lamps                                                  D.K. Gillmor, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                                      ACLU
Intended status: Informational                          13 December 2021
Expires: 16 June 2022


                  S/MIME Example Keys and Certificates
                      draft-ietf-lamps-samples-06

Abstract

   The S/MIME development community benefits from sharing samples of
   signed or encrypted data.  This document facilitates such
   collaboration by defining a small set of X.509v3 certificates and
   keys for use when generating such samples.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on 16 June 2022.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2021 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/
   license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document.
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.  Code Components
   extracted from this document must include Revised BSD License text as
   described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are
   provided without warranty as described in the Revised BSD License.





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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.1.  Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     1.2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     1.3.  Prior Work  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   2.  Background  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     2.1.  Certificate Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     2.2.  Certificate Expiration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     2.3.  Certificate Revocation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     2.4.  Using the CA in Test Suites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     2.5.  Certificate Chains  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     2.6.  Passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     2.7.  Secret key origins  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   3.  Example RSA Certification Authority . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.1.  RSA Certification Authority Root Certificate  . . . . . .   7
     3.2.  RSA Certification Authority Secret Key  . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.3.  RSA Certification Authority Cross-signed Certificate  . .   9
   4.  Alice's Sample Certificates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     4.1.  Alice's Signature Verification End-Entity Certificate . .  10
     4.2.  Alice's Signing Private Key Material  . . . . . . . . . .  11
     4.3.  Alice's Encryption End-Entity Certificate . . . . . . . .  12
     4.4.  Alice's Decryption Private Key Material . . . . . . . . .  13
     4.5.  PKCS12 Object for Alice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   5.  Bob's Sample  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     5.1.  Bob's Signature Verification End-Entity Certificate . . .  17
     5.2.  Bob's Signing Private Key Material  . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     5.3.  Bob's Encryption End-Entity Certificate . . . . . . . . .  19
     5.4.  Bob's Decryption Private Key Material . . . . . . . . . .  20
     5.5.  PKCS12 Object for Bob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
   6.  Example Ed25519 Certification Authority . . . . . . . . . . .  24
     6.1.  Ed25519 Certification Authority Root Certificate  . . . .  24
     6.2.  Ed25519 Certification Authority Secret Key  . . . . . . .  25
     6.3.  Ed25519 Certification Authority Cross-signed
           Certificate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
   7.  Carlos's Sample Certificates  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     7.1.  Carlos's Signature Verification End-Entity Certificate  .  26
     7.2.  Carlos's Signing Private Key Material . . . . . . . . . .  27
     7.3.  Carlos's Encryption End-Entity Certificate  . . . . . . .  27
     7.4.  Carlos's Decryption Private Key Material  . . . . . . . .  27
     7.5.  PKCS12 Object for Carlos  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
   8.  Dana's Sample Certificates  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
     8.1.  Dana's Signature Verification End-Entity Certificate  . .  31
     8.2.  Dana's Signing Private Key Material . . . . . . . . . . .  31
     8.3.  Dana's Encryption End-Entity Certificate  . . . . . . . .  31
     8.4.  Dana's Decryption Private Key Material  . . . . . . . . .  32
     8.5.  PKCS12 Object for Dana  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
   9.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34



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   10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
   11. Document Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
     11.1.  Document History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
       11.1.1.  Substantive Changes from draft-ietf-*-04 to
               draft-ietf-*-05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
       11.1.2.  Substantive Changes from draft-ietf-*-04 to
               draft-ietf-*-05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
       11.1.3.  Substantive Changes from draft-ietf-*-03 to
               draft-ietf-*-04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
       11.1.4.  Substantive Changes from draft-ietf-*-02 to
               draft-ietf-*-03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
       11.1.5.  Substantive Changes from draft-ietf-*-01 to
               draft-ietf-*-02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
       11.1.6.  Substantive Changes from draft-ietf-*-00 to
               draft-ietf-*-01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
       11.1.7.  Substantive Changes from draft-dkg-*-05 to
               draft-ietf-*-00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
       11.1.8.  Substantive Changes from draft-dkg-*-04 to
               draft-dkg-*-05  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
       11.1.9.  Substantive Changes from draft-dkg-*-03 to
               draft-dkg-*-04  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
       11.1.10. Substantive Changes from draft-dkg-*-02 to
               draft-dkg-*-03  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
       11.1.11. Substantive Changes from draft-dkg-*-01 to
               draft-dkg-*-02  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
       11.1.12. Substantive Changes from draft-dkg-*-00 to
               draft-dkg-*-01  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
   12. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
   13. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
     13.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
     13.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
   Author's Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38

1.  Introduction

   The S/MIME ([RFC8551]) development community, in particular the
   e-mail development community, benefits from sharing samples of signed
   and/or encrypted data.  Often the exact key material used does not
   matter because the properties being tested pertain to implementation
   correctness, completeness or interoperability of the overall system.
   However, without access to the relevant secret key material, a sample
   is useless.

   This document defines a small set of X.509v3 certificates ([RFC5280])
   and secret keys for use when generating or operating on such samples.

   An example RSA certification authority is supplied, and sample RSA
   certificates are provided for two "personas", Alice and Bob.



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   Additionally, an Ed25519 ([RFC8032]) certification authority is
   supplied, along with sample Ed25519 certificates for two more
   "personas", Carlos and Dana.

   This document focuses narrowly on functional, well-formed identity
   and key material.  It is a starting point that other documents can
   use to develop sample signed or encrypted messages, test vectors, or
   other artifacts for improved interoperability.

1.1.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
   14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

1.2.  Terminology

   *  "Certification Authority" (or "CA") is a party capable of issuing
      X.509 certificates

   *  "End-Entity" is a party that is capable of using X.509
      certificates (and their corresponding secret key material)

   *  "Mail User Agent" (or "MUA") is a program that generates or
      handles [RFC5322] e-mail messages.

1.3.  Prior Work

   [RFC4134] contains some sample certificates, as well as messages of
   various S/MIME formats.  That older work has unacceptably old
   algorithm choices that may introduce failures when testing modern
   systems: in 2019, some tools explicitly mark 1024-bit RSA and
   1024-bit DSS as weak.

   This earlier document also does not use the now widely-accepted PEM
   encoding (see [RFC7468]) for the objects, and instead embeds runnable
   Perl code to extract them from the document.

   It also includes examples of messages and other structures which are
   greater in ambition than this document intends to be.

   [RFC8410] includes an example X25519 certificate that is certified
   with Ed25519, but it appears to be self-issued, and it is not
   directly useful in testing an S/MIME-capable MUA.





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2.  Background

2.1.  Certificate Usage

   These X.509 certificates ([RFC5280]) are designed for use with S/MIME
   protections ([RFC8551]) for e-mail ([RFC5322]).

   In particular, they should be usable with signed and encrypted
   messages, as part of test suites and interoperability frameworks.

   All end-entity and intermediate CA certificates are marked with
   Certificate Policies from [TEST-POLICY] indicating that they are
   intended only for use in testing environments.  End-entity
   certificates are marked with policy 2.16.840.1.101.3.2.1.48.1 and
   intermediate CAs are marked with policy 2.16.840.1.101.3.2.1.48.2.

2.2.  Certificate Expiration

   The certificates included in this draft expire in 2052.  This should
   be sufficiently far in the future that they will be useful for a few
   decades.  However, when testing tools in the far future (or when
   playing with clock skew scenarios), care should be taken to consider
   the certificate validity window.

   Due to this lengthy expiration window, these certificates will not be
   particularly useful to test or evaluate the interaction between
   certificate expiration and protected messages.

2.3.  Certificate Revocation

   Because these are expected to be used in test suites or examples, and
   we do not expect there to be online network services in these use
   cases, we do not expect these certificates to produce any revocation
   artifacts.

   As a result, none of the certificates include either an OCSP
   indicator (see id-ad-ocsp as defined in the Authority Information
   Access X.509 extension in S.4.2.2.1 of [RFC5280]) or a CRL indicator
   (see the CRL Disttribution Points X.509 extension as defined in
   S.4.2.1.13 of [RFC5280]).

2.4.  Using the CA in Test Suites

   To use these end-entity certificates in a piece of software (for
   example, in a test suite or an interoperability matrix), most tools
   will need to accept either the Example RSA CA (Section 3) or the
   Example Ed25519 CA (Section 6) as a legitimate root authority.




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   Note that some tooling behaves differently for certificates validated
   by "locally-installed root CAs" than for pre-installed "system-level"
   root CAs).  For example, many common implementations of HPKP
   ([RFC7469]) only applied the designed protections when dealing with a
   certificate issued by a pre-installed "system-level" root CA, and
   were disabled when dealing with a certificate issued by a "locally-
   installed root CA".

   To test some tooling specifically, it may be necessary to install the
   root CA as a "system-level" root CA.

2.5.  Certificate Chains

   In most real-world examples, X.509 certificates are deployed with a
   chain of more than one X.509 certificate.  In particular, there is
   typically a long-lived root CA that users' software knows about upon
   installation, and the end-entity certificate is issued by an
   intermediate CA, which is in turn issued by the root CA.

   The example end-entity certificates in this document can be used with
   either a simple two-link certificate chain (they are directly
   certified by their corresponding root CA), or in a three-link chain.

