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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09                                 
PKIX Working Group                                         A. Arsenault
INTERNET DRAFT                                                      DOD
                                                              S. Turner

Expires in six months from                             September 8,1998

                Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure
                            PKIX Roadmap

Status of this Memo

This document is an Internet-Draft.   Internet-Drafts are working
documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas,
and its working groups.  Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts.

Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of 6 months and
may be updated, replaced, or may become obsolete by other documents at
any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as work in progress.

To view the entire list of current Internet-Drafts, please check the
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Copyright (C) The Internet Society (date). All Rights Reserved.


This document provides an overview or 'roadmap' of the work done by the
IETF PKIX working group.  It describes some of the terminology used in
the working group's documents, and the theory behind an X.509-based PKI.
It identifies each document developed by the PKIX working group, and
describes the relationships among the various document.  It also
provides advice to would-be PKIX implementors about some of the issues
discussed at length during PKIX development, in hopes of making it
easier to build implementations that will actually interoperate.

1     INTRODUCTION                                                     2
2     Terminology                                                      3
3     PKIX Theory                                                      3
3.1   Certificate-using Systems and PKIs                               3
3.2   Overview of the PKIX Approach                                    4
3.3   X.509 certificates                                               6
3.4   Functions of a PKI                                               6
3.4.1 Registration                                                     6
3.4.2 Initialization                                                   7
3.4.3 Certification                                                    7
3.4.4 Key Pair Recovery                                                7
3.4.5 Key Generation                                                   7

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3.4.6 Key Update                                                       7
3.4.7 Cross-certification                                              8
3.4.8 Revocation                                                       8
3.4.9 Certificate and Revocation Notice Distribution/Publication      10
3.5   Parts of PKIX                                                   10
3.5.1 Profile                                                         10
3.5.2 Operational Protocols                                           11
3.5.3 Management Protocols                                            11
3.5.4 Policy Outline                                                  11
4     PKIX Documents                                                  11
4.1   Profile                                                         11
4.2   Operational Protocols                                           13
4.3   Management Protocols                                            14
4.4   Policy Outline                                                  15
4.5   DOCUMENT RELATIONSHIPS                                          16
5     Advice to Implementors                                          17
5.1   Names                                                           17
5.1.1 Name Forms                                                      17
5.1.2 Scope of Names                                                  19
5.1.3 Certificate Path Construction                                   19
5.1.4 Name Constraints                                                20
5.1.5 Wildcards in Name Forms                                         20
5.1.6 Name Encoding                                                   21
5.2   POP                                                             21
5.3   Key Usage Bits                                                  21
5.4   Trust Models                                                    23
6     Acknowledgements                                                23
7     References                                                      24
8     Security Considerations                                         25
9     Editor's Address                                                26
10    Disclaimer                                                      26


This document is an informational Internet draft that provides a
"roadmap" to the documents produced by the PKIX working group. It is
intended to provide information; there are no requirements or
specifications in this document.

Section 2 of this document defines key terms used in this document.
Section 3 covers  "PKIX theory"; it explains what the PKIX working
group's basic assumptions were.  Section 4 provides an overview of the
various PKIX documents.  It identifies which documents address which
areas, and describes the relationships among the various documents.
Section 5 contains "Advice to implementors".  Its primary purpose is to
capture some of the major issues discussed by the PKIX working group, as
a way of explaining WHY some of the requirements and specifications say
what they say.  This should cut down on the number of misinterpretations
of the documents, and help developers build interoperable
implementations.  Section 6 contains a list of references.  Section 7
discusses security considerations, and Section 8 provides contact
information for the editors.

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2  Terminology

There are a number of terms used and misused throughout PKI-related
literature. To limit confusion caused by some of those terms, throughout
this document, we will use the following terms in the following ways:

     - Certification Authority (CA) - an authority trusted by one or
       more users to create and assign certificates.  Optionally the
       certification authority may create the users' key'.  (It is
       important to note that the CA is responsible for the certificates
       during their whole lifetime, not just for issuing them.)
     - Certificate policy - a named set of rules that indicates the
       applicability of a certificate to a particular community and/or
       class of application with common security requirements.  For
       example, a particular certificate policy might indicate
       applicability of a type of certificate to the authentication of
       electronic data interchange transaction s for the trading of
       goods within a given price range.
     - Root CA - a CA whose certificate is self-signed; that is, the
       issuer and subject are the same entity.
     - Registration Agent (RA) - an optional entity given responsibility
       for performing some of the administrative tasks necessary in the
       registration of subjects, such as: confirming the subject's
       identity; validating that the subject is entitled to have the
       attributes requested in a certificate; and verifying that the
       subject has possession of the private key associated with the
       public key requested for a certificate.
     - End-entity - a subject of a certificate who is not a CA.
     - Relying party - a user or agent (e.g., a client or server) who
       relies on the data in a certificate in making decisions.
     - Subject - a subject is the entity (CA or end-entity) named in a
       certificate.  Subjects can be human users, computers (as
       represented by DNS names or IP addresses), or even software

3 PKIX Theory

3.1 Certificate-using Systems and PKIs

At the heart of recent efforts to improve Internet security are a group
of security protocols such as S/MIME, TLS, and IPSec.  All of these
protocols rely on public-key cryptography to provide services such as
confidentiality, data integrity, data origin authentication, and
non-repudiation.  The purpose of a PKI is to provide trusted and
efficient key- and certificate management, thus enabling the use of
authentication, non-repudiation, and confidentiality.

Users of public key-based systems must be confident that, any time they
rely on a public key, the associated private key is owned by the subject
with which they are communicating.  (This applies whether an encryption
or digital signature mechanism is used.) This confidence is obtained
through the use of public key certificates, which are data structures
that bind public key values to subjects.  The binding is achieved by
having a trusted CA verify the subject's identity and digitally sign
each certificate.

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A certificate has a limited valid lifetime which is indicated in its
signed contents.  Because a certificate's signature and timeliness can
be independently checked by a certificate-using client, certificates can
be distributed via untrusted communications and server systems, and can
be cached in unsecured storage in certificate-using systems.

Certificates are used in the process of validating signed data.
Specifics vary according to which algorithm is used, but the general
process works as follows:  (note:  there is no specific order in which
the checks listed below must be made; implementors are free to implement
them in the most efficient way for their systems)

     - the recipient of signed data verifies that the claimed identity
       of the user is in accordance wit the identity contained in the
     - the recipient validates that no certificate in the path has been
       revoked (e.g., by retrieving a suitably-current Certificate
       Revocation List (CRL) or querying an on-line certificate status
       responder), and that all certificates were within their validity
       periods at the time the data were signed;
     - the recipient verifies that the data are not claimed to have any
       attributes for which the certificate indicates that the signer is
       not authorized;
     - the recipient verifies that the data have not been altered since
       signing, by using the public key in the certificate.

