MEXT Working Group                                               W. Eddy
Internet-Draft                                                   Verizon
Intended status: Informational                                W. Ivancic
Expires: November 14, 2008                                          NASA
                                                                T. Davis
                                                            May 13, 2008

NEMO Route Optimization Requirements for Operational Use in Aeronautics
                 and Space Exploration Mobile Networks

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   This document describes the requirements and desired properties of
   NEMO Route Optimization techniques for use in global networked
   communications systems for aeronautics and space exploration.

   This version has been reviewed by members of the International Civil
   Aviation Orgnanization (ICAO) and other aeronautical communications
   standards bodies, and contributed to by a number of aeronautical
   communications experts outside the normal IETF process.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  NEMO RO Scenarios  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     2.1.  Aeronautical Communications Scenarios  . . . . . . . . . .  5
     2.2.  Space Exploration Scenarios  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   3.  Required Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     3.1.  Req1 - Separability  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     3.2.  Req2 - Multihoming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     3.3.  Req3 - Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     3.4.  Req4 - Availability  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     3.5.  Req5 - Packet Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     3.6.  Req6 - Scalability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     3.7.  Req7 - Efficient Signaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     3.8.  Req8 - Security  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     3.9.  Req9 - Adaptability  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
   4.  Desirable Characteristics  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
     4.1.  Des1 - Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
     4.2.  Des2 - Nesting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
     4.3.  Des3 - System Impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
     4.4.  Des4 - VMN Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
     4.5.  Des5 - Generality  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
   5.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
   6.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
   7.  Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
   8.  Changes from draft-eddy-nemo-aero-reqs-02  . . . . . . . . . . 25
   9.  Changes from draft-ietf-mext-aero-reqs-00  . . . . . . . . . . 25
   10. Changes from draft-ietf-mext-aeor-reqs-01  . . . . . . . . . . 25
   11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
     11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
     11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
   Appendix A.  Basics of IP-based Aeronautical Networking  . . . . . 27
   Appendix B.  Basics of IP-based Space Networking . . . . . . . . . 28
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 30

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1.  Introduction

   As background the NEMO terminology and NEMO goals and requirements
   documents are suggested reading [4] [5].  The drafts produced as part
   of the Mobile Platform Internet (MPI) effort are also of relevence,
   and some of the material in this document is borrowed from the MPI
   drafts [6] [7].

   The base NEMO standard [1] allows Mobile IPv6 [2] to be used by
   mobile routers, although NEMO does not support Mobile IPv6's Route
   Optimization (RO) features for mobile network nodes other than the
   NEMO Mobile Router (MR) itself.  NEMO allows mobile networks to
   efficiently remain reachable via fixed IP address prefixes no matter
   where they relocate within the network topology.  This is
   accomplished through the maintenance of a bidirectional tunnel
   between a NEMO Mobile Router and a NEMO Home Agent (HA) placed at
   some relatively stable point in the network.  Corresponding Nodes
   (CNs) that communicate with Mobile Network Nodes (MNNs) behind an MR
   do so through the HA and MRHA tunnel in both directions.  Since the
   use of this tunnel may have significant drawbacks [8], RO techniques
   that allow a more direct path between the CN and MR to be used are
   highly desirable.

   For decades, mobile networks of some form have been used for
   communications with people and avionics equipment onboard aircraft
   and spacecraft.  These have not typically used IP, although
   architectures are being devised and deployed based on IP in both the
   aeronautics and space exploration communities (see Appendix A and
   Appendix B for more information).  An aircraft or spacecraft
   generally contains many computing nodes, sensors, and other devices
   that are possible to address individually with IPv6.  This is
   desirable to support network-centric operations concepts.  Given that
   a craft has only a small number of access links, it is very natural
   to use NEMO MRs to localize the functions needed to manage the large
   onboard network's reachability over the few dynamic access links.  On
   an aircraft, the nodes are arranged in multiple independent networks,
   based on their functions.  These multiple networks are required for
   regulatory reasons to have different treatments of their air-ground
   traffic, and often must use distinct air-ground links and service

   For aeronautics, the main disadvantage of using NEMO bidirectional
   tunnels is that airlines operate flights that traverse multiple
   continents, and a single plane may fly around the entire world over a
   span of a couple days.  If a plane uses a static HA on a single
   continent, then for a large percentage of the time when the plane is
   not on the same continent as the HA, a great amount of delay is
   imposed by using the MRHA tunnel.  Avoiding the delay from

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   unnecessarily forcing packets across multiple continents is the
   primary goal of pursuing NEMO RO for aeronautics.

   Other properties of the aeronautics and space environments amplify
   the known issues with NEMO bidirectional MRHA tunnels [8] even

      Longer routes leading to increased delay and additional
      infrastructure load - In aeronautical networks (e.g. using Plain
      Old Aircraft Communication Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS)
      or ACARS over VHF Data Link (VDL) mode 2 ) the queueing delays are
      often long due to ARQ mechanisms and underprovisioned radio links.
      Furthermore, for aeronautical communications systems that pass
      through geosynchronous satellites, and for space exploration, the
      propagation delays are also long.  These delays combined with the
      additional need to cross continents in order to transport packets
      between ground stations and CNs means that delays are already
      quite high in aeronautical and space networks without the addition
      of an MRHA tunnel.  The increased delays caused by MRHA tunnels
      may be unacceptable in meeting Required Communication Performance

      Increased packet overhead - Given the constrained link bandwidths
      available in even future communications systems for aeronautics
      and space exploration, planners are extremely adverse to header
      overhead.  Since any amount of available link capacity can be
      utilized for extra situational awareness, science data, etc.,
      every byte of header/tunnel overhead displaces a byte of useful

      Increased chances of packet fragmentation - RFC 4888 identifies
      fragmentation due to encapsulation as an artifact of tunneling.
      While links used in the aeronautics and space domains are error-
      prone and may cause loss of fragments on the initial/final hop(s),
      considerations for fragmentation along the entire tunneled path
      are the same as for the terrestrial domain.

      Increased susceptibility to failure - The additional likelihood of
      either a single link failure disrupting all communications or an
      HA failure disrupting all communications is problematic when using
      MRHA tunnels for command and control applications that require
      high availability for safety-of-life or safety-of-mission.

   For these reasons, an RO extension to NEMO is highly desirable for
   use in aeronautical and space networking.  In fact, a standard RO
   mechanism may even be necessary before some planners will seriously
   consider advancing use of the NEMO technology from experimental
   demonstrations to operational use within their communications

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   architectures.  Without an RO solution, NEMO is difficult to justify
   for realistic operational consideration.

   In Section 2 we describe the relevent high-level features of the
   access and onboard networks envisioned for use in aeronautics and
   space exploration, as they influence the properties of usable NEMO RO
   solutions.  Section 3 then lists the technical and functional
   characteristics that are absolutely required of a NEMO RO solution
   for these environments, while Section 4 lists some additional
   characteristics that are desired, but not necessarily required.  In
   Appendix A and Appendix B we provide brief primers on the specific
   operational concepts used in aeronautics and space exploration
   respectively for IP-based network architectures.

