of
          the new VC.  This way signalling is minimized when the setup to
          the new next-hop fails.
          4.2.8 Short-Cuts
          Short-cuts [4] allow ATM attached routers and hosts to directly
          establish point-to-point VCs across LIS boundaries, i.e., the VC
          end-points are on different IP subnets.  The ability for short-
          cuts and RSVP to interoperate has been raised as a general
          question.  An area of concern is the ability to handle asymmetric
          short-cuts.  Specifically how RSVP can handle the case where a
          downstream short-cut may not have a matching upstream short-cut.
          In this case, PATH and RESV messages following different paths.
          Examination of RSVP shows that the protocol already includes
          mechanisms that will support short-cuts.  The mechanism is the
          same one used to support RESV messages arriving at the wrong
          router and the wrong interface.  The key aspect of this mechanism
          is RSVP only processing messages that arrive at the proper
          interface and RSVP forwarding of messages that arrive on the
          wrong interface.  The proper interface is indicated in the NHOP
          object of the message.  So, existing RSVP mechanisms will support
          asymmetric short-cuts. The short-cut model of VC establishment
          still poses several issues when running with RSVP. The major
          issues are dealing with established best-effort short-cuts, when
          to establish short-cuts, and QoS only short-cuts. These issues
          will need to be addressed by RSVP implementations.
          The key issue to be addressed by any RSVP over ATM solution is
          when to establish a short-cut for a QoS data flow. The default
          behavior is to simply follow best-effort traffic. When a short-
          cut has been established for best-effort traffic to a destination
          or next-hop, that same end-point should be used when setting up
          RSVP triggered VCs for QoS traffic to the same destination or
          next-hop. This will happen naturally when PATH messages are
          forwarded over the best-effort short-cut.  Note that in this
          approach when best-effort short-cuts are never established, RSVP
          triggered QoS short-cuts will also never be established.  More
          study is expected in this area.
          4.2.9 VC Teardown
          RSVP can identify from either explicit messages or timeouts when
          a data VC is no longer needed.  Therefore, data VCs set up to
          support RSVP controlled flows should only be released at the
          direction of RSVP. VCs must not be timed out due to inactivity by
          either the VC initiator or the VC receiver.   This conflicts with
          VCs timing out as described in RFC 1755 [11], section 3.4 on VC
          Teardown.  RFC 1755 recommends tearing down a VC that is inactive
          for a certain length of time. Twenty minutes is recommended. This
          timeout is typically implemented at both the VC initiator and the
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          VC receiver.   Although, section 3.1 of the update to RFC 1755
          [11] states that inactivity timers must not be used at the VC
          When this timeout occurs for an RSVP initiated VC, a valid VC
          with QoS will be torn down unexpectedly.  While this behavior is
          acceptable for best-effort traffic, it is important that RSVP
          controlled VCs not be torn down.  If there is no choice about the
          VC being torn down, the RSVP daemon must be notified, so a
          reservation failure message can be sent.
          For VCs initiated at the request of RSVP, the configurable
          inactivity timer mentioned in [11] must be set to "infinite".
          Setting the inactivity timer value at the VC initiator should not
          be problematic since the proper value can be relayed internally
          at the originator. Setting the inactivity timer at the VC
          receiver is more difficult, and would require some mechanism to
          signal that an incoming VC was RSVP initiated.  To avoid this
          complexity and to conform to [11] implementations must not use an
          inactivity timer to clear received connections.
          4.3 RSVP Control Management
          One last important issue is providing a data path for the RSVP
          messages themselves.  There are two main types of messages in
          RSVP, PATH and RESV. PATH messages are sent to unicast or
          multicast addresses, while RESV messages are sent only to unicast
          addresses. Other RSVP messages are handled similar to either PATH
          or RESV .  So ATM VCs used for RSVP signalling messages need to
          provide both unicast and multicast functionality. There are
          several different approaches for how to assign VCs to use for
          RSVP signalling messages.
