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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06                                          
Mobile IP Working Group                            Yingchun Xu (editor)
Internet Draft                                            Rajesh Bhalla
November 1999                                               Ed Campbell
                                                            Karl Freter
                                                       3Com Corporation
                                                  Eileen McGrath Hadwen
                                                                Alcatel
                                                          Gopal Dommety
                                                            Kirit Joshi
                                                          Cisco Systems
                                                          Parviz Yegani
                                    Ericson Wireless Communication Inc.
                                                        Takeo Matsumura
                                                                FUJITSU
                                                        Atsushi Teshima
                                                           HITACHI Ltd.
                                                          Lee Dong Hyun
                                                    HYUNDAI Electronics
                                                             Naoto Itoh
                                                        IDO Corporation
                                                          Kimihiro Ohki
                                                        KDD Corporation
                                                         Byung-Keun Lim
                                   LG Information & Communications, Ltd
                                                        Peter J. McCann
                                                           Thomas Towle
                                                    Lucent Technologies
                                                          Jay Jayapalan
                                                          Motorola Inc.
                                                        Peter W. Wenzel
                                                        Carey B. Becker
                                                            James Jiang
                                                        Nortel Networks
                                                          Shota Shikano
                                         Oki Electric Industry Co.,Ltd.
                                                            Woojune Kim
                                                             Yong Chang
                                               Samsung Electronics Ltd.
                                                             Jun Mo Koo
                                                             SK Telecom
                                                            Bill Semper
                                             Samsung Telecommunications
                                                        Mark A. Lipford
                                                     Frederic Leroudier
                                                             Sprint PCS
                                                             Jim Gately
                                           USWest Advanced Technologies


         Mobile IP Based Micro Mobility Management Protocol in
                 The Third Generation Wireless Network
                <draft-ietf-mobileip-3gwireless-ext-01.txt>



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Internet Draft               3G Wireless                November 1999


Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026. Internet Drafts are working
   documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas,
   and working groups. Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet Drafts.

   Internet Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
   months and may be updated, replaced, or obsolete by other documents
   at anytime. It is inappropriate to use Internet Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
        http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
        http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.



Abstract

   This document defines extensions to the Mobile IP protocol [1] to
   allow mobility management for the interface between a radio network
   and a packet data network in the third generation cdma2000 network.

   Mobile IP requires link layer connectivity between the Mobile Node
   and the Foreign Agent. This draft proposes a protocol for achieving
   this when the physical layer terminates at a point distant from the
   FA. In particular, this protocol applies to cdma2000 networks where
   the physical layer terminates at a Radio Network Node (RNN) and the
   FA resides inside a separate Packet Data Serving Node (PDSN). The
   PDSN is responsible for establishing, maintaining, and terminating
   the link layer to the Mobile Node. A RNN is responsible for relaying
   the link layer protocol between a Mobile Node and its corresponding
   PDSN.

   The interface between the RNN and the PDSN is called the RP
   interface. This interface requires mobility management for handling
   handoff from one RNN to another without interrupting end to end
   communication. It also requires the support of the link layer
   protocol encapsulation.

1. Introduction

   This document defines extensions to the Mobile IP protocol [1] to
   allow mobility management for the interface between a radio network
   and a packet data network in the third generation cdma2000 network.

   Mobile IP requires link layer connectivity between the Mobile Node
   and the Foreign Agent. This draft proposes a protocol for achieving
   this when the physical layer terminates at a point distant from the

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   FA. In particular, this protocol applies to cdma2000 networks where
   the physical layer terminates at a Radio Network Node (RNN) and the
   FA resides inside a separate Packet Data Serving Node (PDSN). The
   PDSN is responsible for establishing, maintaining, and terminating
   the link layer to the Mobile Node. A RNN is responsible for relaying
   the link layer protocol between a Mobile Node and its corresponding
   PDSN.

   The interface between the RNN and the PDSN is called the RP
   interface. This interface requires mobility management for handling
   handoff from one RNN to another without interrupting end to end
   communication. It also requires the support of the link layer
   protocol encapsulation.

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED",  "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in
   this document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC-2119].

2. Glossary

   CDMA                 Code Division Multiple Access
   FA                   Foreign Agent
   HA                   Home Agent
   MN                   Mobile Node
   PDSN                 Packet Data Serving Node
   RNN                  Radio Network Node
   RP                   Interface between the RNN and the PDSN

3. cdma2000 Network RP Interface Overview

   The high level architecture of a third generation cdma2000 network
   RP interface is shown in Figure 1.