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119.  Although
   this document does not specify an actual protocol, but rather just
   the requirements for a protocol, it still uses the RFC 2119 language
   to make the requirements clear.

2.  NEMO RO Scenarios

   To motivate and drive the development of the requirements and
   desirable features for NEMO RO solutions, in this section some
   operational characteristics are described to explain how access
   networks, HAs, and CNs are configured and distributed geographically
   and topologically in aeronautical and space network architectures.
   This may be useful in determining which classes of RO techniques
   within the known solution space [10] are feasible.

2.1.  Aeronautical Communications Scenarios

   Since aircraft may be simultaneously connected to multiple ground
   access networks using diverse technologies with different coverage
   properties, it is difficult to say much in general about the rate of
   changes in active access links and care-of addresses (CoAs).  As one
   data point, for using VDL mode 2 data links, the length of time spent
   on a single access channel varies depending on the stage of flight.
   On the airport surface, VDL mode 2 access is stable while a plane is
   unloaded, loaded, refueled, etc., but other wired and wireless LAN
   links (e.g. the Gatelink system) may come and go.  Immediately after
   takeoff and before landing, planes are in the terminal maneuvering
   area for approximately 10 minutes and stably use another VDL mode 2
   channel.  During en-route flight, handovers between VDL mode 2
   channels may occur every 30 to 60 minutes, depending on the exact
   flight plan and layout of towers, cells, and sectors used by a

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   service provider.  These handovers may result in having a different
   access router and a change in CoA, though the use of local mobility
   management (e.g. [11]) may limit the changes in CoA to only handovers
   between different providers or types of data links.

   The characteristics of a data flow between a CN and MNN varies both
   depending on the data flow's domain, and the particular application
   within the domain.  Even within the three aeronautical domains
   described below, there are varying classes of service that are
   regulated differently (e.g. for emergencies versus nominal
   operations), but this level of detail has been abstracted out for the
   purposes of this document.  It is assumed that any viable NEMO RO
   solution will be able to support a granularity of configuration with
   many sub-classes of traffic within each of the specific domains
   listed here.

2.1.1.  Air Traffic Services Domain

   The MNNs involved in Air Traffic Services (ATS) consist of pieces of
   avoinics hardware onboard an aircraft used to provide navigation,
   control, and situational awareness.  The applications run by these
   MNNs are mostly critical to the safety of the lives of the passengers
   and crew.  The MNN equipment may consist of a range of devices from
   typical laptop computers to very specialized avionics devices.  These
   MNNs will mostly be Local Fixed Nodes (LFNs), with a few Local Mobile
   Nodes (LMNs) to support Electronic Flight Bags, for instance.  It can
   be assumed that Visiting Mobile Nodes (VMNs) are never used within
   the ATS domain.

   An MR used for ATS will be capable of using multiple data links (at
   least VHF-based, satellite, HF-based, and wired), and will likely be
   supported by a backup unit in the case of failure, leading to a case
   of a multi-homed MR that is at least multi-interfaced and possibly
   multi-prefixed as well, in NEMO terminology.

   The existing ATS link technologies may be too anemic for a complete
   IP-based ATS communications architecture.  At the time of this
   writing, the ICAO is pursuing future datalink standards that support
   higher data rates.  Part of the problem is limited spectrum, pursued
   under ICAO ACP-WG-F, "Spectrum Management", and part of the problem
   is the datalink protocols themselves, pursued under ICAO ACP-WG-T,
   "Future Communications Technology".  ACP-WG-T has received inputs
   from studies on a number of potential datalink protocols including
   B-AMC, AMACS, P34, LDL, WCDMA, and others.  Different link
   technologies may be used in different stages of flight, for instance
   802.16 in the surface and terminal area, P34 or LDL en-route, and
   satcom in oceanic flight.  Both current and planned datalinks used
   for PIES and/or AOS, such as the satcom links employed by Connexion

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   by Boeing support much higher data rates than current ATS links.

   Since for ATS, the MRs and MNNs are under regulatory control and are
   actively tested and maintained, it is not completely unreasonable to
   assume that special patches or software be running on these devices
   to enable NEMO RO.  In fact, since these devices are accessed by
   skilled technicians and professionals, it may tolerable be if some
   special configuration is required for NEMO RO.  Of course simplicity
   in setup and configuration is highly preferable, however, and the
   desirable feature labeled "Des1" below in this document prefers
   solutions with lower configuration state and overhead.  To minimize
   costs of ownership and operations, it is also highly desirable for
   only widely-available off-the-shelf operating systems or network
   stacks to be required, but not a full requirement.

   Data flows from the ATS domain may be assumed to consist mainly of
   short transactional exchanges such as clearance requests and grants.
   Future ATS communications are likely to include longer messages and
   higher message frequencies for positional awareness and trajectory
   intent of all vehicles in motion at the airport and all aircraft
   within a thirty mile range during flight.  Many of these may be
   aircraft-to-aircraft, but the majority of current exchanges are
   between the MNNs and a very small set of CNs within a control
   facility at any time due to the full transfer of control as a plane
   moves across sectors of airspace.  The set of CNs may be assumed to
   be topologically close to one another.  These CNs are also involved
   in other data flows over the same access network that the MR is
   attached to, managing other flights within the sector.  These CNs are
   often geographically and topologically much closer to the MR in
   comparison to a single fixed HA.

   The MNNs and CNs used for ATS will support IP services, as IP is the
   basis of the new ATN architecture being defined by ICAO.  Some
   current ATS ground systems run typical operating systems like
   Solaris, Linux, and Windows on typical workstation computer hardware.
   There is some possibility for an RO solution to require minor changes
   to these CNs, though it is much more desirable if completely off-the-
   shelf CN machines and operating systems can be used.  Later in this
   document, the security requirements suggest that RO might be
   performed with mobility anchors that are topologically-close to the
   CNs, rather than directly to CNs themselves.  This could possibly
   mean that CN modifications are not required.

   During the course of a flight, there are several events that an RO
   solution should consider the performance implications of:

      Initial session creation with an ATS CN (called "Data Link Logon"
      in the aeronautical jargon).

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      Transfer of control between ATS CNs, resulting in regional
      differences in where the controlling CN is located.

      Aircraft-initiated contact with a non-controlling ATS CN, which
      may be located anywhere, without relation to the controlling CN.

      Non-controlling ATS CN-initiated contact with the aircraft.

      Aircraft transition between one access link to another, resulting
      in change of CoA.

      Concurrent use of multiple access links with different care-of

2.1.2.  Airline Operational Services Domain

   Data flows for Airline Operational Services (AOS) are not critical to
   the safety of the passengers or aircraft, but are needed for the
   business operations of airlines operating flights, and may affect the
   profitability of an airline's flights.  Most of these data flows are
   sourced by MNNs that are part of the flight management system or
   sensor nodes on an aircraft, and are terminated at CNs located near
   an airline's headquarters or operations center.  AOS traffic may
   include detailed electronic passenger manifests, passenger ticketing
   and rebooking traffic, and complete electronic baggage manifests.
   When suitable bandwidth is available (currently on the surface when
   connected to a wired Gatelink system), "airplane health information"
   data transfers of between 10 and several-hundred megabytes of data
   are likely, and in the future, it is expected that the In-Flight
   Entertainment (IFE) systems may receive movie refreshes of data (e.g.
   television programming or recent news updates) running into the
   multi-gigabyte range.