   For example, Alice's encryption certificate (Section 4.3,
   alice.encrypt.crt) can be validated by a peer that directly trusts
   the Example RSA CA's root cert (Section 3.1, ca.rsa.crt):

   ╔════════════╗  ┌───────────────────┐
   ║ ca.rsa.crt ╟─→│ alice.encrypt.crt │
   ╚════════════╝  └───────────────────┘

   And it can also be validated by a peer that only directly trusts the
   Example Ed25519 CA's root cert (Section 6.1, ca.25519.crt), via an
   intermediate cross-signed CA cert (Section 3.3, ca.rsa.cross.crt):

   ╔══════════════╗  ┌──────────────────┐  ┌───────────────────┐
   ║ ca.25519.crt ╟─→│ ca.rsa.cross.crt ├─→│ alice.encrypt.crt │
   ╚══════════════╝  └──────────────────┘  └───────────────────┘

   By omitting the cross-signed CA certs, it should be possible to test
   a "transvalid" certificate (an end-entity certificate that is
   supplied without its intermediate certificate) in some
   configurations.

2.6.  Passwords

   Each secret key presented in this draft is unprotected (it has no
   password).



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   As such, the secret key objects are not suitable for verifying
   interoperable password protection schemes.

   However, the PKCS#12 [RFC7292] objects do have simple textual
   passwords, because tooling for dealing with passwordless PKCS#12
   objects is underdeveloped at the time of this draft.

2.7.  Secret key origins

   The secret RSA keys in this document are all deterministically
   derived using provable prime generation as found in [FIPS186-4],
   based on known seeds derived via [SHA256] from simple strings.  The
   secret Ed25519 and X25519 keys in this document are all derived by
   hashing a simple string.  The seeds and their derivation are included
   in the document for informational purposes, and to allow re-creation
   of the objects from appropriate tooling.

   All RSA seeds used are 224 bits long (the first 224 bits of the
   SHA-256 digest of the origin string), and are represented in
   hexadecimal.

3.  Example RSA Certification Authority

   The example RSA Certification Authority has the following
   information:

   *  Name: Sample LAMPS RSA Certification Authority

3.1.  RSA Certification Authority Root Certificate

   This certificate is used to verify certificates issued by the example
   RSA Certification Authority.



















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   -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
   MIIDezCCAmOgAwIBAgITcBn0xb/zdaeCQlqp6yZUAGZUCDANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQ0F
   ADBVMQ0wCwYDVQQKEwRJRVRGMREwDwYDVQQLEwhMQU1QUyBXRzExMC8GA1UEAxMo
   U2FtcGxlIExBTVBTIFJTQSBDZXJ0aWZpY2F0aW9uIEF1dGhvcml0eTAgFw0xOTEx
   MjAwNjU0MThaGA8yMDUyMDkyNzA2NTQxOFowVTENMAsGA1UEChMESUVURjERMA8G
   A1UECxMITEFNUFMgV0cxMTAvBgNVBAMTKFNhbXBsZSBMQU1QUyBSU0EgQ2VydGlm
   aWNhdGlvbiBBdXRob3JpdHkwggEiMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBAQUAA4IBDwAwggEKAoIB
   AQC2GGPTEFVNdi0LsiQ79A0Mz2G+LRJlbX2vNo8STibAnyQ9VzFrGJHjUhRX/Omr
   OP3rDCB2SYfBPVwd0CdC6z9qfJkcVxDc1hK+VS9vKncL0IPUYlkJwWuMpXa1Ielz
   +zCuV+gjV83Uvn6wTn39MCmymu7nFPzihcuOnbMYOCdMmUbi1Dm8TX9P6itFR3hi
   IHpSKMbkoXlM1837WaFfx57kBIoIuNjKEyPIuK9wGUAeppc5QAHJg95PPEHNHlmM
   yhBzClmgkyozRSeSrkxq9XeJKU94lWGaZ0zb4karCur/eiMoCk3YNV8L3styvcMG
   1qUDCAaKx6FZEf7hE9RN6L3bAgMBAAGjQjBAMA8GA1UdEwEB/wQFMAMBAf8wDgYD
   VR0PAQH/BAQDAgEGMB0GA1UdDgQWBBSRMI58BxcMp/EJKGU2GmccaHb0WTANBgkq
   hkiG9w0BAQ0FAAOCAQEACDXWlJGjzKadNMPcFlZInZC+Hl7RLrcBDR25jMCXg9yL
   IwGVEcNp2fH4+YHTRTGLH81aPADMdUGHgpfcfqwjesavt/mO0T0S0LjJ0RVm93fE
   heSNUHUigVR9njTVw2EBz7e2p+v3tOsMnunvm6PIDgHxx0W6mjzMX7lG74bJfo+v
   dx+jI/aXt+iih5pi7/2Yu9eTDVu+S52wsnF89BEJeV0r+EmGDxUv47D+5KuQpKM9
   U/isXpwC6K/36T8RhhdOQXDq0Mt91TZ4dJTT0m3cmo80zzcxsKMDStZHOOzCBtBq
   uIbwWw5Oa72o/Iwg9v+W0WkSBCWEadf/uK+cRicxrQ==
   -----END CERTIFICATE-----

3.2.  RSA Certification Authority Secret Key

   This secret key material is used by the example RSA Certification
   Authority to issue new certificates.

























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   -----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY-----
   MIIE+wIBADANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAASCBKgwggSkAgEAAoIBAQC2GGPTEFVNdi0L
   siQ79A0Mz2G+LRJlbX2vNo8STibAnyQ9VzFrGJHjUhRX/OmrOP3rDCB2SYfBPVwd
   0CdC6z9qfJkcVxDc1hK+VS9vKncL0IPUYlkJwWuMpXa1Ielz+zCuV+gjV83Uvn6w
   Tn39MCmymu7nFPzihcuOnbMYOCdMmUbi1Dm8TX9P6itFR3hiIHpSKMbkoXlM1837
   WaFfx57kBIoIuNjKEyPIuK9wGUAeppc5QAHJg95PPEHNHlmMyhBzClmgkyozRSeS
   rkxq9XeJKU94lWGaZ0zb4karCur/eiMoCk3YNV8L3styvcMG1qUDCAaKx6FZEf7h
   E9RN6L3bAgMBAAECggEAE3tFhsm7DpgDlro+1Sk1kjbHssR4sOBHb4zrPp6c18PO
   6T8gWuBcj1DzOzykNTzaMaDxAia4vuxVJB1mberkNHzTFqyb8bx3ceSEOCT3aoyq
   5fiFpR0L6Ba1vgg8RTvNCAIApHNa4pVk0XD8Wq+h7mlUAOYGbie5UO8/P2qWjcOz
   +zcheyYXJS/iuu0t2/F0ihEWGcXBmoc8D++n7mKst2jkAHD4wlPN2MgVqnmagpBz
   gobFNmCZyZpDS+PPTtQZ1XvdGF5Sodc+Fz+jpWun1kqxDHE4UIZzDA/HAaBgORbm
   aEZaVsOs9ZExeqOtqu2fPB7zF/1JKdRk4UJOUxS0OQKBgQDJwonP5RwvO0sYoCiw
   zuFcYTmN/hI3R3viKuxr19CH6+mvuIU85ooIHF6TiouZwhk+6+Vk7rcXdS554DT4
   2RbVrX/5i/MOzx8c8IIwoZJIasLz+vx8F4n6hyhV65bXN7AIBojMh2dt8tP2MZ/R
   VEfsk4mNmO6yKuzyAfjJziCnCQKBgQDnDH9UYUIPkq0PSvViKQFJFCB9BJPFhld2
   pIgoziw/JZzM3W3IWU0KWG7UxS0T3xmn3IX6xmWW4vX1/088ybObZWYP0edb61GM
   I9DoI5igndLgDwyOL2PFuZh5pqqc09DE+cpJW4nNoudqTNmCrjhmxNCGKgGjlD8z
   /OkSccvywwKBgDd0ReajRUziEjDxjF2UbzKx8lzJsX4KIs22GIdHqSRCvlcy80Qa
   5WN3ULNiyB350HCP69wDFMXYym5rJoQjPvh6GIuhYKv4V8fffxkYv5kx5uWiXZVJ
   7v2x+m8rMqlyv+pkyWLV8KKytHmdiBzD+oTWxF7r4ueLjtaxngzxn93pAoGBAKpR
   rR9PnroKHubSE/drUNZFLvnZwPDv6lO8T978tONL372pUT9KjR8eN31DaMpoQOpc
   BqvpSoQjBLt1nDysV2krI0RwMIOzAWc0E9C8RMvJ6+RdU50Q1BSyjvLGaKi5AAHk
   PTk8cGYVO1BCHGlX8p3XYfw0xQaHxtuVCV8eYgCvAoGBAIZeiVhc0YTJOjUadz+0
   vSOzA1arg5k2YCPCGf7z+ijM5rbMk7jrYixD6WMjTOkVLHDsVxMBpbA7GhL7TKy5
   cepBH1PVwxEIl8dqN+UoeJeBpnHo/cjJ0iCR9/aMJzI+qiUo3OMDR+UH99NIddKN
   i75GRVLAeW0Izgt09EMEiD9joDswOQYKKwYBBAGSCBIIATErMCkGCWCGSAFlAwQC
   AgQcpcG3hHYU7WYaawUiNRQotLfwnYzMotmTAt1i6Q==
   -----END PRIVATE KEY-----

   This secret key was generated using provable prime generation found
   in [FIPS186-4] using the seed
   a5c1b7847614ed661a6b0522351428b4b7f09d8ccca2d99302dd62e9.  This seed
   is the first 224 bits of the [SHA256] digest of the string draft-
   lamps-sample-certs-keygen.ca.rsa.seed.