If all of these checks pass, the recipient can accept that the data were
signed by the purported signer.  The process for keys used for
encryption is similar.

(Note:  it is of course possible that data were signed by someone very
different from the signer, if for example the purported signer's private
key was compromised.  Security depends on all parts of the
certificate-using SYSTEM, including but not limited to: physical
security of the place the computer resides; personnel security (i.e.,
the trustworthiness of the people who actually develop, install, run,
and maintain the system); the security provided by the operating system
on which the private key is used; and the security provided the CA.  A
failure in any one of these areas can cause the entire system security
to fail.  PKIX is limited in scope, however, and only directly addresses
issues related to the operation of the PKI subsystem.  For guidance in
many of the other areas, see [PKIX-4].)

A collection of certificates, with their issuing CA's, subjects, relying
parties, RA's, and repositories, is referred to as a Public Key
Infrastructure, or PKI.

3.2 Overview of the PKIX Approach

PKIX is an effort to develop specifications for a Public Key
Infrastructure for the Internet using X.509 certificates. The PKIX
working group was initially chartered in 1995.  A Public Key
Infrastructure, or PKI, is defined as:

Arsenault & Turner                                              [Page 4]

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The set of hardware, software, people, policies and procedures needed
to create, manage, store, distribute, and revoke certificates based on
public-key cryptography.

A PKI consists five types of components[MISPC]:
     * Certification Authorities (CAs) that issue and revoke
     * Organizational Registration Authorities (ORAs) that vouch for the
       binding between public keys and certificate holder identities and
       other attributes;
     * Certificate holders that are issued certificates and can sign
       digital documents;
     * Clients that validate digital signatures and their certification
       paths from a known public key of a trusted CA;
     * Repositories that store and make available certificates and
       Certificate Revocation Lists (CRLs).

Figure 1 is a simplified view of the architectural model assumed by the
PKIX Working Group.

       | C |                       +------------+
       | e | <-------------------->| End entity |
       | r |       Operational     +------------+
       | t |       transactions          ^
       |   |      and management         |  Management
       | / |       transactions          |  transactions
       |   |                             |                PKI users
       | C |                             v
       | R |       -------------------+--+-----------+----------------
       | L |                          ^              ^
       |   |                          |              |  PKI management
       |   |                          v              |      entities
       | R |                       +------+          |
       | e | <---------------------| RA   | <---+    |
       | p |  Publish certificate  +------+     |    |
       | o |                                    |    |
       | s |                                    |    |
       | I |                                    v    v
       | t |                                +------------+
       | o | <------------------------------|     CA     |
       | r |   Publish certificate          +------------+
       | y |   Publish CRL                         ^
       |   |                                       |
       +---+                        Management     |
                                    transactions   |
                                               |  CA  |
                          Figure 1 - PKI Entities

Arsenault & Turner                                              [Page 5]

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3.3 X.509 certificates

ITU-T X.509 (formerly CCITT X.509) or ISO/IEC/ITU 9594-8, which was
first published in 1988 as part of the X.500 Directory recommendations,
defines a standard certificate format [X.509]. The certificate format in
the 1988 standard is called the version 1 (v1) format.

When X.500 was revised in 1993, two more fields were added, resulting in
the version 2 (v2) format. These two fields may be used to support
directory access control.

The Internet Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM) RFCs, published in 1993,
include specifications for a public key infrastructure based on X.509v1
certificates [RFC 1422].  The experience gained in attempts to deploy
RFC 1422 made it clear that the v1 and v2 certificate formats are
deficient in several respects.  Most importantly, more fields were
needed to carry information which PEM design and implementation
experience has proven necessary.  In response to these new requirements,
ISO/IEC/ITU and ANSI X9 developed the X.509 version 3 (v3) certificate
format.  The v3 format extends the v2 format by adding provision for
additional extension fields.  Particular extension field types may be
specified in standards or may be defined and registered by any
organization or community. In June 1996, standardization of the basic v3
format was completed [X.509].

ISO/IEC/ITU and ANSI X9 have also developed standard extensions for use
in the v3 extensions field [X.509][X9.55].  These extensions can convey
such data as additional subject identification information, key
attribute information, policy information, and certification path
constraints.  However, the ISO/IEC/ITU and ANSI X9 standard extensions
are very broad in their applicability.  In order to develop
interoperable implementations of X.509 v3 systems for Internet use, it
is necessary to specify a profile for use of the X.509 v3 extensions
tailored for the Internet.  It is one goal of PKIX to specify a profile
for Internet WWW, electronic mail, and IPsec applications. Environments
with additional requirements may build on this profile or may replace it.

3.4 Functions of a PKI

This section describes the major functions of a PKI.  In some cases,
PKIs may provide extra functions.

3.4.1 Registration

This is the process whereby a subject first makes itself known to a CA
(directly, or through an RA), prior to that CA issuing a certificate or
certificates for that subject. Registration involves the subject
providing its name (e.g., common name, fully-qualified domain name, IP
address), and other attributes to be put in the certificate, followed
by the CA (possibly with help from the RA) verifying in accordance with
its CPS that the name and other attributes are correct.

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3.4.2 Initialization

Initialization is when the subject - e.g., the user or client system -
gets the values needed to begin communicating with the PKI.  For
example, initialization can involve providing the client system with the
public key and/or certificate of a CA, or generating the client system's
own public/private key pair.

3.4.3 Certification

This is the process in which a CA issues a certificate for a subject's
public key, and returns that certificate to the subject and/or posts
that certificate in a repository.

3.4.4 Key Pair Recovery

In some implementations, key exchange or encryption keys will be
required by local policy to be "backed up", or recoverable in case the
key is lost and access to previously-encrypted information is needed.
Such implementations can include those where the private key exchange
key is stored on a hardware token which can be lost or broken, or when
a private key file is protected by a password which can be forgotten.
Often, a company is concerned about being able to read mail encrypted
by or for a particular employee when that employee is no longer
available because she is ill or no longer works for the company.

In these cases, the user's private key can be backed up by a CA or by a
separate key backup system.  If a user or her employer needs to recover
these backed up key materials, the PKI must provide a system that
permits the recovery WITHOUT providing an unacceptable risk of
compromise of the private key.

3.4.5 Key Generation

Depending on the CA's policy, the private/public key pair can either be
generated by the user in his local environment, or generated by the CA.
In the latter case, the key material may be distributed to the user in
an encrypted file or on a physical token - e.g., a smart card or PCMCIA

3.4.6 Key Update

All key pairs need to be updated regularly, i.e., replaced with a new
key pair, and new certificates issued.  This will happen in two cases:
normally, when a key has passed its maximum usable lifetime; and
exceptionally, when a key has been compromised and must be replaced.