   Currently, these flows are often short messages that record the
   timing of events of a flight, engine performance data, etc., but may
   be longer flows that upload weather or other supplementary data to an
   aircraft.  In addition, email-like interactive messaging may be used
   at any time during a flight.  For instance, messages can be exchanged
   before landing to arrange for arrival-gate services to be available
   for handicapped passengers, refueling, food and beverage stocking,
   and other needs.  This messaging is not limited to landing
   preparation, though, and may occur at any stage of flight.

   The equipment comprising these MNNs and CNs has similar
   considerations to the equipment used for the ATS domain.  A key
   difference between ATS and AOS is that AOS data flows are routed to
   CNs that may be much more geographically remote to the aircraft than
   CNs used by ATS flows, as AOS CNs will probably be located at an

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   airline's corporate data center or headquarters.  The AOS CNs will
   also probably be static for the lifetime of the flight, rather than
   dynamic like the ATS CNs.  An HA used for AOS may be fairly close
   topologically to the CNs, and RO may not be as big of a benefit for
   AOS, since simple event logging is more typical than time-critical
   interactive messaging.  For the small number of messaging flows,
   however, the CNs are geographically (but not necessarily
   topologically) very close to the aircraft, though this depends on how
   applications are written; whether they use centralized servers or
   exchange messages directly.  Additionally, since AOS communication is
   more advisory in nature than ATS, rather than safety-critical, AOS
   flows are less sensitive to tunnel inefficiencies than ATS flows.
   For these reasons, in this document, we consider AOS data flow
   concerns with RO mechanisms to not be full requirements, but instead
   consider them under the desirable properties in Section 4.

   Future AOS MNNs and CNs can be expected to implement IPv6 and conform
   to the new IPv6-based ATN SARPS that ICAO is defining.  AOS CNs have
   similar hardware and software properties as described for ATS above.

2.1.3.  Passenger Services Domain

   The MNNs involved in the Passenger Information and Entertainment
   Services (PIES) domain are mostly beyond the direct control of any
   single authority.  The majority of these MNNs are VMNs and personal
   property brought onboard by passengers for the duration of a flight,
   and thus it is unreasonable to assume that they be preloaded with
   special software or operating systems.  These MNNs run stock Internet
   applications like web browsing, email, and file transfer, often
   through VPN tunnels.  The MNNs themselves are portable electronics
   such as laptop computers and mobile smartphones capable of connecting
   to an onboard wireless access network (e.g. using 802.11).  To these
   MNN devices and users, connecting to the onboard network is identical
   to connecting to any other terrestrial "hotspot" or typical wireless
   LAN.  The MNNs are completely oblivious to the fact that this access
   network is on an airplane and possibly moving around the globe.  The
   users are not always technically-proficient and may not be capable of
   performing any special configuration of their MNNs or applications.

   The largest class of PIES CNs consists of typical web servers and
   other nodes on the public Internet.  It is not reasonable to assume
   that these can be modified specifically to support a NEMO RO scheme.
   Presently, these CNs would be mostly IPv4-based, though an increasing
   number of IPv6 PIES CNs are expected in the future.  This document
   does not consider the problem of IPv4-IPv6 transition, beyond the
   assumption that either MNNs and CNs are running IPv6 or a transition
   mechanism exists somewhere within the network.

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   A small number of PIES MNNs may be LFNs that store and distribute
   cached media content (e.g. movies and music), or may provide gaming
   services to passengers.  Due to the great size of the data stored on
   these LFNs compared to the anemic bandwidth available air-to-ground,
   these LFNs will probably not attempt to communicate off-board at all
   during the course of a flight, but will wait to update their content
   via either high-speed links are available on the ground, or via
   removable media inserted by the flight crew.  However, if a higher
   bandwidth link were affordably available, it might be used in-flight
   for these purposes, but supporting this is not a requirement.  Data
   flows needed for billing passengers for access to content are
   relatively low bandwidth and are currently done in-flight.  The
   requirements of these data flows are less stringent than those of
   ATS, however, so they are not specifically considered here.

   The PIES domain is not critical to safety-of-life, but is merely an
   added comfort or business service to passengers.  Since PIES
   applications may consume much more bandwidth than the available links
   used in other domains, the PIES MNNs may have their packets routed
   through a separate high-bandwidth link, that is not used by the ATS
   data flows.  For instance, several service providers are planning to
   offer passenger Internet access during flight at DSL-like rates, just
   as the Connexion by Boeing system did.  Several airlines also plan to
   offer onboard cellular service to their passengers, possibly
   utilizing Voice-over-IP for transport.  Due to the lack of
   criticality and the likelihood of being treated independently, in
   this document, PIES MNN concerns are not considered as input to
   requirements in Section 3.  The RO solution should be optimized for
   ATS and AOS needs, and consider PIES as a secondary concern.

   With this in consideration, the PIES domain is also the most likely
   to utilize NEMO for communications in the near-term since
   relatatively little regulations and beaurocracy are involved in
   deploying new technology in this domain, and IP-based PIES systems
   have previously been developed and deployed (although not using NEMO)
   [12].  For these reasons, PIES concerns factor heavily into the
   desirable properties in Section 4 outside of the mandatory

   Some PIES nodes are currently using 2.5G/3G links for mobile data
   services, and these may be able to migrate to an IP-based onboard
   mobile network, when available.

2.2.  Space Exploration Scenarios

   This section describes some features of the network environments
   found in space exploration that are relevent to selecting an
   appropriate NEMO RO mechanism.  It should be noted that IPv4-based

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   mobile routing has been demonstrated onboard the UK-DMC satellite and
   that the documentation on this serves as a useful reference for
   understanding some of the goals and configuration issues for certain
   types of space use of NEMO [13].  This section assumes space use of
   NEMO within the "near-Earth" range of space (i.e. not for
   communications between the Earth and Mars, or other "deep-space"
   locations).  Note, that NEMO is currently being considered for use
   out to Lunar distances.  No strong distinction is made here between
   civilian versus military use, or exploration mission versus Earth-
   observing or other mission types; our focus is on civilian
   exploration missions, but we believe that many of the same basic
   concerns are relevent to these other mission types.

   In space communications, a high degree of bandwidth asymmetry is
   often present, with the uplink from the ground to a craft typically
   being multiple orders of magnitude slower than the downlink from the
   craft to the ground.  This means that the RO overhead may be
   negligible on the downlink but significant for the uplink.  An RO
   scheme that minimizes the amount of signaling from CNs to an MN is
   desirable, since these uplinks may be low-bandwidth to begin with
   (possibly only several kilobits per second).  Since the uplink is
   used for sending commands, it should not be blocked for long periods
   while serializing long RO signaling packets; any RO signaling from
   the CN to MNNs must not involve large packets.

