Network Working Group                              B. Niven-Jenkins, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                                        BT
Intended status: Informational                          D. Brungard, Ed.
Expires: May 24, 2009                                               AT&T
                                                           M. Betts, Ed.
                                                         Nortel Networks
                                                             N. Sprecher
                                                  Nokia Siemens Networks
                                                       November 20, 2008

                          MPLS-TP Requirements

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   This document specifies the requirements for a MPLS Transport Profile
   (MPLS-TP).  This document is a product of a joint International
   Telecommunications Union (ITU)-IETF effort to include a MPLS
   Transport Profile within the IETF MPLS architecture to support the
   capabilities and functionalities of a packet transport network as
   defined by International Telecommunications Union -
   Telecommunications Standardization Sector (ITU-T).

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   This work is based on two sources of requirements, MPLS architecture
   as defined by IETF and packet transport networks as defined by ITU-T.

Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     1.1.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.2.  Transport network overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   2.  MPLS-TP Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     2.1.  General requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     2.2.  Layering requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     2.3.  Data plane requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     2.4.  Control plane requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     2.5.  Network Management (NM) requirements . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     2.6.  Operation, Administration and Maintenance (OAM)
           requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     2.7.  Network performance management (PM) requirements . . . . . 11
     2.8.  Protection & Survivability requirements  . . . . . . . . . 11
     2.9.  QoS requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     2.10. Security requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   3.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   4.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   5.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   6.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 18

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1.  Introduction

   For many years, Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET)/Synchronous
   Digital hierarchy (SDH) has provided carriers with a high benchmark
   for reliability and operational simplicity.  With the accelerating
   growth of packet-based services (such as Ethernet, Voice over IP
   (VoIP), Layer 2 (L2)/Layer 3 (L3) Virtual Private Networks (VPNs), IP
   Television (IPTV), Radio Access Network (RAN) backhauling, etc.),
   carriers are in need of capabilities to efficiently support packet-
   based services on their transport networks.  The need to increase
   their revenue while remaining competitive forces operators to look
   for the lowest network Total Cost of Ownership (TCO).  Investment in
   equipment and facilities (Capital Expenditure (CAPEX)) and
   Operational Expenditure (OPEX) should be minimized.

   Carriers are considering migrating or evolving to packet transport
   networks in order to reduce their costs and to improve their ability
   to support services with guaranteed Service Level Agreements (SLAs).
   For carriers it is important that migrating from SONET/SDH to packet
   transport networks should not involve dramatic changes in network
   operation, should not necessitate extensive retraining, and should
   not require major changes to existing work practices.  The aim is to
   preserve the look-and-feel to which carriers have become accustomed
   in deploying their SONET/SDH networks, while providing common, multi-
   layer operations, resiliency, control and management for packet,
   circuit and lambda transport networks.

   Transport carriers require control and deterministic usage of network
   resources.  They need end-to-end control to engineer network paths
   and to efficiently utilize network resources.  They require
   capabilities to support static (Operational Support System (OSS)
   based) or dynamic (control plane) provisioning of deterministic,
   protected and secured services and their associated resources.

   Carriers will still need to cope with legacy networks (which are
   composed of many layers and technologies), thus the packet transport
   network should interwork with other packet and transport networks
   (both horizontally and vertically).  Vertical interworking is also
   known as client/server or network interworking.  Horizontal
   interworking is also known as peer-partition or service interworking.
   For more details on each type of interworking and some of the issues
   that may arise (especially with horizontal interworking) see

   MPLS is a maturing packet technology and it is already playing an
   important role in transport networks and services.  However, not all
   of MPLS's capabilities and mechanisms are needed and/or consistent
   with transport network operations.  There is therefore the need to

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   define an MPLS Transport Profile (MPLS-TP) in order to support the
   capabilities and functionalities needed for packet transport network
   services and operations through combining the packet experience of
   MPLS with the operational experience of SONET/SDH.

   MPLS-TP will enable the migration of SONET/SDH networks to a packet-
   based network that will efficiently scale to support packet services
   in a simple and cost effective way.  MPLS-TP needs to combine the
   necessary existing capabilities of MPLS with additional minimal
   mechanisms in order that it can be used in a transport role.

   This document specifies the requirements for a MPLS Transport Profile
   (MPLS-TP).  This document is a product of a joint ITU-IETF effort to
   include a MPLS Transport Profile within the IETF MPLS architecture to
   support the capabilities and functionalities of a packet transport
   network as defined by ITU-T.

