QUIC                                                         D. Schinazi
Internet-Draft                                                Google LLC
Intended status: Standards Track                             E. Rescorla
Expires: 12 January 2023                                         Mozilla
                                                            11 July 2022


                Compatible Version Negotiation for QUIC
                 draft-ietf-quic-version-negotiation-09

Abstract

   QUIC does not provide a complete version negotiation mechanism but
   instead only provides a way for the server to indicate that the
   version the client chose is unacceptable.  This document describes a
   version negotiation mechanism that allows a client and server to
   select a mutually supported version.  Optionally, if the client's
   chosen version and the negotiated version share a compatible first
   flight format, the negotiation can take place without incurring an
   extra round trip.

About This Document

   This note is to be removed before publishing as an RFC.

   The latest revision of this draft can be found at
   https://quicwg.github.io/version-negotiation/draft-ietf-quic-version-
   negotiation.html.  Status information for this document may be found
   at https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/draft-ietf-quic-version-
   negotiation/.

   Discussion of this document takes place on the QUIC Working Group
   mailing list (mailto:quic@ietf.org), which is archived at
   https://mailarchive.ietf.org/arch/browse/quic/.

   Source for this draft and an issue tracker can be found at
   https://github.com/quicwg/version-negotiation.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.




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   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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   provided without warranty as described in the Revised BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.1.  Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.2.  Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Version Negotiation Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.1.  Incompatible Version Negotiation  . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     2.2.  Compatible Versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     2.3.  Compatible Version Negotiation  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     2.4.  Connections and Version Negotiation . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     2.5.  Client Choice of Original Version . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   3.  Version Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   4.  Version Downgrade Prevention  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   5.  Server Deployments of QUIC  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   6.  Application Layer Protocol Considerations . . . . . . . . . .  13
   7.  Considerations for Future Versions  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     7.1.  Interaction with Retry  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     7.2.  Interaction with TLS resumption . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     7.3.  Interaction with 0-RTT  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   8.  Special Handling for QUIC Version 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   9.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     10.1.  QUIC Transport Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     10.2.  QUIC Transport Error Code  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   11. Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17



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1.  Introduction

   The version-invariant properties of QUIC [QUIC-INVARIANTS] define a
   Version Negotiation packet but do not specify how an endpoint reacts
   when it receives one.  QUIC version 1 [QUIC] allows the server to use
   a Version Negotiation packet to indicate that the version the client
   chose is unacceptable, but doesn't allow the client to safely make
   use of that information to create a new connection with a mutually
   supported version.

   With proper safety mechanisms in place, the Version Negotiation
   packet can be part of a mechanism to allow two QUIC implementations
   to negotiate between two totally disjoint versions of QUIC.  This
   document specifies version negotiation using Version Negotiation
   packets, which adds an extra round trip to connection establishment
   if needed.

   It is beneficial to avoid additional round trips whenever possible,
   especially given that most incremental versions are broadly similar
   to the the previous version.  This specification also defines a
   simple version negotiation mechanism which leverages similarities
   between versions and can negotiate between the set of "compatible"
   versions without additional round trips.

1.1.  Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

1.2.  Definitions

   The document uses the following terms:

   *  In the context of a given QUIC connection, the "first flight" of
      packets refers to the set of packets the client creates and sends
      to initiate the connection before it has heard back from the
      server.

   *  In the context of a given QUIC connection, the "client's chosen
      version" is the QUIC version of the connection's first flight.








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   *  The "original version" is the QUIC version of the very first
      packet the client sends to the server.  If version negotiation
      spans multiple connections (see Section 2.4), the original version
      is equal to the client's chosen version of the first QUIC
      connection.

   *  The "negotiated version" is the QUIC version in use on the
      connection once the version negotiation process completes.

   *  The "Maximum Segment Lifetime" (MSL) represents the time a QUIC
      packet can exist in the network.  Implementations can make this
      configurable, and a RECOMMENDED value is one minute.  Note that
      the term "segment" here originated in Section 3.3 of [TCP].

2.  Version Negotiation Mechanism

   This document specifies two means of performing version negotiation:
   one "incompatible" which requires a round trip and is applicable to
   all versions, and one "compatible" that allows saving the round trip
   but only applies when the versions are compatible.