   For unmanned space flight, the MNNs onboard a spacecraft consist
   almost entirely of LFN sensing devices and processing devices that
   send telemetry and science data to CNs on the ground and actuator
   devices that are commanded from the ground in order to control the
   craft.  Robotic lunar rovers may serve as VMNs behind an MR located
   on a lander or orbiter, but these rovers will contain many
   independent instruments and could probably configured as an MR and
   LFNs instead of using a single VMN address.

   It can be assumed that for manned spaceflight, at least, multiple MRs
   will be present and on-line simultaneously for fast failover.  These
   will usually be multihomed over space links in diverse frequency
   bands, and so multiple access network prefixes can be expected to be
   in use simultaneously, especially since some links will be direct to
   ground stations while others may be bent-pipe repeated through
   satellite relays like TDRSS.  This conforms to the (n,1,1) or (n,n,1)
   NEMO multihoming scenarios [14].  For unmanned missions, if low
   weight and power are more critical, it is likely that only a single
   MR and single link/prefix may be present, conforming to the (1,1,1)
   or (1,n,1) NEMO multihoming scenarios [14].

   In some modes of spacecraft operation, all communications may go
   through a single onboard computer (or a Command and Data Handling

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   system as on the International Space Station) rather than directly to
   the MNNs themselves, so there is only ever one MNN behind an MR that
   is in direct contact with off-board CNs.  In this case removing the
   MR and using simple host-based Mobile IPv6 rather than NEMO is
   possible.  However, an MR is more desirable because it could be part
   of a modular communications adapter that is used in multiple diverse
   missions to bridge on-board buses and intelligently manage space
   links.  This is cheaper and leads to faster development time than re-
   creating these capabilities per-mission if using simple Mobile IPv6
   with a single Command and Data Handling node that varies widely
   between spacecraft.  Also, all visions for the future involve
   network-centric operations where the direct addressability and
   accessibility of end devices and data is crucial.  As network-centric
   operations become more prevalent, application of NEMO is likely to be
   needed to increase the flexibility of data flow.

   The MRs and MNNs onboard a spacecraft are highly-customized computing
   platforms, and adding custom code or complex configurations in order
   to obtain NEMO RO capabilities is feasible, although it should not be
   assumed that any amount of code or configuration maintenance is
   possible after launch.  The RO scheme as it is initially configured
   should continue to function throughout the lifetime of an asset.

   For manned space flight, additional MNNs on spacesuits and astronauts
   may be present and used for applications like two-way voice
   conversation or video-downlink.  These MNNs could be reusable and
   reconfigured per-flight for different craft or mission network
   designs, but it is still desirable for them to be able to
   autoconfigure themselves and they may move between nested or non-
   nested MRs during a mission.  For instance, if astonauts move between
   two docked spacecraft, each craft may have its own local MR and
   wireless coverage that the suit MNNs will have to reconfigure for.
   It is desirable if a RO solution can respond appropriately to this
   change in locality, and not cause high levels of packet loss during
   the transitional period.  It is also likely that these MNNs will be
   part of Personal Area Networks (PANs), and so may appear either
   directly as MNNs behind the main MR onboard, or might have their own
   MR within the PAN and thus create a nested (or even multi-level
   nested) NEMO configuration.

3.  Required Characteristics

   This section lists requirements that specify the absolute minimal
   technical and/or functional properties that a NEMO RO mechanism must
   possess to be usable for aeronautical and space communications.

   In the recent work done by the International Civial Aviation

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   Organization (ICAO) to identify viable mobility technologies for
   providing IP services to aircraft, a set of technical criteria was
   developed [7] [15].  The nine required characteristics listed in this
   document can be seen as directly descended from these ICAO criteria,
   except here we have made them much more specific and focused for the
   NEMO technology and the problem of RO within NEMO.  The original ICAO
   criteria were more general and used for comparing the features of
   different mobility solutions (e.g. mobility techniques based on
   routing protocols versus transport protocols versus Mobile IP, etc.).
   Within the text describing each requirement in this section, we
   provide the high-level ICAO criteria from which it evolved.

   These requirements for aeronautics are generally similar to or in
   excess of the requirements for space exploration, so we do not add
   any additional requirements specifically for space exploration.  In
   addition, the lack of a standards body regulating performance and
   safety requirements for space exploration means that the requirements
   for aviation are much easier to agree upon and base within existing
   requirements frameworks.  After consideration, we believe that the
   set of aviation-based requirements outlined here also fully suffices
   for space exploration.

   It is understood that different solutions may be needed for
   supporting different domains.  This may mean either different NEMO RO
   solutions, or different mobility solutions entirely.  Divergent
   solutions amongst the domains are acceptable, though preferably
   avoided if possible.

   An underlying requirement that would be assumed by the use of Mobile
   IP technology for managing mobility (rather than a higher-layer
   approach) is that IP addresses used both within the mobile network,
   and by CNs to start new sessions with nodes within the mobile network
   remain constant throughout the course of flights and operations.  For
   ATS and AOS, this allows the HoAs to serve as node identifiers,
   rather than just locators, and for PIES it allows common persistent
   applications (e.g.  VoIP clients, VPN clients, etc.) to remain
   connected throughout a flight.  The prior aeronautical network
   systems like the prior OSI-based ATN and Connexion by Boeing set a
   precedent for keeping a fixed MNP, though they relied on interdomain
   routing protocols (IDRP and BGP) to accomplish this, rather than NEMO
   technology.  This requirement applies to the selection in general of
   a mobility managment technology, and not specifically to an RO
   solution once NEMO has been decided on for mobility management.

3.1.  Req1 - Separability

   Since RO may be inappropriate for some flows, an RO scheme MUST
   support configuration by a per-domain dynamic RO policy database.

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   Entries in this database can be similar to those used in IPsec
   security policy databases in order to specify either bypassing or
   utilizing RO for specific flows.

3.1.1.  Rationale for Aeronautics - Separability

   Even if RO is available to increase the performance of a mobile
   network's traffic, it may not be appropriate for all flows.

   There may also be a desire to push certain flows through the MRHA
   path rather than perform RO to enable them to be easily recorded by a
   central service.

   For these reasons, an RO scheme must have the ability to be bypassed
   by applications that desire to use bidirectional tunnels through an
   HA.  This desire could be expressed through a policy database similar
   to the Security Policy Database used by IPsec, for instance, but the
   specific means of signaling or configuring the expression of this
   desire by applications is left as a detail for the specific RO

   In addition, it is expected that the use of NEMO technology is
   decided on a per-domain basis, so that it is possible that for some
   domains, separate MRs are used, or even non-NEMO mobility techniques.
   This requirement for an RO policy database only applies to domains
   that utilize NEMO.

   This requirement was derived from ICAO's TC-1 - "The approach should
   provide a means to define data communications that can be carried
   only over authorized paths for the traffic type and category
   specified by the user."

   One suggested approach to traffic separation is multi-addressing of
   the onboard networks, with treatment of a traffic domain determined
   by the packet addresses used.  However, there are other techniques
   possible for meeting this requirement, and so multi-addressing is not
   itself a requirement.  The Req1 requirement we describe above is
   intended for separating the traffic within a domain that makes use of
   NEMO based on flow properties (e.g. short messaging flows vs. longer
   file transfers or voice flows).

