P2PSIP                                                       C. Jennings
Internet-Draft                                                     Cisco
Intended status:  Standards Track                       B. Lowekamp, Ed.
Expires:  April 30, 2009                          SIPeerior Technologies
                                                             E. Rescorla
                                                       Network Resonance
                                                                S. Baset
                                                          H. Schulzrinne
                                                     Columbia University
                                                        October 27, 2008

                         A SIP Usage for RELOAD

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   This document defines a SIP Usage for REsource LOcation And Discovery
   (RELOAD), The SIP Usage provides the functionality of a SIP proxy or
   registrar in a fully-distributed system.  The SIP Usage provides
   lookup service for AoRs stored in the overlay.  The SIP Usage also
   defines GRUUs that allow the registrations to map an AoR to a
   specific node reachable through the overlay.  The Attach method is

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   used to establish a direct connection between nodes through which SIP
   messages are exchanged.

Table of Contents

   1.  Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   3.  Registering AORs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   4.  Looking up an AOR  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   5.  Forming a Direct Connection  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   6.  GRUUs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   7.  SIP-REGISTRATION Kind Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   8.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     8.1.  Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     8.2.  SIP-Specific Issues  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       8.2.1.  Fork Explosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       8.2.2.  Malicious Retargeting  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       8.2.3.  Privacy Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   9.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   10. Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   Appendix A.  Change Log  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     A.1.  Changes since draft-ietf-p2psip-reload-00  . . . . . . . . 11
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 14

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1.  Overview

   The SIP Usage of RELOAD allows SIP user agents to provide a peer-to-
   peer telephony service without the requirement for permanent proxy or
   registration servers.  In such a network, the RELOAD overlay itself
   performs the registration and rendezvous functions ordinarily
   associated with such servers.

   The SIP Usage involves two basic functions:
   Registration:    SIP UAs can use the RELOAD data storage
      functionality to store a mapping from their AOR to their Node-ID
      in the overlay, and to retrieve the Node-ID of other UAs.
   Rendezvous:    Once a SIP UA has identified the Node-ID for an AOR it
      wishes to call, it can use the RELOAD message routing system to
      set up a direct connection which can be used to exchange SIP

   For instance, Bob could register his Node-ID, "1234", under his AOR,
   "sip:bob@dht.example.com".  When Alice wants to call Bob, she queries
   the overlay for "sip:bob@dht.example.com" and gets back Node-ID 1234.
   She then uses the overlay to establish a direct connection with Bob
   and can use that direct connection to perform a standard SIP INVITE.
   The way this works is as follows:

   1.  Bob, operating Node-ID 1234, stores a mapping from his URI to his
       Node-ID in the overlay.  I.e., "sip:bob@dht.example.com -> 1234".
   2.  Alice, operating Node-ID 5678, decides to call Bob. She looks up
       "sip:bob@dht.example.com" in the overlay and retrieves "1234".
   3.  Alice uses the overlay to route an Attach message to Bob's peer.
       Bob responds with his own Attach and they set up a direct
       connection, as shown below.

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   Alice       Peer1      Overlay     PeerN      Bob
   (5678)                                     (1234)
   Attach ->
             Attach ->
                         Attach ->
                                      Attach ->
                                          <- Attach
                                   <- Attach
                      <- Attach
            <- Attach

   <------------------ ICE Checks ----------------->
   INVITE ----------------------------------------->
   <--------------------------------------------- OK
   ACK -------------------------------------------->
   <------------ ICE Checks for media ------------->
   <-------------------- RTP ---------------------->

   It is important to note that RELOAD's only role here is to set up the
   direct connection between Alice and Bob. As soon as the ICE checks
   complete and the connection is established, then ordinary SIP is
   used.  In particular, the establishment of the media channel for the
   phone call happens via the usual SIP mechanisms, and RELOAD is not
   involved.  Media never goes over the overlay.  After the successful
   exchange of SIP messages, call peers run ICE connectivity checks for

   As well as allowing mappings from AORs to Node-IDs, the SIP Usage
   also allows mappings from AORs to other AORs.  For instance, if Bob
   wanted his phone calls temporarily forwarded to Charlie, he could
   store the mapping "sip:bob@dht.example.com ->
   sip:charlie@dht.example.com".  When Alice wants to call Bob, she
   retrieves this mapping and can then fetch Charlie's AOR to retrieve
   his Node-ID.

