Internet Draft                                                   I. Chen
<draft-ietf-ospf-transition-to-ospfv3-04.txt>                   Ericsson
Intended Status: Standards Track                               A. Lindem
Updates: 5838                                                      Cisco
                                                             R. Atkinson
Expires in 6 months                                       April 11, 2016

                  OSPFv3 over IPv4 for IPv6 Transition

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   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.


   This document defines a mechanism to use IPv4 to transport OSPFv3
   packets.  Using OSPFv3 over IPv4 with the existing OSPFv3 Address
   Family extension can simplify transition from an OSPFv2 IPv4-only
   routing domain to an OSPFv3 dual-stack routing domain.  This document
   updates RFC 5838 to support virtual links in the IPv4 unicast address
   family when using OSPFv3 over IPv4.

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Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ....................................................3
   2. Terminology .....................................................4
   3. Encapsulation in IPv4 ...........................................4
      3.1. Source Address .............................................6
      3.2. Destination ................................................6
      3.3. Operation over Virtual Link ................................6
   4. IPv4-only Use Case ..............................................7
   5. Security Considerations .........................................7
   6. IANA Considerations .............................................8
   7. References ......................................................8

1.  Introduction

   Using OSPFv3 [RFC5340] over IPv4 [RFC791] with the existing OSPFv3
   Address Family extension can simplify transition from an IPv4-only
   routing domain to an IPv6 [RFC2460], or dual-stack routing domain.
   Dual-stack routing protocols, such as Border Gateway Protocol
   [RFC4271], have an advantage during the transition, because both IPv4
   and IPv6 address families can be advertised using either IPv4 or
   IPv6. Some IPv4-specific and IPv6-specific routing protocols share
   enough similarities in their protocol packet formats and protocol
   signaling that it is trivial to deploy an initial IPv6 routing domain
   by transporting the routing protocol over IPv4, thereby allowing IPv6
   routing domains to be deployed and tested before decommissioning IPv4
   and moving to an IPv6-only network.

   In the case of the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) interior gateway
   routing protocol (IGP), OSPFv2 [RFC2328] is the IGP deployed over
   IPv4, while OSPFv3 [RFC5340] is the IGP deployed over IPv6.  OSPFv3
   further supports multiple address families [RFC5838], including both
   the IPv6 unicast address family and the IPv4 unicast address family.
   Consequently, it is possible to deploy OSPFv3 over IPv4 without any
   changes to either OSPFv3 or to IPv4.  During the transition to IPv6,
   future OSPF extensions can focus on OSPFv3 and OSPFv2 can move to
   maintenance mode.

   This document specifies how to use IPv4 to transport OSPFv3 packets.
   The mechanism takes advantage of the fact that OSPFv2 and OSPFv3
   share the same IP protocol number, 89.  Additionally, the OSPF packet
   header for both OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 includes the OSPF header version
   (i.e., the field that distinguishes an OSPFv2 packet from an OSPFv3
   packet) in the same location (i.e., the same offset from the start of
   the header).

   If the IPv4 topology and IPv6 topology are not identical, the most
   likely cause is that some parts of the network deployment have not

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   yet been upgraded to support both IPv4 and IPv6.  In situations where
   the IPv4 deployment is a proper superset of the IPv6 deployment, it
   is expected that OSPFv3 packets would be transported over IPv4, until
   the rest of the network deployment is upgraded to support IPv6 in
   addition to IPv4.  In situations where the IPv6 deployment is a
   proper superset of the IPv4 deployment, it is expected that OSPFv3
   would be transported over IPv6.

   Throughout this document, OSPF is used when the text applies to both
   OSPFv2 and OSPFv3.  OSPFv2 or OSPFv3 is used when the text is
   specific to one version of the OSPF protocol.  Similarly, IP is used
   when the text describes either version of the Internet protocol.
   IPv4 or IPv6 is used when the text is specific to a single version of
   the Internet protocol.

2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

3.  Encapsulation in IPv4

   Unlike 6to4 encapsulation [RFC3056] that tunnels IPv6 traffic through
   an IPv4 network, an OSPFv3 packet can be directly encapsulated within
   an IPv4 packet as the payload, without the IPv6 packet header, as
   illustrated in Figure 1.  For OSPFv3 transported over IPv4, the IPv4
   packet has an IPv4 protocol type of 89, denoting that the payload is
   an OSPF packet.  The payload of the IPv4 packet consists of an OSPFv3
   packet, beginning with the OSPF packet header having its OSPF version
   field set to 3.