          The main approaches are:
          - use same VC as data
          - single VC per session
          - single point-to-multipoint VC multiplexed among sessions
          - multiple point-to-point VCs multiplexed among sessions
          There are several different issues that affect the choice of how
          to assign VCs for RSVP signalling. One issue is the number of
          additional VCs needed for RSVP signalling. Related to this issue
          is the degree of multiplexing on the RSVP VCs. In general more
          multiplexing means fewer VCs. An additional issue is the latency
          in dynamically setting up new RSVP signalling VCs. A final issue
          is complexity of implementation. The remainder of this section
          discusses the issues and tradeoffs among these different
          approaches and suggests guidelines for when to use which
            This can be slightly more complicated for RERR messages
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          4.3.1 Mixed data and control traffic
          In this scheme RSVP signalling messages are sent on the same VCs
          as is the data traffic. The main advantage of this scheme is that
          no additional VCs are needed beyond what is needed for the data
          traffic.  An additional advantage is that there is no ATM
          signalling latency for PATH messages (which follow the same
          routing as the data messages). However there can be a major
          problem when data traffic on a VC is nonconforming. With
          nonconforming traffic, RSVP signalling messages may be dropped.
          While RSVP is resilient to a moderate level of dropped messages,
          excessive drops would lead to repeated tearing down and re-
          establishing of QoS VCs, a very undesirable behavior for ATM. Due
          to these problems, this may not be a good choice for providing
          RSVP signalling messages, even though the number of VCs needed
          for this scheme is minimized. One variation of this scheme is to
          use the best effort data path for signalling traffic. In this
          scheme, there is no issue with nonconforming traffic, but there
          is an issue with congestion in the ATM network. RSVP provides
          some resiliency to message loss due to congestion, but RSVP
          control messages should be offered a preferred class of service.
          A related variation of this scheme that is hopeful but requires
          further study is to have a packet scheduling algorithm (before
          entering the ATM network) that gives priority to the RSVP
          signalling traffic. This can be difficult to do at the IP layer.
 Single RSVP VC per RSVP Reservation
          In this scheme, there is a parallel RSVP signalling VC for each
          RSVP reservation. This scheme results in twice the number of VCs,
          but means that RSVP signalling messages have the advantage of a
          separate VC. This separate VC means that RSVP signalling messages
          have their own traffic contract and compliant signalling messages
          are not subject to dropping due to other noncompliant traffic
          (such as can happen with the scheme in section 4.3.1). The
          advantage of this scheme is its simplicity - whenever a data VC
          is created, a separate RSVP signalling VC is created.  The
          disadvantage of the extra VC is that extra ATM signalling needs
          to be done. Additionally, this scheme requires twice the minimum
          number of VCs and also additional latency, but is quite simple.
 Multiplexed point-to-multipoint RSVP VCs
          In this scheme, there is a single point-to-multipoint RSVP
          signalling VC for each unique ingress router and unique set of
          egress routers.  This scheme allows multiplexing of RSVP
          signalling traffic that shares the same ingress router and the
          same egress routers.  This can save on the number of VCs, by
          multiplexing, but there are problems when the destinations of the
          multiplexed point-to-multipoint VCs are changing. Several
          alternatives exist in these cases, that have applicability in
          different situations. First, when the egress routers change, the
          ingress router can check if it already has a point-to-multipoint
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          RSVP signalling VC for the new list of egress routers. If the
          RSVP signalling VC already exists, then the RSVP signalling
          traffic can be switched to this existing VC. If no such VC
          exists, one approach would be to create a new VC with the new
          list of egress routers. Other approaches include modifying the
          existing VC to add an egress router or using a separate new VC
          for the new egress routers.  When a destination drops out of a
          group, an alternative would be to keep sending to the existing VC
          even though some traffic is wasted. The number of VCs used in
          this scheme is a function of traffic patterns across the ATM
          network, but is always less than the number used with the Single
          RSVP VC per data VC. In addition, existing best effort data VCs
          could be used for RSVP signalling. Reusing best effort VCs saves
          on the number of VCs at the cost of higher probability of RSVP
          signalling packet loss.  One possible place where this scheme
          will work well is in the core of the network where there is the
          most opportunity to take advantage of the savings due to
          multiplexing.  The exact savings depend on the patterns of
          traffic and the topology of the ATM network.
