[Search] [txt|pdf|bibtex] [Tracker] [WG] [Email] [Diff1] [Diff2] [Nits]

Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 rfc2157                                  
draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

      Equivalences between X.400 and RFC-822 Message Bodies

                   Wed Oct 11 15:27:45 MET 1995

                     Harald Tveit Alvestrand

    Status of this Memo

    The name of this draft is draft-ietf-mixer-bodymap-03.txt.

    The following text is required for all drafts:

         This document is an Internet Draft.  Internet Drafts
         are working documents of the Internet Engineering
         Task Force (IETF), its Areas, and its Working Groups.
         Note that other groups may also distribute working
         documents as Internet Drafts.

         Internet Drafts are draft documents valid for a
         maximum of six months. Internet Drafts may be
         updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at
         any time.  It is not appropriate to use Internet
         Drafts as reference material or to cite them other
         than as a "working draft" or "work in progress."

         Please check the I-D abstract listing contained in
         each Internet Draft directory to learn the current
         status of this or any other Internet Draft.

    This document is an update to RFC 1494, and will obsolete
    it once it is ready for publication.

    Please send comments to the MIXER mailing list:

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                  [Page 1]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    1.  Introduction

    This document is a companion to [MIXER], which defines the
    principles and translation of headers for interworking
    between MIME-based RFC-822 mail and X.400 mail.

    This document defines how to map body parts of X.400
    messages into MIME entities and vice versa, including the
    handling of multipart messages and forwarded messages.

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                  [Page 2]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    1.1.  Glossary

    The following terms are defined in this document:

    Body part
         Part of a message that has an unique type. This term
         comes from X.400; the corresponding term in MIME (RFC
         1521) is limited to use in parts of a multipart
         message; the term "body" may correspond better.

         Type information indicating what the content of a
         body part actually is. This term comes from MIME; the
         corresponding X.400 term is "body part type".

         (noun): A description of how to transform an X.400
         body part into a MIME body part, or how to transform
         a MIME body part into an X.400 body part.

         A set of two mappings that taken together provide a
         lossless conversion between an X.400 body part and a
         MIME body part

    0    The process of encapsulating something from one of
         the mail systems in such a way that it can be carried
         inside the other mail system. When tunneling, it is
         not expected that the other mail system can make
         reasonable sense of the body part, but a gateway back
         into the first system will always be able to convert
         the body part without loss back to its original

    HARPOON mapping
         The mapping of a MIME body part by putting it inside
         an IA5 body with all headers and encoding intact.
         First described in RFC 1496.

    2.  Basic rules for body part conversion

    At the moment (Sept 1995) both the MIME and the X.400
    worlds are in a state of flux with regards to carrying
    stuff that is not text around.
    In such a situation, there is little chance of defining a

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                  [Page 3]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    mapping between them that is the best for all people, all
    of the time.
    For this reason, this specification allows a gateway
    considerable latitude in deciding exactly what conversion
    to apply.

    The decision taken by the gateway may be based on various
    information sources:

     (1)   If the gateway knows what body parts or content
           types the recipient is able to handle, or has
           registered a particular set of preferences for an
           user, and knows how to convert the message
           reasonably to those body parts, the gateway may
           choose to convert body parts in the message to
           those types only.

     (2)   If the gateway gets indications (via special
           headers or heading-extensions defined for the
           purpose) that the sender wanted a particular
           representation on the "other side", and the gateway
           is able to satisfy the request, it may do so. Such
           a mechanism is defined in chapter 4 of this

     (3)   If the gateway gets a message with bad typing
           information (like an X.400 BP14 or FTAM "just a
           file", it may apply heuristics like looking at
           content or looking at filenames to figure out how
           to deal with the message.

     (4)   If the gateway knows that the next hop for the
           message has limited capabilities (like X.400/84),
           it may choose to perform conversions appropriate
           for that medium.

     (5)   Where no mapping is known by the gateway, it may
           choose to drop the body part, reject the message,
           or encapsulate the body part in a mechanism which
           can be used for any extended body part (tunneling),
           as described in chapter 3. The choice may be
           configurable, but a conformant MIXER gateway MUST
           be able to be configured for tunneling.

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                  [Page 4]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    In many cases, a message that goes SMTP->X.400->SMTP will
    arrive without loss of information.
    In some cases, the reverse translation may not be
    possible, or two gateways may choose to apply different
    translations, based on the criteria above, leading to an
    apparently inconsistent service.
    In addition, service will vary because some gateways will
    have implemented conversions not implemented by other
    This is believed to be unavoidable.

    The conformance requirements in chapter 7 describe what
    the minimum conformance for a MIXER gateway is with
    respect to body part conversion.

    2.1.  Generating the IPM Body from MIME

    If the header does not contain a 822.MIME-Version field,
    then generate a IPMS.Body with a single IPMS.BodyPart of
    type IPMS.IA5TextBodyPart with
    IPMS.IA5TextBodyPart.parameters.repertoire set to the
    default (IA5) containing the body of the RFC 822 message.

    If 822.MIME-Version is present, the body is analyzed as a
    MIME message and the body is converted according to the
    mappings configured and implemented in the gateway.

    2.2.  Ground rules for generating the MIME Body from the

    First, to support X.400(1984) mappings of Internet
    Messages, the following procedure shall be followed.

    If there is more than one body part, and the first body
    part is IA5 starts with the string "RFC-822-Headers:" as
    the first line, then the remainder of this body part shall
    be appended to the RFC 822 header.  This relies upon the
    theory that this body part has been generated according to
    Appendix B of MIXER.  A gateway shall check the
    consistency and syntax of this body part, to ensure that
    the resulting message is conformant with RFC 822.

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                  [Page 5]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    If the remaining IPMS.Body consists of a single
    IPMS.Bodypart, there are three possibilities.

     (1)   If it is of type IPMS.IA5Text, and the first line
           is "MIME-Version: 1.0", it is assumed to be a
           HARPOON-mapped message. The complete body content
           is then appended to the headers; the separating
           blank line is inside the message. If an RFC 822
           syntax error is discovered inside the message, it
           may be mapped directly as described below instead.

     (2)   If it is of type IPMS.IA5Text, then this is mapped
           directly and no MIME encoding is used.

     (3)   All other parts are mapped according to the
           mappings configured and implemented in the gateway.

    If the IPMS.Body contains multiple IPMS.Bodypart fields,
    then a MIME message of content type multipart is
    generated.  If all of the body parts are messages, then
    this is multipart/digest.  Otherwise it is
    multipart/mixed.  The components of the multipart are
    generated in the same order as in the IPMS.Body.

    Each component is mapped according to the mappings
    configured and implemented in the gateway; any IA5 body
    parts are checked to see if they are HARPOON mappings.

    2.3.  Mapping the EMA FTBP parameters

    EMA has defined a profile for use of the File Transfer
    Body Part (FTBP).  [28]

    New mappings are expected to use this as the mechanism for
    carrying body parts, and since it is important to have a
    consistent mapping for the special FTBP parameters, these
    are defined here.

    The mapping of the body will depend on the content-type in

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                  [Page 6]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    MIME and on the application-reference in FTBP, and is not
    specified here.