3.3.  RSA Certification Authority Cross-signed Certificate

   If an e-mail client only trusts the Ed25519 Certification Authority
   Root Certificate found in Section 6.1, they can use this intermediate
   CA certificate to verify any end entity certificate issued by the
   example RSA Certification Authority.









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   -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
   MIIC5zCCApmgAwIBAgITcTQnnf8DUsvAdvkX7mUemYos7DAFBgMrZXAwWTENMAsG
   A1UEChMESUVURjERMA8GA1UECxMITEFNUFMgV0cxNTAzBgNVBAMTLFNhbXBsZSBM
   QU1QUyBFZDI1NTE5IENlcnRpZmljYXRpb24gQXV0aG9yaXR5MCAXDTIwMTIxNTIx
   MzU0NFoYDzIwNTIwOTI3MDY1NDE4WjBVMQ0wCwYDVQQKEwRJRVRGMREwDwYDVQQL
   EwhMQU1QUyBXRzExMC8GA1UEAxMoU2FtcGxlIExBTVBTIFJTQSBDZXJ0aWZpY2F0
   aW9uIEF1dGhvcml0eTCCASIwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEBBQADggEPADCCAQoCggEBALYY
   Y9MQVU12LQuyJDv0DQzPYb4tEmVtfa82jxJOJsCfJD1XMWsYkeNSFFf86as4/esM
   IHZJh8E9XB3QJ0LrP2p8mRxXENzWEr5VL28qdwvQg9RiWQnBa4yldrUh6XP7MK5X
   6CNXzdS+frBOff0wKbKa7ucU/OKFy46dsxg4J0yZRuLUObxNf0/qK0VHeGIgelIo
   xuSheUzXzftZoV/HnuQEigi42MoTI8i4r3AZQB6mlzlAAcmD3k88Qc0eWYzKEHMK
   WaCTKjNFJ5KuTGr1d4kpT3iVYZpnTNviRqsK6v96IygKTdg1Xwvey3K9wwbWpQMI
   BorHoVkR/uET1E3ovdsCAwEAAaN8MHowDwYDVR0TAQH/BAUwAwEB/zAXBgNVHSAE
   EDAOMAwGCmCGSAFlAwIBMAIwDgYDVR0PAQH/BAQDAgEGMB0GA1UdDgQWBBSRMI58
   BxcMp/EJKGU2GmccaHb0WTAfBgNVHSMEGDAWgBRropV9uhSb5C0E0Qek0YLkLmuM
   tTAFBgMrZXADQQBnQ+0eFP/BBKz8bVELVEPw9WFXwIGnyH7rrmLQJSE5GJmm7cYX
   FFJBGyc3NWzlxxyfJLsh0yYh04dxdM8R5hcD
   -----END CERTIFICATE-----

4.  Alice's Sample Certificates

   Alice has the following information:

   *  Name: Alice Lovelace

   *  E-mail Address: alice@smime.example

4.1.  Alice's Signature Verification End-Entity Certificate

   This certificate is used for verification of signatures made by
   Alice.




















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   -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
   MIIDzzCCAregAwIBAgITN0EFee11f0Kpolw69Phqzpqp1zANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQ0F
   ADBVMQ0wCwYDVQQKEwRJRVRGMREwDwYDVQQLEwhMQU1QUyBXRzExMC8GA1UEAxMo
   U2FtcGxlIExBTVBTIFJTQSBDZXJ0aWZpY2F0aW9uIEF1dGhvcml0eTAgFw0xOTEx
   MjAwNjU0MThaGA8yMDUyMDkyNzA2NTQxOFowOzENMAsGA1UEChMESUVURjERMA8G
   A1UECxMITEFNUFMgV0cxFzAVBgNVBAMTDkFsaWNlIExvdmVsYWNlMIIBIjANBgkq
   hkiG9w0BAQEFAAOCAQ8AMIIBCgKCAQEAtPSJ6Fg4Fj5Nmn9PkrYo0jTkfCv4TfA/
   pdO/KLpZbJOAEr0sI7AjaO7B1GuMUFJeSTulamNfCwDcDkY63PQWl+DILs7GxVwX
   urhYdZlaV5hcUqVAckPvedDBc/3rz4D/esFfs+E7QMFtmd+K04s+A8TCNO12DRVB
   DpbP4JFD9hsc8prDtpGmFk7rd0q8gqnhxBW2RZAeLqzJOMayCQtws1q7ktkNBR2w
   ZX5ICjecF1YJFhX4jrnHwp/iELGqqaNXd3/Y0pG7QFecN7836IPPdfTMSiPR+peC
   rhJZwLSewbWXLJe3VMvbvQjoBMpEYlaJBUIKkO1zQ1Pq90njlsJLOwIDAQABo4Gv
   MIGsMAwGA1UdEwEB/wQCMAAwFwYDVR0gBBAwDjAMBgpghkgBZQMCATABMB4GA1Ud
   EQQXMBWBE2FsaWNlQHNtaW1lLmV4YW1wbGUwEwYDVR0lBAwwCgYIKwYBBQUHAwQw
   DgYDVR0PAQH/BAQDAgbAMB0GA1UdDgQWBBS79syyLR0GEhyXrilqkBDTIGZmczAf
   BgNVHSMEGDAWgBSRMI58BxcMp/EJKGU2GmccaHb0WTANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQ0FAAOC
   AQEAc4miNqfOqaBpI3f+CpJDhxtuZ2P9HjQEQ+v6BdP7GKJ19naIs3BjJOd64roA
   KHAp+c284VvyVXWJ99FMX8q2ZUQMxH+xh6oAfzcozmnd6XaVWHg4eHIjSo27PmhK
   E1oAJKKhDbdbEcZXL2+x1V+duGymWtaD01DZZukKYr7agyHahiXRn/C9cy31wbqN
   sy9x0fjPQg6+DqatiQpMz9EIae6aCHHBhOiPU7IPkazgPYgkLD59fk4PGHnYxs1F
   hdO6zZk9E8zwlc1ALgZa/iSbczisqckN3qGehD2s16jMhwFXLJtBiN+uCDgNG/D0
   qyTbY4fgKieUHx/tHuzUszZxJg==
   -----END CERTIFICATE-----

4.2.  Alice's Signing Private Key Material

   This private key material is used by Alice to create signatures.
























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   -----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY-----
   MIIE+gIBADANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAASCBKcwggSjAgEAAoIBAQC09InoWDgWPk2a
   f0+StijSNOR8K/hN8D+l078oullsk4ASvSwjsCNo7sHUa4xQUl5JO6VqY18LANwO
   Rjrc9BaX4MguzsbFXBe6uFh1mVpXmFxSpUByQ+950MFz/evPgP96wV+z4TtAwW2Z
   34rTiz4DxMI07XYNFUEOls/gkUP2GxzymsO2kaYWTut3SryCqeHEFbZFkB4urMk4
   xrIJC3CzWruS2Q0FHbBlfkgKN5wXVgkWFfiOucfCn+IQsaqpo1d3f9jSkbtAV5w3
   vzfog8919MxKI9H6l4KuElnAtJ7BtZcsl7dUy9u9COgEykRiVokFQgqQ7XNDU+r3
   SeOWwks7AgMBAAECggEAFKD2DG9A1u77q3u3p2WDH3zueTtiqgaT8u8XO+jhOI/+
   HzoX9eo8DIJ/b/G3brwHyfh17JFvLH1zbgsn5bghJTz3r+JcZZ5l3srqMV8t8zjI
   JEHOKC3szH8gYVKWrIgBAqOt1H9Ti8J2oKk2aymqBFr3ZXpBUCTWpEz2s3FMBUUI
   qCEsAJqsdEch+kt43X5kvAom7LC1DHiE6RKfhMEub/LGNHSwY4dmzhaG6p95FJ1h
   s8HoURI2ReVpsTadaKd3KoYNc1lcffmwdZs/hFs7xmmwXKMmlonh1mzHqD1/BqeJ
   Hc8MP4ueDdyVgIe/uVtlQ9NcRQbuokkDyDYMYV6hzQKBgQD75ahYGFGZznRKtSE3
   w/2rUqTYIWxx2PQz5G58PcsTZM89Hj4aZOoLmudHbrTQHluRNcHoXEI62rs0cVPs
   D7IlZOLfs+SSTeNEXxD57mjyyufpV65OcNc1mSJAmMX2jWQ8ndnOuWPcc5J6fNvT
   au0a7ZBOaeKHnA8XXL3GYilM9QKBgQC35xKi7f2JmGtsYY21tfRuDUm6EjhMW6b7
   GWnI9IXF8TGj15s7oDEYvqSPTJdB6PAb/tZwdbj9mB4qj176x1kB/N7GO974O8UP
   /PdHkU7duyf5nRq1mrI+yGFHVsGD313rc+akYdKcC207e6IRMST1ZFoznC6qNgpi
   nNTuDz4ZbwKBgA5Dd9/dKKm77gvY69Objn6oBFuUsO5VaaaSlcsFOL2VZMLCNqQJ
   +NLFZ7k8xJJQVcEIOT2uE7X/csBKdoUUcnL5nnsqVZQPQwI5G937KQgugylMZLte
   WmFXlX/w5qzKXtWr3ox9JPFzveSfs1bqZBi1QQmfp0skhBo/jyNvpYUNAoGAMNkw
   GhcdQW87GY7QFXQ/ePwOmV49lgrCT/BwKPDKl8l5ZgvfL/ddEzWQgH/XraoyHT2T
   uEuM18+QM73hfLt26RBCHGXK1CUMMzL+fAQc7sjH1YXlkleFASg4rrpcrKqoR+KB
   YSiayNhAK4yrf+WN66C8VPknbA7us0L1TEbAOAECgYEAtwRiiQwk3BlqENFypyc8
   0Q1pxp3U7ciHi8mni0kNcTqe57Y/2o8nY9ISnt1GffMs79YQfRXTRdEm2St6oChI
   9Cv5j74LHZXkgEVFfO2Nq/uwSzTZkePk+HoPJo4WtAdokZgRAyyHl0gEae8Rl89e
   yBX7dutONALjRZFTrg18CuegOzA5BgorBgEEAZIIEggBMSswKQYJYIZIAWUDBAIC
   BBySyJ1DMNPY4x1P3pudD+bp/BQhQd1lpF5bQ28F
   -----END PRIVATE KEY-----