In the normal case, a PKI needs to provide a facility to gracefully
transition from a certificate with an existing key to a new certificate
with a new key.  This is particularly true when the key to be updated is
that of a CA.  Users will know in advance that the key will expire on a
certain date; the PKI, working together with certificate-using
applications, should allow for appropriate keys to work before and after
the transition.  There are a number of ways to do this; see [insert
appropriate reference here] for an example of one.

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In the case of a key compromise, the transition will not be "graceful"
in that there will be an unplanned switch of certificates and keys;
users will not have known in advance what was about to happen.  Still,
the PKI must support the ability to declare that the previous
certificate is now invalid and shall not be used, and to announce the
validity and availability of the new certificate.

Note, however, that the compromise of a private key associated with a
self-signed rootCA certificate is always catastrophic.  That is, once
the rootCA's private signature key has been compromised, there is no way
to reliably convince users and subordinate CA's to accept a new key for
the rootCA.  If the key is compromised, any "update" message telling
subordinates to switch to a new key could have come from an attacker in
possession of the old key, and could point to a new public key for which
the attacker already has the private key.

When a rootCA's private signature key is compromised, the only option is
dismantling the entire infrastructure subordinate to that rootCA and
starting over again from scratch.  It is possible to have anticipated
this event, and "pre-placed" replacement rootCA keys with all relying
parties, but some secure, out-of-band mechanism will have to be used to
tell users to make the switch, and this will only help if the
replacement key has not been compromised.

3.4.7 Cross-certification

A cross-certificate is a certificate issued by one CA to another CA
which contains a public CA key associated with the private CA signature
key used for issuing certificates.  Typically, a cross-certificate is
used to allow client systems/end entities in one administrative domain
to communicate security with client systems/end users in another
administrative domain.  Use of a cross-certificate issued from CA_1 to
CA_2 allows user Alice, who trusts CA_1, to accept a certificate used by
Bob, which was issued by CA_2.  (Note: cross-certificates can also be
issued from one CA to another CA in the same administrative domain, if

Cross-certificates can be issued in only one direction, or in both
directions, between two CA's.  That is, just because CA_1 issues a
cross-certificate for CA_2 does not require CA_2 to issue a
cross-certificate for CA_1.

3.4.8 Revocation

When a certificate is issued, it is expected to be in use for its entire
validity period.  However, various circumstances may cause a certificate
to become invalid prior to the expiration of the validity period. Such
circumstances include change of name, change of association between
subject and CA (e.g., an employee terminates employment with an
organization), and compromise or suspected compromise of the
corresponding private key.  Under such circumstances, the CA needs to
revoke the certificate.

X.509 defines one method of certificate revocation.  This method
involves each CA periodically issuing a signed data structure called a

Arsenault & Turner                                              [Page 8]

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certificate revocation list (CRL).  A CRL is a time stamped list
identifying revoked certificates which is signed by a CA and made freely
available in a public repository.  Each revoked certificate is
identified in a CRL by its certificate serial number. When a
certificate-using system uses a certificate (e.g., for verifying a
remote user's digital signature), that system not only checks the
certificate signature and validity but also acquires a suitably-recent
CRL and checks that the certificate serial number is not on that CRL.
The meaning of "suitably-recent" may vary with local policy, but it
usually means the most recently-issued CRL.  A CA issues a new CRL on a
regular periodic basis (e.g., hourly, daily, or weekly).  CA's may also
issue CRLs aperiodically; e.g., if an important key is deemed
compromised, the CA may issue a new CRL to expedite notification of that
fact, even if the next CRL does not have to be issued for some time.
(A problem of aperiodic CRL issuance is that end-entities may not know
that a new CRL has been issued, and thus may not retrieve it from a

An entry is added to the CRL as part of the next update following
notification of revocation. An entry may be removed from the CRL after
appearing on one regularly scheduled CRL issued beyond the revoked
certificate's validity period.

An advantage of the CRL revocation method is that CRLs may be
distributed by exactly the same means as certificates themselves,
namely, via untrusted communications and server systems.

One limitation of the CRL revocation method, using untrusted
communications and servers, is that the time granularity of revocation
is limited to the CRL issue period.  For example, if a revocation is
reported now, that revocation will not be reliably notified to
certificate-using systems until the next CRL is issued -- this may be up
to one hour, one day, or one week depending on the frequency that the CA
issues CRLs.

As with the X.509 v3 certificate format, in order to facilitate
interoperable implementations from multiple vendors, the X.509 v2 CRL
format needs to be profiled for Internet use.  It is one goal of PKIX to
specify that profile.  However, PKIX does not require CAs to issue CRLs.
Message formats and protocols supporting on-line revocation notification
may be defined in other PKIX specifications.  On-line methods of
revocation notification may be applicable in some environments as an
alternative to the X.509 CRL.

On-line revocation checking may significantly reduce the latency
between a revocation report and the distribution of the information
to relying parties.  Once the CA accepts the report as authentic and
valid, any query to the on-line service will correctly reflect the
certificate validation impacts of the revocation.  However, these
methods impose new security requirements; the certificate validator
must trust the on-line validation service while the repository does not
need to be trusted.

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3.4.9 Certificate and Revocation Notice Distribution/Publication

As alluded to in sections 3.4.3 and 3.4.8 above, the PKI is responsible
for the distribution of certificates and certificate revocation notices
(whether in CRL form or in some other form) in the system.
"Distribution" of certificates includes transmission of the certificate
to its owner, and may also include publication of the certificate in a
repository.  "Distribution" of revocation notices may involve posting
CRLs in a repository, transmitting them to end-entities, and/or
forwarding them to on-line responders.

3.5 Parts of PKIX

This section identifies the four different areas in which the PKIX
working group has developed documents.  The first area involves profiles
of the X.509 v3 certificate standards and the X.509v2 CRL standards for
the Internet.  The second area involves operational protocols, in which
relying parties can obtain information such as certificates or
certificate status.  The third area covers management protocols, in
which different entities in the system exchange information needed for
proper management of the PKI.  The last area provides information about
certificate policies and certificate practice statements, covering the
areas of PKI security not directly addressed in the rest of PKIX.

3.5.1 Profile

An X.509v3 certificate is a very complex data structure.  It consists of
basic information fields, plus a number of optional certificate
extensions.  Many of the fields and numerous extensions can take on a
wide range of options.  This provides an enormous degree of flexibility,
which allows the X.509v3 certificate format to be used with a wide range
of applications in a wide range of environments.  Unfortunately, this
same flexibility makes it extremely difficult to produce independent
implementations that will actually interoperate with one another.  In
order to build an Internet PKI based on X.509v3 certificates, the PKIX
working group had to develop a profile of the X.509v3 specification.