    The following new RFC-822 headers are defined to support
    this mapping:

    ftbp-field =3D "FTBP-Object-Size" ":" integer
               / "FTBP-Creation-Date" ":" date-time
               / "FTBP-Modification-Date" ":" date-time
                 "FTBP-Read-Date" ":" date-time

    Some parameters of the EMA Profile are encoded as ASN.1
    GraphicStrings, which are troublesome because they can
    contain any ISO registered graphic character set.
    To map these to ASCII for use in mail headers, the gateway
    may either:

     (1)   Use the RFC 1522 encoding mechanism to create
           appropriate encoded-words for the headers involved.
           Note that in some cases, such as within Content-
           Disposition filenames, the encoded-words must be in
           quotes, which is not the normal usage of encoded-

     (2)   Apply the normalization procedure given in Appendix
           <n> to identify the ASCII characters of the string,
           and replace all non-ASCII characters with the
           question mark (?).

    Both procedures are valid for MIXER gateways; the
    simplified procedure of ignoring escape sequences and bit-
    stripping the result is NOT valid.

    The following parameters are mapped in both directions:

         The mapping of this element is complex.

         The Content-ID is encoded as an IPM.MessageIdentifier
         and entered into the


Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                  [Page 7]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

         relationship.descriptive-relationship is set to the
         string "Internet MIME Body Part".

         crossreference is set to a null OCTET STRING.

         The reverse mapping is only performed if the
         relationship.descriptive-relationship has the string
         value "Internet MIME Body Part".


         This is mapped to and from the first string in


         This field is defined in [RFC 1806].

         It is mapped to and from FileTransferParameters.file-

         The EBNF.disposition-type is ignored when creating
         the FTBP pathname, and always set to "attachment"
         when creating the Content-Disposition header.  For

                      Content-Disposition: attachment; filename=3D/var/joe=

         If the filename starts with a leading "/" character,
         it generates an FTBP complete-pathname. If it starts
         with any other character, it generates an FTBP

         It is expected that only the incomplete option will
         be found, but the mapping is used for either variant.
         The separator between multiple components is "/".

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                  [Page 8]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95


         Mapped to and from FileTransferParameters.file-


         Mapped to and from FileTransferParameters.file-


         Mapped to and from FileTransferParameters.file-


         Mapped to and from FileTransferParameters.file-
         attributes.object-size. If the value is "no-value-
         available", the header is NOT generated.

    Other RFC-822 headers

         Mapped to the second and subsequent elements of
         string. Headers are unfolded so that each header fits
         within one user-visible-string component
         (GraphicString does not allow CRLFs within the

         If no content-disposition header is present, the
         first element is set to an empty string.

         On reverse mapping, all headers that conform to the
         RFC 822 grammar are mapped to headers in the

    Editor's note
         This is new. I think it is a simple thing to do, does

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                  [Page 9]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

         not cause damage, and preserves information.

    2.3.1.  Summary of FTBP elements generated

    This is a summary of the preceding section, and does not
    add new information.

    The following elements of the FTBP parameters are mapped
    or used:
    FileTransferParameters                                 M/M
      Related-Stored-File                                  O/O
         application-crossreference         NULL
            message-reference               Content-ID
        descriptive-relationship            Used as marker
      contents-type                    Must be unstructured-binary   M/M
      environment                                     M/M
        application-reference               Selects mapping          M/M
        user-visible-string                 Content-description R/M
        pathname                       Content-Disposition R/M
        date-and-time-of-creation           FTBP-Creation-Date  O/O
        date-and-time-of-last-modification       FTBP-Modification-Date   =
        date-and-time-of-last-read-access        FTBP-Read-Date      O/O
        object-size                         FTBP-Object-Size    R/M

    All other elements of the FTBP parameters are discarded.

    NOTE: There is ongoing work on defining a more complete
    mapping between FTBP headers and a set of RFC-822 headers.
    A gateway MAY choose to support the larger set once it is
    available, but MUST support this limited set.

    2.4.  Information that is lost when mapping

    MIME defines fields which add information to MIME
    contents.  Two of these are "Content-ID", and "Content-
    Description", but MIME allows new entities to be defined
    at any time.

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 10]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    When mapping, this information must be discarded, unless
    the specific body part 15 mapping allows it to be

    3.  Encapsulation of body parts

    Where no mapping is possible, the gateway may choose any
    of the following alternatives:

         Discard the body part, leaving a "marker" saying what

         Reject the message

         "Tunnel" the body part, by encapsulating it in a body
         part defined for that purpose in the other mail

    The choice to be made should be configurable in the
    gateway, and may depend on both policy and knowledge of
    the recipient's capabilities.

    3.1.  Encapsulation of MIME in X.400

    Two body parts are defined here to tunnel MIME body parts
    through X.400, one based on BP15 directly and the other
    based on FTBP.

    The BP15 body part is backwards compatible with RFC 1494.
    The FTBP body part is compatible with the EMA MAWG
    document [MAWG].

    3.1.1.  BP15 tunneling body part

    This section defines an extended body part, based on body
    part 15, which may be used to hold any MIME content.

    mime-body-part EXTENDED-BODY-PART-TYPE
          PARAMETERS MimeParameters
                   IDENTIFIED BY id-mime-body-part-parameters
          DATA            OCTET STRING
          ::=3D id-mime-body-part

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 11]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    MimeParameters ::=3D
         SEQUENCE {
                     content-type       IA5String,
                     content-parameters SEQUENCE OF
                                        SEQUENCE {
                                            parameter          IA5String,
                                            parameter-value    IA5String
                     other-header-fields RFC822FieldList

    The OBJECT IDENTIFIERS id-mime-body-part and id-mime-body-
    part-parameters are defined in Appendix D.  A MIME content
    is mapped onto this body part.  The MIME headers of the
    body part are mapped as follows:

         The "type/subtype" string is mapped to

         For each "parameter=3Dvalue" string create a
         MimeParameters.content-parameters element. The
         MimeParameters.content-Parameters.parameter field is
         set to the parameter and the MimeParameters.content-
         parameters.parameter-value field is set to the value.

         Take all other headers and create
         MimeParameters.other-header-fields, by concatenating
         them together.

    Convert the MIME body part into its canonical form, as
    specified in Appendix H of MIME [9].  This canonical form
    is used to generate the mime-body-part.data octet string.

         The Parameter mapping may be used independently of
    the body part mapping (e.g., in order to use a different
    encoding for a mapped MIME body part).

         This body part contains all of the MIME information,
    and so can be mapped back to MIME without loss of

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 12]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    The OID id-mime-body-part is added to the Encoded
    Information Types of the envelope.

    This body part is completely compatible with RFC 1494.

    3.1.2.  FTBP tunneling body part

    This body part utilizes the fundamental assumption in MIME
    that all message content can be legally and completely
    represented by a single octet stream, the "canonical

    The FTBP tunneling body part is defined by the
    application-reference id-mime-ftbp-body; all headers are
    mapped to the FTBP headers, including putting the
    "Content-type:" header inside the UserVisibleString.

    Translation from the MIME body part is done by:

         Undoing the content-transfer-encoding

         Setting the "FileTransferData.FTdata.value.octet-
         aligned" to the resulting string of octets

         Putting the appropriate parameters into the headers.

    Reversing the translation is done by:

         Extracting the headers

         Applying an appropriate content-transfer-encoding to
         the body. If this is for some reason different from
         the content-transfer-encoding: header retrieved from
         the headers, the old one must be deleted.