   This secret key was generated using provable prime generation found
   in [FIPS186-4] using the seed
   92c89d4330d3d8e31d4fde9b9d0fe6e9fc142141dd65a45e5b436f05.  This seed
   is the first 224 bits of the [SHA256] digest of the string draft-
   lamps-sample-certs-keygen.alice.sign.seed.

4.3.  Alice's Encryption End-Entity Certificate

   This certificate is used to encrypt messages to Alice.












Gillmor                   Expires 16 June 2022                 [Page 12]


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   -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
   MIIDzzCCAregAwIBAgITDy0lvRE5l0rOQlSHoe49NAaKtDANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQ0F
   ADBVMQ0wCwYDVQQKEwRJRVRGMREwDwYDVQQLEwhMQU1QUyBXRzExMC8GA1UEAxMo
   U2FtcGxlIExBTVBTIFJTQSBDZXJ0aWZpY2F0aW9uIEF1dGhvcml0eTAgFw0xOTEx
   MjAwNjU0MThaGA8yMDUyMDkyNzA2NTQxOFowOzENMAsGA1UEChMESUVURjERMA8G
   A1UECxMITEFNUFMgV0cxFzAVBgNVBAMTDkFsaWNlIExvdmVsYWNlMIIBIjANBgkq
   hkiG9w0BAQEFAAOCAQ8AMIIBCgKCAQEAmpUp+ovBouOP6AFQJ+RpwpODxxzY60n1
   lJ53pTeNSiJlWkwtw/cxQq0t4uD2vWYB8gOUH/CVt2Zp1c+auzPKJ2Zu5mY6kHm+
   hVB+IthjLeI7Htg6rNeuXq50/TuTSxX5R1I1EXGt8p6hAQVeA5oZ2afHg4b97enV
   8gozR0/Nkug4AkXmbk7THNc8vvjMUJanZ/VmS4TgDqXjWShplcI3lcvvBZMswt41
   /0HJvmSwqpS6oQcAx3Weag0yCNj1V9V9yu/3DjcYbwW2lJf5NbMHbM1LY4X5chWf
   NEbkN6hQury/zxnlsukgn+fHbqvwDhJLAgFpW/jA/EB/WI+whUpqtQIDAQABo4Gv
   MIGsMAwGA1UdEwEB/wQCMAAwFwYDVR0gBBAwDjAMBgpghkgBZQMCATABMB4GA1Ud
   EQQXMBWBE2FsaWNlQHNtaW1lLmV4YW1wbGUwEwYDVR0lBAwwCgYIKwYBBQUHAwQw
   DgYDVR0PAQH/BAQDAgUgMB0GA1UdDgQWBBSiU0HVRDyAKRV8ASPw546vzfN3DzAf
   BgNVHSMEGDAWgBSRMI58BxcMp/EJKGU2GmccaHb0WTANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQ0FAAOC
   AQEAgUl4oJyxMpwWpAylOvK6NEbMl1gD5H14EC4Muxq1u0q2XgXOSBHI6DfX/4LD
   sfx7fSIus8gWVY3WqMeuOA7IizkBD+GDEu8uKveERRXZncxGwy2MfbH1Ib3U8QzT
   jqB8+dz2AwYeMxODWq9opwtA/lTOkRg8uuivZfg/m5fFo/QshlHNaaTDVEXsU4Ps
   98Hm/3gznbvhdjFbZbi4oZ3tAadRlE5K9JiQaJYOnUmGpfB8PPwDR6chMZeegSQA
   W++OIKqHrg/WEh4yiuPfqmAvX2hZkPpivNJYdTPUXTSO7K459CyqbqG+sNOo2kc1
   nTXl85RHNrVKQK+L0YWY1Q+hWA==
   -----END CERTIFICATE-----

4.4.  Alice's Decryption Private Key Material

   This private key material is used by Alice to decrypt messages.
























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   -----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY-----
   MIIE+gIBADANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAASCBKcwggSjAgEAAoIBAQCalSn6i8Gi44/o
   AVAn5GnCk4PHHNjrSfWUnnelN41KImVaTC3D9zFCrS3i4Pa9ZgHyA5Qf8JW3ZmnV
   z5q7M8onZm7mZjqQeb6FUH4i2GMt4jse2Dqs165ernT9O5NLFflHUjURca3ynqEB
   BV4DmhnZp8eDhv3t6dXyCjNHT82S6DgCReZuTtMc1zy++MxQlqdn9WZLhOAOpeNZ
   KGmVwjeVy+8FkyzC3jX/Qcm+ZLCqlLqhBwDHdZ5qDTII2PVX1X3K7/cONxhvBbaU
   l/k1swdszUtjhflyFZ80RuQ3qFC6vL/PGeWy6SCf58duq/AOEksCAWlb+MD8QH9Y
   j7CFSmq1AgMBAAECggEADgxoWEDDRE5yEZ+s7TMw+WH2o+3XOOrryqnsLbOyv34I
   wAAUWK7qZyjd9rSDOAtBOgFhQNXYhWZlT+0iHslCIfqJMZ8wy1iFHBCIphoMSWs5
   /D+idXrUef5Y23rClBxXH0g1UnSGXnpUH4ehV6p1lvZMh4OJKEoMC4cpyd1SzXrw
   +VGCc1+pXv/tTW3Rb2qoWO9JoWY+Epcssrw5N8OFIFODh4QfbLN6pVTt28aQ4pf/
   1KhLoapjFzXSYp/jrcNjYJ9qRdSAbZsKOJ2yZ0yqjLHDCDipFty+W0pkUZcJhsgu
   Cg1Stt7tKgSvAV/nEjN8e/vA91/AACKBCNcLzEoLgQKBgQC4eTM6BDCzlusXJBK4
   SRC/WwUthJZzfOk2Gmwr0DCTRYhWQSDjBfiQNboazHObVPz45qP10fOt2iPEHeX+
   VWAXTNrN69M9lEzxygA3s76lAejBR3FbLWkzLYqPB3oZwSIE7CrWHTXJipFWZv+X
   FG1R418fnRCUMJ4j85qem5iyqQKBgQDWhQMJu7FC02fr83qsIdLwqhiDtTpwUN3j
   qfp7JoEZOxbm3TgM1xPAkrQTUgfr2ZhXGtUwsuKHyifxQEycrTkBOg0gqAfG0fnv
   ybyXK6/guctHJQiy64lL39kPuvQkKB+YO60B/oF6zbyFvqanoKXjpspObN3i3yBU
   X5/EOu/LLQKBgQCUVwHWeWAgSg+pgBx9jGOnPK4hOCkznRJ7qyuo37Tv+E317lFf
   vYFvlYSd4CJmmiUCkZTvK3FkL7HrFo/HwSeQFQEt7aDkN8jX9bPPFv8K+UoNgkGp
   LA8YVFrDQSPyadfNVYvsuXhzJLZSYGjPOGHgI5JufYLDZ4UDK/T97ekQYQKBgDDM
   ORCxvXTyGiW2USVu3EkaqFDtnMmH27G6LNxuudc/dco2cFWbZ0bbGFN8yYiBCwJl
   fDGDv7wb5FIgykypqtn4lpvjHUHA6hX90gShT3TTTsZ0SjJJGgZEeV/2qyq+ZdF/
   Ya+ecV26BzR1Vfuzs4jBnCuS4DaHgxcuWW2N6pZRAoGAWTovk3xdtE0TZvDerxUY
   l8hX+vwJGy7uZjegi4cFecSkOR4iekVxrEvEGhpNdEB2GqdLgp6Q6GPdalCG2wc4
   7pojp/0inc4RtRRf3nZHaTy00bnSe/0y+t0OUbkRMtXhnViVhCcOt6BUcsHupbu2
   Adub72KLk+gvASDduuatGjqgOzA5BgorBgEEAZIIEggBMSswKQYJYIZIAWUDBAIC
   BBwc90hJ90RfRmxCciUfX5a3f6Bpiz6Ys/Hugge/
   -----END PRIVATE KEY-----

   This secret key was generated using provable prime generation found
   in [FIPS186-4] using the seed
   1cf74849f7445f466c4272251f5f96b77fa0698b3e98b3f1ee8207bf.  This seed
   is the first 224 bits of the [SHA256] digest of the string draft-
   lamps-sample-certs-keygen.alice.encrypt.seed.