3.2.  Req2 - Multihoming

   An RO solution MUST support an MR having multiple interfaces, and
   MUST allow a given domain to be bound to a specific interface.  It
   MUST be possible to use different MNPs for different domains.

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3.2.1.  Rationale for Aeronautics - Multihoming

   Multiple factors drive a requirement for multihoming capabilities.
   For ATS safety-of-life critical traffic, the need for high
   availability suggests a basic multihoming requirement.  The
   regulatory and operational difficulty in deploying new systems and
   transitioning away from old ones also implies that a mix of access
   technologies may be in use at any given time, and may require
   simultaneous use.  Another factor is that the multiple domains of
   applications onboard may actually be restricted in what data links
   they are allowed to use based on regulations and policy, so at
   certain times or locations, PIES data flows may have to use distinct
   access links from those used by ATS data flows.

   This drives the requirement that an RO solution MUST allow for an MR
   to be connected to multiple access networks simultaneously and have
   multiple CoAs in use simultaneously.  The selection of a proper CoA
   and access link to use per-packet may be either within or outside the
   scope of the RO solution.  As a minimum, if an RO solution is
   integrable with the MONAMI6 basic extensions (i.e. registration of
   multiple CoAs and flow bindings), and does not preclude their use,
   then this requirement can be considered to be satisfied.

   It is not this requirement's intention that an RO scheme itself
   provide multihoming, but rather simply to exclude RO techniques whose
   use is not possible in multihomed scenarios.

   In terms of NEMO multihoming scenarios [14], it MUST be possible to
   support at least the (n,1,n) and (n,n,n) scenarios.

   This requirement was derived from ICAO's TC-2 - "The approach should
   enable an aircraft to both roam between and to be simultaneously
   connected to multiple independent air-ground networks."

3.3.  Req3 - Latency

   While an RO solution is in the process of setting up or
   reconfiguring, packets of specified flows MUST be capable of using
   the MRHA tunnel.

3.3.1.  Rationale for Aeronautics - Latency

   It is possible that an RO scheme may take longer to setup or involve
   more signaling than the basic NEMO MRHA tunnel maintenance that
   occurs during an update to the MR's active CoAs when the set of
   usable access links changes.  During this period of flux, it may be
   important for applications to be able to immediately get packets onto
   the ground network, especially considering that connectivity may have

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   been blocked for some period of time while link-layer and NEMO
   proceedures for dealing with the transition occurred.  Also, when an
   application starts for the first time, the RO scheme may not have
   previous knowledge related to the CN and may need to perform some
   setup before an optimized path is available.  If the RO scheme blocks
   packets either through queueing or dropping while it is configuring
   itself, this could result in unacceptable delays.

   Thus, when transitions in the MR's set of active access links occurs,
   the RO scheme MUST NOT block packets from using the MRHA tunnel if
   the RO scheme requires more time to setup or configure itself than
   the basic NEMO tunnel maintenance.  Additionally, when an application
   flow is started, the RO scheme MUST allow packets to immediately be
   sent, perhaps without the full benefit of RO, if the RO scheme
   requires additional time to configure a more optimal path to the CN.

   This requirement was derived from ICAO's TC-3 - "The approach should
   minimize latency during establishment of initial paths to an
   aircraft, during handoff, and during transfer of individual data

3.4.  Req4 - Availability

   An RO solution MUST be compatible with network redundancy mechanisms
   and MUST NOT prevent fall-back to the MRHA tunnel if an element in an
   optimized path fails.

   An RO mechanism MUST NOT add any new single point of failure for
   communications in general.

3.4.1.  Rationale for Aeronautics - Availability

   A need for high availability of connectivity to ground networks
   arises from the use of IP networking for carrying safety-of-life
   critical traffic.  For this reason, single points of failure need to
   be avoided.  If an RO solution assumes either a single MR onboard, a
   single HA, or some similar vulnerable point, and is not usable when
   the network includes standard reliability mechanisms for routers,
   then the RO technique will not be acceptable.  An RO solution also
   MUST NOT itself imply a single point of failure.

   If a failure occurs in a path selected by an RO technique, then that
   RO technique MUST NOT prevent fallback to the MRHA path for affected

   This does not mention specific redundancy mechanisms for MRs, HAs, or
   other networking elements, so as long as some reasonable method for
   making each component redundant fits within the assumptions of the RO

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   mechanism, this requirement can be considered satisfied.

   There is no intention to support "Internet-less" operation through
   this requirement.  When an MR is completely disconnected from the
   majority of the network it is intended to communicate, including its
   HA, there is no requirement for it to be able to retain any
   communications involving parties outside the mobile networks managed
   by itself.

   This requirement was derived from ICAO's TC-4 - "The approach should
   have high availability which includes not having a single point of

3.5.  Req5 - Packet Loss

   An RO scheme SHOULD NOT cause either loss or duplication of data
   packets during RO path establishment, usage, or transition, above
   that caused in the NEMO basic support case.  An RO scheme MUST NOT
   itself create non-transient losses and duplications within a packet

3.5.1.  Rationale for Aeronautics - Packet Loss

   It is possible that some RO schemes could cause data packets to be
   lost during transitions in RO state or due to unforseen packet
   filters along the RO-selected path.  This could be difficult for an
   application to detect and respond to in time.  For this reason, an RO
   scheme SHOULD NOT cause packets to be dropped at any point in
   operation, when they would not normally have been dropped in a non-RO

   As an attempt at optimizing against packet loss, some techniques may
   for some time duplicate packets sent over both the MRHA tunnel and
   the optimized path.  If this results in duplicate packets being
   delivered to the application, this is also unacceptable

   This requirement does not necessarily imply make-before-break in
   transitioning between links.  The intention is that during the
   handoff period, the RO scheme itself should not produce losses (or
   duplicates) that would not have occurred if RO had been disabled.

   This requirement was derived from ICAO's TC-5 - "The approach should
   not negatively impact end-to-end data integrity, for example, by
   introducing packet loss during path establishment, handoff, or data

   It is understood that this may be a requirement that is not easily
   implementable with regards to RO.  Furthermore Req1, Separability,

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   may be sufficient in allowing loss-sensitive and duplicate-sensitive
   flows to take the MRHA path.

3.6.  Req6 - Scalability

   An RO scheme MUST be simultaneously usable by the MNNs on hundreds of
   thousands of craft without overloading the ground network or routing
   system.  This explicitly forbids injection of BGP routes into the
   global Internet for purposes of RO.

3.6.1.  Rationale for Aeronautics - Scalability

   Several thousand aircraft may be in operation at some time, each with
   perhaps several hundred MNNs onboard.  The number of active
   spacecraft using IP will be multiple orders of magnitude smaller than
   this over at least the next decade, so the aeronautical needs are
   more stringent in terms of scalability to large numbers of MRs.  It
   would be a non-starter if the combined use of an RO technique by all
   of the MRs in the network caused ground networks provisioned within
   the realm of typical long-haul private telecommunications networks
   (like the FAA's Telecommunications Infrastructure (FTI) or NASA's
   NISN) to be overloaded or melt-down under the RO signaling load or
   amount of rapid path changes for multiple data flows.