      +---------+            +---------+         +---------+
      |         |            |         |         |         |
      |   RNN   |----RP------|  PDSN   |---------|  HA     |
      |         | Interface  |         |         |         |
      +---------+            +---------+         +---------+
         /|\
          |   Visited Access                    Home Network
          |  Provider Network
          |
          |
         \|/
     +--------+
     | Mobile |
     | Node   |
     +--------+

       Figure 1: The Third Generation cdma2000 Network RP Interface



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   In above figure 1, the PDSN will be responsible for establishing,
   maintaining, and terminating the link layer to the Mobile Node. It
   initiates the authentication, authorization, and accounting for the
   Mobile Node and optionally, securely tunnels to the Home Agent.

   The RNN is responsible for mapping the Mobile Node identifier
   reference to a unique link layer identifier used to communicate with
   the PDSN. RNN validates the Mobile Station for access service and
   manages the physical layer connection to the Mobile Node.


4. Mobile IP Extensions

   This section describes extensions to the Mobile IP protocol for the
   RP interface within the third generation cdma2000 network.

4.1 Registration Request

   In a cdma2000 network, the mobile node initiates a connection by
   sending a call setup indication to the RNN across the radio network.
   When this indication is received by a RNN, a Registration Request
   will be sent from the RNN to the PDSN to setup a new RP session.

   A RNN MUST send a Registration Request with the GRE encapsulation
   and the reverse tunneling bit set. The Home Address field is set to
   zero. The Home Agent field will be assigned to the IP address of the
   PDSN and the Care-of Address field will be assigned to the IP
   address of RNN.

   When a Registration Request is received by a PDSN, the information
   from the Session Specific Extension (see next section) will be used
   to identify a RP session. When a registration is accepted, a GRE
   tunnel will be created for this Mobile Node.

   The fields of the Registration Request message are shown below:

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |     Type      |S|B|D|M|G|V|T| |          Lifetime             |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                          Home Address                         |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                           Home Agent                          |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                        Care-of Address                        |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                                                               |
      +                         Identification                        +
      |                                                               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      | Extensions ...
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-

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         Type           1 (Registration Request)

         G              This bit MUST be set to 1 for GRE tunneling.

         T             This bit MUST be set to 1 for reverse
                        tunneling.

         Home Address
                        The field is set to zero.

         Home Agent
                        This field is assigned to the IP address of the
                        PDSN.

         Care-of Address
                       This field is assigned to the IP address of RNN.

         Extensions
                        The Session Specific Extension as described in
                        the next section MUST be included along with
                        the ones described in RFC2002. Specifically,
                        the MN-HA Authentication extension as described
                        in RFC2002 MUST be included along with this
                        extension.


4.2 Session Specific Extension

   This extension is defined to carry information related to the
   session between a Mobile Node and its serving PDSN.

   The detailed format of the extension is shown as follows.

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |     Type      |     Length    |         Protocol Type         |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                           Key                                 |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |         reserved              |       MN Connection ID        |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |        MN ID Type             | MN ID Length  |      MN ID    |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                           MN ID  à
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


        Type           39 (non-skippable).




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        Length          This is a one octet field and it indicates the
                        length (in bytes) of the extension, NOT
                        including the Type and Length fields.

        Protocol Type
                       This is a two octet field. It indicates the type
                       of the protocol to be tunneled across the RP
                       interface. It is same as the Protocol Type field
                       in the GRE header.

        Key             This is a four octet value assigned by the RNN
                       and inserted in every GRE frame across the RP
                       interface during user data tunneling.

        Reserved       This is a two octet field. It is not used and is
                       set to zero.

        MN Connection ID
                        This is a two octet field and it is used to
                        differentiate the multiple sessions from the
                        same Mobile Node. It is locally unique to a
                        Mobile Node.

        MN ID Type
                        This is a two octet field and it indicates the
                        type of the following Mobile Node ID value.

        MN ID Length
                       This is a one octet field and it indicates the
                       length (in bytes) of the following Mobile Node
                       ID field.

        MN ID           This is the Mobile Node ID, which is globally
                       unique. It is used to uniquely identify a Mobile
                       Node.

   This extension MUST be included in the Registration Request and
   Registration Update (see section 4.5) messages. It will be included
   before the MN-HA Authentication extension in the Registration
   Request message and before the Registration Update Authentication
   Extension in the Registration Update message.

   The MN ID and the MN Connection ID together will uniquely identify a
   Mobile Session.