   The SIP usage allows a RELOAD overlay to be used as a distributed SIP
   registrar/proxy network augmenting the functionality of [RFC3263].
   This entails three primary operations:

   o  Registering one's own AOR with the overlay.
   o  Looking up a given AOR in the overlay.
   o  Forming a direct connection to a given peer.

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2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

   We use the terminology and definitions from Concepts and Terminology
   for Peer to Peer SIP [I-D.ietf-p2psip-concepts] and the RELOAD Base
   Protocol [I-D.ietf-p2psip-base] extensively in this document.

3.  Registering AORs

   In ordinary SIP, a UA registers its AOR and location with a
   registrar.  In RELOAD, this registrar function is provided by the
   overlay as a whole.  To register its location, a RELOAD peer stores a
   SipRegistration structure under its own AOR.  This uses the SIP-
   REGISTRATION Kind-ID, which is formally defined in Section 7.
   Note:  GRUUs are handled via a separate mechanism, as described in
      Section 6.

   As a simple example, if Alice's AOR were "sip:alice@dht.example.com"
   and her Node-ID were "1234", she might store the mapping
   "sip:alice@example.org -> 1234".  This would tell anyone who wanted
   to call Alice to contact node "1234".

   RELOAD peers MAY store two kinds of SIP mappings:

   o  From AORs to destination lists (a single Node-ID is just a trivial
      destination list.)
   o  From AORs to other AORs.

   The meaning of the first kind of mapping is "in order to contact me,
   form a connection with this peer."  The meaning of the second kind of
   mapping is "in order to contact me, dereference this AOR".  This
   allows for forwarding.  For instance, if Alice wants calls to her to
   be forwarded to her secretary, Sam, she might insert the following
   mapping "sip:alice@dht.example.org -> sip:sam@dht.example.org".

   The contents of a SipRegistration structure are as follows:

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          enum {sip_registration_uri (1), sip_registration_route (2),
             (255)} SipRegistrationType;

          select (SipRegistration.type) {
            case sip_registration_uri:
              opaque               uri<0..2^16-1>;

            case sip_registration_route:
              opaque               contact_prefs<0..2^16-1>;
              Destination          destination_list<0..2^16-1>;

            /* This type can be extended */

          } SipRegistrationData;

          struct {
             SipRegistrationType   type;
             uint16                length;
             SipRegistrationData   data;
         } SipRegistration;

   The contents of the SipRegistration PDU are:

      the type of the registration

      the length of the rest of the PDU

      the registration data

   o  If the registration is of type "sip_registration_uri", then the
      contents are an opaque string containing the URI.
   o  If the registration is of type "sip_registration_route", then the
      contents are an opaque string containing the callee's contact
      preferences and a destination list for the peer.

   RELOAD explicitly supports multiple registrations for a single AOR.
   The registrations are stored in a Dictionary with the dictionary keys
   being Node-IDs.  Consider, for instance, the case where Alice has two

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   o  her desk phone (1234)
   o  her cell phone (5678)

   Alice might store the following in the overlay at resource

   o  A SipRegistration of type "sip_registration_route" with dictionary
      key "1234" and value "1234".
   o  A SipRegistration of type "sip_registration_route" with dictionary
      key "5678" and value "5678".

   Note that this structure explicitly allows one Node-ID to forward to
   another Node-ID.  For instance, Alice could set calls to her desk
   phone to ring at her cell phone.  It's not clear that this is useful
   in this case, but may be useful if Alice has two AORs.

   In order to prevent hijacking, registrations are subject to access
   control rules.  Before a Store is permitted, the storing peer MUST
   check that:

   o  The certificate contains a username that is a SIP AOR that hashes
      to the Resource-ID being stored at.
   o  The certificate contains a Node-ID that is the same as the
      dictionary key being stored at.

   Note that these rules permit Alice to forward calls to Bob without
   his permission.  However, they do not permit Alice to forward Bob's
   calls to her.  See Section 8.2.2 for more on this point.