4.5.  PKCS12 Object for Alice

   This PKCS12 ([RFC7292]) object contains the same information as
   presented in Section 4.1, Section 4.2, Section 4.3, Section 4.4, and
   Section 3.3.

   It is locked with the simple five-letter password alice.








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   -----BEGIN PKCS12-----
   MIIX+AIBAzCCF8AGCSqGSIb3DQEHAaCCF7EEghetMIIXqTCCBI8GCSqGSIb3DQEH
   BqCCBIAwggR8AgEAMIIEdQYJKoZIhvcNAQcBMBwGCiqGSIb3DQEMAQMwDgQIWQKs
   PyUaB9YCAhTCgIIESCsrTOUTY394FyrjkeCBSV1dw7I3o9oZN7N6Ux2KyIamsWiJ
   77t7RL1/VSxSBLjVV8Sn5+/o3mFjr5NkyQbWuky33ySVy3HZUdZc2RTooyFEdRi8
   x82dzEaVmab7pW4zpoG/IVR6OTizcWJOooGoE0ORim6y2G+iRZ3ePBUq0+8eSNYW
   +jIWov9abdFqj9j1bQKj/Hrdje2TCdl6a9sSlTFYvIxBWUdPlZDwvCQqwiCWmXeI
   6T9EpZldksDjr5N+zFhSLoRwABGRU8jXSU9AEsem9DFxoqZq8VsQcegQFY6aJcZO
   Xel7IECIAgK8nZlKCTzyNVALxeFw0ijWnW4ltDaqcC6GepmuINiqqdD94YAOHxRl
   1lKU4mLknSJ36W4T7vaI4fp98sK0nGpaDzQheu6BbQ+dVd44q52MDwvqvD0Y7UjF
   IVEP3V9Ebfn641CR0mIcVCUynxb3aaKjhgBKTGbYsKtPue974rDPIArMs2Heo8y3
   cq+f7Jce0IVCglRatN6rSyJBF8JlBQW5pZGco8AwTM1pK3RrdIDziheA8DIBB+KT
   4JZBO6UprlcZ5wBY6ncXWa5E4feb57Cd3bB+zJuubBX9f4yG/J0cSF59w92c/6Qb
   i4EFk6tAiz19PxuLLwjco71e69Jiav19Ph/WJpf/XCEurw7K+VAeZALFW41G/D30
   WIBRC2shisHB3j8+3fNPcvi4Fy3EkZNW4lrZFAjbBtloCxk5rcfRS7vxucAvC5X9
   4bm0xEcdOysnuplH77u+CWWxjCk414SlKZTUbwc1a0B6yRDvojUMZkDzMqsxyYjn
   JG5QhMFQrTyALwCgJsP/rAf5xPhG2p+9Qul0yiBIIZwvKNKRQKL+YLcvYvTh1bhj
   rUflYzzvviyXCy9LcX2GBop9yBFJzIcmKfL0MGua6WIkWX2BIjhGTtu6VThmRHuf
   OsqNg/ZrNCTYa7e1D6gwP5uFRecSZdASf+0XTe6M7e/vaN4Go4A3H8+d53SYQP6n
   pTt/a0DTHzY77aNMh+mzkIHC1W3zUdlS48tUyJMiAN3Tt+RfhHZfgloJ7IdcYdM2
   O1I+UD/5L9ghxN8dh13Fi3rDyn6Y5xB1xFuZ0mLjoEI+3Pr1+B9Kgf+o/hxFttfx
   1uP1XcHt0a4gBr6g7fwGNssfw5S6g6hS9UDTAYOpvLaatil2TZmeYZzij19ssv36
   kr1VaRV9xcQCbY05ucD+buymFXPn/rhVdxhgIydmvOtdzDozy0WFDTvgjUBNeRnC
   eMVD6AlWdWOlmBqOcIlJS0aY2FWm8Kju62XZA8YIRowlLysuq3zIqDmzmqJFKwuA
   mRMZmUVhophMEn86rwob3Z87gNbyy1U/dXi+s6Vybx/kiwDXjfyhWBnhn1gkhgiv
   oOhGtt+yAliCVuHQlEloQeQN04C5QTU0d1WOj489Ft6wpvm0tqcl6NpnRYUhbCoF
   XhFr4wswggR3BgkqhkiG9w0BBwagggRoMIIEZAIBADCCBF0GCSqGSIb3DQEHATAc
   BgoqhkiG9w0BDAEDMA4ECPoEFEHQGB9dAgIU5oCCBDAOrGHyN47xktt1J1VvWQZN
   BYIMFzLN6p2/zKotGf7EMdgSdwlxkhKTWxunfoP/gfRD6boXTAA7ukJDsHXZrfXF
   KjI4HI2oa/NihwqctphcLonBJXcofuHv+loP9MPLtwu3Mo1wsWTiHpf5XmxMoZQw
   fbrp2ohLugJO1ZRB9RfAUpaAhtFg91pLOtXEpz7GULEyOnYh9R8iu9bSel8bpl4S
   +AoxzXD4gYiEU6Yi0/47aRstd3H4u3ERDnUKSoqVstslRSKnK/WrGYUwoy7kNDwy
   DBitfosMY0rpWEe5rXTBwJkBodcl3LBpDbNzdbrZw+e+yObJ9zfRlMpl0xVfoiji
   q9UbRdgN2yo0RKwF6c63V2RdF5tjQHnNIM3K3tC9zEis11jgn9LeOLB9Cd1qyE4P
   WfmHN0gwqDF1eX96TmUipmYM63H6jcbnSc6p7eIZtCrqGjhsTqFwcMg04WaXWeHD
   ffLXSZdzIUB+zfC8tftUUEOUX3tX4l1oU7K8uAuQTSK/AXwUj+MbQVhlz8te4FVr
   w4ulZ184IYqhD3VdIOxXiZkfSKChRz8/7QacrXFvfKkrcrxS2iHMoxhoJ7WETNtI
   slW5R5runj61r50VT4HCFNFQfGBbTtV9AdP7yka9aQDWxPCoXFgeb1Q01F/BigzW
   02JP5Lcrw7ia0y88QbTzWhi57d4he5OIp0wHUiGPh7s792mlltvuSpRKJkOXWv6h
   qAj5AsBB8JNvgXP71Ytx2vMdjw6gqzQcxASJ4UHQg0CxmiODLUP+FHAY1CPNSjbR
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Gillmor                   Expires 16 June 2022                 [Page 15]


Internet-Draft    S/MIME Example Keys and Certificates     December 2021


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Gillmor                   Expires 16 June 2022                 [Page 16]


Internet-Draft    S/MIME Example Keys and Certificates     December 2021


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   -----END PKCS12-----

5.  Bob's Sample

   Bob has the following information:

   *  Name: Bob Babbage

   *  E-mail Address: bob@smime.example

5.1.  Bob's Signature Verification End-Entity Certificate

   This certificate is used for verification of signatures made by Bob.





Gillmor                   Expires 16 June 2022                 [Page 17]


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   -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
   MIIDyjCCArKgAwIBAgITaqOkD33fBy/kGaVsmPv8LghbwzANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQ0F
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   OIp/HtXdFscHb9+Qic8=
   -----END CERTIFICATE-----

5.2.  Bob's Signing Private Key Material

   This private key material is used by Bob to create signatures.
























Gillmor                   Expires 16 June 2022                 [Page 18]


Internet-Draft    S/MIME Example Keys and Certificates     December 2021


   -----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY-----
   MIIE+wIBADANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAASCBKgwggSkAgEAAoIBAQDmcAXSCVGh/02M
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   AgQc9K+qy7VHPzYOBqwy4AGI/kFzrhXJm88EOouPbg==
   -----END PRIVATE KEY-----

   This secret key was generated using provable prime generation found
   in [FIPS186-4] using the seed
   f4afaacbb5473f360e06ac32e00188fe4173ae15c99bcf043a8b8f6e.  This seed
   is the first 224 bits of the [SHA256] digest of the string draft-
   lamps-sample-certs-keygen.bob.sign.seed.

5.3.  Bob's Encryption End-Entity Certificate

   This certificate is used to encrypt messages to Bob.