 Multiplexed point-to-point RSVP VCs
          In this scheme, multiple point-to-point RSVP signalling VCs are
          used for a single point-to-multipoint data VC.  This scheme
          allows multiplexing of RSVP signalling traffic but requires the
          same traffic to be sent on each of several VCs. This scheme is
          quite flexible and allows a large amount of multiplexing.
          Since point-to-point VCs can set up a reverse channel at the same
          time as setting up the forward channel, this scheme could save
          substantially on signalling cost.  In addition, signalling
          traffic could share existing best effort VCs.  Sharing existing
          best effort VCs reduces the total number of VCs needed, but might
          cause signalling traffic drops if there is congestion in the ATM
          network. This point-to-point scheme would work well in the core
          of the network where there is much opportunity for multiplexing.
          Also in the core of the network, RSVP VCs can stay permanently
          established either as Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs) or  as
          long lived Switched Virtual Circuits (SVCs). The number of VCs in
          this scheme will depend on traffic patterns, but in the core of a
          network would be approximately n(n-1)/2 where n is the number of
          IP nodes in the network.  In the core of the network, this will
          typically be small compared to the total number of VCs.
          4.3.2 QoS for RSVP VCs
          There is an issue of what QoS, if any, to assign to the RSVP
          signalling VCs. For other RSVP VC schemes, a QoS (possibly best
          effort) will be needed.  What QoS to use partially depends on the
          expected level of multiplexing that is being done on the VCs, and
          the expected reliability of best effort VCs. Since RSVP
          signalling is infrequent (typically every 30 seconds), only a
          relatively small QoS should be needed. This is important since
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          Internet Draft Framework for IntServ and RSVP over ATMNovember 1997
          using a larger QoS risks the VC setup being rejected for lack of
          resources. Falling back to best effort when a QoS call is
          rejected is possible, but if the ATM net is congested, there will
          likely be problems with RSVP packet loss on the best effort VC
          also. Additional experimentation is needed in this area.
          5. Encapsulation
          Since RSVP is a signalling protocol used to control flows of IP
          data packets, encapsulation for both RSVP packets and associated
          IP data packets must be defined. There are currently two
          encapsulation options for running IP over ATM, RFC 1483 and LANE.
          There is also the possibility of future encapsulation options,
          such as MPOA[18]. The first option is described in RFC 1483[19]
          and is currently used for "Classical" IP over ATM and NHRP.
          The second option is LAN Emulation, as described in [17].  LANE
          encapsulation does not currently include a QoS signalling
          interface.  If LANE encapsulation is needed, LANE QoS signalling
          would first need to be defined by the ATM Forum.  It is possible
          that LANE 2.0 will include the required QoS support.
          6. Security Considerations
          The same considerations stated in [1] and [11] apply to this
          document.  There are no additional security issues raised in this
          7. References
          [1] R. Braden, L. Zhang, S. Berson, S. Herzog, S. Jamin. Resource
              ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) -- Version 1 Functional
              Specification RFC 2209, September 1997.
          [2] M. Borden, E. Crawley, B. Davie, S. Batsell. Integration of
              Real-time Services in an IP-ATM Network Architecture.
              Request for Comments (Informational) RFC 1821, August 1995.
          [3] R. Cole, D. Shur, C. Villamizar. IP over ATM: A Framework
              Document.  Request for Comments (Informational), RFC 1932,
              April 1996.
          [4] D. Katz, D. Piscitello, B. Cole, J. Luciani. NBMA Next Hop
              Resolution Protocol (NHRP).  Internet Draft, draft-ietf-rolc-
              nhrp-12.txt, October 1997.
          [5] G. Armitage, Support for Multicast over UNI 3.0/3.1 based ATM
              Networks. RFC 2022. November 1996.
          [6] S. Shenker, C. Partridge. Specification of Guaranteed Quality
              of Service. RFC 2212, September 1997.
          [7] J. Wroclawski. Specification of the Controlled-Load Network
              Element Service. RFC 2211, September 1997.