4.3 Registration Reply

   The Registration Reply will be sent by a PDSN following the
   procedure as described in [1]. The Home Address field will be the
   same value as the Home Address field from the corresponding
   Registration Request message received by the PDSN.



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4.4 Registration Update/Acknowledge

   Two new messages are defined to support PDSN initiated RP tunnel
   tear down and to speed up resource reclamation on the RNN.

   The Registration Update message is used for notification of the
   change of the registration associated with a call. It shall be sent
   by the PDSN to the previous RNN when a RNN to RNN handoff happens.

   Both messages are sent with UDP using well-known port number 434.

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |     Type      |                  Reserved                     |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                          Home Address                         |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                     Home Agent Address                        |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                                                               |
      +                         Identification                        +
      |                                                               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      | Extensions ...
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-

   The format of the Registration Update message is illustrated above,
   and contains the following fields:

        Type            20

        Reserved        Sent as 0; ignored on reception.

        Home Address    Sent as 0;

        Home Agent Address
                        The IP Address of the PDSN.

        Identification
                        A 64-bit number assigned by the node sending
                        the Registration Update message. It is used to
                        assist in matching requests with replies, and
                        in protecting against replay attacks.
        Extensions
                        Both Registration Update Authentication
                        Extension (see section 4.6) and Session
                        Specific Extension (see section 4.2) SHALL be
                        included.

   A Registration Update shall be sent by a PDSN to indicate the
   closure of a RP session. The RNN may reclaim the resource associated
   with that session.

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   A Registration Acknowledge message is used to acknowledge receipt of
   a Registration Update message. It MUST be sent by a node receiving a
   Registration Update message.


       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |     Type      |            Reserved           |    Status     |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                        Home Address                           |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                       Care Of Address                         |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                                                               |
      +                         Identification                        +
      |                                                               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      | Extensions ...
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-

   The format of the Registration Acknowledge message is illustrated
   above, and contains the following fields:

        Type            21

        Status         If the Status is nonzero, this acknowledgment is
                       negative.

        Reserved
                        Sent as 0; ignored on reception.


        Home Address
                        Copied from the Registration Update message
                        being acknowledged.

        Care of Address
                        The IP address of the RNN.

        Identification
                       Copied from the Registration Update message
                       being acknowledged.

        Extensions
                       Registration Update Authentication
                       Extension SHALL be included.

      Allowable values for the Status include:

          0  successful acknowledgement
         128 reason unspecified

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         129 administratively prohibited
         131 sending node failed authentication
         133 identification mismatch
         134 poorly formed Registration Update


4.5 Registration Update Authentication Extension

   The Registration Update Authentication extension is used to
   authenticate the Registration Update and Registration Acknowledge
   messages. It has the same format and default algorithm support
   requirements as the authentication extension defined for Mobile IP
   protocol [1], but with a different type (40).  The authenticator
   value is computed from the stream of bytes including the shared
   secret, the UDP payload all prior extensions in their entirety, and
   the type and length of this extension, but not including the
   authenticator field itself nor the UDP header. The secret used for
   computing the authenticator field is shared between the RN and PDSN.
   This extension is required in both Registration Update and
   Registration Acknowledge messages.

4.6 Summary

   The extensions to Mobile IP include enabling the GRE encapsulation
   and reverse tunneling during Registration. A new extension called
   Session Specific Extension is defined and is mandatory in both
   Registration Request and Registration Update messages. The Home
   Address field MUST be set to zero in the Registration Request,
   Registration Reply, Registration Update and Registration Acknowledge
   messages.

   Two new messages (Registration Update/Acknowledge) are defined to
   support the RP session disconnection in order to speed up resource
   reclamation.


5.0 GRE Encapsulation

   GRE encapsulation as described in [3] shall be supported during user
   data transmission. A new protocol type might be required to support
   the link layer protocol defined for the third generation cdma2000
   network. The Key field shall be required and its value shall be same
   as the one from the Session Specific Extension as described above.
   The sequence number may be required, depending on the requirement of
   the protocol encapsulated within the GRE frame.

   During traffic tunneling, the sender will insert the Key value from
   the Registration Request message into the Key field of the GRE
   header. The receiver will use the Key value from the GRE header to
   decide where to forward the user data.