   This work is based on two sources of requirements, MPLS architecture
   as defined by IETF and packet transport networks as defined by ITU-T.
   The requirements of MPLS-TP are provided below.  The relevant
   functions of MPLS are included in MPLS-TP, except where explicitly

   Although both static and dynamic configuration of MPLS-TP transport
   paths (including Operations, Administration and Maintenance (OAM) and
   protection capabilities) is required by this document, it MUST be
   possible for operators to be able to completely operate (including
   OAM and protection capabilities) an MPLS-TP network in the absence of
   any control plane protocols for dynamic configuration.

1.1.  Terminology

   Domain: A domain represents a collection of entities (for example
   network elements) that are grouped for a particular purpose, examples
   of which are administrative and/or managerial responsibilities, trust
   relationships, addressing schemes, infrastructure capabilities,
   survivability techniques, distributions of control functionality,
   etc.  Examples of such domains include IGP areas and Autonomous

   Layer network: A layer network as defined in G.805 [ITU.G805.2000]
   provides for the transfer of client information and independent
   operations (OAM) of the client OAM.  For an explanation of how a
   layer network as described by G.805 relates to the OSI concept of
   layering see Appendix I of Y.2611 [ITU.Y2611.2006].

   Link: A link as defined in G.805 [ITU.G805.2000] is used to describe
   a fixed relationship between two ports.

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   Path: See Transport path.

   Section: A section is a MPLS-TP network server layer which provides
   for encapsulation and OAM of a MPLS-TP transport path client layer.
   A section layer may provide for aggregation of multiple MPLS-TP

   Segment: A segment corresponds to part of a path.  A segment may be a
   single link (hop) within a path, a series of adjacent links (hops)
   within a path, or the entire end-to-end-path.

   Service layer: A layer network in which transport paths are used to
   carry a customer's (individual or bundled) service (may be point-to-
   point, point-to-multipoint or multipoint-to-multipoint services).

   Span: A span is synonymous with a link.

   Tandem Connection: A tandem connection corresponds to a segment of a
   path.  This may be either a segment of an LSP (i.e. a sub-path), or
   one or more segment(s) of a PW.

   Transport path: A connection as defined in G.805 [ITU.G805.2000].
   The combination of a PW (Single Segment or Multi-Segment) and LSP
   corresponds to an MPLS-TP transport path.

   Transport path layer: A layer network which provides point-to-point
   or point-to-multipoint transport paths which are used to carry a
   higher (client) layer network or aggregates of higher (client) layer
   networks, for example the network service layer.  It provides for
   independent OAM (of the client OAM) in the transport of the clients.

   Transmission media layer: A layer network which provides sections
   (two-port point-to-point connections) to carry the aggregate of
   network transport path or network service layers on various physical

1.2.  Transport network overview

   The connection (or transport path) service is the basic service
   provided by a transport network.  The purpose of a transport network
   is to carry its clients (i.e. the stream of client PDUs or client
   bits) between endpoints in the network (typically over several
   intermediate nodes).  These endpoints may be service switching points
   or service terminating points.  The connection services offered to
   customers are aggregated into large transport paths with long-holding
   times and independent OAM (of the client OAM), which contribute to
   enabling the efficient and reliable operation of the transport
   network.  These transport paths are modified infrequently.

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   Aggregation and hierarchy are beneficial for achieving scalability
   and security since:

   1.  They reduce the number of provisioning and forwarding states in
       the network core.

   2.  They reduce load and the cost of implementing service assurance
       and fault management.

   3.  Clients are encapsulated and layer associated OAM overhead is
       added.  This allows complete isolation of customer traffic and
       its management from carrier operations.

   An important attribute of a transport network is that it is able to
   function regardless of which clients are using its connection service
   or over which transmission media it is running.  The client,
   transport network and server layers are from a functional and
   operations point of view independent layer networks.  Another key
   characteristic of transport networks is the capability to maintain
   the integrity of the client across the transport network.  A
   transport network must provide the means to commit quality of service
   objectives to clients.  This is achieved by providing a mechanism for
   client network service demarcation for the network path together with
   an associated network resiliency mechanism.  A transport network must
   also provide a method of service monitoring in order to verify the
   delivery of an agreed quality of service.  This is enabled by means
   of carrier-grade OAM tools.