    This mapping is lossless, and therefore counts as "no

    3.1.3.  Tunneling using IA5

    This approach is the one taken in RFC 1496 - HARPOON - for
    tunneling any MIME body part through X.400/84 networks. It

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 13]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    has proven rather unhelpful for bringing information to
    X.400 users, but preserves all the information of a MIME
    body part.

    The following IA5Text body part is made:

    -    Content =3D IA5String

    -    First bytes of content: (the description is in US
         ASCII, with C escape sequences used to represent
         control characters):

         MIME-version: <version>\r\n
         Content-type: <the proper MIME content type>\r\n
         Content-transfer-encoding: <quoted-printable or base64>\r\n
         <Possibly other Content headings here, terminated by\r\n>
         <Here follows the bytes of the content, encoded
         in the proper encoding>

    All implementations MUST place the MIME-version: header
    first in the body part. Headers that are placed by [MIXER]
    into other parts of the message MUST NOT be placed in the
    MIME body part.

    3.1.4.  Tunneling using BP14

    This is described in this section because it is at the
    same conceptual level as tunneling. It is a lossy
    transformation; it is impossible to reconstruct the MIME
    type information from it.

    Nevertheless, there is a demand for such functionality.

    This tunneling simply strips off all headers, undoes the
    content-transfer-encoding, and creates a
    BilaterallyDefined body part (BP14) from the resulting
    octet stream.

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 14]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    3.2.  Tunneling X.400 Body Parts in MIME

    This section specifies a generic mechanism to map X.400
    body parts to a MIME content.  This allows for the body
    part to be tunneled through MIME.   It may also be used
    directly by an appropriately configured MIME UA.

         This content-type is defined to carry any X.400
    extended body part.  The mapping of all standard X.400
    body parts is defined in RFC1494bis.  The content-type
    field is "application/x400-bp".  The parameter is defined
    by the EBNF:

            mime-parameter =3D  "bp-type=3D" object-identifier

         The EBNF.object-identifier is set to the OBJECT
    IDENTIFIER from IPMS.body.externally-defined.data.direct-
    reference .

    For example, a Videotex body part will have

            Content-type=3Dapplication/x400-bp; bp-type=3D2.

         The body contains the raw ASN.1 IPM.body octet
    stream, including the initial tag octet.  The content may
    use a content- transfer-encoding of either base64 or
    quoted-printable when carried in 7-bit MIME.  It is
    recommended to use the one which gives the more compact
    encoding of the data.  If this cannot be determined,
    Base64 is recommended.  No attempt is made to turn the
    parameters of Extended Body Parts into MIME parameters, as
    this cannot be done in a general manner.

         Standard X.400 body parts may not be encoded directly
    by this mechanism, but may be encoded indirectly by first
    translating to the extended representation.

    3.3.  Tunneling FTBP body parts in MIME

    The File Transfer Body Part is believed to be important in
    the future as "the" means of carrying well-identified data
    in X.400 networks.

    They also share the property (at lest when limited to the

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 15]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    EMA MAWG functional profile) of having a well-defined data
    part that is always representable as a sequence of bytes.

    This conversion will have to fail, and the x400-bp
    encapsulation used instead, if:

         FileTransferData has more than one element

         Contents-type is not unstructured-binary

         Parameters that are not mappable, but important, are
         present (like Compression, which EMA doesn't

    Otherwise, it can be encapsulated in X.400 by:

         Creating the "content-type" value by forming the
         string "application/x-ftbp." and appending the
         numbers of the OID

         Mapping all other parameters according to the
         standard FTBP parameter mapping

         Applying an appropriate content-transfer-encoding

    The choice of the somewhat strange, and by necessity
    unregistered, MIME type "application/x-ftbp.n.n.n.n" is
    because for any concrete example of this usage, it will be
    easy to configure any MIME reader to take advantage of the
    identification. If the MIME type registration rules are
    ever changed to allow the registration of a namespace,
    rather than just of names, the "x-" can be deleted, and
    the types can be "application/ftbp.n.n.n.n".

    4.  User control over the gateway choice

    In some cases, the gateway may make an inappropriate
    choice when deciding what to do about a particular body

    To allow an escape clause, the following defines a way in
    which the user can signal the gateway what action it finds

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 16]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    most appropriate.

    The headers given here override any "conversion
    prohibited" and "conversion with loss prohibited" on the

    It is still the gateway's responsibility that the
    generated messages conform to the destination domain's
    syntax rules.

    4.1.  Conversion from MIME to X.400

    This header field specifies explicit MIXER conversion.
    Comments are allowed within the field according to the
    usual RFC 822 convention.

    If "x400-object-id" is omitted, "tunnel" is assumed.

    mime-to-x400 =3D "Wanted-X400-Conversion" ":"
                    [ mime-from ]  [ x400-object-id ]
                    "in" x400-encoding

    x400-object-id =3D  "to" ( object-identifier-2 / "tunnel" )
    x400-encoding =3D "bp14" / "bp15" / "ftbp" / "ia5"
    mime-from =3D "from" mime-type
    mime-type =3D word

    There is no way to ask for a different conversion based on
    MIME parameters or bodypart content.


    Wanted-X400-Conversion: from application/msword
                    to 1.2.840.113556.4.2 (Microsoft defined ms-word)
                    in ftbp

    This uses the MAWG definitions, and leads to an FTBP encoding.

    Wanted-X400-Conversion: from application/msword
                    to tunnel in bp14

    This leads to a Body Part 14 encoding for all body parts of

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 17]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    Wanted-X400-Conversion: in bp14

    This requests that this specific body part be encoded in Body Part 14.

    This field may be used in two places:

     (1)    In the heading of an unstructured MIME body part.
           In this case the EBNF.mime-from is omitted, and the
           requested conversion applies to the body part.

     (2)   In a multipart.   In this case, the body part type
           to which the conversion applies is defined by
           EBNF.mime-from, and the conversion applies to all
           body parts of this MIME type contained in the
           multipart, including those contained in nested
           messages and multiparts. If a contained body part
           has its own heading, this takes precedence. Note
           that the "from" parameter is mandatory when used in
           a multipart.

    The EBNF.x400-object-id shall be present when "bp15" or
    "ftbp" encoding is selected.

    The value "tunnel" implies tunneling as defined in Chapter

    4.2.  Conversion from X.400 to MIME

    This IPM heading shall be present in the heading of a
    message.  It defines the mapping for all body parts of the
    specified types, including those in nested messages.

    wanted-MIME-conversion HEADING-EXTENSION
            VALUE WantedMIMEConversions
            ::=3D id-wanted-MIME-conversions

    WantedMIMEConversions ::=3D SEQUENCE OF X400toMIMEConversion

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 18]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    X400toMIMEConversion ::=3D SEQUENCE {
            x400-type X400Type,
            mime-type MIMEType }

    X400Type ::=3D CHOICE {
            standard [0] INTEGER,           -- standard body part
            extended [1] OBJECT IDENTIFIER,  -- BP 15
            ftbp     [2] OBJECT IDENTIFIER}     -- FTBP application-refere=

    MIMEType ::=3D SEQUENCE {
            type IA5String,         -- type (e.g., application/ms-word)
            encoding [1] IA5String OPTIONAl -- e.g. quoted-printable
            parameters [2] IA5String OPTIONAL }     -- MIME Parameters

    The heading extension includes all requested conversions,
    with explicit information as to how each body part type is
    encoded in MIME.

    FTBP is identified as a separate body part type, as there
    will be a need for different encodings, dependent on what
    is being carried.