   The client initiates a QUIC connection by choosing an initial version
   and sending a first flight of QUIC packets with a long header to the
   server [QUIC-INVARIANTS].  The client's first flight includes Version
   Information (see Section 3) which will be used to optionally enable
   compatible version negotiation (see Section 2.3), and to prevent
   version downgrade attacks (see Section 4).

   Upon receiving this first flight, the server verifies whether it
   knows how to parse first flights from the original version.  If it
   does not, then it starts incompatible version negotiation, see
   Section 2.1, which causes the client to initiate a new connection
   with a different version.  For instance, if the client initiates a
   connection with version A and the server starts incompatible version
   negotiation and the client then initiates a new connection with
   version B, we say that the first connection's client chosen version
   is A, the second connection's client chosen version is B, and the
   original version for the entire sequence is A.

   If the server can parse the first flight, it can either establish the
   connection using the client's chosen version, or it MAY select any
   other compatible version, as described in Section 2.3.

   Note that it is possible for a server to have the ability to parse
   the first flight of a given version without fully supporting it, in
   the sense that it implements enough of the version's specification to
   parse first flight packets but not enough to fully establish a
   connection using that version.



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2.1.  Incompatible Version Negotiation

   The server starts incompatible version negotiation by sending a
   Version Negotiation packet.  This packet SHALL include each entry
   from the server's set of Offered Versions (see Section 5) in a
   Supported Version field.  The server MAY add reserved versions (as
   defined in Section 6.3 of [QUIC]) in Supported Version fields.

   Clients will ignore a Version Negotiation packet if it contains the
   original version attempted by the client.  The client also ignores a
   Version Negotiation packet that contains incorrect connection ID
   fields; see Section 6 of [QUIC-INVARIANTS].

   Upon receiving the Version Negotiation packet, the client will search
   for a version it supports in the list provided by the server.  If it
   doesn't find one, it aborts the connection attempt.  Otherwise, it
   selects a mutually supported version and sends a new first flight
   with that version - this version is now the negotiated version.

   The new first flight will allow the endpoints to establish a
   connection using the negotiated version.  The handshake of the
   negotiated version will exchange version information (see Section 3)
   required to ensure that version negotiation was genuine, i.e. that no
   attacker injected packets in order to influence the version
   negotiation process, see Section 4.

2.2.  Compatible Versions

   If A and B are two distinct versions of QUIC, A is said to be
   "compatible" with B if it is possible to take a first flight of
   packets from version A and convert it into a first flight of packets
   from version B.  As an example, if versions A and B are absolutely
   equal in their wire image and behavior during the handshake but
   differ after the handshake, then A is compatible with B and B is
   compatible with A.  Note that the conversion of the first flight can
   be lossy: some data such as QUIC version 1 0-RTT packets could be
   ignored during conversion and retransmitted later.

   Version compatibility is not symmetric: it is possible for version A
   to be compatible with version B and for B not to be compatible with
   A.  This could happen for example if version B is a strict superset
   of version A: if version A includes the concept of streams and STREAM
   frames, and version B includes the concepts of streams and tubes
   along with STREAM and TUBE frames, then A would be compatible with B
   but B would not be compatible with A.






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   Note that version compatibility does not mean that every single
   possible instance of a first flight will succeed in conversion to the
   other version.  A first flight using version A is said to be
   "compatible" with version B if two conditions are met: first that
   version A is compatible with version B, and second that the
   conversion of this first flight to version B is well-defined.  For
   example, if version B is equal to A in all aspects except it
   introduced a new frame in its first flight that version A cannot
   parse or even ignore, then B could still be compatible with A as
   conversions would succeed for connections where that frame is not
   used.  In this example, first flights using version B that carry this
   new frame would not be compatible with version A.

   When a new version of QUIC is defined, it is assumed to not be
   compatible with any other version unless otherwise specified.
   Similarly, no other version is compatible with the new version unless
   otherwise specified.  Implementations MUST NOT assume compatibility
   between versions unless explicitly specified.

   Note that both endpoints might disagree on whether two versions are
   compatible or not.  For example, two versions could have been defined
   concurrently and then specified as compatible in a third document
   much later - in that scenario one endpoint might be aware of the
   compatibility document while the other may not.