   Clients are first encapsulated.  These encapsulated client signals
   may then be aggregated into a connection for transport through the
   network in order to optimize network management.  Server layer OAM is
   used to monitor the transport integrity of the client layer or client
   aggregate.  At any hop, the aggregated signals may be further
   aggregated in lower layer transport network paths for transport
   across intermediate shared links.  The encapsulated client signals
   are extracted at the edges of aggregation domains, and are either
   delivered to the client or forwarded to another domain.  In the core
   of the network, only the server layer aggregated signals are
   monitored; individual client signals are monitored at the network
   boundary in the client layer network.

   Quality-of-service mechanisms are required in the packet transport
   network to ensure the prioritization of critical services, to
   guarantee BW and to control jitter and delay.

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2.  MPLS-TP Requirements

2.1.  General requirements

   1   MPLS-TP MUST be compatible with the MPLS data plane as defined by
       IETF.  When MPLS offers multiple options in this respect, MPLS-TP
       SHOULD select the minimum sub-set (necessary and sufficient
       subset) applicable to a transport network application.

   2   Any new functionality that is defined to fulfil the requirements
       for MPLS-TP MUST be agreed within IETF and re-use (as far as
       practically possible) existing MPLS standards.

   3   Mechanisms and capabilities MUST be able to interoperate with
       existing IETF MPLS [RFC3031] and IETF PWE3 [RFC3985] control and
       data planes where appropriate.

   4   MPLS-TP MUST support a connection-oriented packet switching
       paradigm with traffic engineering capabilities that allow
       deterministic control of the use of network resources.

   5   MPLS-TP MUST support traffic engineered point to point (P2P) or
       point to multipoint (P2MP) transport paths.

   6   MPLS-TP MUST support the logical separation of the control and
       management planes from the data plane.

   7   MPLS-TP MUST allow the physical separation of the control and
       management planes from the data plane.

   8   MPLS-TP MUST support static provisioning of transport paths via a
       Network Management System (NMS) or OSS (i.e. via the management

   9   Static provisioning MUST NOT depend on routing or signaling
       protocols (e.g.  Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching
       (GMPLS), Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), Intermediate System to
       Intermediate Systems (ISIS), Resource Reservation Protocol
       (RSVP), Border gateway Protocol (BGP), Label Distribution
       Protocol (LDP) etc.).

   10  MPLS-TP MUST support the capability for network operation
       (including OAM) via an NMS/OSS (without the use of any control
       plane protocols).

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   11  A solution MUST be provided to suppor dynamic provisioning of
       MPLS-TP transport paths via a control plane.

   12  The MPLS-TP data plane MUST be capable of functioning
       independently of the control or management plane used to operate
       the MPLS-TP layer network.  That is the MPLS-TP data plane
       operation MUST continue to operate normally if the management
       plane or control plane that configured the transport paths fails.

   13  MPLS-TP MUST support transport paths through multiple homogeneous

   14  MPLS-TP MUST NOT dictate the deployment of any particular network
       topology either physical or logical.

   15  MPLS-TP MUST be able to scale with growing and increasingly
       complex network topologies as well as increasing bandwidth
       demands, number of customers or number of services.

   16  MPLS-TP SHOULD support mechanisms to safeguard against the
       provisioning of transport paths which contain forwarding loops.

2.2.  Layering requirements

   17  An MPLS-TP network MUST operate in a multiple layer network
       environment consisting of independent service, transport path and
       transmission media layers.

   MPLS-TP may be used as the service layer (for P2P and P2MP services)
   and/or as the transport path layer within a packet transport network.

   18  A solution MUST be provided to support the transport of MPLS-TP
       and non MPLS-TP client layer networks over an MPLS-TP layer

   19  A solution MUST be provided to support the transport of an
       MPLS-TP layer network over MPLS-TP and non MPLS-TP server layer
       networks (such as Ethernet, OTN, etc.)

   20  In an environment where an MPLS-TP layer network is supporting a
       client network, and the MPLS-TP layer network is supported by a
       server layer network then operation of the MPLS-TP layer network
       MUST be possible without any dependencies on the server or client

   The above are not only technology requirements, but also operational.
   Different administrative groups may be responsible for the same layer
   network or different layer networks, and require the capability for

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   autonomous network operations.

   21  It MUST be possible to hide MPLS-TP layer network addressing and
       other information (e.g. topology) from client layers.