    Tunneling is requested by asking for "application/x400-bp"
    or "application/ftbp" as the destination type.

    For FTAM body parts, only the parameters where an explicit
    mapping is defined will survive the gatewaying process.
    For other body parts, there are three alternatives:

     (1)   The gateway knows a defined mapping for this
           particular body part. It will be used, and
           parameters mapped accordingly.

     (2)   The gateway knows how to extract an OCTET STRING
           from the body part, and the destination is a simple
           MIME body part. All information outside the OCTET
           STRING is lost, but the basis survives. (This may
           be the case for a BP14 that should end up in an
           application/xyzzy, for instance).

     (3)   The gateway knows of no relevant mapping, and does
           not know how to simplify the X.400 body part. The
           gateway will then proceed as if the mapping control
           field had not been present.

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 19]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    5.  The equivalence registry

    The following information MUST be supplied when describing
    an equivalence:

    MIME type name (which must be preregistered)

    X.400 body part (often BP15 or FTAM Body Part)

    If the BP15 is used, the following information must be

     (1)   Object Identifier for X.400 BP15 Data

     (2)   Object Identifier for X.400 BP15 Parameters

     (3)   X.400 ASN.1 Syntax (must be an EXTENDED-BODY-PART-
           TYPE macro)

    If the FTBP is used, the following information must be

     (1)   Object Identifier for the FTAM

     (2)   Object Identifier for the FTAM Contents-type, if
           unstructured-binary is not used

     (3)   Any other special considerations

    In all cases, the following must be given:

    Conversion algorithms. The expected effect of "Conversion
    prohibited" and "Conversion with loss prohibited" should
    be noted.

    The conversion must be specified with enough detail to
    permit independent implementation; literature references
    are acceptable.

    An equivalence can be registered with IANA using the form

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 20]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    at the end of this document. The purpose of the
    registration is to achieve a greater uniformity among
    gateways implementing the same translation; there is no
    requirement that a gateway must support all of the
    translations that are registered with IANA. Specific
    conformance requirements for MIXER are given at the end of
    this document.

    5.1.  Equivalence Table for known X.400 and MIME Types

    This section itemizes the equivalences for all currently
    known MIME content-types and X.400 body parts.

    For each MIME content-type/X.400 body part pair, the
    Equivalence Table will contain an entry with the following

    X.400 Body Part
         This section identifies the X.400 Body Part governed
         by this Table entry. It includes any OBJECT
         IDENTIFIERs or other parameters necessary to uniquely
         identify the Body Part.

    MIME Content-Type
         This section identifies the MIME content-type
         governed by this Table entry.  The MIME content-type
         named here must be registered with the IANA.

    Section/document reference
         Reference to section of this document, or to the
         other document that describes this mapping.

    The initial Equivalence Table entries in this document are
    described using this convention.

    Further registrations of equivalences should be submitted
    to the IANA after a public review, using the example form
    given at the end of this document.

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 21]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    5.2.  MIME to X.400 Table

    MIME content-type          X.400 Body Part             Section
    -----------------          ------------------          -------
      charset=3Dus-ascii         ia5-text                     7.1
      charset=3DISO-8859-x       EBP - GeneralText            7.2
    text/richtext              no mapping defined           Tunnel
    application/oda            EBP - ODA                    7.4
    application/octet-stream   bilaterally-defined          7.3
    application/postscript     EBP - mime-postscript-body   [POSTSCRIPT]
    image/g3fax                g3-facsimile                 [IMAGES]
    image/jpeg                 EBP - mime-jpeg-body         [IMAGES]
    image/gif                  EBP - mime-gif-body          [IMAGES]
    audio/basic                no mapping defined           Tunnel
    video/mpeg                 no mapping defined           Tunnel
    message/RFC822             ForwardedIPMessage             n.n
    multipart/*                ForwardedIPMessage          n.n

    Abbreviation: EBP - Extended Body Part

    5.3.  X.400 to MIME Table
                             Basic Body Parts

    X.400 Basic Body Part      MIME content-type           Section
    ---------------------      --------------------        -------
    ia5-text                   text/plain;charset=3Dus-ascii 7.1
    voice                      No Mapping Defined          Tunnel
    g3-facsimile               image/g3fax                 [IMAGES]
    g4-class1                  no mapping defined          Tunnel
    teletex                    text/plain;charset=3Dteletex  n.n
    videotex                   no mapping defined          Tunnel
    encrypted                  no mapping defined          Tunnel
    bilaterally-defined        application/octet-stream    n.n
    nationally-defined         no mapping defined          Tunnel
    externally-defined         See Extended Body Parts below
    ForwardedIPMessage     message/RFC822 or multipart n.n

    X.400 Extended Body Part   MIME content-type              Section
    -------------------------  --------------------           -------
    GeneralText                text/plain;charset=3DISO-8859-x  7.2
    ODA                        application/oda                [ODA]
    mime-postscript-body       application/postscript         [POSTSCRIPT]
    mime-jpeg-body             image/jpeg                     [IMAGES]

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 22]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    mime-gif-body              image/gif                      [IMAGES]

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 23]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    5.4.  Use of OBJECT IDENTIFIERs and ASN.1 MACROS

    When one wants to define new BP15 body parts for use with
    equivalences, it is important to know that X.420 dictates
    that Extended Body Parts shall:

     (1)   use OBJECT IDENTIFIERs (OIDs) to uniquely identify
           the contents, and

     (2)   be defined by using the ASN.1 Macro:

                 TYPE NOTATION  ::=3D Parameters Data

                 Parameters     ::=3D  "PARAMETERS" type "IDENTIFIED"
                                     "BY" value(OBJECT IDENTIFIER)
                                   | empty;
                 Data           ::=3D "DATA" type

    To meet these requirements, this document uses the OID


    defined in [MIXER], as the root OID for X.400 Extended
    Body Parts defined for MIME interworking.

    Each Extended Body Part contains Data and optional
    Parameters, each being named by an OID.  To this end, two
    OID subtrees are defined under mixer-bodies, one for Data,
    and the other for Parameters:

       mixer-bp-data  OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=3D
                       { mixer-bodies 1 }

       mixer-bp-parameter OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=3D
                       { mixer-bodies 2 }

    All definitions of X.400 body parts submitted to the IANA
    for registration must use the Extended Body Part Type
    macro for the definition.  See the next section for an

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 24]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    Lastly, the IANA will use the mixer-bp-data and mixer-bp-
    parameter OIDs as root OIDs for any new MIME content-
    type/subtypes that aren't otherwise registered in the
    Equivalence Table.

    NOTE: The ASN.1 for an ExternallyDefinedBodyPart is

      ExternallyDefinedBodyPart ::=3D SEQUENCE {
         parameters [0] ExternallyDefinedParameters OPTIONAL,
         data           ExternallyDefinedData }

      ExternallyDefinedParameters ::=3D EXTERNAL

      ExternallyDefinedData ::=3D EXTERNAL

    The ASN.1 for EXTERNAL is (from X.208):

      {direct-reference     OBJECT IDENTIFIER OPTIONAL,
      indirect-reference    INTEGER OPTIONAL,
      data-value-descriptor ObjectDescriptor OPTIONAL,
      encoding CHOICE
        {single-ASN1-type  [0] ANY,
         octet-aligned     [1] IMPLICIT OCTET STRING,
         arbitrary         [2] IMPLICIT BIT STRING}}

      ObjectDescriptor ::=3D [UNIVERSAL 7] IMPLICIT GraphicString

    There are a bit too many choices here; the common X.400
    usage for BP15 encoding is to:

     (1)   Always use direct-reference

     (2)   Omit indirect-reference and data-value-descriptor

     (3)   Use the single-ASN1-type encoding only

    Unfortunately, some implementations have chosen to use the
    octet-aligned choice when constructing values where the
    ASN.1 type is OCTET STRING, which of course caused
    interoperability problems.