Gillmor                   Expires 16 June 2022                 [Page 19]


Internet-Draft    S/MIME Example Keys and Certificates     December 2021


   -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
   MIIDyjCCArKgAwIBAgITMHxHQA+GJjocYtLrgy+WwNeGlDANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQ0F
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   4nojxD7PMlM0i+ilAvVNJNaHY9TtgIgq8V/C0C7vL8SdBN01e5ZRI764ohu9ivYv
   Ixvvt7gzvSTpe+NUT1i09xNgsC8v19WB/BwkqMAgDqMxqCxT4fyrvVwpxNBke75j
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   7EM09uKGH/Javh+2Vjd0j8rE/q2Iaac5VI91M6xz5oDZUknycBKKinR+nJWMt5AK
   UAaL2Mjl3YtrUGBpxxY=
   -----END CERTIFICATE-----

5.4.  Bob's Decryption Private Key Material

   This private key material is used by Bob to decrypt messages.
























Gillmor                   Expires 16 June 2022                 [Page 20]


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   -----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY-----
   MIIE/AIBADANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAASCBKkwggSlAgEAAoIBAQCq0cCUE0yIEiTy
   ImrAeT/IOgVbCPw/1nW5h2rVqoi6h++OgDKN0DxNuwFEZ2a9og5JA56mw2NbWSju
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   ewr/QfDDsv+erwJBh+9CRHOJyTuDH1WeGxYV8VK3M6VhdTjFxXxFhrQ4pBe5J/UA
   17Bd2GM8Urg6VYzVo6x4ajnc1H/ezYLdc459poTffv6Fg2trqFVAj2IrQlAeqjda
   lemsa6Np801mUGknq3fjKS13RYGBv/48rCHOT8eRgQKBgQDM5TuS4ANQjOYoOgtF
   xoVjbVlndOo+SmdFkZihzQHxcbLY9HXe5HlbLf1IMXz/nERxl+SmYuuJk0EdiM9r
   HOCcHRLfBmC7t0GdVvLDHSAX8Ec47LbtKZqyM1U9dn7Z+5q4iywqpaP8pP3+oY57
   cgtQax1jle3xhRAj65cl1RBmQQKBgQDVbLqK6wKDfSdZuMZGUtOY0rtamBDCgEU6
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   4raEj+GhLC5BZsZ6+z480M6XXFWOwSkbMv5WHl824KHvgKcfoh0OiR1EVyjN1gDx
   wKOQvjycMhs3FpXn0arjCczS2wGSgPGEpUR4JJhcpfaF6kphZsWDWzVlAQKBgQC2
   ivbKltNhj4w2q1m7EGC3F5bzl5jOI1QTKQXYbspM8zwz6KuFR3+l+Wvlt30ncJ9u
   dOXFU7gCdBeMotTBA7uBVUxZOtKQyl9bTorNU1wNn1zNnJbETDLi1WH9zCdkrTIC
   PtFK67WQ6yMFdWzC1gEy5YjzRjbTe/rukbP5weH1uQKBgQC+WfachEmQ3NcxSjbR
   kUxCcida8REewWh4AldU8U0gFcFxF6YwQI8I7ujtnCK2RKTECG9HCyaDXgMwfArV
   zf17a9xDJL2LQKrJ9ATeSo34o9zIkpbJL0NCHHocOqYdHU+VO2ZE4Gu8DKk3siVH
   XAaJ/RJSEqAIMOgwfGuHOhhto6A7MDkGCisGAQQBkggSCAExKzApBglghkgBZQME
   AgIEHJjImYZSlYkp6InjQZ87/Q7f4KyhXaMGDe34oeg=
   -----END PRIVATE KEY-----

   This secret key was generated using provable prime generation found
   in [FIPS186-4] using the seed
   98c8998652958929e889e3419f3bfd0edfe0aca15da3060dedf8a1e8.  This seed
   is the first 224 bits of the [SHA256] digest of the string draft-
   lamps-sample-certs-keygen.bob.encrypt.seed.

5.5.  PKCS12 Object for Bob

   This PKCS12 ([RFC7292]) object contains the same information as
   presented in Section 5.1, Section 5.2, Section 5.3, Section 5.4, and
   Section 3.3.

   It is locked with the simple three-letter password bob.








Gillmor                   Expires 16 June 2022                 [Page 21]


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   -----BEGIN PKCS12-----
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   JP8q09HS+1gXfYqfbvDLQTHMQl/fxL/zmkF8xlMqtoLSIDkNvesyiT9g/JwN9X0G
   hanzi3B3kMWI7lqkhO+If5SNI7Ct928YQTEfPEm79J1UGmXZBtdt9lOKK7M5b6F0
   5TCkOp7RN7SXw+UGYx53kUspR0HNwqRa7rqXT4RodxVcnghGT4qA/rb1uQZZzWnv
   TuuZolIhOxpdmhJVZdQoEWVx/w/EERdNLivqzHykeiv7OiSy4FhrgWWmWipJRB2v
   cgezn/v8XSIG+KJKRLzyfx44P6senjcgmKRBITgJ85rU/uoLNGjLjEfwQb6x5Lit
   KqNfcqN2PB3q3/Om4Ft5BeWk2uGXAObLe98s27rZe0iOT5eqyftyiWlMXLS0bIkg
   xSrxDA2LJW5Gf8F58zE8MBUGCSqGSIb3DQEJFDEIHgYAYgBvAGIwIwYJKoZIhvcN
   AQkVMRYEFBfFhHvQp+92kDi4s28IvJK1niuUMC8wHzAHBgUrDgMCGgQUFQ+BtZ/3
   gX+Re8eKDEP/OBp2V1YECDNLqWo6a8ZVAgIoAA==
   -----END PKCS12-----

6.  Example Ed25519 Certification Authority

   The example Ed25519 Certification Authority has the following
   information:

   *  Name: Sample LAMPS Ed25519 Certification Authority

6.1.  Ed25519 Certification Authority Root Certificate

   This certificate is used to verify certificates issued by the example
   Ed25519 Certification Authority.





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   -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
   MIIBtzCCAWmgAwIBAgITH59R65FuWGNFHoyc0N3iWesrXzAFBgMrZXAwWTENMAsG
   A1UEChMESUVURjERMA8GA1UECxMITEFNUFMgV0cxNTAzBgNVBAMTLFNhbXBsZSBM
   QU1QUyBFZDI1NTE5IENlcnRpZmljYXRpb24gQXV0aG9yaXR5MCAXDTIwMTIxNTIx
   MzU0NFoYDzIwNTIxMjE1MjEzNTQ0WjBZMQ0wCwYDVQQKEwRJRVRGMREwDwYDVQQL
   EwhMQU1QUyBXRzE1MDMGA1UEAxMsU2FtcGxlIExBTVBTIEVkMjU1MTkgQ2VydGlm
   aWNhdGlvbiBBdXRob3JpdHkwKjAFBgMrZXADIQCEgUZ9yI/rkX/82DihqzVIZQZ+
   RKE3URyp+eN2TxJDBKNCMEAwDwYDVR0TAQH/BAUwAwEB/zAOBgNVHQ8BAf8EBAMC
   AQYwHQYDVR0OBBYEFGuilX26FJvkLQTRB6TRguQua4y1MAUGAytlcANBAFAJrlWo
   QjzwT0ph7rXe023x3GaLPMXMwQI2Of+apkdG2mH9ID6PE1bu3gRRqIH5w2tyS+xF
   Jw0ouxcJyAyXEQ4=
   -----END CERTIFICATE-----

6.2.  Ed25519 Certification Authority Secret Key

   This secret key material is used by the example Ed25519 Certification
   Authority to issue new certificates.

   -----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY-----
   MC4CAQAwBQYDK2VwBCIEIAt889xRDvxNT8ak53T7tzKuSn6CQDe8fIdjrCiSFRcp
   -----END PRIVATE KEY-----

   This secret key is the [SHA256] digest of the ASCII string draft-
   lamps-sample-certs-keygen.ca.25519.seed.

6.3.  Ed25519 Certification Authority Cross-signed Certificate

   If an e-mail client only trusts the RSA Certification Authority Root
   Certificate found in Section 3.1, they can use this intermediate CA
   certificate to verify any end entity certificate issued by the
   example Ed25519 Certification Authority.




