2.3.  Data plane requirements

   22  The identification of each transport path within its aggregate
       MUST be supported.

   23  A label in a particular section MUST uniquely identify the
       transport path.

   24  A transport path's source MUST be identifiable at its

   Transport paths can be aggregated by pushing and de-aggregated by
   popping labels.  MPLS-TP labels are swapped within a transport path
   in a layer network instance when the traffic is forwarded from one
   MPLS-TP link to another MPLS-TP link.

   25  MPLS-TP MUST support MPLS labels that are assigned by the
       downstream (with respect to data flow) node per [RFC3031] and
       [RFC3473] and MAY support context-specific MPLS labels as defined
       in [RFC5331].

   26  It MUST be possible to operate and configure the MPLS-TP data
       (transport) plane without any IP forwarding capability in the
       MPLS-TP data plane.

   27  MPLS-TP MUST support both unidirectional and bi-directional
       point-to-point transport paths.

   28  An MPLS-TP network MUST require the forward and backward
       directions of a bi-directional transport path to follow the same
       path at each layer.

   29  The intermediate nodes at each layer MUST be aware about the
       pairing relationship of the forward and the backward directions
       belonging to the same bi-directional transport path.

   30  MPLS-TP MUST support unidirectional point-to-multipoint transport

   31  MPLS-TP transport paths MUST NOT perform merging in a way that
       prevents the unique identification of the source at the
       destination (e.g. no use of LDP mp2p signaling in order to avoid
       losing LSP head-end information, no use of PHP, etc).

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   32  MPLS-TP MUST be able to accommodate new types of client networks
       and services.

   33  MPLS-TP SHOULD support mechanisms to minimize traffic impact
       during network reconfiguration.

   34  MPLS-TP SHOULD support mechanisms which ensure the integrity of
       the transported customer's service traffic.

   35  MPLS-TP MUST support an unambiguous and reliable means of
       distinguishing users' (client) packets from MPLS-TP control
       packets (e.g. control plane, management plane, OAM and protection
       switching packets).

2.4.  Control plane requirements

   The requirements for ASON signalling and routing and the requirements
   for multi-region and multi-layer networks as specified in [RFC4139],
   [RFC4258] and [RFC5212] respectively apply to MPLS-TP.


   36  MPLS-TP SHOULD support control plane topologies that are
       independent of the data plane topology.

   37  The MPLS-TP control plane MUST be able to be operated independent
       of any particular client or server layer control plane.

   38  The MPLS-TP control plane MUST support establishing all the
       connectivity patterns defined for the MPLS-TP data plane (e.g.,
       uni-directional and bidirectional P2P, uni-directional P2MP,
       etc.) including configuration of protection functions and any
       associated maintenance functions.

   39  The MPLS-TP control pane MUST support the configuration and
       modification of OAM maintenance points as well as the activation/
       deactivation of OAM when the transport path is established or

   40  An MPLS-TP control plane MUST support pre-allocated path

   In some situations it is impractical to expect acceptable recovery
   performance to be achieved using dynamic recalculation of transport
   path routes.  For this reason, it is necessary to allow for pre-
   planning of protection routes for selected transport paths.

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   41  An MPLS-TP control plane MUST scale gracefully to support a large
       number of transport paths.

   42  An MPLS-TP control plane SHOULD provide a common control
       mechanism for architecturally similar operations.

2.5.  Network Management (NM) requirements

   For requirements related to NM functionality for MPLS-TP, see the
   MPLS-TP NM requirements document [I-D.gray-mpls-tp-nm-req].

2.6.  Operation, Administration and Maintenance (OAM) requirements

   For requirements related to OAM functionality for MPLS-TP, see the
   MPLS-TP OAM requirements document

2.7.  Network performance management (PM) requirements

   For requirements related to PM functionality for MPLS-TP, see the
   MPLS-TP OAM requirements document

2.8.  Protection & Survivability requirements

   Network survivability plays a critical factor in the delivery of
   reliable services.  Network availability is a significant contributor
   to revenue and profit.  Service guarantees in the form of SLAs
   require a resilient network that rapidly detects facility or node
   failures and restores network operation in accordance with the terms
   of the SLA.

   The requirements in this section use the recovery terminology defined
   in RFC 4427 [RFC4427].

   43  MPLS-TP MUST support transport network style protection switching
       mechanisms (tandem network connection protection, LSP protection
       and PW protection) to provide the appropriate recovery time
       required to maintain customer SLAs when potentially thousands of
       services are simultaneously affected by a single failure.