A profile of the X.509v3 specification is a description of the contents
of the certificate and which certificate extensions must be supported,
which extensions may be supported, and which extensions may not be
supported.  [PKIX-1] provides such a profile of X.509v3 for the Internet
PKI.  In addition, [PKIX-1] suggests ranges of values for many of the

[PKIX-1] also provides a profile for Version 2 CRLs for use in the
Internet PKI.  CRLs, like certificates, have a number of optional
extensions.  In order to promote interoperability, it is necessary to
constrain the choices an implementor supports.

In addition to profiling the certificate and CRL formats, it is
necessary to specify particular Object Identifiers (OIDs) for certain
encryption algorithms, because there are a variety of OIDs registered
for some algorithm suites.  Thus, PKIX has produced at least two
documents ([ECDSA] and [KEA]) which provide guidance on the proper
implementation of specific algorithms.

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3.5.2 Operational Protocols

Operational protocols are required to deliver certificates and CRLs
(or other certificate status information) to certificate using systems.
Provision is needed for a variety of different means of certificate and
CRL delivery, including distribution procedures based on LDAP, HTTP,
FTP, and X.500.  Operational protocols supporting these functions are
defined in other [FTP], [OCSP],[LDAP], and [WEB].

3.5.3 Management Protocols

Management protocols are required to support on-line interactions
between PKI user and management entities.  For example, a management
protocol might be used between a CA and a client system with which a
key pair is associated, or between two CAs which cross-certify each
other.  A management protocol can be used to carry user or client
system registration information, or a request for revocation of a

There are two parts to a "management protocol".  The first is the format
of the messages that will be sent, and the second is the actual protocol
that governs the transmission of those messages.  The PKIX working group
has developed two documents ([CRMF] and [CMMF]) that together describe
the necessary set of message, and two other documents ([CMP] and [CMC])
that describe protocols for exchanging those messages.

3.5.4 Policy Outline

As mentioned before, profiling certificates and specifying operational
and management protocols only addresses a part of the problem of
actually developing and implementing a secure PKI. What is also needed
is the development of a certificate policy and certification practice
statement, and then following those documents.  The CP and CPS should
address physical and personnel security, subject identification
requirements, revocation policy, and a number of other topics.  [PKIX-4]
provides a framework for certification practice statements.

4 PKIX Documents

This section describes each of the documents written by the PKIX working
group.  As PKIX progresses, this section will need to be continually
updated to reflect the status of each document (e.g., Proposed Standard,
Draft Standard, Standard, Informational Draft, Informational RFC,
something-that-was-just-thrown-out-for-consideration, etc.)

4.1 Profile

DOCUMENT TITLE: Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate and
CRL Profile <draft-ietf-pkix-ipki-part1-08.txt>

DESCRIPTION:  This document describes the profiles to be used for
X.509v3 certificates and version2 CRLs by Internet PKI participants. The
profiles include the identification of ISO/IEC/ITU and ANSI extensions
which may be useful in the Internet PKI. The profiles are presented in
the 1988 Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) rather than the 1994

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syntax used in the ISO/IEC/ITU standards.  Would-be PKIX implementors
and developers of certificate-using applications should start with
[PKIX-1] to ensure that their systems will be able to interoperate with
other users of the PKI.

[PKIX-1]also includes path validation procedures.  The procedures
presented are based upon the ISO/IEC/ITU definition, but the
presentation assumes one or more self-signed trusted CA certificates.
The procedures are provided as examples only.  Implementations are not
required to use the procedures provided; they may implement whichever
procedures are efficient for their situation.  However, implementations
are required to derive the same results as the example procedures.


DOCUMENT TITLE: Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure:
Representation of Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA)
Keys and Signatures in Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure
Certificates <draft-ietf-pkix-ipki-ecdsa-01.txt>

DESCRIPTION:  This document provides Object Identifiers (OIDs) and other
guidance for IPKI users who use the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature
Algorithm (ECDSA).  It profiles the format and semantics of the
subjectPublicKeyInfo field and the keyUsage extension in X.509 V3
certificates containing ECDSA keys.  This document should be used by
anyone wishing to support ECDSA; others who do not support ECDSA are not
required to comply with it.


DOCUMENT TITLE: Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Representation
of Key Exchange Algorithm (KEA) Keys in Internet X.509 Public Key
Infrastructure Certificates

DESCRIPTION: This document provides Object Identifiers (OIDs) and other
guidance for IPKI users who use the Key Exchange Algorithm (KEA).  It
profiles the format and semantics of the subjectPublicKeyInfo field and
the keyUsage extension in X.509 V3 certificates containing KEA keys.
This document should be used by anyone wishing to support KEA; others
who do not support ECDSA are not required to comply with it.


DOCUMENT TITLE: Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure OPEN CRL
DISTRIBUTION PROCESS (OpenCDP) <draft-ietf-pkix-ocdp-00.txt>

DESCRIPTION:  This document proposes an alternative to the CRL
Distribution Point (CDP) approach documented in [PKIX-1]. OCDP separates
the CRL location function from the process of certificate and CRL
validation, and thus claims some benefits over the CDP approach.


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4.2  Operational Protocols

DOCUMENT TITLE: Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Operational
Protocols - LDAPv2 <draft-ietf-pkix-ipki2opp-07.txt>

DESCRIPTION:  This document describes the use of LDAPv2 as a protocol
for PKI elements to publish and retrieve certificates and CRLs from a
certificate repository.  LDAPv2 [RFC abcd] is a protocol that allows
publishing and retrieving of information.


DOCUMENT TITLE: Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure LDAPv2 Schema

DESCRIPTION:  This document defines a minimal schema necessary to
support the use of LDAPv2 for certificate and CRL retrieval and related
functions for PKIX.  This document supplements [LDAP] by identifying the
PKIX-related attributes that must be present.


DOCUMENT TITLE: X.509 Internet Public Key Infrastructure Online
Certificate Status Protocol - OCSP  <draft-ietf-pkix-ocsp-04.txt>

DESCRIPTION:  This document specifies a protocol useful in determining
the current status of a certificate without the use of CRLs.  A major
complaint about certificate-based systems is the need for a relying
party to retrieve a current CRL as part of the certificate validation
process.  Depending on the size of the CRL, this can cause severe
problems for bandwidth-challenged devices.   Depending on the frequency
of CRL issuance, this can also cause timeliness problems.  (E.g., if
CRLs are only published weekly, with no interim releases, a certificate
could actually have been revoked for just short of one week without it
being on the current CRL, and thus improper use of that certificate
could still be occurring.)