2.3.  Compatible Version Negotiation

   When the server can parse the client's first flight using the
   client's chosen version, it can extract the client's Version
   Information structure (see Section 3).  This contains the list of
   versions that the client knows its first flight is compatible with.

   In order to perform compatible version negotiation, the server MUST
   select one of these versions that (1) it supports and (2) it knows
   the client's chosen version to be compatible with.  This selected
   version is now the negotiated version.  After selecting it, the
   server attempts to convert the client's first flight into that
   version, and replies to the client as if it had received the
   converted first flight.

   If those formats are identical, as in cases where the negotiated
   version is the same as the client's chosen version, then this will be
   the identity transform.  If the first flight is correctly formatted,
   then this conversion process cannot fail by definition of the first
   flight being compatible; if the server is unable to convert the first
   flight, it MUST abort the handshake.





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   If a document specifies that a QUIC version is compatible with
   another, that document MUST specify the mechanism by which clients
   are made aware of the negotiated version.  An example of such a
   mechanism is to have the client determine the server's negotiated
   version by examining the QUIC long header Version field.  Note that,
   in this example mechanism, it is possible for the server to initially
   send packets with the client's chosen version before switching to the
   negotiated version (this can happen when the client's Version
   Information structure spans multiple packets; in that case the server
   might acknowledge the first packet in the client's chosen version and
   later switch to a different negotiated version).  Any set of mutually
   compatible versions SHOULD use the same mechanism.

   Note that, after the first flight is converted to the negotiated
   version, the handshake completes in the negotiated version.  The
   entire handshake (including the converted first flight) needs to
   conform to the rules of the negotiated version.  For instance, if the
   negotiated version requires that the 5-tuple remain stable for the
   entire handshake (as QUIC version 1 does), then this applies to the
   entire handshake, including the first flight.

   Note also that the client can disable compatible version negotiation
   by only including the Chosen Version in the Other Versions field of
   the Version Information transport parameter.

   If the server does not find a compatible version (including the
   client's chosen version), it will perform incompatible version
   negotiation instead, see Section 2.1.

   Note that it is possible to have incompatible version negotiation
   followed by compatible version negotiation.  For instance, if version
   A is compatible with B and C is compatible with D, the following
   scenario could occur:

   Client                                          Server

   Chosen = A, Other Versions = (A, B) ----------------->
   <------------------------ Version Negotiation = (D, C)

   Chosen = C, Other Versions = (C, D) ----------------->
   <----------------- Chosen = D, Other Versions = (D, C)

                   Figure 1: Combined Negotiation Example

   In this example, the client selected C from the server's Version
   Negotiation packet, but the server preferred D and then selected it
   from the client's offer.




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2.4.  Connections and Version Negotiation

   QUIC connections are shared state between a client and a server
   [QUIC-INVARIANTS].  The compatible version negotiation mechanism
   defined in this document (see Section 2.3) is performed as part of a
   single QUIC connection; that is, the packets with the client's chosen
   version are part of the same connection as the packets with the
   negotiated version.

   In comparison, the incompatible version negotiation mechanism, which
   leverages QUIC Version Negotiation packets (see Section 2.1)
   conceptually operates across two QUIC connections: the connection
   attempt prior to receiving the Version Negotiation packet is distinct
   from the connection with the incompatible version that follows.

   Note that this separation across two connections is conceptual: it
   applies to normative requirements on QUIC connections, but does not
   require implementations to internally use two distinct connection
   objects.

2.5.  Client Choice of Original Version

   When the client picks its original version, it will try to avoid
   incompatible version negotiation to save a round trip.  Therefore,
   the client SHOULD pick an original version to maximize the combined
   probability that both:

   *  The server knows how to parse first flights from the original
      version.

   *  The original version is compatible with the client's preferred
      version.

   Without additional information, this could mean selecting the oldest
   version that the client supports, while advertising newer compatible
   versions in the client's first flight.

3.  Version Information

   During the handshake, endpoints will exchange Version Information,
   which consists of a chosen version and a list of other versions.  Any
   version of QUIC that supports this mechanism MUST provide a mechanism
   to exchange Version Information in both directions during the
   handshake, such that this data is authenticated.







