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Versions: 00 01                                                         
Network Working Group                                  PIM Working Group
INTERNET DRAFT                                                   Editor,
Expire in six months                                          Liming Wei
                                                   Redback Networks Inc.
                                                           July 14, 2000

                Authenticating PIM version 2 messages

Status of this Memo

     This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance
     with all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

     Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
     Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
     other groups may also distribute working documents as

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     months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other
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     Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as
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This draft specifies the use of IPSEC authentication header [KA98] to
provide protocol message integrity protection and groupwise message
origin authentication.

The text in this draft will be either incorporated into or referenced
by the PIM version 2 protocol specifications.

1. Factors in authenticating PIM messages

Using authentication for PIM messages can protect routers from
unwanted behaviors due to unauthorized or altered PIM messages. The
extent of possible damage depends on the type of counterfeit messages
accepted. When there is a breach in security, those messages that travel
only one hop may affect a small number of routers or multicast groups,
while other multi-hop messages, such as the bootstrap messages, may
affect a larger number of routers. For this reason, sometimes, fine
grained controls uncommon in unicast protocols may be desired for
different PIM message types. The following explains the impact by
these multi-hop messages in more detail.

There are three main cases where a PIM router interacts with other
routers on different subnets. The PIM messages involved are not
changed or processed by routers in between the message originator and

1) The bootstrap router sends authoritative group-to-RP mappings
   to all other routers in the same PIM domain. If PIM routers accept
   bootstrap messages from non-authorized candidate BSRs, it can
   potentially disrupt multicast routing for the entire PIM domain.

2) Candidate RPs sending candidate RP advertisement messages to
   the BSR. The BSR needs to avoid advertising bogus group-to-RP
   mappings, which can lead to unpredictable routing  state.

3) DRs sending Register messages to the RPs. The RPs need to ignore
   register messages from unauthorized PIM sources.

In some networks, it is sufficient to trust all routers equally, and
let them all share the same secret for authentication.  While other
networks may be more sensitive to to the potential impact of a
security breach in the first two cases above, and would want different
mechanisms to restrict the set of routers capable of being a BSR
or RP.

There is a fair number of security machineries from the IETF security
working groups, and we try to adhere to the most stable and widely
used solution. It is expected that the mechanism described in this
note will be able to accommodate newer algorithms and solutions
without redesigning the packet format.

2. Authentication Methods

When security is enabled, all PIM version 2 messages will carry an
IPSEC authentication header (AH) [KA98]. This section specifies two
message authentication methods based on manual key distributions.
More general key management issues are outside of the scope of this
specification. The authentication mechanism MUST support HMAC-MD5-96
[MG98][RFC1321] and HMAC-SHA-1-96 [SHA] security transformations. In
the subsequent text, a key is assumed to be associated with the two
standard transformations, unless explicitly declared otherwise.

2.1 "Equal Opportunity" Method

All routers within the domain use the same key for all PIM
messages. As its name suggests, once a router gained the shared
secret, it gains the ability to conduct any PIM actions. This key is
called the "equal opportunity" key.

This method is simple and effective in preventing unauthorized routers
from participating in protocol actions.

2.2 "Differentiated Capabilities" Method

The most likely PIM routers requiring additional securities are the
candidate bootstrap routers, and the candidate RPs. Such requirements
may be due to administrative needs, e.g. by network design that covers
pseudo-autonomous subdomains, or one that takes advantage of the
security features to manage the evolution.

As in the previous method, all PIM routers in the same domain still
share a single secret (the "equal opportunity" key) that is used to
compute digests for PIM messages. Except, the candidate BSRs and RPs
use two more keys to protect bootstrap and the candidate RP
advertisement messages:

 o All BSRs own an identical RSA [PKCS1] key pair, and uses the
   private key to sign an entire bootstrap message. The other
   routers only have the public key to verify the signature, and be
   assured that the bootstrap message was indeed originated from one
   of the candidate BSRs, and intact. These keys are called the "BSR
   private key" and "BSR public key" respectively.

 o All RPs and BSRs share another symmetric key. No other routers
   have this key. This key is called "the RP key". For candidate RP
   advertisement the digest is only calculated with the RP key,
   instead of the equal opportunity key.