          [8] ATM Forum. ATM User-Network Interface Specification Version
              3.0. Prentice Hall, September 1993
          [9] ATM Forum. ATM User Network Interface (UNI) Specification
              Version 3.1. Prentice Hall, June 1995.
          Expires April 1998                                        Page 24
          Internet Draft Framework for IntServ and RSVP over ATMNovember 1997
          [10] M. Laubach, Classical IP and ARP over ATM. Request for
               Comments (Proposed Standard) RFC1577, January 1994.
          [11] M. Perez, A. Mankin, E. Hoffman, G. Grossman, A. Malis, ATM
               Signalling Support for IP over ATM, Request for Comments
               (Proposed Standard) RFC1755, February 1995.
          [12] S. Herzog.  RSVP Extensions for Policy Control. Internet
               Draft, draft-ietf-rsvp-policy-ext-02.txt, April 1997.
          [13] S. Herzog. Local Policy Modules (LPM): Policy Control for
               RSVP, Internet Draft, draft-ietf-rsvp-policy-lpm-01.txt,
               November 1996.
          [14] M. Borden, M. Garrett. Interoperation of Controlled-Load and
               Guaranteed Service with ATM, Internet Draft, draft-ietf-
               issll-atm-mapping-03.txt, August 1997.
          [15] L. Berger. RSVP over ATM Implementation Requirements.
               Internet Draft, draft-ietf-issll-atm-imp-req-00.txt, July
          [16] L. Berger. RSVP over ATM Implementation Guidelines. Internet
               Draft, draft-ietf-issll-atm-imp-guide-01.txt, July 1997.
          [17] ATM Forum Technical Committee. LAN Emulation over ATM,
               Version 1.0 Specification, af-lane-0021.000, January 1995.
          [18] ATM Forum Technical Committee. Baseline Text for MPOA, af-95-
               0824r9, September 1996.
          [19] J. Heinanen. Multiprotocol Encapsulation over ATM Adaptation
               Layer 5, RFC 1483, July 1993.
          [20] ATM Forum Technical Committee. LAN Emulation over ATM Version
               2 - LUNI Specification, December 1996.
          [21] ATM Forum Technical Committee. Traffic Management
               Specification v4.0, af-tm-0056.000, April 1996.
          [22] R. Callon, et al. A Framework for Multiprotocol Label
               Switching, Internet Draft, draft-ietf-mpls-framework-01.txt,
               July 1997.
          [23] B. Rajagopalan, R. Nair, H. Sandick, E. Crawley. A Framework
               for QoS-based Routing in the Internet, Internet Draft, draft-
               ietf-qosr-framework-01.txt, July 1997.
          [24] ITU-T. Digital Subscriber Signaling System No. 2-Connection
               modification: Peak cell rate modification by the connection
               owner, ITU-T Recommendation Q.2963.1, July 1996.
          [25] ITU-T. Digital Subscriber Signaling System No. 2-Connection
               characteristics negotiation during call/connection
               establishment phase, ITU-T Recommendation Q.2962, July 1996.
          [26] ATM Forum Technical Committee. Private Network-Network
               Interface Specification v1.0 (PNNI), March 1996
          8. Author's Address
          Eric S. Crawley
          Argon Networks
          25 Porter Road
          Littleton, Ma 01460
          +1 508 486-0665
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          Internet Draft Framework for IntServ and RSVP over ATMNovember 1997
          Lou Berger
          FORE Systems
          6905 Rockledge Drive
          Suite 800
          Bethesda, MD 20817
          +1 301 571-2534
          Steven Berson
          USC Information Sciences Institute
          4676 Admiralty Way
          Marina del Rey, CA 90292
          +1 310 822-1511
          Fred Baker
          Cisco Systems
          519 Lado Drive
          Santa Barbara, California 93111
          +1 805 681-0115
          Marty Borden
          New Oak Communications
          42 Nanog Park
          Acton, MA 01720
          +1 508 266-1011
          John J. Krawczyk
          ArrowPoint Communications
          235 Littleton Road
          Westford, Massachusetts 01886
          +1 508 692-5875
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