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   In QUIC version 1, the Version Information is transmitted using a new
   transport parameter, version_information.  The contents of Version
   Information are shown below (using the notation from the "Notational
   Conventions" section of [QUIC]):

   Version Information {
     Chosen Version (32),
     Other Versions (32) ...,
   }

                    Figure 2: Version Information Format

   The content of each field is described below:

   Chosen Version:  The version that the sender has chosen to use for
      this connection.  In most cases, this field will be equal to the
      value of the Version field in the long header that carries this
      data; however future versions or extensions can choose to set
      different values in the long header Version field.

   The contents of the Other Versions field depends on whether it is
   sent by the client or by the server.

   Client-Sent Other Versions:  When sent by a client, the Other
      Versions field lists all the versions that this first flight is
      compatible with, ordered by descending preference.  Note that the
      version in the Chosen Version field MUST be included in this list
      to allow the client to communicate the chosen version's
      preference.  Note that this preference is only advisory, servers
      MAY choose to use their own preference instead.
   Server-Sent Other Versions:  When sent by a server, the Other
      Versions field lists all the Fully-Deployed Versions of this
      server deployment, see Section 5.  Note that the version in the
      Chosen Version field is not necessarily included in this list,
      because the server operator could be in the process of removing
      support for this version.  For the same reason, the Other Versions
      field MAY be empty.

   Clients and servers MAY both include versions following the pattern
   0x?a?a?a?a in their Other Versions list.  Those versions are reserved
   to exercise version negotiation (see the Versions section of [QUIC]),
   and will never be selected when choosing a version to use.









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4.  Version Downgrade Prevention

   Clients MUST ignore any received Version Negotiation packets that
   contain the version that they initially attempted.  A client that
   makes a connection attempt based on information received from a
   Version Negotiation packet MUST ignore any Version Negotiation
   packets it receives in response to that connection attempt.

   Both endpoints MUST parse their peer's Version Information during the
   handshake.  If parsing the Version Information failed (for example,
   if it is too short or if its length is not divisible by four), then
   the endpoint MUST close the connection; if the connection was using
   QUIC version 1, that connection closure MUST use a transport error of
   type TRANSPORT_PARAMETER_ERROR.  If an endpoint receives a Chosen
   Version equal to zero, or any Other Version equal to zero, it MUST
   treat it as a parsing failure.

   Every QUIC version that supports version negotiation MUST define a
   method for closing the connection with a version negotiation error.
   For QUIC version 1, version negotiation errors are signaled using a
   transport error of type VERSION_NEGOTIATION_ERROR; see Section 10.2.

   If the Version Information was missing, the endpoints MAY complete
   the handshake.  However, if a client has reacted to a Version
   Negotiation packet and the Version Information was missing, the
   client MUST close the connection with a version negotiation error.

   If the client received and acted on a Version Negotiation packet, the
   client MUST validate the server's Other Versions field.  The Other
   Versions field is validated by confirming that the client would have
   attempted the same version with knowledge of the versions the server
   supports.  That is, the client would have selected the same version
   if it received a Version Negotiation packet that listed the versions
   in the server's Other Versions field, plus the negotiated version.
   If the client would have selected a different version, the client
   MUST close the connection with a version negotiation error.  In
   particular, if the client reacted to a Version Negotiation packet and
   the server's Other Versions field is empty, the client MUST close the
   connection with a version negotiation error.  These connection
   closures prevent an attacker from being able to use forged Version
   Negotiation packets to force a version downgrade.

   This validation of Other Versions is not sufficient to prevent
   downgrade.  Downgrade prevention also depends on the client ignoring
   Version Negotiation packets that contain the original version; see
   Section 2.1.





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   After the process of version negotiation in this document completes,
   the version in use for the connection is the version that the server
   sent in the Chosen Version field of its Version Information.  That
   remains true even if other versions were used in the Version field of
   long headers at any point in the lifetime of the connection.  In
   particular, since during compatible version negotiation the client is
   made aware of the negotiated version by the QUIC long header version
   (see Section 2.3), clients MUST validate that the server's Chosen
   Version is equal to the negotiated version; if they do not match, the
   client MUST close the connection with a version negotiation error.
   This prevents an attacker's ability to influence version negotiation
   by forging the Version long header field.