OCSP attempts to address those problems.  It provides a mechanism
whereby a relying party identifies one or more certificates to an
approved OCSP "responder", and the responder sends back the current
status of the certificate(s) - e.g., "revoked", "notRevoked", "unknown".
This can dramatically reduce the bandwidth required to transmit
revocation status - a relying party does not have to retrieve a CRL of
many entries to check the status of one certificate.  It can (although
it is not guaranteed to) improve the timeliness of revocation
notification, and thus reduce the window of opportunity for someone
trying to use a revoked certificate.


DOCUMENT TITLE: Internet Public Key Infrastructure: Caching the Online
Certificate Status Protocol  <draft-ietf-pkix-ocsp-caching-00.txt>

DESCRIPTION:  To improve the degree to which it can scale, OCSP allows
caching of responses - e.g., at intermediary servers, or even at the

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relying party's end system.  This document describes how to support OCSP
caching at intermediary servers.


DOCUMENT TITLE: Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Operational
Protocols: FTP and HTTP <draft-ietf-pkix-opp-ftp-http-04.txt>

DESCRIPTION:  This document describes the use of the File Transfer
Protocol (FTP) and the Hyper-text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) to obtain
certificates and CRLs from PKI repositories.


DOCUMENT TITLE: WEB based Certificate Access Protocol-- WebCAP/1.0

DESCRIPTION: This document specifies a set of methods, headers, and
content-types ancillary to HTTP/1.1 to publish, retrieve X.509
certificates and Certificate Revocation Lists. This protocol also
facilitates determining current status of a digital certificate without
the use of CRLs.  This protocol defines new methods, request and
response bodies, error codes to HTTP/1.1 protocol for securely
publishing, retrieving, and validating certificates across a firewall.


4.3 Management Protocols

DOCUMENT TITLE: Certificate Management Messages over CMS

DESCRIPTION: This document defines the means by which PKI clients and
servers may exchange PKI messages when using S/MIME's Cryptographic
Message Syntax [CMS]as a transaction envelope.  CMC supports message
bodies specified in the Certificate Management Message Formats [CMMF]
and Certificate Request Message Format [CRMF] documents. The purpose of
this specification is to allow the use of an existing protocol (S/MIME)
as a PKI management protocol, rather than requiring the development of a
new, custom protocol for the task.


DOCUMENT TITLE: Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate
Management Message Formats <draft-ietf-pkix-cmmf-02.txt>

DESCRIPTION:  This document contains the formats for a series of
messages important in certificate/PKI management.  These messages let
CA's, RA's, and relying parties communicate with each other.  Note that
this document only specifies message formats; it does not specify a
protocol for transferring messages.  That protocol can be either CMP or
CMC, or perhaps another custom protocol.


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DOCUMENT TITLE: Internet X.509 Certificate Request Message Format

DESCRIPTION:  CRMF specifies a format recommended for use whenever a
relying party is requesting a certificate from a CA or requesting that
an RA help it get a certificate.  This document is distinct from CMMF
for historical reasons - the request message format was needed before
many of the other message formats had to be finalized, and so it was put
into a separate document.  Like CMMF, this document only specifies the
format of a message.  Specification of a protocol to transport that
message is beyond the scope of CRMF.


DOCUMENT TITLE: Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate
Management Protocols <draft-ietf-pkix-ipki3cmp-08.txt>

DESCRIPTION:  This document specifies a new protocol specifically
developed for the purpose of transporting messages like those specified
in CMMF and CRMF among PKI elements.  In general, CMP will be used in
conjunction with CMMF and CRMF, and will then be run over a transfer
service (e.g., S/MIME, HTTP) to provide a complete PKI management


4.4 Policy Outline

DOCUMENT TITLE:  Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate
Policy and Certification Practices Framework

DESCRIPTION: As noted before, the specification and implementation of
certificate profiles, operational protocols, and management protocols
is only part of building a PKI.  Equally as important - if not more
important - is the development and enforcement of a certificate security
policy, and a Certification Practice Statement (CPS).  The purpose of
this document (PKIX-4) is to establish a clear relationship between
certificate policies and(CPSs), and to present a framework to assist the
writers of certificate policies or CPSs with their tasks.  In
particular, the framework identifies the elements that may need to be
considered in formulating a certificate policy or a CPS.  The purpose is
not to define particular certificate policies or CPSs, per se.


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Figure 2 shows graphically the relationships among the PKIX documents.

        Certificate and CRL Profile
   +--- Representation of Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm
   |    (ECDSA)Keys and Signatures in Internet X.509
   |    Public Key Infrastructure Certificates
   +--- Representation of Key Exchange Algorithm (KEA) Keys in
   |    Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificates

Operational Protocols
+---------- Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Operational
|           Protocols - LDAPv2 <draft-ietf-pkix-ipki2opp-07.txt>
|           |
|           +----- Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure LDAPv2
|                  Schema <draft-ietf-pkix-ldapv2-schema-00.txt>
+--+- X.509 Internet Public Key Infrastructure Online Certificate
|  |    Status Protocol - OCSP  <draft-ietf-pkix-ocsp-04.txt>
|  |
|  +-- Internet Public Key Infrastructure: Caching the Online
|      Certificate Status Protocol <draft-ietf-pkix-ocsp-caching-00.txt>
+------- Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Operational
|       Protocols: FTP and HTTP <draft-ietf-pkix-opp-ftp-http-04.txt>
+------- WEB based Certificate Access Protocol-- WebCAP/1.0

Management Protocols
+--- Message Formats
|    |
|    +--- Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate
|    |    Management Message Formats
|    +--- Internet X.509 Certificate Request Message Format
|         <draft-ietf-pkix-crmf-01.txt>
+--- Protocols
     +--- Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate
     |    Management Protocols
     +--- Certificate Management Messages over CMS

Policy Outline
+-- Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate Policy and
    Certification Practices Framework

                      Figure 2:  Document Relationships

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5  Advice to Implementors

This section provides guidance to those who would implement various
parts of the PKIX suite of documents.  The topics discussed in this
section engendered significant discussion in the working group, and
there was at times either widespread disagreement or widespread
misunderstanding of them.  Thus, this discussion is provided to help
readers of the PKIX document set understand these issues, in the hope of
fostering greater interoperability among eventual PKIX implementations.

5.1  Names

PKIX has been referred to as a "name-centric" PKI because the
certificates associate public keys with names of entities.  Each
certificate contains at least one name for the owner of a particular
public key.  The name can be an X.500 distinguished name, contained in
the subjectDN field of the certificate.  There can also be names such as
RFC822 e-mail addresses, DNS domain names, and URIs associated with the
key; these attributes are kept in the subjectAltName extension of the
certificate.  A certificate must contain at least one of these name
forms, it may contain multiple forms if deemed appropriate by the CA
based on the intended usage of the certificate.