6.0 IANA Considerations


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   The numbers for the Mobile IP Session Specific Extension (section
   4.2)and Registration Update Authentication Extension (section 4.5)
   are taken from the numbering space defined for Mobile IP extensions
   defined in RFC 2002 [1] as extended in RFC 2356 [4]. The numbering
   for the extensions SHOULD NOT conflict with values specified in the
   Internet Draft for the Mobile IP Network Address Identifier
   Extension[5], the Internet Draft for Mobile IP Challenge/Response
   Extensions[6] or the Internet Draft for Route Optimization [7]. The
   values specified for Status field, listed in section 4.4, MUST NOT
   conflict with any other code or status values listed in RFC 2002[1],
   RFC2344[2], or RFC2356[4], or the above mentioned Internet Drafts
   [5], [6] and [7]. They are to be taken from the space of error
   values conventionally associated with rejection by the home agent
   (i.e. 128-255).

7.0 Security Considerations

   The protocol presented in this draft is designed for use over a
   protected, private network between RNN and PDSN. Pre-arranged
   security associations in the style of Mobile IPv4 are assumed to
   exist among every (RNN, PDSN) pair that will form an RP connection.
   Also, it is assumed that the session specific information is
   authenticated by means outside the scope of this draft.

   Several potential vulnerabilities exist if these assumptions are not
   met. First, if the network connecting the RNN and PDSN is accessible
   to an attacker, user traffic may be intercepted and/or spoofed if
   there are no other end-to-end security mechanisms in place. Second,
   the Mobile IP control messages must be authenticated, to prevent
   tunnel setup and tear down by unauthorized parties. Mobile IP
   Authentication Extensions are used to provide this additional
   protection for control messages. Finally, if session specific
   information is not authenticated, a denial-of-service attack is
   possible if a RNN unknowingly sends a registration request to the
   PDSN with a spoofed session specific extension. The PDSN would then
   send an explicit tunnel tear down to the previous RNN, causing user
   traffic to be misdirected to the new RNN. This would cause a loss of
   service and possibly interception of traffic, depending on what
   other security measures are in place.


8.0 Acknowledgments
   The authors of this draft would like to thank Charles E. Perkins and
   David B. Johnson for the ideas presented in the Route Optimization
   draft [7].



References

   [1]  C. Perkins, Editor, "IP Mobility Support", RFC 2002, October
        1996.


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   [2]  G. Montenegro, "Reverse Tunneling for Mobile IP", RFC2344, May
        1998.

   [3]  Hanks, S., Li, R., Farinacci, D., and P. Traina, "Generic
        Routing Encapsulation (GRE)", RFC 1701, October 1994.

   [4]  G. Montenegro and V. Gupta. "Sun's SKIP Firewall Traversal for
        Mobile IP".  RFC 2356, June 1998.

   [5]  Pat R. Calhoun and Charles E. Perkins. "Mobile IP Network
        Address Identifier Extension". draft-ietf-mobileip-mn-nai-
        05.txt, October 1999. (work in progress).

   [6]  Charles E. Perkins and Pat R. Calhoun. "Mobile IP Challenge/
        Response Extensions". draft-ietf-mobileip-challenge-06.txt,
        October 1999. (work in progress).

   [7]  Charles E. Perkins and David B. Johnson. "Route Optimization in
        Mobile IP". draft-ietf-mobileip-optim-08.txt, February 1999.
        (work in progress).


































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AuthorsÆ Addresses

     Yingchun Xu
     3Com Corporation
     1800 West Central Road
     Mount Prospect,
     USA 60056
     Phone: (847) 342-6814
     Email: Yingchun_Xu@3com.com

     Rajesh Bhalla
     3Com Corporation
     1800 West Central Road
     Mount Prospect,
     USA 60056
     Phone: (847) 797-2618
     Email: rajesh_bhalla@3com.com

     Karl Freter
     3Com Corporation
     1800 W. Central Road
     Mount Prospect, IL 60056
     Phone: (847) 222-2268
     Email: karl_freter@3com.com

     Ed Campbell
     3Com Corporation
     1800 W. Central Road
     Mount Prospect, IL 60056
     Phone:(847) 342-6769
     Email: ed_campbell@3com.com

     Eileen McGrath Hadwen
     Alcatel
     PO Box 4442,
     Boulder CO 80306
     Phone: 303 499 1496
     Email: mcgrath.hadwen@worldnet.att.net

     Gopal Dommety
     Cisco Systems
     170 West Tasman Drive
     San Jose, CA 95134
     Phone: (408) 525-1404
     Email: gdommety@cisco.com

     Kirit Joshi
     Cisco Systems
     170 West Tasman Drive
     San Jose, CA 95134
     Phone: (408) 525 7367
     Email: kjoshi@cisco.com


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     Parviz Yegani
     Ericson Wireless Communication Inc.
     6455 Lusk Blvd.
     San Diego, CA 92121
     Phone: (858) 332-6017
     Email: p.yeqani@ericsson.com