4.  Looking up an AOR

   When a RELOAD user wishes to call another user, starting with a non-
   GRUU AOR, he follows the following procedure.  (GRUUs are discussed
   in Section 6).

   1.  Check to see if the domain part of the AOR matches the domain
       name of an overlay of which he is a member.  If not, then this is
       an external AOR, and he MUST do one of the following:
       *  Fail the call.
       *  Use ordinary SIP procedures.
       *  Attempt to become a member of the overlay indicated by the
          domain part, if that overlay is a RELOAD overlay.)
   2.  Perform a Fetch for kind SIP-REGISTRATION at the Resource-ID
       corresponding to the AOR.  This Fetch SHOULD NOT indicate any
       dictionary keys, which will result in fetching all the stored

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   3.  If any of the results of the Fetch are non-GRUU AORs, then repeat
       step 1 for that AOR.
   4.  Once only GRUUs and destination lists remain, the peer removes
       duplicate destination lists and GRUUs from the list and forms a
       SIP connection to the appropriate peers as described in the
       following sections.  If there are also external AORs, the peer
       follows the appropriate procedure for contacting them as well.

5.  Forming a Direct Connection

   Once the peer has translated the AOR into a set of destination lists,
   it then uses the overlay to route Attach messages to each of those
   peers.  The "application" field MUST be 5060 to indicate SIP.  If
   certificate-based authentication is in use, the responding peer MUST
   present a certificate with a Node-ID matching the terminal entry in
   the route list.  Note that it is possible that the peers already have
   a RELOAD connection between them.  This MUST NOT be used for SIP
   messages.  However, if a SIP connection already exists, that MAY be
   used.  Once the Attach succeeds, the peer sends SIP messages over the
   connection as in normal SIP.

6.  GRUUs

   GRUUs do not require storing data in the Overlay Instance.  Rather,
   they are constructed by embedding a base64-encoded destination list
   in the gr URI parameter of the GRUU.  The base64 encoding is done
   with the alphabet specified in table 1 of RFC 4648 with the exception
   that ~ is used in place of =.  An example GRUU is
   "sip:alice@example.com;gr=MDEyMzQ1Njc4OTAxMjM0NTY3ODk~".  When a peer
   needs to route a message to a GRUU in the same P2P network, it simply
   uses the destination list and connects to that peer.

   Because a GRUU contains a destination list, it MAY have the same
   contents as a destination list stored elsewhere in the resource

   Anonymous GRUUs are done in roughly the same way but require either
   that the enrollment server issue a different Node-ID for each
   anonymous GRUU required or that a destination list be used that
   includes a peer that compresses the destination list to stop the
   Node-ID from being revealed.

7.  SIP-REGISTRATION Kind Definition

   The first mapping is provided using the SIP-REGISTRATION Kind-ID:

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   Kind IDs  The Resource Name for the SIP-REGISTRATION Kind-ID is the
      AOR of the user.  The data stored is a SipRegistrationData, which
      can contain either another URI or a destination list to the peer
      which is acting for the user.

   Data Model  The data model for the SIP-REGISTRATION Kind-ID is
      dictionary.  The dictionary key is the Node-ID of the storing
      peer.  This allows each peer (presumably corresponding to a single
      device) to store a single route mapping.

   Access Control  If certificate-based access control is being used,
      stored data of Kind-ID SIP-REGISTRATION must be signed by a
      certificate which (1) contains user name matching the storing URI
      used as the Resource Name for the Resource-ID and (2) contains a
      Node-ID matching the storing dictionary key.

   Data stored under the SIP-REGISTRATION kind is of type
   SipRegistration.  This comes in two varieties:

      a URI which the user can be reached at.

      a destination list which can be used to reach the user's peer.

8.  Security Considerations

8.1.  Overview

   RELOAD provides a generic storage service, albeit one designed to be
   useful for P2PSIP.  In this section we discuss security issues that
   are likely to be relevant to any usage of RELOAD.  In Section 8.2 we
   describe issues that are specific to SIP.