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   -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
   MIICvzCCAaegAwIBAgITR49T5oAgYhF5+eBYQ3ZBZIMuujANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQsF
   ADBVMQ0wCwYDVQQKEwRJRVRGMREwDwYDVQQLEwhMQU1QUyBXRzExMC8GA1UEAxMo
   U2FtcGxlIExBTVBTIFJTQSBDZXJ0aWZpY2F0aW9uIEF1dGhvcml0eTAgFw0yMDEy
   MTUyMTM1NDRaGA8yMDUyMDkyNzA2NTQxOFowWTENMAsGA1UEChMESUVURjERMA8G
   A1UECxMITEFNUFMgV0cxNTAzBgNVBAMTLFNhbXBsZSBMQU1QUyBFZDI1NTE5IENl
   cnRpZmljYXRpb24gQXV0aG9yaXR5MCowBQYDK2VwAyEAhIFGfciP65F//Ng4oas1
   SGUGfkShN1Ecqfnjdk8SQwSjfDB6MA8GA1UdEwEB/wQFMAMBAf8wFwYDVR0gBBAw
   DjAMBgpghkgBZQMCATACMA4GA1UdDwEB/wQEAwIBBjAdBgNVHQ4EFgQUa6KVfboU
   m+QtBNEHpNGC5C5rjLUwHwYDVR0jBBgwFoAUkTCOfAcXDKfxCShlNhpnHGh29Fkw
   DQYJKoZIhvcNAQELBQADggEBAGV0x0OEzgYlRKixMcztiikxxJDbmRat1pcipD15
   1n8kiBoGhsT4fNZJVoL0OQBa/WTMntL+qcAk2itqZCNIeZeGklUljXBAz5tkDRAF
   f/v99LEcsZTcuIbnJqz35danQkp4/upG4hPkfx+nbc1bsVylrITwIGOpnGhz7z3m
   VCk03DFE3Qt4w9mlv9yuMse33nmsBGXog/XZvM2JRY0iKt0xksQqQD9uYm7MoMeH
   qQs3Ot7EaoPj54xyWvy42run6TLUye64D94SNjB/q/wjL96bsVIKGrRn10T1ybCh
   4F5HD00hQZgP15Dlb1rg+vskN8MSk5nuD+6z1VsugioW0+k=
   -----END CERTIFICATE-----

7.  Carlos's Sample Certificates

   Carlos has the following information:

   *  Name: Carlos Turing

   *  E-mail Address: carlos@smime.example

7.1.  Carlos's Signature Verification End-Entity Certificate

   This certificate is used for verification of signatures made by
   Carlos.

   -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
   MIICBzCCAbmgAwIBAgITP14fVCTRtAFDeA9zwYoXhR52ljAFBgMrZXAwWTENMAsG
   A1UEChMESUVURjERMA8GA1UECxMITEFNUFMgV0cxNTAzBgNVBAMTLFNhbXBsZSBM
   QU1QUyBFZDI1NTE5IENlcnRpZmljYXRpb24gQXV0aG9yaXR5MCAXDTIwMTIxNTIx
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   gDIs3mHITYRNYO+RnOedrq5/HuQHXSPyAKaS98ito4GwMIGtMAwGA1UdEwEB/wQC
   MAAwFwYDVR0gBBAwDjAMBgpghkgBZQMCATABMB8GA1UdEQQYMBaBFGNhcmxvc0Bz
   bWltZS5leGFtcGxlMBMGA1UdJQQMMAoGCCsGAQUFBwMEMA4GA1UdDwEB/wQEAwIG
   wDAdBgNVHQ4EFgQUZIXjO5wdWs3mC7oafwi+xJzMhD8wHwYDVR0jBBgwFoAUa6KV
   fboUm+QtBNEHpNGC5C5rjLUwBQYDK2VwA0EAwVGQWbdy6FQIpTFsaWvG2/US2fnS
   6B+BzgCrkGQKWX1WgkTj4MEOqL+0cFXLr7ZQ2DQUo2iXyTAu58BR6btcCQ==
   -----END CERTIFICATE-----







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7.2.  Carlos's Signing Private Key Material

   This private key material is used by Carlos to create signatures.

   -----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY-----
   MC4CAQAwBQYDK2VwBCIEILvvxL741LfX+Ep3Iyye3Cjr4JmONIVYhZPM4M9N1IHY
   -----END PRIVATE KEY-----

   This secret key is the [SHA256] digest of the ASCII string draft-
   lamps-sample-certs-keygen.carlos.sign.25519.seed.

7.3.  Carlos's Encryption End-Entity Certificate

   This certificate is used to encrypt messages to Carlos.  It contains
   an SMIMECapabilities extension to indicate that Carlos's MUA expects
   ECDH with HKDF using SHA-256; uses AES-128 key wrap, as indicated in
   [RFC8418].

   -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
   MIICNDCCAeagAwIBAgITfz0Bv+b1OMAT79aCh3arViNvhDAFBgMrZXAwWTENMAsG
   A1UEChMESUVURjERMA8GA1UECxMITEFNUFMgV0cxNTAzBgNVBAMTLFNhbXBsZSBM
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   ZS5leGFtcGxlMBMGA1UdJQQMMAoGCCsGAQUFBwMEMA4GA1UdDwEB/wQEAwIDCDAd
   BgNVHQ4EFgQUgSmg+iOgSyCMDXgA3u3aFss0JbkwHwYDVR0jBBgwFoAUa6KVfboU
   m+QtBNEHpNGC5C5rjLUwBQYDK2VwA0EAzss75UzFuADPfd4hQdo5jyAQ3GvkyyvI
   BdBGnWtJ1eT1WuMaIMhi1rH4vPGPd9scwW+sqd9fG+pv3MShl+zKAQ==
   -----END CERTIFICATE-----

7.4.  Carlos's Decryption Private Key Material

   This private key material is used by Carlos to decrypt messages.

   -----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY-----
   MC4CAQAwBQYDK2VuBCIEIIH5782H/otrhLy9Dtvzt79ffsvpcVXgdUczTdUvSQsK
   -----END PRIVATE KEY-----

   This secret key is the [SHA256] digest of the ASCII string draft-
   lamps-sample-certs-keygen.carlos.encrypt.25519.seed.








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7.5.  PKCS12 Object for Carlos

   This PKCS12 ([RFC7292]) object contains the same information as
   presented in Section 7.1, Section 7.2, Section 7.3, Section 7.4, and
   Section 6.3.

   It is locked with the simple five-letter password carlos.

   -----BEGIN PKCS12-----
   MIIYJAIBAzCCF+wGCSqGSIb3DQEHAaCCF90EghfZMIIX1TCCBJ8GCSqGSIb3DQEH
   BqCCBJAwggSMAgEAMIIEhQYJKoZIhvcNAQcBMBwGCiqGSIb3DQEMAQMwDgQI7xhQ
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   HAm90g3eCxGqIU18Vb6bErm4x/wurBw2025yXTK4LEOc6ZyZi53RAsUBPjcob+xh



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   urBScAwv1mEIzH5luy5yvF/jjkJBl11SgYVfRZFTEGZs/l6h4REGwe1SaCyCa2pn
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   DgMCGgQUS7gZkMK++JTD92Cctznb5uLKdvEECJmBdZIPusX5AgIoAA==
   -----END PKCS12-----

8.  Dana's Sample Certificates

   Dana has the following information:




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   *  Name: Dana Hopper

   *  E-mail Address: dna@smime.example

8.1.  Dana's Signature Verification End-Entity Certificate

   This certificate is used for verification of signatures made by Dana.

   -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
   MIICAzCCAbWgAwIBAgITaWZI+hVtn8pQZviAmPmBXzWfnjAFBgMrZXAwWTENMAsG
   A1UEChMESUVURjERMA8GA1UECxMITEFNUFMgV0cxNTAzBgNVBAMTLFNhbXBsZSBM
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   5C0E0Qek0YLkLmuMtTAFBgMrZXADQQDpORBZitzXGYUjxnoKVLIcWL5xner97it5
   VKxEf8E7AeAp96POPEu//2jXnh4qAT40ymW0wrqxU1NT8WW/dSgC
   -----END CERTIFICATE-----

8.2.  Dana's Signing Private Key Material

   This private key material is used by Dana to create signatures.

   -----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY-----
   MC4CAQAwBQYDK2VwBCIEINZ8GPfmQh2AMp+uNIsZMbzvyTOltwvEt13usjnUaW4N
   -----END PRIVATE KEY-----

   This secret key is the [SHA256] digest of the ASCII string draft-
   lamps-sample-certs-keygen.dana.sign.25519.seed.

8.3.  Dana's Encryption End-Entity Certificate

   This certificate is used to encrypt messages to Dana.  It contains an
   SMIMECapabilities extension to indicate that Dana's MUA expects ECDH
   with HKDF using SHA-256; uses AES-128 key wrap, as indicated in
   [RFC8418].












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   -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
   MIICMDCCAeKgAwIBAgITDksKNqnvupyaO2gkjlIdwN7zpzAFBgMrZXAwWTENMAsG
   A1UEChMESUVURjERMA8GA1UECxMITEFNUFMgV0cxNTAzBgNVBAMTLFNhbXBsZSBM
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   0Qek0YLkLmuMtTAFBgMrZXADQQD6f7DCCxXzpnY3BwmrIuf/SNQSf//Otri7USkd
   9GF+VthGS+9KJ4HTBCh0ZGuHIU9EgnfgdSL1UR3WUkL7tv8A
   -----END CERTIFICATE-----

8.4.  Dana's Decryption Private Key Material

   This private key material is used by Dana to decrypt messages.

   -----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY-----
   MC4CAQAwBQYDK2VuBCIEIGxZt8L7lY48OEq4gs/smQ4weDhRNMlYHG21StivPfz3
   -----END PRIVATE KEY-----

   This seed is the [SHA256] digest of the ASCII string draft-lamps-
   sample-certs-keygen.dana.encrypt.25519.seed.

8.5.  PKCS12 Object for Dana

   This PKCS12 ([RFC7292]) object contains the same information as
   presented in Section 8.1, Section 8.2, Section 8.3, Section 8.4, and
   Section 6.3.