   Thus, an RO scheme MUST be simultaneously usable by the MNNs on
   hundreds of thousands of craft without overloading the ground network
   or routing system.  The scheme must also be tolerant to the delay
   and/or loss of initial packets which may become more pervasive in
   future Internet routing and addressing architectures [16].

   Since at least one traffic domain (PIES) requires connectivity to the
   Internet, and it is possible that the Internet would provide
   transport for other domains at some distant point in the future, this
   requirement explicitly forbids the use of techniques that are known
   to scale poorly in terms of their global effects, like BGP, for the
   purposes of RO.  The previous OSI-based ATN system used IDRP and an
   "island" concept for maintaining connectivity to the mobile network,
   but was not tested on a large scale deployment.  The Connexion by
   Boeing system used BGP announces and withdrawls as a plane moved
   across the globe in order to maintain connectivity [12].  This was
   found to contribute to a significant amount of churn in the global
   Intenet routing tables, which is undesirable for a number of reasons,
   and must be avoided in the future.

   This requirement was derived from ICAO's TC-6 - "The approach should
   be scaleable to accomodate anticipated levels of aircraft equipage."

   The specific scaling factor for the number of aircraft used in our

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   version of the requirement is an order of magnitude larger than the
   estimated equipage cited in an ICAO draft letter-of-intent to ARIN
   for an IPv6 prefix allocation request.  There were several other
   estimates that different groups had made, and it was felt in the IETF
   that using a larger estimate was more conservative.  It should be
   noted that even with this difference of an order of magnitude, the
   raw number is still several orders of magnitude lower than that of
   cellular telephone estimated users, which might use the same protocol
   enhancements as they have also adopted Mobile IP standards.

3.7.  Req7 - Efficient Signaling

   An RO scheme MUST be capable of efficient signaling in terms of both
   size and number of individual signaling messages and the ensemble of
   signaling messages that may simultaneously be triggered by concurrent

3.7.1.  Rationale for Aeronautics - Efficient Signaling

   The amount of bandwidth available for aeronautical and space
   communications has historically been quite small in comparison to the
   desired bandwidth (e.g. in the case of VDL links the bandwidth is 8
   kbps of shared resources).  This situation is expected to persist for
   at least several more years.  Links tend to be provisioned based on
   estimates of application needs (which could well prove wrong if
   either demand or the applications in-use themselves do not follow
   expectations), and do not leave much room for additional networking
   protocol overhead.  Since every byte of available air-ground link
   capacity that is used by signaling for NEMO RO is likely to delay
   bytes of application data and reduce application throughput, it is
   important that the NEMO RO scheme's signaling overhead scales up much
   more slowly than the throughput of the flows RO is being performed
   on.  This way as higher-rate datalinks are deployed along with more
   bandwidth-hungry applications, the NEMO RO scheme will be able to
   safely be discounted in capacity planning.

   Note that in meeting this requirement, an RO technique must be
   efficient in both the size and number of individual messages that it
   sends, as well as the ensemble of messages sent at one time (for
   instance, to give RO to multiple ongoing flows following a handover)
   in order to prevent storms of packets related to RO.

   This requirement was derived from ICAO's TC-7 - "The approach should
   result in throughput which accommodates anticipated levels of
   aircraft equipage."

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3.8.  Req8 - Security

   For the ATS/AOS domains, there are three security sub-requirements:

   * The RO scheme MUST NOT further expose MNPs on the wireless link
   than already is the case for NEMO basic support.

   * The RO scheme MUST permit the receiver of a BU to validate an MR's
   ownership of the CoAs claimed by an MR.

   * The RO scheme MUST ensure that only explicitly authorized MRs are
   able to perform a binding update for a specific MNP.

   For the PIES domain, there are no additional requirements beyond
   those of normal Internet services and the same requirements for
   normal Mobile IPv6 RO apply.

3.8.1.  Rationale for Aeronatics - Security

   The security needs are fairly similar between ATS and AOS, but vary
   widely between the ATS/AOS domains and PIES.  For PIES, the traffic
   flows are typical of terrestrial Internet use and the security
   requirements for RO are identical to those of conventional Mobile
   IPv6 RO.  For ATS/AOS, however, there are somewhat more strict
   requirements, along with some safe assumptions that designers of RO
   schemes can make.  Below, we describe each of these ATS/AOS issues,
   but do not further discuss PIES RO security.

   The first security requirement is driven by concerns expressed by ATS
   communications engineers.  The concern is with the air-ground links
   to a craft, and their current lack of security.  If an RO scheme
   exposes the MNP to eavesdroppers on these links, it may enable
   attackers to easily send packets towards onboard networks of crafts.
   The RO scheme should use some reasonable form of encryption (e.g.
   standard ESP transforms) in order to protect any new RO signalling
   data that contains the MNP.

   The second security requirement is driven by the greater risk of
   flooding attacks that are started by an attacker redirecting an MNP's
   traffic to some target victim CoA.  This is somewhat worse than the
   case for MIPv6 mobile host RO, because the MNP's traffic is
   potentially a higher rate than that of a single mobile host's HoA.
   To protect bindings to bogus CoAs from being sent, the RO scheme must
   somehow validate that an MR actually possesses any CoAs that it
   claims.  In typical Mobile IPv6 RO, the return routability test
   provides a form of validation, under certain assumptions.  For the
   purposes of aeronautics, to demonstrate ownership of the CoA, it is
   safe to assume ingress filtering on the part of the access network

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   providers, in conjunction with the ability to correlate a BU's source
   address and the decrypted alternate CoA at the end recipient of the
   BU.  (Note: this is particularly subject to MEXT discussion)

   To protect against "rouge" MRs or abuse of compromised MRs, the RO
   scheme MUST be capable of checking that an MR is actually authorized
   to perform a binding update for a specific MNP.  To meet this
   requirement, it can be assumed that some aeronautical organization
   authority exists who can provide the required authorization, possibly
   in the form of a certificate that the MR possesses, signed by the
   aeronautical authority.

   It is also reasonable to assume trust relationshiops between each MR
   and a number of mobility anchor points topologically near to its CNs
   (these anchor points may be owned by the service providers), but it
   is not reasonable to assume that trust relationships can be
   established between an MR and any given CN itself.  Within the
   onboard networks for ATS and AOS, it is reasonable to assume that the
   LFNs and MRs have some trust relationship.

   It is felt by many individuals that by the time the IP-based ATN
   grows into production use, there will be a global PKI useable for
   ATS, though it is agreed that such a PKI does not currently exist,
   and will take time to develop both technically and politically.  This
   PKI could permit the establishment of trust relationships among any
   pair of ATS MNNs, MRs, or CNs through certificate paths, in contrast
   to the more limited amount of trust relationships described in the
   previous paragraph.  While it has been suggested that early test and
   demonstration deployments with a more limited-scale PKI deployment
   can be used in the near-term, as a global PKI is developed, some
   parties still feel that assuming a global PKI may be overly bold in
   comparison to assuming trust relationships with anchor points.  It is
   always possible to scale the anchor point assumption up if a PKI
   develops that allows the CNs themselves to become the anchor points.
   It is not possible to go back down in the other direction if a global
   PKI never emerges.