5.1.1 Name Forms

There are two possible places to put a name in an X.509v3 certificate.
One is the subject field in the base certificate (often called the
"Distinguished Name" or "DN" field), and the other is in the
subjectAltName extension.  Distinguished Names

According to [PKIX-1], a PKIX certificate must have a non-null value in
the Distinguished Name field, except for an end-entity certificate,
which is permitted to have an empty DN field.  SubjectAltName Forms

In addition to the DN, a PKIX certificate may have one or more values in
the subjectAltName extension.

The subjectAltName extension allows additional identities to be bound to
the subject of the certificate - e.g., it allows "umbc.edu" and
"" to be associated with a particular subject, as well as
"C=US, O=University of Maryland, L=Baltimore, CN=UMBC".  X.509-defined
options for this extension include:  Internet electronic mail addresses;
DNS names; IP addresses;  and uniform resource indentifiers (URIs).
Other options can exist, including locally-defined name forms.

A single subjectAltName extension can include multiple name forms, and
multiple instances of each name form.

Note: whenever such Alternate Name forms are to be bound into a
certificate, the subject alternative name (or issuer alternative name)
extension must be used.  It is technically possible to embed an

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Alternate Name Form in the subject field.  For example, one could make a
DN contain an IP address via a kludge such as "C=US, L=Baltimore,
CN=".  However, this usage is deprecated; the alternative name
extension is the preferred location for finding such information.)

In line with this, if the only subject identity included in a
certificate is an alternative name form, then the subject distinguished
name must be empty (technically, an empty sequence), and the
subjectAltName extension must be present. If the subject field contains
an empty sequence, the subjectAltName extension must be marked critical.

If the subjectAltName extension is present, the sequence must contain at
least one entry.  Unlike the subject field, conforming CAs shall not
issue certificates with subjectAltNames containing empty GeneralName
fields. For example, an rfc822Name is represented as an IA5String. While
an empty string is a valid IA5String, such an rfc822Name is not
permitted by PKIX.  The behavior of clients that encounter such a
certificate when processing a certification path is not defined by this
working group.

Because the subject alternative name is considered to be definitively
bound to the public key, all parts of the subject alternative name must
be verified by the CA. Internet e-mail addresses

When the subjectAltName extension contains an Internet mail address, the
adress is included as an rfc822Name. The format of an rfc822Name is an
"addr-spec" as defined in RFC 822 [RFC 822]. An addr-spec has the form
local-part@domain; it does not have a phrase (such as a common name)
before it, or a comment (text surrounded in parentheses) after it, and
it is not surrounded by "<" and ">". DNS Names

When the subjectAltName extension contains a domain name service label,
the domain name is stored in the dNSName attribute(an IA5String). The
string shall be in the "preferred name syntax," as specified by RFC 1034
[RFC 1034]. Note that while upper and lower case letters are allowed in
domain names, no signifigance is attached to the case.  In addition,
while the string " " is a legal domain name, subjectAltName extensions
with a dNSName " " are not permitted.  Finally, the use of the DNS
representation for Internet mail addresses (wpolk.nist.gov instead of
wpolk@nist.gov) is not permitted; such identities are to be encoded as
rfc822Name. IP addresses

When the subjectAltName extension contains an iPAddress, the address
shall be stored in the octet string in "network byte order," as
specified in RFC 791 [RFC 791]. The least significant bit (LSB) of each
octet is the LSB of the corresponding byte in the network address. For
IP Version 4, as specified in RFC 791, the octet string must contain
exactly four octets.  For IP Version 6, as specified in RFC 1883, the
octet string must contain exactly sixteen octets [RFC1883].

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(is there any guidance about URIs as name forms?)

5.1.2 Scope of Names

The original X.500 work presumed that every subject in the world would
have a globally-unique distinguished name.  Thus, every subject could
be easily located, and there would never be a conflict.  All that would
be needed is a sufficiently-large name space, and rules for constructing
names based on subordination and location.

Obviously, that is not practical in the real world, for a variety of
reasons.  There is no single entity in the world trusted by everybody to
reside at the top of the name space, and there is no way to enforce
uniqueness on names for all entities.  (These were among the reasons for
the failure of PEM to be widely implemented.)

This does not mean, however, that a name-based PKI cannot work.  It is
important to recognize that the scope of names in PKIX is local; they
need to be defined and unique only within their own domain.

Suppose for example that a rootCA is established with DN "O=IETF,
OU=PKIX, CN=PKIX_CA". That CA will then issue certificates for names
subordinate to it.  The only requirement - and this can be enforced
procedurally - is that no two distinct entities beneath this rootCA have
the same name. We can't prevent somebody else in the world from creating
her own CA, called "O=IETF, OU=PKIX, CN=PKIX_CA", and it is not
necessary to do so.  Within the domain of the original rootCA, there
will be no conflict, and the fact that there is another CA of the same
name in some other domain is irrelevant.

This is analogous to the current DNS or IP address situations.  On the
Internet, there is only one node called www.ietf.org.  The fact that
there might be 10 different intranets, each with a host given the DNS
name www.ieft.org, is irrelevant and causes no interoperability problems
- those are different domains.  However, if there were to be another
node on the Internet with domain name www.ietf.org, then there would be
a problem due to name duplication.

The same applies for IP addresses.  As long as only one node on the
Internet responds to the IP address, there is no problem,
despite the fact that there are 100 different corporate Intranets, each
using that same IP address.  However, if two different nodes on the
Internet each responded to the IP address, there would be a

5.1.3 Certificate Path Construction

Path construction - make point that there is no single best way to
construct a path.  Implementors can pick the way that is most efficient
for them.  Discuss some of the issues being hashed out in the "ldap"
discussion on the mail list. If there is ever a resolution, include it
in this section.

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5.1.4 Name Constraints

(Note:  this section still needs a lot of work.)

A question that has arisen a number of times is "how does one enforce
Name constraints when there is more than one name form in a
certificate?"  That is, [PKIX-1] states that:

Subject alternative names may be constrained in the same manner as
subject distinguished names using the name constraints extension as
described in section

What does this mean?  Suppose that there is a CA with DN "O=IETF,
OU=PKIX, CN=PKIX_CA", with the subjectAltName extension having dNSName
"PKIX_CA.IETF.ORG".  Suppose that that CA has issued a certificate with
an empty DN, with subjectAltName extension having dNSName set to
"PKIX_CA.IETF.ORG", and rfc822Name set to Steve@PKIX_CA.IETF.ORG.  The
question is, are name constraints enforced on these two certificates -
is the name of the end-entity certificate considered to be properly
subordinate to the name of the CA?