   In any Overlay Instance, any given user depends on a number of peers
   with which they have no well-defined relationship except that they
   are fellow members of the Overlay Instance.  In practice, these other
   nodes may be friendly, lazy, curious, or outright malicious.  No
   security system can provide complete protection in an environment
   where most nodes are malicious.  The goal of security in RELOAD is to
   provide strong security guarantees of some properties even in the
   face of a large number of malicious nodes and to allow the overlay to
   function correctly in the face of a modest number of malicious nodes.

   P2PSIP deployments require the ability to authenticate both peers and
   resources (users) without the active presence of a trusted entity in

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   the system.  We describe two mechanisms.  The first mechanism is
   based on public key certificates and is suitable for general
   deployments.  The second is an admission control mechanism based on
   an overlay-wide shared symmetric key.

8.2.  SIP-Specific Issues

8.2.1.  Fork Explosion

   Because SIP includes a forking capability (the ability to retarget to
   multiple recipients), fork bombs are a potential DoS concern.
   However, in the SIP usage of RELOAD, fork bombs are a much lower
   concern because the calling party is involved in each retargeting
   event and can therefore directly measure the number of forks and
   throttle at some reasonable number.

8.2.2.  Malicious Retargeting

   Another potential DoS attack is for the owner of an attractive number
   to retarget all calls to some victim.  This attack is difficult to
   ameliorate without requiring the target of a SIP registration to
   authorize all stores.  The overhead of that requirement would be
   excessive and in addition there are good use cases for retargeting to
   a peer without there explicit cooperation.

8.2.3.  Privacy Issues

   All RELOAD SIP registration data is public.  Methods of providing
   location and identity privacy are still being studied.

9.  IANA Considerations

   This section contains the new code points registered by this

   TODO define SIP usage specific kinds, etc here.

10.  Acknowledgments

   This draft is a merge of the "REsource LOcation And Discovery
   (RELOAD)" draft by David A. Bryan, Marcia Zangrilli and Bruce B.
   Lowekamp, the "Address Settlement by Peer to Peer" draft by Cullen
   Jennings, Jonathan Rosenberg, and Eric Rescorla, the "Security
   Extensions for RELOAD" draft by Bruce B. Lowekamp and James Deverick,
   the "A Chord-based DHT for Resource Lookup in P2PSIP" by Marcia
   Zangrilli and David A. Bryan, and the Peer-to-Peer Protocol (P2PP)

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   draft by Salman A. Baset, Henning Schulzrinne, and Marcin

   Thanks to the many people who contributed including:  Michael Chen,
   TODO - fill in.

11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3263]  Rosenberg, J. and H. Schulzrinne, "Session Initiation
              Protocol (SIP): Locating SIP Servers", RFC 3263,
              June 2002.

              Jennings, C., Lowekamp, B., Rescorla, E., Baset, S., and
              H. Schulzrinne, "REsource LOcation And Discovery (RELOAD)
              Base Protocol", draft-ietf-p2psip-base-00 (work in
              progress), October 2008.

11.2.  Informative References

              Bryan, D., Matthews, P., Shim, E., Willis, D., and S.
              Dawkins, "Concepts and Terminology for Peer to Peer SIP",
              draft-ietf-p2psip-concepts-02 (work in progress),
              July 2008.

Appendix A.  Change Log

A.1.  Changes since draft-ietf-p2psip-reload-00

   o  Split SIP Usage from combined draft into new draft.

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Authors' Addresses

   Cullen Jennings
   170 West Tasman Drive
   MS: SJC-21/2
   San Jose, CA  95134

   Phone:  +1 408 421-9990
   Email:  fluffy@cisco.com

   Bruce B. Lowekamp (editor)
   SIPeerior Technologies
   5251-18 John Tyler Highway #330
   Williamsburg, VA  23185

   Email:  bbl@lowekamp.net

   Eric Rescorla
   Network Resonance
   2064 Edgewood Drive
   Palo Alto, CA  94303

   Phone:  +1 650 320-8549
   Email:  ekr@networkresonance.com

   Salman A. Baset
   Columbia University
   1214 Amsterdam Avenue
   New York, NY

   Email:  salman@cs.columbia.edu

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   Henning Schulzrinne
   Columbia University
   1214 Amsterdam Avenue
   New York, NY

   Email:  hgs@cs.columbia.edu

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