Clearly, this method is more flexible than the previous one, with
the following advantages:

 o Only authorized candidate BSRs can become a bootstrap router;

 o Only the authorized candidate RPs can advertise their candidacy to
   the BSR;

This makes it easier to support very large PIM domains where some PIM
routers may be managed by multiple operators.

3.2 PIM message formats

When security is enabled, all PIM message headers are appended an
authentication header that is identical to the IPSEC Authentication
Header (AH) defined in [KA98]. The IP header contains 51 in its Protocol

The following illustrates how the AH is inserted in a PIM packet:

   |  IP Header  |     AH     | PIM header | PIM payload |

The following AH format is extracted from [KA98].  When generating a
packet, for the purpose of calculating a digest or RSA signature, the
authentication data field is zeroed. When verifying a received packet,
the value in the authentication data field is saved before zeroing.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   | Next Header   |  Payload Len  |          RESERVED             |
   |                 Security Parameters Index (SPI)               |
   |                    Sequence Number Field                      |
   |                                                               |
   +                Authentication Data (variable)                 |
   |                                                               |

             Next Header: 103, the value for PIM protocol.

             Payload len:   4,         when HMAC-MD5-96 or HMAC-SHA-1-96
                                       is used (AH total length is 6 32-bit
                           Variable,   depending on the RSA key length for
                                       bootstrap messages.

                RESERVED: 0 when sent, ignored when received.

                     SPI: Security parameter index.
                          When the differentiated capability method is
                          in use, separate SPIs are needed for the
                          different security associations.

         Sequence Number: Initialized to zero, incremented by one on
                          each subsequent PIM message from the same

     Authentication Data: message digest

The sequence number field in the AH header MUST be filled in with
a non-decreasing 32-bit number, the receivers SHOULD check the
sequence number and reject duplicate or old messages.

When the sequence number wraps around, newer messages may be rejected
because the sequence numbers are smaller. Although it takes extremely
long time to wrap around the sequence number (e.g. if on average 1 PIM
message is sent in every second, it will take 136 years for the
sequence number to wrap around.), to guard against sequence number
wrap-around in abnormal conditions, each staticly configured SPI
SHOULD have one or more rollover SPIs, to be used upon sequence number
wrap around.

4. Security Considerations

The strength of message integrity protection and groupwise message
origin authentication depends on the strength of the underlying
security transformations used. According to [MG98][SHA][PKCS1], to
date, there are no known attacks against these algorithms.

5. Acknowledgements

The ideas in this draft were contributed or instigated by Dino
Farinacci, David Meyer, Dan Harkins, Tony Speakman, Cheryl Madson,
Brian Weis, Achutha Rao and Tom Pusateri. Other members of the PIM
working group also contributed to the discussions and ideas in this

6. References

[KA98]   Kent Stephen, Randall Atkinson, "IP Authentication Header",
         "draft-ietf-ipsec-auth-header-07.txt", July 1998

[RFC1321] R. Rivest, "MD5 Digest Algorithm", RFC1321, April 1992

[MG98]   C. Madson, R. Glenn, "The Use of HMAC-MD5-96 within ESP and AH",
         "draft-ietf-ipsec-auth-hmac-md5-96-03.txt", Feb 1998

[PKCS1]  RSA Laboratories, "PKCS#1: RSA Encryption Standard", Volume1.5,
         No. 1993

[SHA]   C. Madson, R Glenn "The Use of HMAC-SHA-1-96 within ESP and AH",
        "draft-ietf-ipsec-auth-hmac-sha1-96-03.txt", Feb, 1998

6. Editor's address

Liming Wei
Redback Networks, Inc.
350 Holger Way,
San Jose, CA 95134