The answer is "yes".  In deciding whether a name form meets name
constraints, the following rules apply:
     - for DNs:
     - for rfc822Names:
     - for dNSNames:
     - for URIs:
     - for iPaddresses

The general rules are:

If a certificate complies with name constraints in any one of its name
forms, then the certificate is deemed to comply with name constraints.

If a certificate contains a name form that its issuer does not, the
certificate is deemed to comply with name constraints for that name

5.1.5 Wildcards in Name Forms

A "wildcard" in a name form is a placeholder for a set of names;
e.g. "*.mit.edu" meaning "any domain name ending in .mit.edu", and
*@aol.com meaning "email address that uses aol.com".  There are many
people who believe that allowing wildcards in name forms in PKIX
certificates would be a useful thing to do, because it would allow a
single certificate to be used by all members of a group.  These members
would presumably have attributes in common; e.g., access rights to some
set of resources, and so issuance of a certificate with a wildcard for
the group would simplify management.

After much discussion, the PKIX working group decided to permit the use
of wildcards in certificates.  That is, it is permissible for a
PKIX-conformant CA to issue a certificate with a wildcard.  However,
the semantics of subject alternative names that include wildcard

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characters are not addressed by PKIX.  Applications with specific
requirements may use such names but must define the semantics.

5.1.6 Name Encoding

(insert a section on encoding non-ASCII names.  Key points to make:)
     - UTF8 is the long-term goal for IETF, and is mandatory in 2003 and
     - BMPString is presently supported by most vendors
     - Teletexstring containing ISO 8859-1 is also used by many CA's

5.2 POP

     - The importance of PoP
     - PoP for signature keys vs. PoP for key-management keys
     - What the CA/RA has to do
     - Different ways of accomplishing this

5.3 Key Usage Bits

The key usage extension defines the purpose (e.g., encipherment,
signature, certificate signing) of the key contained in the certificate.
This extension is used when a key that could be used for more than one
operation is to be restricted.  For example, when an RSA key should be
used only for signing, the digitalSignature and/or nonRepudiation bits
would be asserted. Likewise, when an RSA key should be used only for key
management, the keyEncipherment bit would be asserted. When used, this
extension should be marked critical.

The eight bits defined for this extension identify seven mechanisms and
one service, namely:
     - digitalSignature
     - nonRepudiation
     - keyEncipherment
     - dataEncipherment
     - keyAgreement
     - keyCertSign
     - cRLSign
     - encipherOnly
     - decipherOnly

According to [PKIX-1], bits in the KeyUsage type are used as follows:

The digitalSignature bit is asserted when the subject public key is used
to verify digital signatures that have purposes other than
non-repudiation, certificate signature, and CRL signature.  For example,
the digitalSignature bit is asserted when the subject public key is used
to provide authentication via the signing of ephemeral data.

The nonRepudiation bit is asserted when the subject public key is used
to verify digital signatures used to provide a non-repudiation service
which protects against the signing entity falsely denying some action,
excluding certificate or CRL signing.

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The keyEncipherment bit is asserted when the subject public key is used
for key transport.  For example, when an RSA key is to be used for key
management, this bit must asserted.

The dataEncipherment bit is asserted when the subject public key is
used for enciphering user data, other than cryptographic keys.

The keyAgreement bit is asserted when the subject public key is used for
key agreement.  For example, when a Diffie-Hellman key is to be used for
key management, this bit must asserted.

The keyCertSign bit is asserted when the subject public key is used for
verifying a signature on certificates.  This bit may only be asserted in
CA certificates.

The cRLSign bit is asserted when the subject public key is used for
verifying a signature on revocation information (e.g., a CRL).

The meaning of the encipherOnly bit is undefined in the absence of the
keyAgreement bit.  When the encipherOnly bit is asserted and the
keyAgreement bit is also set, the subject public key may be used only
for enciphering data while performing key agreement.

The meaning of the decipherOnly bit is undefined in the absence of the
keyAgreement bit.  When the decipherOnly bit is asserted and the
keyAgreement bit is also set, the subject public key may be used only
for deciphering data while performing key agreement.

PKIX does not restrict the combinations of bits that may be set in an
instantiation of the keyUsage extension.

The discussion on the PKIX mailing list has centered on the
digitalSignature bit and the nonRepudiation bit.  The question has come
down to something like:  When support for the service of non-repudiation
is desired, should both the digitalSignature and nonRepudiation bits be
set, or just the nonRepudiation bit?

(It is noted that provision of the service of non-repudiation requires
more than a single bit set in a certificate.  It requires an entire
infrastructure of components to preserve for some period of time the
keys, certificates, revocation status, signed material, etc., as well as
a trusted source of time.  However, the nonRepudiation key usage bit is
provided as an indicator that such keys should not be used as a
component of a system providing a non-repudiation service.)

According to [SIMONETTI], the intent is that the digitalSignature bit
should be set when what is desired is the ability to sign ephemeral
transactions; e.g., for a single session authentication.  These
transactions are "ephemeral" in the sense that they are important only
while they are in existence; after the session is terminated, there is
no long-term record of the digital signature and its properties kept.
When something is intended to be kept for some period of time, the
nonRepudiation bit should be set.  This generally implies that an
application will digitally sign something; thus, some implementors turn
on the digitalSignature bit as well.  Other implementors, however, keep

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the two bits mutually exclusive, to prevent a single key from being used
for both ephemeral and long-term signing.

While [PKIX-1] is silent on this specific issue, the working group's
general conclusion is that a certificate may have either or both bits
set.  If only the nonRepudiation bit is set, the key should not be used
for ephemeral transactions.  If only the digitalSignature bit is set,
the key should not be used for long-term signing.  If both bits are set,
the key may be used for either purpose.

To actually enforce this requires that an application understands
whether it is signing ephemeral transactions or for the long-term.  The
application developers will have to understand the difference, and set
up their checks on the key usage bits field accordingly.  For example,
TLS implementors should check only the digitalSignature bit, and ignore
the nonRepudiation bit.  S/MIME implementors, though, will have a
difficult choice to make, since their application could be used for
either purpose, and they will generally accept signing using keys
associated with certificates having either or both bits being turned on.
Certification Authorities should know what applications they are
providing certificates for, and provide certificates according to the
requirements of those applications.  If CA's are tied into
non-repudiation systems, they may treat certificates differently when
the nonRepudiation bit is turned on (e.g., store information associated
with the certificate - like the user's identification provided during
certificate registration, or certificate generation date/time stamps -
for longer periods of time, in more secure environments).

The bottom line is that this is an area where PKI implementors are
somewhat limited in what they can do.  The onus is on developers of
certificate-using systems to understand their requirements, and request
certificates with the appropriate bits set.