     Takeo Matsumura
     FUJITSU
     Kamiodanaka
     Nakahara-ku, Kawasaki-City
     Phone: +81-44-740-8109
     Email: matumura@mcs.ts.fujitsu.co.jp

     Atsushi Teshima
     HITACHI  Ltd.
     216 Totsuka-cho, Totsuka-ku, Yokohama Japan 244-8567
     Phone:+81-45-865-7003
     Email: atsushi_teshima@cm.tcd.hitachi.co.jp

     Lee Dong Hyun
     HYUNDAI Electronics Industry
     KOREA Kyungkido Icheonsi 435-050
     Phone:  82-336-630-2756
     Email:  jihs@hei.co.kr

     Naoto Itoh
     IDO Corporation
     Gobancho YS building
     12-3 Gobancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo  Japan  102-8361
     Phone: +81-3-3263-9660
     Email: nao-itoh@ido.co.jp

     Kimihiro Ohki
     KDD Corporation
     3-2, Nishi-Shinjuku 2-chome,
     Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-8003, Japan
     Phone: +81-3-3347-5477
     Email: ki-ohki@kdd.co.jp

     Byung-Keun Lim,
     LG Information & Communications, Ltd.
     533, Hogye-dong, Dongan-ku, Anyang-shi,
     Kyungki-do,431-080, Korea
     Phone: +82-343-450-7199
     Email: bklim@lgic.co.kr

     Peter J. McCann
     Lucent Technologies
     Rm 2Z-305
     263 Shuman Blvd
     Naperville, IL  60566
     Phone: (630) 713 9359

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     EMail: mccap@lucent.com

     Thomas Towle
     Lucent Technologies
     Rm. 2D-225
     263 Shuman Blvd
     Naperville, IL  60566
     Phone: 630-979-7303
     Email: ttowle@lucent.com

     Jay Jayapalan
     Motorola Inc.
     1501 W Shure Drive
     Arlington Heights,IL 60004
     Phone: (847) 642-4031
     Email: jayapal@cig.mot.com

     Peter W. Wenzel
     Nortel Networks
     2201 Lakeside Blvd.
     Richardson, TX 75082, USA
     Phone: (972) 684-7134
     Email: wenzel@nortelnetworks.com

     Carey B. Becker
     Nortel Networks
     2201 Lakeside Blvd.
     Richardson, TX 75082, USA
     Phone: (972) 685-0560
     Email: becker@nortelnetworks.com

     James Jiang
     Nortel Networks
     2201 Lakeside Blvd.
     Richardson, TX 75082, USA
     Phone: (972)684-5885
     Email: jjiang@nortelnetworks.com

     Shota Shikano
     Oki Electric Industry Co., Ltd.
     Phone:+81-3-3454-2111
     Email: shikano471@oki.co.jp

     Woojune Kim
     Samsung Electronics Ltd.
     11th Fl, Samsung Plaza Bldg,
     263, Seohyeon-dong, Pundang-gu,
     Sungnam-shi, Kyunggi-do,
     463-050 Pundang P.O. Box 32, Korea
     Phone: +82-342-779-8526
     Email: keg@telecom.samsung.co.kr

     Yong Chang

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     Samsung Electronics Ltd.
     11th Fl, Samsung Plaza Bldg,
     263, Seohyeon-dong, Pundang-gu,
     Sungnam-shi, Kyunggi-do,
     463-050 Pundang P.O. Box 32, Korea
     Phone: +82-342-779-6822
     Email : yong@telecom.samsung.co.kr

     Bill Semper
     Samsung Telecommunications
     1130 Arapaho Rd
     Richardson, TX 75082
     Phone:  972-761-7996
     Email:  bsemper@telecom.samsung.com

     Jun Mo Koo
     SK Telecom
     Phone: 650-568-5762
     Email: jmkoo@sktelecom.com

     Mark A. Lipford
     Sprint PCS
     8001 College Blvd. Suite 210
     KSOPKZ0101
     Overland Park, KS 66210
     Phone: 913-664-8335
     Email: Mlipfo01@sprintspectrum.com

     Frederic Leroudier
     Sprint PCS
     8001 College Blvd. Suite 210
     KSOPKZ0101
     Overland Park, KS 66210
     Phone: 913-664-8350
     Email: FLerou01@sprintspectrum.com

     Jim Gately
     USWest Advanced Technologies
     4001 Discovery Drive
     Boulder, CO 80303
     Phone: 303-541-6415
     Email: jgately@uswest.com












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