   44  MPLS-TP recovery mechanisms MUST be applicable at various levels
       throughout the network including support for span, tandem
       connection and end-to-end recovery.

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   45  MPLS-TP MUST support network restoration mechanisms controlled by
       a distributed control plane and MUST support network restoration
       mechanisms controlled by a management plane.

       A.  The restoration resources MAY be pre-planned and selected a
           priori, or computed after failure occurrence.

       B.  MPLS-TP MAY support shared-mesh restoration.

       C.  MPLS-TP MUST support soft (make before break) LSP

       D.  MPLS-TP MAY support hard (break before make) LSP restoration.

       E.  The restoration mechanism MUST be applicable to any topology.

       F.  Restoration priority MUST be implemented to determine the
           order in which transport paths should be restored (to
           minimize service restoration time as well as to gain access
           to available spare capacity on the best paths).  Preemption
           priority MUST be supported, so that in the event that not all
           transport paths can be restored transport paths with lower
           preemption priority can be released.  When preemption is
           supported, its use MUST be operator configurable.

       G.  The restoration mechanism MUST operate in synergy with other
           transport network technologies (SDH, OTN, WDM).

   46  MPLS-TP MUST support inband OAM driven protection mechanisms
       (without any dependency on a control plane) to enable fast
       recovery from failure.

   47  If protection is supported then:

       A.  MPLS-TP protection mechanisms MUST apply to LSPs and PWs.

       B.  MPLS-TP MUST support mechanisms that rapidly detect, locate,
           notify and remedy network faults.

       C.  MPLS-TP MAY support 1:1 bidirectional protection switching.
           If bi-directional 1:1 protection switching is activated then
           the protection state of both ends of the protected entity
           MUST be synchronized.

       D.  MPLS-TP MAY support 1+1 unidirectional protection switching.

       E.  MPLS-TP protection mechanisms MUST be applicable to point-to-
           point and point-to-multipoint transport paths.

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       F.  Protection ratio MUST be of 100%, i.e. 100% of impaired
           working traffic MUST be protected for a failure on the
           working path.  Additionally:

           1.  The QoS objectives defined by the operator MUST also be
               met along the protection path.

           2.  In the case of 1:1 protection mechanisms, the bandwidth
               reserved for the protection path MAY be available for
               other traffic when the working path is operational.

       G.  Operator requests for manual control of protection switching
           such as clear, lockout of protection, forced-switch and
           manual-switch commands MUST be supported.  Prioritized
           protection between Signal Fail (SF), Signal Degradation (SD)
           and operator switch requests MUST be supported.

       H.  MPLS-TP protection mechanisms MUST support priority logic to
           negotiate and accommodate coexisting requests (i.e. multiple
           requests) for protection switching (e.g. "administrative"
           requests and requests due to link/node failures).

       I.  MPLS-TP protection mechanisms MUST support revertive and non-
           revertive behaviour.

       J.  MPLS-TP protection switching mechanisms MUST prevent frequent
           operation of the protection switch due to an intermittent

       K.  MPLS-TP protection mechanisms MUST ensure co-ordination of
           timing of protection switches at multiple layers to avoid
           races and to allow the protection switching mechanism of the
           server layer to fix the problem before switching at the
           MPLS-TP layer.

       L.  MPLS-TP MAY support mechanisms that are optimized for
           specific network topologies (e.g. ring).  These mechanisms
           MUST be interoperable with the mechanisms defined for
           arbitrary topology (mesh) networks.

       M.  If optimised mechanisms for ring topologies are supported
           then they MUST support switching times within 50 ms
           (depending on CV rate configuration) assuming a reference
           network of a 16 node ring with less than 1200 Km of fiber, as
           defined by ITU SG15, Question 9.

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2.9.  QoS requirements

   Carriers require advanced traffic management capabilities to enforce
   and guarantee the QoS parameters of customers' SLAs.

   Quality of service mechanisms are required to ensure:

   48  Support for differentiated services and different traffic types
       with traffic class separation associated with different traffic.

   49  Prioritization of critical services.

   50  Enabling the provisioning and the guarantee of Service Level
       Specifications (SLS), with support for hard and relative end-to-
       end BW guaranteed.

   51  Controlled jitter and delay.

   52  Guarantee of fair access to shared resources in an MPLS-TP

   53  Resources for control and management plane packets so that data
       plane traffic, regardless of the amount, will not cause control
       and management functions to become inoperative.