5.4 Trust Models

(This section will describe the various trust models that PKIX can
support.  It is important to note that PKIX is bound to neither a pure
hierarchical model a la PEM, nor a web of trust model a la PGP.  PKIX
can support either of those models, or any flavor in between.  The
implications of different trust models should be described:
     - efficiency of revocation
     - certification path building
     - etc.)

6 Acknowledgements

A lot of the information in this document was taken from the PKIX source
documents; the authors of those deserve the credit for their own words.
Other good material was taken from mail posted to the PKIX working group
mail list (ietf-pkix@imc.org).  Among those with good things to say were
(in alphabetical order, with apologies to anybody I've missed): Sharon
Boeyen, Santosh Chokhani, Warwick Ford, Russ Housley, Steve Kent,
Ambarish Malpani, Michael Myers, Tim Polk, Stefan Santesson,
Dave Simonetti,

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7 References

[CACHE] "Internet Public Key Infrastructure: Caching the Online
Certificate Status Protocol," <draft-ieft-pkix-ocsp-caching-00.txt>

[CMC]  Myers, M., Liu, X., Fox, B., and Weinstein, J., "Certificate
Management Messages over CMS," <draft-ieft-pkix-cmc-00.txt>, March 1998

[CMMF] Adams, C., and Myers, M., "Internet X.509 Public Key
Infrastructure Certificate Management Message Formats,"
<draft-ietf-pkixx-cmmf-02.txt>, July 1998

[CRMF] Myers, M., Adams, C., Solo, D., and Kemp, D., "Internet X.509
Certificate Request Message Format," <draft-ieft-pkix-crmf-01.txt>,
May 1998

[CMP] Adams, C., and Farrell, S., "Internet X.509 Public Key
Infrastructure Certificate Management Protocols,"
<draft-ietf-pkix-ipki3cmp-08.txt>, May 1998

[ECDSA] Bassham, L., Johnson, D., and Polk, W., "Internet x.509 Public
Key Infrastructure:  Representation of Elliptic Curve Digital Signature
Algorithm (ECDSA) Keys and Signatures in Internet X.509 Public Key
Infrastructure Certificates," <draft-ietf-pkix-ipki-ecdsa-01.txt>,
November 1997

[FTP] Housley, R., and Hoffman, P., "Internet X.509 Public Key
Infrastructure Operational Protocols:  FTP and HTTP,"
<draft-ietf-pkix-opp-ftp-http-04.txt>, July 1998

[KEA] Housley, R., and Polk, W., "Internet X.509 Public Key
Infrastructure Representation of Key Exchange Algorithm (KEA) Keys in
Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificates,"
<draft-ietf-pkix-ipki-kea-02.txt>, 5 August 1998.

[LDAP] Boeyen, S., Howes, T., and Richard, P., "Internet X.509 Public
Key Infrastructure Operational Protocols - LDAPv2,"
<draft-ietf-pkix-ipki2opp-07.txt>, March 1998.

[MISPC] Burr, W., Dodson, D., Nazario, N., and Polk, W., "MISPC Minimum
Interoperability Specification for PKI Components, Version 1", September
3, 1997

[OCDP] Hallam-Baker, P., and Ford, W., "Internet X.509 Public Key
Infrastructure Open CRL Distribution Process (OpenCDP),"
<draft-ietf-pkix-ocdp-00.txt>, April 1998

[OCSP] Myers, M., Ankney, R., Malpani, A., Galperin, S., and Adams, C.,
"X.509 Internet Public Key Infrastructure Online Certificate Status
Protocol - OCSP," <draft-ietf-pkix-ocsp-05.txt>, June 1998.

[PKIX-1] Housley, R., Ford, W., Polk, W., and Solo, D., "Internet X.509
Public Key Infrastructure Certificate and CRL Profile,"
<draft-ietf-pkix-ipki-part1-09.txt>, July 28, 1998.

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[PKIX-4] Chokhani, S., and Ford, W., "Internet X.509 Public Key
Infrastructure Certificate Policy and Certification Practices
Framework," <draft-ietf-pkix-ipki-part4-03.txt>; 25 April 1998.

[RFC 791]  Postel, J., "Internet Protocol", September 1981.

[RFC 822] Crocker, D., "Standard for the Format of ARPA Internet Text
Messages", August 1982.

[RFC 1034] Mockapetris, P.V., "Domain names - concepts and facilities",
November 1987.

[RFC 1422] Kent, S.,  "Privacy Enhancement for Internet Electronic
Mail: Part II: Certificate-Based Key Management," February 1993.

[RFC 1777] Yeong, Y., Howes, T., and Kille, S., "Lightweight Directory
Access Protocol", March 1995

[RFC 1883] Deering, S., and Hinden, R., "Internet Protocol, Version 6
[IPv6] Specification", December 1995.

[SCHEMA] Boeyen, S., Howes, T., and Richard, P., "Internet X.509 Public
Key Infrastructure LDAPv2 Schema,"
<draft-ietf-pkix-ldapv2-schema-00.txt>, March 1998

[SIMONETTI] Simonetti, D., "Re: German Key Usage", posting to
ietf-pkix@imc.org mailing list, 12 August 1998

[WEB] Reddy, S., "WEB based Certificate Access Protocol-- WebCAP/1.0,"
<draft-ietf-pkix-webcap-00.txt>, April 19, 1998

[X.509]  ITU-T Recommendation X.509 (1997 E): Information Technology -
Open Systems Interconnection - The Directory: Authentication Framework,
June 1997.

[X9.42]  ANSI X9.42-199x, Public Key Cryptography for The Financial
Services Industry: Agreement of Symmetric Algorithm Keys Using
Diffie-Hellman (Working Draft), December 1997.

[X9.55]  ANSI X9.55-1995, Public Key Cryptography For The Financial
Services Industry: Extensions To Public Key Certificates And Certificate
Revocation Lists, 8 December, 1995.

[X9.57]  ANSI X9.57-199x, Public Key Cryptography For The Financial
Services Industry: Certificate Management (Working Draft), 21 June, 1996.

8 Security Considerations


Arsenault & Turner                                             [Page 25]

INTERNET DRAFT                                            September 1998

9 Editor's Address

Alfred Arsenault
U. S. Department of Defense
9800 Savage Road Suite 6734
Fort George G. Meade, MD 20755-6734
(410) 684-7114

Sean Turner
IECA, Inc.
9010 Edgepark Road
Vienna, VA 22182
(703) 358-9113

10 Disclaimer

This work constitutes the opinion of the editor only, and may not
reflect the opinions or policies of his employer.

Arsenault & Turner                                             [Page 26]