5.  Server Deployments of QUIC

   While this document mainly discusses a single QUIC server, it is
   common for deployments of QUIC servers to include a fleet of multiple
   server instances.  We therefore define the following terms:

   Acceptable Versions:  This is the set of versions supported by a
      given server instance.  More specifically, these are the versions
      that a given server instance will use if a client sends a first
      flight using them.
   Offered Versions:  This is the set of versions that a given server
      instance will send in a Version Negotiation packet if it receives
      a first flight from an unknown version.  This set will most often
      be equal to the Acceptable Versions set, except during short
      transitions while versions are added or removed (see below).
   Fully-Deployed Versions:  This is the set of QUIC versions that is
      supported and negotiated by every single QUIC server instance in
      this deployment.  If a deployment only contains a single server
      instance, then this set is equal to the Offered Versions set,
      except during short transitions while versions are added or
      removed (see below).

   If a deployment contains multiple server instances, software updates
   may not happen at exactly the same time on all server instances.
   Because of this, a client might receive a Version Negotiation packet
   from a server instance that has already been updated and the client's
   resulting connection attempt might reach a different server instance
   which hasn't been updated yet.

   However, even when there is only a single server instance, it is
   still possible to receive a stale Version Negotiation packet if the
   server performs its software update while the Version Negotiation
   packet is in flight.





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   This could cause the version downgrade prevention mechanism described
   in Section 4 to falsely detect a downgrade attack.  To avoid that,
   server operators SHOULD perform a three-step process when they wish
   to add or remove support for a version:

   When adding support for a new version:

   *  The first step is to progressively add support for the new version
      to all server instances.  This step updates the Acceptable
      Versions but not the Offered Versions nor the Fully-Deployed
      Versions.  Once all server instances have been updated, operators
      wait for at least one MSL to allow any in-flight Version
      Negotiation packets to arrive.

   *  Then, the second step is to progressively add the new version to
      Offered Versions on all server instances.  Once complete,
      operators wait for at least another MSL.

   *  Finally, the third step is to progressively add the new version to
      Fully-Deployed Versions on all server instances.

   When removing support for a version:

   *  The first step is to progressively remove the version from Fully-
      Deployed Versions on all server instances.  Once it has been
      removed on all server instances, operators wait for at least one
      MSL to allow any in-flight Version Negotiation packets to arrive.

   *  Then, the second step is to progressively remove the version from
      Offered Versions on all server instances.  Once complete,
      operators wait for at least another MSL.

   *  Finally, the third step is to progressively remove support for the
      version from all server instances.  That step updates the
      Acceptable Versions.

   Note that this opens connections to version downgrades (but only for
   partially-deployed versions) during the update window, since those
   could be due to clients communicating with both updated and non-
   updated server instances.











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6.  Application Layer Protocol Considerations

   When a client creates a QUIC connection, its goal is to use an
   application layer protocol.  Therefore, when considering which
   versions are compatible, clients will only consider versions that
   support one of the intended application layer protocols.  If the
   client's first flight advertises multiple Application Layer Protocol
   Negotiation (ALPN) [ALPN] tokens and multiple compatible versions, it
   is possible for some application layer protocols to not be able to
   run over some of the offered compatible versions.  It is the server's
   responsibility to only select an ALPN token that can run over the
   compatible QUIC version that it selects.

   A given ALPN token MUST NOT be used with a new QUIC version different
   from the version for which the ALPN token was originally defined,
   unless all the following requirements are met:

   *  The new QUIC version supports the transport features required by
      the application protocol.

   *  The new QUIC version supports ALPN.

   *  The version of QUIC for which the ALPN token was originally
      defined is compatible with the new QUIC version.

   When incompatible version negotiation is in use, the second
   connection which is created in response to the received version
   negotiation packet MUST restart its application layer protocol
   negotiation process without taking into account the original version.

7.  Considerations for Future Versions

   In order to facilitate the deployment of future versions of QUIC,
   designers of future versions SHOULD attempt to design their new
   version such that commonly deployed versions are compatible with it.

   QUIC version 1 defines multiple features which are not documented in
   the QUIC invariants.  Since at the time of writing QUIC version 1 is
   widely deployed, this section discusses considerations for future
   versions to help with compatibility with QUIC version 1.