   An OSPFv3 packet followed by an OSPF link-local signaling (LLS)
   extension data block [RFC5613] encapsulated in an IPv4 packet is
   illustrated in Figure 2.

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 0                   1                   2                   3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  ^
|   4   |  IHL  |Type of Service|          Total Length         |  |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
|         Identification        |Flags|      Fragment Offset    |  |
|  Time to Live | Protocol 89   |         Header Checksum       | IPv4
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ Header
|                       Source Address                          |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
|                    Destination Address                        |  |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
|                    Options                    |    Padding    |  v
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  ^
|       3       |     Type      |         Packet length         |  |
|                         Router ID                             | OSPFv3
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ Header
|                          Area ID                              |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
|          Checksum             |  Instance ID  |      0        |  |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  v
|                        OSPFv3 Body ...                        |

       Figure 1: An IPv4 packet encapsulating an OSPFv3 packet.

                      | IPv4 Header   |
                      | OSPFv3 Header |
                      |               |
                      | OSPFv3 Body   |
                      |               |
                      |               |
                      | LLS Data      |
                      |               |

     Figure 2: The IPv4 packet encapsulating an OSPFv3 packet with
               a trailing OSPF link-local signaling data block.

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3.1.  Source Address

     For OSPFv3 over IPv4, the source address is the primary IPv4
     address for the interface over which the packet is transmitted.
     All OSPFv3 routers on the link MUST share the same IPv4 subnet for
     IPv4 transport to function correctly.

3.2.  Destination Address

     As defined in OSPFv2, the IPv4 destination address of an OSPF
     protocol packet is either an IPv4 multicast address or the IPv4
     unicast address of an OSPFv2 neighbor.  Two well-known link-local
     multicast addresses are assigned to OSPFv2, the AllSPFRouters
     address ( and the AllDRouters address (  The
     multicast address used depends on the OSPF packet type, the OSPF
     interface type, and the OSPF router's role on multi-access

     Thus, for an OSPFv3 over IPv4 packet to be sent to AllSPFRouters,
     the destination address field in the IPv4 packet MUST be
     For an OSPFv3 over IPv4 packet to be sent to AllDRouters, the
     destination address field in the IPv4 packet MUST be

     When an OSPF router sends a unicast OSPF packet over a connected
     interface, the destination of such an IP packet is the address
     assigned to the receiving interface.  Thus, a unicast OSPFv3 packet
     transported in an IPv4 packet would specify the OSPFv3 neighbor's
     IPv4 address as the destination address.

3.3.  Operation over Virtual Links

     When an OSPF router sends an OSPF packet over a virtual link, the
     receiving router is a router that might not be directly connected
     to the sending router.  Thus, the destination IP address of the IP
     packet must be a reachable unicast IP address for the virtual link
     endpoint.  Because IPv6 is the presumed Internet protocol and an
     IPv4 destination is not routable, the OSPFv3 address family
     extension [RFC5838] specifies that only IPv6 address family virtual
     links are supported.

     As illustrated in Figure 1, this document specifies OSPFv3
     transport over IPv4.  As a result, OSPFv3 virtual links can be
     supported with IPv4 address families by simply setting the IPv4
     destination address to a reachable IPv4 unicast address for the
     virtual link endpoint.  Hence, the restriction in Section 2.8 of
     RFC 5838 [RFC5838] is removed.  If IPv4 transport, as specified
     herein, is used for IPv6 address families, virtual links cannot be
     supported. Hence, it is RECOMMENDED to use the IP transport

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     matching the address family in OSPF routing domains requiring
     virtual links.

4.  IPv4-only Use Case

   OSPFv3 only requires IPv6 link-local addresses to form adjacencies,
   and does not require IPv6 global-scope addresses to establish an IPv6
   routing domain.  However, IPv6 over Ethernet [RFC2464] uses a
   different EtherType (0x86dd) from IPv4 (0x0800) and the Address
   Resolution Protocol (ARP) (0x0806) [RFC826] used with IPv4.

   Some existing deployed link-layer equipment only supports IPv4 and
   ARP.  Such equipment contains hardware filters keyed on the EtherType
   field of the Ethernet frame to filter which frames will be accepted
   by that link-layer equipment.  Because IPv6 uses a different
   EtherType, IPv6 framing for OSPFv3 will not work with that equipment.
   In other cases, PPP might be used over a serial interface, but again
   only IPv4 over PPP might be supported over such interface.  It is
   hoped that equipment with such limitations will be eventually
   upgraded or replaced.