   This requirement was extrapolated from ICAO's TC-8 - "The approach
   should be secure.", and made more specific with help from the MEXT
   working group.

3.9.  Req9 - Adaptability

   Applications using new transport protocols, IPsec, or new IP options
   MUST be possible within an RO scheme.

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3.9.1.  Rationale for Aeronatics - Adaptability

   The concepts of operations are not fully developed for network-
   centric command and control and other uses of IP-based networks in
   aeronautical and space environments.  The exact application
   protocols, data flow characteristics, and even transport protocols
   that will be used in either transitional and final operational
   concepts are not completely defined yet, and may even change with
   deployment experience.  If the RO solution assumes that some amount
   of preconfiguration of flow properties (port number ranges, etc.) is
   required, this could make the integration of new applications or
   protocols difficult.  An RO scheme might assume this in order to
   classify between flows that prefer the MRHA tunnel to an optimized
   path per requirement Req1, for instance, among other reasons.  Since
   flag days or other such large-scale synchronized configuration
   updates are to be avoided to ensure high availability, the RO scheme
   MUST NOT fail on the use of unexpected higher layer protocols
   (transport and above).

   Specifically, the use of IPsec by applications MUST be possible.
   Security based on IPsec is widely understood and modules qualified
   for use in aeronautical and space exploration environments are
   currently available off-the-shelf.  Other security frameworks may not
   be as attractive due to a lack of familiarity or available flight-
   qualified systems.  If an RO solution precludes the use of IPsec by
   applications, this would make it undesirable or unusable.

   This drives the requirement that new applications, potentially using
   new transport protocols must be usable within an RO scheme, and MUST
   NOT involve global reconfiguration events for MRs.

   This requirement was derived from ICAO's TC-9 - "The approach should
   be scalable to accomodate anticipated transition to new IP-based
   communication protocols."

4.  Desirable Characteristics

   In this section, we identify some of the properties of the system
   that are not strict requirements due to either being difficult to
   quantify or to being features that are not immediately needed, but
   may provide additional benefits that would help encourage adoption.

4.1.  Des1 - Configuration

   For ATS systems, complex configurations are known to increase
   uncertainty in context, human error and the potential for undesirable
   (unsafe) states to be reached [17].  Since RO alters the

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   communications context between an MNN and CN, it is desirable that a
   NEMO RO solution be as simple to configure as possible and also easy
   to automatically disable if an undesirable state is reached.

   For CNs at large airports, the Binding Cache state management
   functions may be simultaneously dealing with hundreds of airplanes
   with multiple service providers, and a volume of mobility events due
   to arrivals and departures.  The ability to have simple interfaces
   for humans to access the Binding Cache configuration and alter it in
   case of errors are desirable, if this does not interfere with the RO
   protocol mechanisms themselves.

4.2.  Des2 - Nesting

   It is desirable if the RO mechanism supports RO for nested MRs, since
   it is possible that for PIES and astronaut spacesuits, that PANs with
   MRs will need to be supported.  For oceanic flight, ATS and AOS may
   also benefit from the capability of nesting MRs between multiple
   planes to provide a "reachback" to terrestrial groundstations rather
   than relying solely on lower rate HF or satellite systems.  In either
   case, this mode of operation is beyond current strict requirements
   and is merely desirable.  It is also noted that there are other ways
   to support these communications scenarios using routing protocols or
   other means outside of NEMO.

4.3.  Des3 - System Impact

   Low complexity in systems engineering and configuration management is
   desirable in building and maintaining systems using the RO mechanism.
   This property may be difficult to quantify, judge, and compare
   between different RO techniques, but a mechanism that is perceived to
   have lower impact on the complexity of the network communications
   system should be favored over an otherwise equivalent mechanism (with
   regards to the requirements listed above).  This is somewhat
   different than Des1 (Configuration), in that Des1 refers to operation
   and maintenance of the system once deployed, whereas Des3 is
   concerned with the initial design, deployment, transition, and later
   upgrade path of the system.

4.4.  Des4 - VMN Support

   At least LFNs MUST be supported by a viable RO solution for
   aeronautics, as these local nodes are within the ATS and AOS domains.
   If Mobile IPv6 becomes a popular technology used by portable consumer
   devices, VMNs within the PIES domain are expected to be numerous, and
   it is strongly desirable for them to be supported by the RO
   technique, but not strictly required.  LMNs are potentially present
   in future space exploration scenarios, such as Moon and Mars manned

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   exploration missions.

4.5.  Des5 - Generality

   An RO mechanism that is "general purpose", in that it is also readily
   usable in other contexts outside of aeronautics and space
   exploration, is desirable.  For instance, a RO solution that is
   usable within VANETs [18] or consumer electronics equipment [19]
   could satisfy this.  The goal is for the technology to be more
   widely-used and maintained outside the relatively-small aeronautical
   networking community and its vendors, in order to make acquisitions
   and training faster, easier, and cheaper.  This could also allow
   aeronautical networking to possibly benefit from future RO scheme
   optimizations and developments whose research and development is
   funded and performed externally by the broader industry and academic

5.  Security Considerations

   This document does not create any security concerns in and of itself.
   The security properties of any NEMO RO scheme that is to be used in
   aeronautics and space exploration are probably much more stringent
   than for more general NEMO use, due to the safety-of-life and/or
   national security issues involved.  The required security properties
   are described under Req8 of Section 3 within this document.

   Under an assumption of closed and secure backbone networks, the air-
   ground link is the weakest portion of the network, and most
   suseceptible to injection of packets, flooding, and other attacks.
   Future air-ground data links that will use IP are being developed
   with link-layer security as a concern.  This development can assist
   in meeting one of this document's listed security requirements (that
   MNPs not be exposed on the wireless link), but the other requirements
   affect the RO technology more directly without regard to the presence
   or absence of air-ground link-layer security.

   When deploying in operational networks where network layer security
   may be mandated (e.g. virtual private networks), the interaction
   between this and NEMO RO techniques should be carefully considered to
   ensure that the security mechanisms do not undo the route
   optimization by forcing packets through a less-optimal overlay or
   underlay.  For instance, when IPsec tunnel use is required, the
   locations of the tunnel endpoints can force sub-optimal end-to-end
   paths to be taken.

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6.  IANA Considerations

   This document neither creates nor updates any IANA registries.

7.  Acknowledgments

   Input from several parties is indirectly included in this document.
   Participants in the MPI mailing list and BoF efforts helped to shape
   the document.  The NEMO and MONAMI6 working group participants were
   instrumental in completing this document.  The participants in the
   MEXT interim meeting February 7th and 8th of 2008 in Madrid were
   critical in solidifying these requirements.  Specific suggestions
   from Steve Bretmersky, Thierry Ernst, Tony Li, Jari Arkko, Phillip
   Watson, Roberto Baldessari, Carlos Jesus Bernardos Cano, Eivan
   Cerasi, Marcelo Bagnulo, Serkan Ayaz, Christian Bauer, Fred Templin,
   Alexandru Petrescu, Tom Henderson, and Tony Whyman were incorporated
   into this document.