    An attempt to specify that X.420 only allowed the single-
    ASN1-type choice in the 1996 versions is still (Sept 1995)
    being debated in ISO; the end result seems to be that all

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 25]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    agree in principle that single-ASN1-type should be used,
    but that one has to allow the generation of the octet-
    aligned choice as being conformant.

    6.  Defined Equivalences

    6.1.  IA5Text - text/plain

    X.400 Body Part: IA5Text
    MIME Content-type: text/plain; charset=3DUS-ASCII
    Conversion Type: Byte copy

    When mapping from X.400 to MIME, the "repertoire"
    parameter is ignored.

    When mapping from MIME to X.400, the "repertoire"
    parameter is set to IA5 (5).

    NOTE: The MIME Content-type headers are omitted, when
    mapping from X.400 to MIME, if and only if the IA5Text
    body part is the only body part in the IPMS.Body sequence.

    NOTE: IA5Text specifies the "currency" symbol in position
    2/4. This is converted without comment to the "dollar"
    symbol, since the author of this document has seen many
    documents in which the position was intended to indicate
    "dollar" while he has not yet seen one in which the
    "currency" symbol is intended.

    (For reference: The T.50 (1988) recommendation, which
    defines IA5, talks about ISO registered set number 2,
    while ASCII, using the "dollar" symbol, is ISO registered
    set number 6. There are no other differences.)

    NOTE: It is not uncommon, though it is a violation of the
    standard, to use 8-bit character sets inside an IA5 body
    part. Gateways that can expect to encounter this situation
    should consider implementing something like the guidance
    given in RFC 1428, "Transition of Internet Mail from just-
    send-8 to 8-bit SMTP/MIME", and generate appropriate
    charset parameters for the MIME messages they generate.

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 26]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    This behavior is not required for MIXER conformance, since
    it is only needed when the base standards are violated.

    6.2.  GeneralText - text/plain (ISO-8859)

    X.400 Body Part: GeneralText; CharacterSets in
    MIME Content-Type: text/plain; charset=3DISO-8859-(1-9)
    Conversion Type: Text conversion without character change

    The conversion of text is a problematic one, and one in
    which it is likely that gateways should be given wide
    latitude to make decisions based upon their knowledge of
    the user's preferences. The text given below is thought to
    give the best approximation to a gateway conforming to
    current and anticipated usage in the MIME and X.400
    worlds, and is the way recommended when no knowledge of
    the recipient capabilities exists.

    The changes, such as normalizing escape sequences, should
    not be done when "conversion-prohibited" is set. If
    "conversion-with-loss-prohibited" is set, translation to a
    character set that is not able to encode all characters
    cannot be done, and the message should be non-delivered
    with an appropriate non-delivery reason.

    When mapping from X.400 to MIME, the character-set is
    chosen from the table below according to the value of
    Parameters.CharacterSets. If no match is found, and the
    gateway does not support a conversion, the character set
    shall be encoded as x-iso-nnn-nnn-nnn, where "nnn" is the
    numbers of the Parameters.CharacterSets, sorted in numeric

    When mapping from MIME to X.400, GeneralText is an
    Extended Body Part, hence it requires an OID.  The OID for
    the GeneralText body is defined in [MOTIS], part 8, annex
    D, as {2 6 1 4 11}. The OID for the parameters is {2 6 1
    11 11}.

    The Parameters.CharacterSets is set from table below
    according to the value of "charset"

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 27]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    The common use of character sets in MIME is somewhat
    different from the rules given by X.400; in particular, it
    is common in MIME to assume that the character sets follow
    strict rules. For the ISO-8859-x character sets, it is
    assumed that they are designated and invoked at the
    beginning of the text, and that no designation or
    invocation sequences occur within the body of the text.
    The rules for ISO-2022-JP are given in RFC 1468, and are
    even more particular, using a pure 7-bit encoding in which
    each line of text starts in ASCII.

    Therefore, the text must be "normalized" by going through
    the whole message, using a state machine or similar device
    to remove all escape and shift sequences.

    Appendix <n> gives pseudocode for such a conversion.

    NOTE: In 1988, the GeneralText body part was defined in
    ISO 10021-8 [MOTIS], and NOT in the corresponding CCITT
    recommendation; this was added later.  Also, the
    parameters have been heavily modified; they should be a
    SET OF INTEGER in the currently valid text.  Use the
    latest version of the standard that you can get hold of.

    The following table lists the MIME character sets and the
    corresponding ISO registry numbers. If no correspondence
    is found, this conversion fails, and the generic body part
    approach is used.

    MIME charset    ISO IR numbers          Comment
    ISO-8859-1      6, 100                  West European "8-bit ASCII"
    ISO-8859-2      6, 101                  East European
    ISO-8859-3      6, 109                  <regarded as obsolete>
    ISO-8859-4      6, 110                  <regarded as obsolete>
    ISO-8859-5      6, 144                  Cyrillic
    ISO-8859-6      6, 127                  Arabic
    ISO-8859-7      6, 126                  Greek
    ISO-8859-8      6, 138                  Hebrew
    ISO-8859-9      6, 148                  Other Latin-using languages
    ISO-2022-JP    6, 14, 42, 87       Japanese

    When converting from MIME to X.400, generate the correct
    OIDs for use in the message envelope's Encoded Information
    Types by looking up the ISO IR number in the above table,

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 28]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    and then appending it to the id-cs-eit-authority {1 0
    10021 7 1 0} OID.

    The escape sequences to designate and invoke the relevant
    character sets in their proper positions must be added to
    the front of the GeneralText character string.

    For ISO 8859-1, the relevant escape sequence will be:

    ESC 28 42
         ASCII in G0

    ESC 2D 41
         ISO-IR-100 in G1

    ESC 21 41
         High control character set in C1

    ESC 7E
         Locking shift 1 Right

    6.3.  BilaterallyDefined - application/octet-stream

    X.400 Body Part: BilaterallyDefined
    MIME Content-Type: Application/Octet-Stream (no parameters)
    Conversion Type: Byte copy

    When mapping from MIME to X.400, if there are parameters
    present in the Content-Type: header field, they are

         The parameters "name" "type" and "conversions" are
         advisory; name and conversions are depreciated in RFC

         The parameter "padding" changes the interpretation of
         the last byte of the data, but it is deemed better by
         the WG to delete this information than to non-deliver
         the body part. The "padding" parameter is rarely used
         with MIME.

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 29]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    Use of BilaterallyDefined Body Parts is specifically
    deprecated in both 1988 and 1992 X.400.  It is retained
    solely for backward compatibility with 1984 systems, and
    because it is in common use.  1992 X.400 defines a File
    Transfer Body Part to solve this problem (i.e. binary file
    transfer through email). The standard and its regional
    profiles are not solid enough yet to exploit as a solution
    for this problem.