   It is locked with the simple four-letter password dana.

   -----BEGIN PKCS12-----
   MIIKtgIBAzCCCn4GCSqGSIb3DQEHAaCCCm8EggprMIIKZzCCAu8GCSqGSIb3DQEH
   BqCCAuAwggLcAgEAMIIC1QYJKoZIhvcNAQcBMBwGCiqGSIb3DQEMAQMwDgQIZNqH
   TA2APx0CAhQXgIICqK+HFHF6dF5qwlWM6MRCXw11VKrcYBff65iLABPyGvWENnVM
   TTPpDLqbGm6Yd2eLntPZvJoVe5Sf2+DW4q3BZ9aKuEdneBBk8mDJ6/Lq1+wFxY5k
   WaBHTA6LNml/NkM3za/fr4abKFQnu6DZgZDGbZh2BsgCMmO9TeHgZyepsh3WP4ZO
   aYDvSD0LiEzerDPlOBgjYahcNLjv/Dn/dFxtOO3or010TTUoQCqeHJOoq3hJtSI+
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   H2vjgrpxnDIXjYuLZdrnNE/slRtqadOGR/WQ358RG+yUmRUbHYHGnkjn9fOGLasI
   ZUV0aowivcWyF/kR7QV3VVexgqJMX6k1vzSXRoJ/tnA+1/WPWy1mCJeljGOgYqSV
   txtVB61Qmc2XP48F7wyaQZvdAU9zfe11/tHAaKKJWBpE1lIuAEkGtIP6ozYJBFjH
   I11tBA8fijTnug+S4OvSgjtsRV/+kSEiW4F+pwE8RuTYfUu7q+Ew0LYdLgkH5OyE



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   kkzl2MltAgIoAA==
   -----END PKCS12-----





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9.  Security Considerations

   The keys presented in this document should be considered compromised
   and insecure, because the secret key material is published and
   therefore not secret.

   Any application which maintains a denylist of invalid key material
   SHOULD include these keys in its list.

10.  IANA Considerations

   IANA has nothing to do for this document.

11.  Document Considerations

   [ RFC Editor: please remove this section before publication ]

   This document is currently edited as markdown.  Minor editorial
   changes can be suggested via merge requests at
   https://gitlab.com/dkg/lamps-samples or by e-mail to the author.
   Please direct all significant commentary to the public IETF LAMPS
   mailing list: spasm@ietf.org

11.1.  Document History

11.1.1.  Substantive Changes from draft-ietf-*-04 to draft-ietf-*-05

   *  Added outbound references for acronyms PEM, CRL, and OCSP, thanks
      Stewart Brant.

11.1.2.  Substantive Changes from draft-ietf-*-04 to draft-ietf-*-05

   *  Switch from SHA512 to SHA1 as MAC checksum in PKCS#12 objects, for
      interop with Keychain Access on macOS.

11.1.3.  Substantive Changes from draft-ietf-*-03 to draft-ietf-*-04

   *  Order subject/issuer DN components by scope.

   *  Put cross-signed intermediate CA certificates into PKCS#12 instead
      of self-signed root CA certificates.

11.1.4.  Substantive Changes from draft-ietf-*-02 to draft-ietf-*-03

   *  Correct encoding of S/MIME Capabilities extension.

   *  Change "Certificate Authority" to "Certification Authority".




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   *  Add CertificatePolicies to all intermediate and end-entity
      certificates.

   *  Add organization and organizational unit to all certificates.

11.1.5.  Substantive Changes from draft-ietf-*-01 to draft-ietf-*-02

   *  Added cross-signed certificates for both CAs

   *  Added S/MIME Capabilities extension for Carlos and Dana's
      encryption keys, indicating preferred ECDH parameters.

   *  Ensure no serial numbers are negative.

   *  Encode keyUsage extensions in minimum-length BIT STRINGs.

11.1.6.  Substantive Changes from draft-ietf-*-00 to draft-ietf-*-01

   *  Added Curve25519 sample certificates (new CA, Carlos, and Dana)

11.1.7.  Substantive Changes from draft-dkg-*-05 to draft-ietf-*-00

   *  WG adoption (dkg moves from Author to Editor)

11.1.8.  Substantive Changes from draft-dkg-*-04 to draft-dkg-*-05

   *  PEM blobs are now sourcecode, not artwork

11.1.9.  Substantive Changes from draft-dkg-*-03 to draft-dkg-*-04

   *  Describe deterministic key generation

   *  label PEM blobs with filenames in XML

11.1.10.  Substantive Changes from draft-dkg-*-02 to draft-dkg-*-03

   *  Alice and Bob now each have two distinct certificates: one for
      signing, one for encryption, and public keys to match.

11.1.11.  Substantive Changes from draft-dkg-*-01 to draft-dkg-*-02

   *  PKCS#12 objects are deliberately locked with simple passphrases

11.1.12.  Substantive Changes from draft-dkg-*-00 to draft-dkg-*-01

   *  changed all three keys to use RSA instead of RSA-PSS





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   *  set keyEncipherment keyUsage flag instead of dataEncipherment in
      EE certs

12.  Acknowledgements

   This draft was inspired by similar work in the OpenPGP space by
   Bjarni Runar and juga at [I-D.bre-openpgp-samples].

   Eric Rescorla helped spot issues with certificate formats.

   Sean Turner pointed to [RFC4134] as prior work.

   Deb Cooley suggested that Alice and Bob should have separate
   certificates for signing and encryption.

   Wolfgang Hommel helped to build reproducible encrypted PKCS#12
   objects.

   Carsten Bormann got the XML sourcecode markup working for this draft.

   David A.  Cooper identified problems with the certificates and
   suggested corrections.

   Lijun Liao helped get the terminology right.

   Stewart Brant and Roman Danyliw provided editorial suggestions.

13.  References

13.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC5280]  Cooper, D., Santesson, S., Farrell, S., Boeyen, S.,
              Housley, R., and W. Polk, "Internet X.509 Public Key
              Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List
              (CRL) Profile", RFC 5280, DOI 10.17487/RFC5280, May 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5280>.

   [RFC5322]  Resnick, P., Ed., "Internet Message Format", RFC 5322,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5322, October 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5322>.






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   [RFC7292]  Moriarty, K., Ed., Nystrom, M., Parkinson, S., Rusch, A.,
              and M. Scott, "PKCS #12: Personal Information Exchange
              Syntax v1.1", RFC 7292, DOI 10.17487/RFC7292, July 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7292>.

   [RFC8032]  Josefsson, S. and I. Liusvaara, "Edwards-Curve Digital
              Signature Algorithm (EdDSA)", RFC 8032,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8032, January 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8032>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

   [RFC8551]  Schaad, J., Ramsdell, B., and S. Turner, "Secure/
              Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME) Version 4.0
              Message Specification", RFC 8551, DOI 10.17487/RFC8551,
              April 2019, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8551>.

13.2.  Informative References

   [FIPS186-4]
              "Digital Signature Standard (DSS)", National Institute of
              Standards and Technology report,
              DOI 10.6028/nist.fips.186-4, July 2013,
              <https://doi.org/10.6028/nist.fips.186-4>.

   [I-D.bre-openpgp-samples]
              Einarsson, B. R., juga, and D. K. Gillmor, "OpenPGP
              Example Keys and Certificates", Work in Progress,
              Internet-Draft, draft-bre-openpgp-samples-01, 20 December
              2019, <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-bre-openpgp-
              samples-01.txt>.

   [RFC4134]  Hoffman, P., Ed., "Examples of S/MIME Messages", RFC 4134,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4134, July 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4134>.

   [RFC7468]  Josefsson, S. and S. Leonard, "Textual Encodings of PKIX,
              PKCS, and CMS Structures", RFC 7468, DOI 10.17487/RFC7468,
              April 2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7468>.

   [RFC7469]  Evans, C., Palmer, C., and R. Sleevi, "Public Key Pinning
              Extension for HTTP", RFC 7469, DOI 10.17487/RFC7469, April
              2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7469>.






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   [RFC8410]  Josefsson, S. and J. Schaad, "Algorithm Identifiers for
              Ed25519, Ed448, X25519, and X448 for Use in the Internet
              X.509 Public Key Infrastructure", RFC 8410,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8410, August 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8410>.

   [RFC8418]  Housley, R., "Use of the Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman Key
              Agreement Algorithm with X25519 and X448 in the
              Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS)", RFC 8418,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8418, August 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8418>.

   [SHA256]   Dang, Q., "Secure Hash Standard", National Institute of
              Standards and Technology report,
              DOI 10.6028/nist.fips.180-4, July 2015,
              <https://doi.org/10.6028/nist.fips.180-4>.

   [TEST-POLICY]
              NIST - Computer Security Divisiion (CSD), "Test
              Certificate Policy to Support PKI Pilots and Testing", May
              2012, <https://csrc.nist.gov/CSRC/media/Projects/Computer-
              Security-Objects-Register/documents/test_policy.pdf>.

Author's Address

   Daniel Kahn Gillmor (editor)
   American Civil Liberties Union
   125 Broad St.
   New York, NY,  10004
   United States of America

   Email: dkg@fifthhorseman.net



















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