   Wesley Eddy's work on this document was performed at NASA's Glenn
   Research Center, while in support of NASA's Advanced Communications
   Navigations and Surveillance Architectures and System Technologies
   (ACAST) project, and the NASA Space Communications Architecture
   Working Group (SCAWG).

8.  Changes from draft-eddy-nemo-aero-reqs-02

   Note, this section will be removed upon publication as an RFC.

      At the IETF70 mext the aeronautics community indicated we would
      change the nemo-aero-req-02 document into a mext document with
      little modification.  This the the corresponding document.

      Any Undefined Acronyms have been defined during first use.

9.  Changes from draft-ietf-mext-aero-reqs-00

   As output of the MEXT interim meeting in Madrid, several requirements
   were re-worded for greater clarity, and the security requirements
   were completely rewritten.

10.  Changes from draft-ietf-mext-aeor-reqs-01

   In response to working group last call comments, a number of
   clarifications were made.

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11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [1]   Devarapalli, V., Wakikawa, R., Petrescu, A., and P. Thubert,
         "Network Mobility (NEMO) Basic Support Protocol", RFC 3963,
         January 2005.

   [2]   Johnson, D., Perkins, C., and J. Arkko, "Mobility Support in
         IPv6", RFC 3775, June 2004.

   [3]   Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
         Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

11.2.  Informative References

   [4]   Ernst, T. and H-Y. Lach, "Network Mobility Support
         Terminology", RFC 4885, July 2007.

   [5]   Ernst, T., "Network Mobility Support Goals and Requirements",
         RFC 4886, July 2007.

   [6]   Ivancic, W., "Multi-Domained, Multi-Homed Mobile Networks",
         draft-ivancic-mobile-platforms-problem-00 (work in progress),
         September 2006.

   [7]   Davis, T., "Mobile Internet Platform Aviation Requirements",
         draft-davis-mip-aviationreq-00 (work in progress),
         September 2006.

   [8]   Ng, C., Thubert, P., Watari, M., and F. Zhao, "Network Mobility
         Route Optimization Problem Statement", RFC 4888, July 2007.

   [9]   ICAO Asia/Pacific Regional Office, "Required Communication
         Performance (RCP) Concepts - An Introduction", Informal South
         Pacific ATS Coordinating Group 20th meeting, Agenda Item 7,
         January 2006.

   [10]  Ng, C., Zhao, F., Watari, M., and P. Thubert, "Network Mobility
         Route Optimization Solution Space Analysis", RFC 4889,
         July 2007.

   [11]  Kempf, J., "Goals for Network-Based Localized Mobility
         Management (NETLMM)", RFC 4831, April 2007.

   [12]  Dul, A., "Global IP Network Mobility", presentation at IETF 62
         plenary , March 2005.

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   [13]  Ivancic, W., Paulsen, P., Stewart, D., Shell, D., Wood, L.,
         Jackson, C., Hodgson, D., Northam, J., Bean, N., Miller, E.,
         Graves, M., and L. Kurisaki, "Secure, Network-centric
         Operations of a Space-based Asset: Cisco Router in Low Earth
         Orbit (CLEO) and Virtual Mission Operations Center (VMOC)",
         NASA Technical Memorandum TM-2005-213556, May 2005.

   [14]  Ng, C., Ernst, T., Paik, E., and M. Bagnulo, "Analysis of
         Multihoming in Network Mobility Support", RFC 4980,
         October 2007.

   [15]  ICAO WG-N SWG1, "Analysis of Candidate ATN IPS Mobility
         Solutions",  Meeting #12, Working Paper 6, Bangkok, Thailand,
         January 2007.

   [16]  Zhang, L. and S. Brim, "A Taxonomy for New Routing and
         Addressing Architecture Designs", draft-rrg-taxonomy-00 (work
         in progress), March 2008.

   [17]  ICAO, "Threat and Error Management (TEM) in Air Traffic
         Control", ICAO Preliminary Edition, October 2005.

   [18]  Baldessari, R., "C2C-C Consortium Requirements for NEMO Route
         Optimization", draft-baldessari-c2ccc-nemo-req-01 (work in
         progress), July 2007.

   [19]  Ng, C., "Consumer Electronics Requirements for Network Mobility
         Route Optimization", draft-ng-nemo-ce-req-00 (work in
         progress), July 2007.

   [20]  CCSDS, "Cislunar Space Internetworking: Architecture", CCCSDS
         000.0-G-1 Draft Green Book, December 2006.

   [21]  NASA Space Communication Architecture Working Group, "NASA
         Space Communication and Navigation Architecture Recommendations
         for 2005-2030", SCAWG Final Report, May 2006.

Appendix A.  Basics of IP-based Aeronautical Networking

   The current standards for aeronautical networking are based on the
   ISO OSI networking stack and are referred to as the Aeronautical
   Telecommunications Network (ATN).  While standardized, the ATN has
   not been fully deployed and seems to be in only limited use compared
   to its full vision and potential.  The International Civil Aviation
   Organization (ICAO) is a part of the United Nations that produces
   standards for aeronautical communications.  The ICAO has recognized
   that an ATN based on OSI lacks the widespread commercial network

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   support required for the successful deployment of new more bandwidth-
   intensive ATN applications, and has recently been working towards a
   new IPv6-based version of the ATN.

   Supporting mobility in an IP-based network may be vastly different
   than it is in the OSI-based ATN which uses the Inter-Domain Routing
   Protocol (IDRP) to recompute routing tables as mobile networks change
   topological points of attachment.  ICAO recognizes this and has
   studied various mobility techniques based on link, network,
   transport, routing, and application protocols [15].

   Work done within ICAO has identified the NEMO technology as a
   promising candidate for use in supporting global IP-based mobile
   networking.  The main concerns with NEMO have been with its current
   lack of route optimization support and its potentially complex
   configuration requirements in a large airport environment with
   multiple service providers and 25 or more airlines sharing the same

Appendix B.  Basics of IP-based Space Networking

   IP itself is only in limited operational use for communicating with
   spacecraft currently (e.g. the Surry Satellite Technology Limited
   (SSTL) Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) satellites are one
   example).  Future communications architectures include IP-based
   networking as an essential building-block, however.  The Consultative
   Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) has a working group that is
   producing a network architecture for using IP-based communications in
   both manned and unmanned near-Earth missions, and has international
   participation towards this goal [20].  NASA's Space Communications
   Architecture Working Group (SCAWG) also has developed an IP-based
   multi-mission networking architecture [21].  Neither of these is
   explicitly based on Mobile IP technologies, but NEMO is usable within
   these architectures, and they may be extended to include NEMO when/if
   the need becomes apparent.

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Authors' Addresses

   Wesley M. Eddy
   Verizon Federal Network Systems
   NASA Glenn Research Center
   21000 Brookpark Road, MS 54-5
   Cleveland, OH  44135


   Will Ivancic
   NASA Glenn Research Center
   21000 Brookpark Road, MS 54-5
   Cleveland, OH  44135

   Phone: +1-216-433-3494

   Terry Davis
   Boeing Commercial Airplanes
   P.O.Box 3707  MC 07-25
   Seattle, WA  98124-2207

   Phone: 206-280-3715

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