    6.4.  FTBP EMA Unknown Attachment -
    X.400 Body Part: FTBP EMA Unknown Attachment
    MIME Content-Type: Application/Octet-Stream
    Conversion Type: Byte copy
    NOTE: At the time of this writing (Sept 1995), support for
    BilaterallyDefined is MUCH more widespread than support
    for the FTBP body part, and definitely more widespread
    than support for the EMA FTBP Unknown Attachment. Gateways
    should only choose to generate this body part from
    Application/OctetStream when it is believed that the
    recipient is able to handle this body part.

    The OID for the Unknown Attachment is { iso(1)
    countries(2) usa(840) organization (1) ema (113694)
    objects(2) messaging(2) attachments(1) unknown (1)}, or
    1.2.840.1.113694.2.2.1 for short.

    The parameters for this type must be mapped according to
    chapter <<<n>>>, with the following extensions for the
    parameters of the application/octet-stream:

     (1)   If there is no Content-Disposition parameter with a
           filename, and there is a name parameter, the
           attributes.pathname is generated from this
           parameter. Note that RFC 1521 recommends not using
           the "name" parameter.

           The "type", "conversions" and "padding" attributes
           are ignored; "type" is for human consumption;
           "conversions" are discouraged in RFC 1521.

    Editor note:
         Does there exist a bit-aligned storage to be used

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 30]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

         when the "padding" parameter is present? This is not
         recommended by EMA; do we want to have it?
         Should the "type" parameter be mapped into the FTBP
         It seems to be more or less the same kind of thing,
         according to EMA.

    The body mapping is just copying the bytes in both

    6.5.  MessageBodyPart - message/RFC822

    X.400 body part: MessageBodyPart
    MIME Content-Type: message/RFC822
    Conversion Type: Special

    NOTE: If the headers of the X.400 MessageBodyPart contains the
    "multipart-message" heading extension with the isAMessage bit set
    (either explicitly or implicitly), the mapping should be to

    To map an IPMS.MessageBodyPart, the full X.400 -> RFC 822
    mapping  is recursively applied, to generate an RFC 822 Message.
    If present, the IPMS.MessageBodyPart.parameters.delivery-envelope
    is used for the MTS Abstract Service Mappings.  If present, the
    IPMS.MessageBodyPart.parameters.delivery-time is mapped to the
    extended RFC 822 field "Delivery-Date:".

    When a message/RFC822 is contained within a MIME message, it is
    mapped to an IPMS.MessageBodyPart according to MIXER.
    specification.  Any mappings that would have been made to the MTS
    Abstract Service are placed in

    6.6.  MessageBodyPart - multipart/*

    X.400 body part: MessageBodyPart
    MIME Content-Type: multipart/*
    Conversion Type: Special

    NOTE: If the headers of the X.400 MessageBodyPart do not contain the
    "multipart-message" heading extension with the "isAMessage" flag FALSE=
    the mapping should be to message/RFC822.

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 31]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    A MIME multipart is a set of content-types and not a message with
    a set of content types. When the multipart is at the outermost
    MIME header and is either multipart/digest or multipart/mixed,
    elements of the multipart are mapped directly onto IPMS.Bodypart.
    In other cases, a MIME multipart is  mapped to an
    IPMS.MessageBodyPart containing an IPMS.Bodypart for each element
    of the multipart.

         When a nested IPMS.Message is generated from a multipart, an
    IPMS.heading shall always be generated.  The only mandatory field
    is the IPMS.Heading.this-IPM message id, which shall be generated
    by the gateway.  An IPMS.Heading.subject field shall also be
    generated, in order to provide useful information to non-MIME
    capable X.400(88) UAs and to all X.400(84) UAs.  The subject
    field is set as follows according to the multipart subtype:

         "Multipart Message"

         "Alternative Body Parts containing the same

         "Message Digest"

         "Body Parts interpreted in parallel"

         "Multipart Message (<subtype>)"

    For other types of multipart, the multipart subtype shall
    be included in the subject line.

    For each multipart, the following IPMS.HeadingExtension
    shall be generated, with the value set according to the

            multipart-message HEADING-EXTENSION
                    VALUE MultipartType
                    ::=3D id-hex-multipart-message

            MultipartType ::=3D SEQUENCE {

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 32]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

                      subtype IA5String,
                isAMessage BOOLEAN DEFAULT TRUE }

    The MultipartType contains the subtype, for example
    "digest".  If this heading is present when mapping from
    X.400 to MIME, the appropriate multipart may be generated.

    The isAMessage flag is needed because of the case where a
    message contains a ForwardedIPMessage, which itself was
    generated from a MIME message that was a Multipart; it is
    set whenever the multipart is the outermost level of
    nesting inside a Message/RFC822.

    6.7.  Teletex - Text/Plain (Teletex)
    X.400 Body Part: Teletex
    MIME Content-Type: text/plain; charset=3DTeletex
    Conversion Type: Text conversion

    The Teletex body part is frequently used in X.400(84) to
    send around text with slightly extended character sets
    beyond ASCII.

    Its body consists of a series of "pages", separated by
    ASN.1 representation.  It is important to many people to
    have this mapped into something that is readable to most
    end-users; therefore, it is recommended to map this onto
    Text/Plain; however, since this is not plain text, the
    conversion must be specified.

    From X.400 to RFC-822, the conversion shall take the bytes
    of all the pages in the "data" part of the
    TeletexBodyPart, add a FF character (0x0C, control-L) to
    each part that does not already end in one, and
    concatenate them together to form the body of the

    The character set shall be "Teletex", which is especially
    registered for this purpose. Its definition is shown in an

    The parameters are discarded.

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 33]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    From RFC-822 to X.400, the conversion shall split the
    content at each occurrence of the FF character (0x0C),
    delete the character and construct the Teletex body part
    as a SEQUENCE OF TeletexString, as described in X.420(88),
    section 7.3.5

    The TeletexParameters may, but need not, contain the
    number-of-pages component.

    NOTE: It is recommended, but not mandated, that the data
    be converted into a more widespread character set like
    ISO-8859-1 or ISO-2022-JP (if applicable) if possible.
    This will result in the reverse translation giving a
    GeneralText body part, which will have to be dealt with
    appropriately at the X.400/88 to X.400/84 downgrading
    boundary, if possible, but will give a much greater chance
    that the MIME recipient can actually read the message.

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 34]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    7.  Body parts where tunneling is recommended

    Some body parts are MIME constructs, and their
    functionality will be severely damaged if they are coerced
    into an X.400 framework.

    Special care needs to be taken with these; they are
    described below.

    7.1.  message/external-body

    X.400 body part: ia5 MIME Content-Type: message/external-
    body Conversion Type: Special

    The message/external-body part points to an object that
    can be retrieved using Internet protocols.

    There are three cases to consider for the recipient's

     (1)   The user has no Internet access. In this case, the
           user might be grateful if the gateway fetches the
           body part and inserts it into the message. If the
           body part is large or dynamic, it might not be

     (2)   The user has Internet access, but no UA support for
           fetching external-body objects.

     (3)   The user has Internet access and UA support for
           fetching external-body objects, based on an
           understanding of this document.

    Some access-types, like anonymous FTP, are easy to
    resolve. Others, like the Mailserver access-type, are
    almost impossible to resolve at a gateway.