   54  MPLS-TP MUST support a flexible bandwidth allocation scheme.
       This will provide carriers with the capability to efficiently
       support service demands over the MPLS-TP network.

   [Should we refer here to the requirements specified in RFC 2702?]

2.10.  Security requirements

   For a description of the security threats relevant in the context of
   MPLS and GMPLS and the defensive techniques to combat those threats
   see the Security Framework for MPLS & GMPLS Networks

3.  IANA Considerations

   This document makes no request of IANA.

   Note to RFC Editor: this section may be removed on publication as an

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4.  Security Considerations

   For a description of the security threats relevant in the context of
   MPLS and GMPLS and the defensive techniques to combat those threats
   see the Security Framework for MPLS & GMPLS Networks

5.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank all members of the teams (the Joint
   Working Team, the MPLS Interoperability Design Team in IETF and the
   T-MPLS Ad Hoc Group in ITU-T) involved in the definition and
   specification of MPLS Transport Profile.

   The authors would also like to thank Loa Andersson, Italo Busi, John
   Drake, Neil Harrison, Wataru Imajuku, Julien Meuric, Tom Nadeau,
   Hiroshi Ohta, Tomonori Takeda and Satoshi Ueno for their comments and
   enhancements to the text.

6.  Informative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3031]  Rosen, E., Viswanathan, A., and R. Callon, "Multiprotocol
              Label Switching Architecture", RFC 3031, January 2001.

   [RFC3473]  Berger, L., "Multiprotocol Label Switching Architecture",
              RFC 3473, January 2003.

   [RFC3985]  Bryant, S. and P. Pate, "Pseudo Wire Emulation Edge-to-
              Edge (PWE3) Architecture", RFC 3985, March 2005.

   [RFC4139]  Papadimitriou, D., Drake, J., Ash, J., Farrel, A., and L.
              Ong, "Requirements for Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) Signaling
              Usage and Extensions for Automatically Switched Optical
              Network (ASON)", RFC 4139, July 2005.

   [RFC4258]  Brungard, D., "Requirements for Generalized Multi-Protocol
              Label Switching (GMPLS) Routing for the Automatically
              Switched Optical Network (ASON)", RFC 4258, November 2005.

   [RFC4427]  Mannie, E. and D. Papadimitriou, "Recovery (Protection and
              Restoration) Terminology for Generalized Multi-Protocol
              Label Switching (GMPLS)", RFC 4427, March 2006.

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   [RFC5212]  Shiomoto, K., Papadimitriou, D., Le Roux, JL., Vigoureux,
              M., and D. Brungard, "Requirements for GMPLS-Based Multi-
              Region and Multi-Layer Networks (MRN/MLN)", RFC 5212,
              July 2008.

   [RFC5331]  Aggarwal, R., Rekhter, Y., and E. Rosen, "MPLS Upstream
              Label Assignment and Context-Specific Label Space",
              RFC 5331, August 2008.

              Lam, H., Mansfield, S., and E. Gray, "MPLS TP Network
              Management Requirements", draft-gray-mpls-tp-nm-req-01
              (work in progress), July 2008.

              Vigoureux, M., Ward, D., and M. Betts, "Requirements for
              OAM in MPLS Transport Networks",
              draft-vigoureux-mpls-tp-oam-requirements-00 (work in
              progress), July 2008.

              Fang, L. and M. Behringer, "Security Framework for MPLS
              and GMPLS Networks",
              draft-ietf-mpls-mpls-and-gmpls-security-framework-03 (work
              in progress), July 2008.

              International Telecommunications Union, "High-level
              architecture of future packet-based networks", ITU-
              T Recommendation Y.2611, December 2006.

              International Telecommunications Union, "Principles of
              interworking", ITU-T Recommendation Y.1401, February 2008.

              International Telecommunications Union, "Generic
              functional architecture of transport networks", ITU-
              T Recommendation G.805, March 2000.

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Authors' Addresses

   Ben Niven-Jenkins (editor)
   208 Callisto House, Adastral Park
   Ipswich, Suffolk  IP5 3RE


   Deborah Brungard (editor)
   Rm. D1-3C22 - 200 S. Laurel Ave.
   Middletown, NJ  07748


   Malcolm Betts (editor)
   Nortel Networks
   3500 Carling Avenue
   Ottawa, Ontario  K2H 8E9


   Nurit Sprecher
   Nokia Siemens Networks
   3 Hanagar St. Neve Ne'eman B
   Hod Hasharon,   45241


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Full Copyright Statement

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