   In some locations, especially locations with less communications
   infrastructure, satellite communications (SATCOM) is used to reduce
   deployment costs for data networking.  SATCOM often has lower cost to
   deploy than running new copper or optical cables over long distances
   to connect remote areas.  Also, in a wide range of locations
   including places with good communications infrastructure, Very Small
   Aperture Terminals (VSAT) often are used by banks and retailers to
   connect their branches and stores to a central location.

   Some widely deployed VSAT equipment has either (A) Ethernet
   interfaces that only support Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol
   (ARP) and IPv4, or (B) serial interfaces that only support IPv4 and
   Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) packets.  Such deployments and
   equipment still can deploy and use OSPFv3 over IPv4 today, and then
   later migrate to OSPFv3 over IPv6 after equipment is upgraded or
   replaced.  This can have lower operational costs than running OSPFv2
   and then trying to make a flag-day switch to OSPFv3.  By running
   OSPFv3 over IPv4 now, the eventual transition to dual-stack, and then
   to IPv6-only can be optimized.

5.  Security Considerations

   As described in [RFC4552], OSPFv3 uses IPsec [RFC4301] for
   authentication and confidentiality.  Consequently, an OSPFv3 packet
   transported within an IPv4 packet requires IPsec to provide
   authentication and confidentiality.  Further work such as [ipsecospf]
   would be required to support IPsec protection for OSPFv3 over IPv4

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   An optional OSPFv3 Authentication Trailer [RFC7166] also has been
   defined as an alternative to using IPsec.  The calculation of the
   authentication data in the Authentication Trailer includes the source
   IPv6 address to protect an OSPFv3 router from Man-in-the-Middle
   attacks.  For IPv4 encapsulation as described herein, the IPv4 source
   address should be placed in the first 4 octets of Apad followed by
   the hexadecimal value 0x878FE1F3 repeated (L-4)/4 times, where L is
   the length of hash measured in octets.

   The processing of the optional Authentication Trailer is contained
   entirely within the OSPFv3 protocol.  In other words, each OSPFv3
   router instance is responsible for the authentication, without
   involvement from IPsec or any other IP layer function.  Consequently,
   except for calculation of the Apad value, transporting OSPFv3 packets
   using IPv4 does not change the generation or validation of the
   optional OSPFv3 Authentication Trailer.

6.  IANA Considerations

   No actions are required from IANA as result of the publication of
   this document.

7.  References

7.1.   Normative References

   [RFC791]   Postel, J., "Internet Protocol", STD 5, RFC 791, September

   [RFC2460]  Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
              (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, December 1998.

   [RFC5340]  Coltun, R., Ferguson, D., Moy, J., and A. Lindem, "OSPF
              for IPv6", RFC 5340, July 2008.

   [RFC2328]  Moy, J., "OSPF Version 2", STD54, RFC 2328, April 1998.

   [RFC5838]  Lindem, A., Ed., Mirtorabi, S., Roy, A., Barnes, M., and
              R.  Aggarwal, "Support of Address Families in OSPFv3", RFC
              5838, April 2010.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

7.2.  Informative References

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   [RFC4271]  Rekhter, Y., Ed., Li, T., Ed., and S. Hares, Ed., "A
              Border Gateway Protocol 4 (BGP-4)", RFC 4271, January

   [RFC3056]  Carpenter, B. and K. Moore, "Connection of IPv6 Domains
              via IPv4 Clouds", RFC 3056, February 2001.

   [RFC5613]  Zinin, A., Roy, A., Nguyen, L., Friedman, B., and D.
              Yeung, "OSPF Link-Local Signaling", RFC 5613, August 2009.

   [RFC826]  Plummer, D., "Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol: Or
              Converting Network Protocol Addresses to 48.bit Ethernet
              Address for Transmission on Ethernet Hardware", STD 37,
              RFC 826, November 1982.

   [RFC2464]  Crawford, M., "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Ethernet
              Networks", RFC 2464, December 1998.

   [RFC4552]  Gupta, M. and N. Melam, "Authentication/Confidentiality
              for OSPFv3", RFC 4552, June 2006.

   [RFC4301]  Kent, S. and K. Seo, "Security Architecture for the
              Internet Protocol", RFC 4301, December 2005.

   [RFC7166]  Bhatia, M., Manral, V., and A. Lindem, "Supporting
              Authentication Trailer for OSPFv3", RFC 7166, March 2014.

   [ipsecospf] Gupta, M. and Melam, M, Work in progress, "draft-gupta-
              ospf-ospfv2-sec-01.txt", August 2009.

Authors' Addresses

   I. Chen

   A. Lindem

   R. Atkinson

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