    To support the second case above, the tunneling method
    chosen is the HARPOON encapsulation described in section
    3.1.3, using an IA5 body part, inserting the string "MIME-
    Version: 1.0 (generated by gateway)" at the beginning of
    the body part. (The part in parentheses can be changed at

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 35]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95


    This will:

     (1)   Maximize the chance that the user will see the

     (2)   Give the user hints that will enable him to fetch
           the message using other Internet tools

     (3)   Identify the message as a MIME object in a reliable
           fashion, allowing UAs to support the fetching of
           the object if the UA implementor desires.

    The gateway MAY support a configuration option to
    retrieve; it MUST support the HARPOON tunneling when
    retrieval is not desired or not possible.

    7.2.  message/partial

    This represents part of a larger message, where it is only
    possible to parse the complete message after getting all
    the pieces.

    The gateway's choices are:

     (1)   Wait until all the pieces arrive at the gateway,
           reassemble the message, and use normal processing

     (2)   Encapsulate the message, using any encapsulation

           The choice of what to do, and which encapsulation
           to use, is left up to the gateway, but it MUST be
           possible to configure it to do encapsulation,
           possibly after a configurable wait.

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 36]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    7.3.  multipart/signed

    Gatewaying security is a problem.  The gateway can
    basically take three approaches:

    -    Strip the multipart/signed, leaving the bare body
         part unsecured, possibly with a comment that the
         signature was stripped

    -    Attempt to check the signature and re-signing the
         message using X.400 security functions, then
         stripping as above

    -    Encapsulate the message. This is the only approach
         that allows end to end security, but requires MIME
         functionality at the recipient.

    All these are valid options for a MIXER gateway.  The
    gateway MUST implement the third alternative. The
    encapsulation shall be done using HARPOON style
    encapsulation: Prefixing the data with "MIME-version: 1.0"
    and putting the whole multipart/signed, headers and all,
    into an IA5 body part.

    7.4.  multipart/encrypted

    There are two basic cases for a gateway:

    -    The gateway is trusted with the user's keys. In this
         case, the gateway can decrypt the message, possibly
         add a note that it has done so, and gateway the
         unencrypted form.  This does nothing to protect the
         transfer from gateway to recipient, unless suitable
         X.400-native security is applied.

    -    The gateway is not trusted with the recipient's keys.
         In this case, tunneling is the only approach that
         preserves any information at all.

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 37]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    The valid options for a MIXER gateway are therefore:

    -    Decrypt the body part

    -    Tunnel the body part

    -    Drop the body part

    A MIXER compliant gateway MUST implement the second
    option, using an IA5 tunnel in the HARPOON style.

    8.  Conformance requirements

    In order to be called MIXER conformant, a gateway must

    -    Encapsulation of MIME content in the FTBP tunneling
         body part

    -    Encapsulation of X.400 body parts in the x400-bp body

    -    Encapsulation of FTBP body parts in the
         application/x-oid.n.n.n body part

    -    Text/plain <-> IA5Text

    -    Text/plain; charset=3Diso-8859-* <-> GeneralText

    -    Multipart/* <-> ForwardedIPMessage

    -    message/RFC822 <-> ForwardedIPMessage

    -    application/octet-stream <-> FTBP unknown

    -    application/octet-stream <-> BilaterallyDefined

    -    A configuration choice of which application/octet-
         stream translation to use

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 38]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    All other parts of this specification MAY be implemented
    by the gateway. If they are implemented at all, they MUST
    be implemented conformant to this specification.

    In this context, a feature is "implemented" in a product
    if it is possible to configure the product in such a way
    that this feature is used. This specification does not
    restrict the product to only be configured in such a


         D.H. Crocker, Standard for the Format of ARPA
         Internet Text Messages.  Request for Comments 822,
         (August, 1982).

         N. Borenstein, N. Freed, MIME: Mechanisms for
         Specifying and Describing the Format of Internet
         Message Bodies.  Request for Comments 1341, (June,

         S.E. Hardcastle-Kille, Mapping between X.400(1988) /
         ISO 10021 and RFC-822. (in preparation)

         CCITT Recommendation T.4, Standardization of Group 3
         Facsimile Apparatus for Document Transmission (1988)

         CCITT Recommendation T.30, Procedures For Document
         Facsimile Transmission in the General Switched
         Telephone Network (1988)

         CCITT Recommendation T.411 (1988), Open Document
         Architecture (ODA) and Interchange Format,
         Introduction and General Principles

         ISO/IEC International Standard 10021, Information
         technology - Text Communication - Message-Oriented

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 39]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

         Text Interchange Systems (MOTIS) (Parts 1 to 8)

         CCITT, Data Communication Networks - Message Handling
         Systems - Recommendations X.400 - X.420 (1988

         CCITT Recommendation X.420 (1988), Interpersonal
         Messaging System

         Harald Tveit Alvestrand, X.400 use of extended
         Character Sets, Internet Draft, June 1992

         Electronic Messaging Association Message Attachment
         Working Group (MAWG): File Transfer Body Part
         Feasibility Project Guide - version 1.5 - September

    9.  Authors' address

    Harald Tveit Alvestrand
    P.O.box 6883 Elgeseter
    N-7002 Trondheim



    Appendix A: Escape code normalization

    The algorithm given here in pseudocode will reduce a
    GeneralString ISO-2022 unlimited use of shifts sequence to
    a pure 8-bit sequence that does not use shift sequences,
    if possible.

    Some error conditions, like EOF, are not tested for. It
    crashes if asked to do something it cannot.  Control

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 40]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    character set switching is missing.

    A similar routine, albeit more complex, can be written for
    normalizing to the ISO-2022-JP character set.

    BEGIN: (from X.209)
      g0 =3D 6 (should be 2, but ignore the difference)
      g1 =3D NULL
      g2 =3D NULL
      g3 =3D NULL
      c0 =3D 1 (ASCII control)
      c1 =3D NULL
      leftset =3D &g0 (current input set, low)
      rightset =3D &g1 (current input set, high)
      lowset =3D 6 (output set, low)
      highset =3D NULL (output set, high)
      charset =3D US-ASCII

      (Init for the set tables)
      chartoid[{2D,2E,2F}, 41] =3D 100
      idtoname[100] =3D "ISO-8859-1"

    WHILE (more data)
      CASE head of input
        {These are the locking shift sequences}
        INCASE "00/14": (LS0, SO)
         leftset =3D &g0;
        INCASE "00/15": (LS1, SI)
            leftset =3D &g
        INCASE "ESC 07/14": (LS1R)
         rightset =3D &g1;
        INCASE "ESC 07/13": (LS2R)
         rightset =3D &g2;
        INCASE "ESC 07/12": (LS3R)
         rightset =3D &g3;
        {There is missing code for handling the single shift function}
        {These are the changes of graphic character sets}
        {Note that G0 can contain only 94-character charsets}
        INCASE "ESC 28"
            g0 =3D chartoid[lastchar, next character]
        INCASE "ESC 2D", "ESC 29"
            g1 =3D chartoid[lastchar, next character]

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 41]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

        INCASE "ESC 2E", "ESC 2A"
            g2 =3D chartoid[lastchar, next character]
        INCASE "ESC 2F", "ESC 2B"
            g3 =3D chartoid[lastchar, next character]
        {control characters. There is missing code for changing these}
        INCASE 00/00-01/15 {normal control}
        INCASE 08/00-09/15 {upper control}
        {Normal characters}
        INCASE 02/00-07/15 (Left)
            IF (*leftset =3D=3D lowset)
            ELSIF (*leftset =3D=3D highset)
                ERROR "Shift error"
        INCASE 10/00-15/15
            IF (*rightset =3D=3D highset)
            ELSIF (*rightset =3D=3D lowset)
                ERROR "Shift error"

    SUBROUTINE sethighset(g1)

            IF (highset =3D=3D NULL)
                charset =3D idtoname[g1]
                highset =3D g1
            ELSIF (highset =3D=3D g1)
                (it's OK)
                ERROR "Too many charsets encountered"


Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 42]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    Appendix B: OID Assignments
    EXPORTS -- everything --;

           FROM RFC1155-SMI;
           FROM MIXER --Companion RFC--;

    mixer-bp-data OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=3D
            { mixer-bodies 1};

    mixer-bp-parameter OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=3D
            { mixer-bodies 2};

    id-mime-bp-data OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=3D
            { mixer-bp-data 1};

    id-mime-bp-parameters OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=3D
            { mixer-bp-parameter 1};

    -- the following assignments were done in RFC 1494, using
    -- slightly different names, but the same numbers.
    -- their defining text is now is now in other documents
    id-mime-postscript-body OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=3D
                   { mixer-bp-data 2}

    id-mime-jpeg-body OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=3D
                   { mixer-bp-data 3}

    id-mime-gif-body OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=3D
                   { mixer-bp-data 4};

    -- This is a new definition, and defines an FTAM application reference=
    -- not a BP15 data OID.
    id-mime-ftbp-data OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=3D
                   { mixer-bp-data 5 }

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 43]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    Appendix C: Registration information for the Teletex
    character set

    The Teletex character set is a character set in which the
    ISO 2022 character set switching mechanism may be used to
    switch between the following registered ISO character

    ISO-IR-87 - JIS_C6226-1983; a 16-bit Japanese character set
    ISO-IR-102 - a fairly standard US-ASCII variant
    ISO-IR-103 - Latin characters using non-spacing accents
    ISO-IR-106 - Control characters for C0 use; CR, LF, FF and a few more.
    ISO-IR-107 - Control characters for C1 use

    Its intended use of this character set is to represent
    data that comes from ISO protocols that use the ASN.1
    construct "TeletexString" or "T61string" without

    The set of allowed character sets can be found in CCITT
    recommendation X.208(1988), chapter 31.2 and Table

    The rules for encoding the data type can be found in CCITT
    recommendation X.209(1988), chapter 23. It states that at
    the beginning of the string, G0 is always ISO-IR-102, C0
    is ISO-IR-106, and C1 is ISO-IR-107.

    The specification seems somehow to have missed the
    implicit assumption that ISO-IR-103 is designated and
    invoked as G1 and shifted into the upper half of the
    character set which seems to be assumed at least by the
    X.400 and X.500 software that uses TeletexStrings;
    implementors should act as if the sequence ESC 2/9 7/6
    LS1R is always present at the beginning of the data.

    The rules for interpreting T.61 data are found (I believe)
    in CCITT recommendations T.51, T.52 and T.53 (data from
    the ITU WWW server):

    T.51 (09/92) [Rev.1] [26 pp.] [Publ.: May.93]
       Latin based coded character sets for telematic services
    T.52 (1993) [New] [88 pp.] [Publ.: Apr.94]
       Non-Latin coded character sets for telematic services
    T.53 (04/94) [New] [68 pp.] [Publ.: Jan.95]

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 44]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

       Character coded control functions for telematic services
       Note - C: 26/48/69

    (The author has not yet obtained a copy of these, even
    though they only cost SFR 70 from the ITU...)

    The Teletex character set is closely related to (but not
    identical with) that specified in ISO 6937.

    No further restrictions are imposed by this registration;
    in particular, character set switching can occur anywhere,
    and there is no guarantee that the character sets will be
    switched "back" at the end.

    Appendix D: IANA Registration form for new mappings

    To: IANA@isi.edu
    Subject: Registration of new X.400/MIME content type mapping

    MIME type name:

    (this must have been registered previously with IANA)

    X.400 body part:

    X.400 Object Identifier for Data:

    (If left empty, an OID will be assigned by IANA under

    X.400 Object Identifier for Parameters:

    (If left empty, an OID will be assigned by IANA under
    mixer-bp-parameter.  If it is not used, fill in the words
    NOT USED.)

    X.400 ASN.1 Syntax:

    (must be an EXTENDED-BODY-PART-TYPE macro, or reference to
    a Basic body part type)

    Conversion algorithm:

    (must be defined completely enough for independent

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 45]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    implementation. It may be defined by reference to RFCs).

    Person & email address to contact for further information:


    The accepted registrations will be listed in the "Assigned
    Numbers" series of RFCs.  The information in the
    registration form is freely distributable.

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 46]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    Table of Contents

     Status of this Memo ................................    1
    1 Introduction ......................................    2
    1.1 Glossary ........................................    3
    2 Basic rules for body part conversion ..............    3
    2.1 Generating the IPM Body from MIME ...............    5
    2.2 Ground rules for generating the MIME Body from
         the IPMS.Body ..................................    5
    2.3 Mapping the EMA FTBP parameters .................    6
    2.3.1 Summary of FTBP elements generated ............   10
    2.4 Information that is lost when mapping ...........   10
    3 Encapsulation of body parts .......................   11
    3.1 Encapsulation of MIME in X.400 ..................   11
    3.1.1 BP15 tunneling body part ......................   11
    3.1.2 FTBP tunneling body part ......................   13
    3.1.3 Tunneling using IA5 ...........................   13
    3.1.4 Tunneling using BP14 ..........................   14
    3.2 Tunneling X.400 Body Parts in MIME ..............   15
    3.3 Tunneling FTBP body parts in MIME ...............   15
    4 User control over the gateway choice ..............   16
    4.1 Conversion from MIME to X.400 ...................   17
    4.2 Conversion from X.400 to MIME ...................   18
    5 The equivalence registry ..........................   20
    5.1  Equivalence  Table  for  known X.400 and MIME
         Types ..........................................   21
    5.2 MIME to X.400 Table .............................   22
    5.3 X.400 to MIME Table .............................   22
    5.4 Use of OBJECT IDENTIFIERs and ASN.1 MACROS ......   24
    6 Defined Equivalences ..............................   26
    6.1 IA5Text - text/plain ............................   26
    6.2 GeneralText - text/plain (ISO-8859) .............   27
    6.3 BilaterallyDefined -  application/octet-stream
         ................................................   29
    6.4   FTBP   EMA  Unknown  Attachment  -  applica=AD
         tion/octet-stream ..............................   30
    6.5 MessageBodyPart - message/RFC822 ................   31
    6.6 MessageBodyPart - multipart/* ...................   31
    6.7 Teletex - Text/Plain (Teletex) ..................   33
    7 Body parts where tunneling is recommended .........   35
    7.1 message/external-body ...........................   35
    7.2 message/partial .................................   36
    7.3 multipart/signed ................................   37
    7.4 multipart/encrypted .............................   37

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 47]

draft            X.400/MIME body equivalences          July 95

    8 Conformance requirements ..........................   38
     References .........................................   39
    9 Authors' address ..................................   40
     APPENDIXES .........................................   40
     Appendix A: Escape code normalization ..............   40
     Appendix B: OID Assignments ........................   43
     Appendix  C:  Registration  information  for  the
         Teletex character set ..........................   44
     Appendix  D:  IANA Registration form for new map=AD
         pings ..........................................   45

Alvestrand                Exp Jan 96                 [Page 48]