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7.1.  Interaction with Retry

   QUIC version 1 features Retry packets, which the server can send to
   validate the client's IP address before parsing the client's first
   flight.  A server that sends a Retry packet can do so before parsing
   the client's first flight.  A server that sends a Retry packet
   therefore might not have processed the client's Version Information
   before doing so.

   If a future document wishes to define compatibility between two
   versions that support retry, that document MUST specify how version
   negotiation (both compatible and incompatible) interacts with retry
   during a handshake that requires both.  For example, that could be
   accomplished by having the server send a Retry packet in the original
   version first thereby validating the client's IP address before
   attempting compatible version negotiation.  If both versions support
   authenticating Retry packets, the compatibility definition needs to
   define how to authenticate the Retry in the negotiated version
   handshake even though the Retry itself was sent using the client's
   chosen version.

7.2.  Interaction with TLS resumption

   QUIC version 1 uses TLS 1.3, which supports session resumption by
   sending session tickets in one connection that can be used in a later
   connection; see Section 2.2 of [TLS].  New versions that also use TLS
   1.3 SHOULD mandate that their session tickets are tightly scoped to
   one version of QUIC; i.e., require that clients not use them across
   multiple version and that servers validate this client requirement.

7.3.  Interaction with 0-RTT

   QUIC version 1 allows sending data from the client to the server
   during the handshake, by using 0-RTT packets.  If a future document
   wishes to define compatibility between two versions that support
   0-RTT, that document MUST address the scenario where there are 0-RTT
   packets in the client's first flight.  For example, this could be
   accomplished by defining which transformations are applied to 0-RTT
   packets.  That document could specify that compatible version
   negotiation causes 0-RTT data to be rejected by the server.











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8.  Special Handling for QUIC Version 1

   Because QUIC version 1 was the only IETF Standards Track version of
   QUIC published before this document, it is handled specially as
   follows: if a client is starting a QUIC version 1 connection in
   response to a received Version Negotiation packet, and the
   version_information transport parameter is missing from the server's
   transport parameters, then the client SHALL proceed as if the
   server's transport parameters contained a version_information
   transport parameter with a Chosen Version set to 0x00000001 and an
   Other Version list containing exactly one version set to 0x00000001.
   This allows version negotiation to work with servers that only
   support QUIC version 1.  Note that implementations which wish to use
   version negotiation to negotiate versions other than QUIC version 1
   will need to implement the version negotiation mechanism defined in
   this document.

9.  Security Considerations

   The security of this version negotiation mechanism relies on the
   authenticity of the Version Information exchanged during the
   handshake.  In QUIC version 1, transport parameters are authenticated
   ensuring the security of this mechanism.  Negotiation between
   compatible versions will have the security of the weakest common
   version.

   The requirement that versions not be assumed compatible mitigates the
   possibility of cross-protocol attacks, but more analysis is still
   needed here.

10.  IANA Considerations

10.1.  QUIC Transport Parameter

   This document registers a new value in the "QUIC Transport
   Parameters" registry maintained at <https://www.iana.org/assignments/
   quic>.

   Value:  0xFF73DB
   Parameter Name:  version_information
   Status:  provisional
   Specification:  This document

   When this document is approved, it will request permanent allocation
   of a codepoint in the 0-63 range to replace the provisional codepoint
   described above.





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10.2.  QUIC Transport Error Code

   This document registers a new value in the "QUIC Transport Error
   Codes" registry maintained at <https://www.iana.org/assignments/
   quic>.

   Value:  0x53F8
   Code:  VERSION_NEGOTIATION_ERROR
   Description:  Error negotiating version
   Status:  provisional
   Specification:  This document

   When this document is approved, it will request permanent allocation
   of a codepoint in the 0-63 range to replace the provisional codepoint
   described above.

11.  Normative References

   [ALPN]     Friedl, S., Popov, A., Langley, A., and E. Stephan,
              "Transport Layer Security (TLS) Application-Layer Protocol
              Negotiation Extension", RFC 7301, DOI 10.17487/RFC7301,
              July 2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc7301>.

   [QUIC]     Iyengar, J., Ed. and M. Thomson, Ed., "QUIC: A UDP-Based
              Multiplexed and Secure Transport", RFC 9000,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC9000, May 2021,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc9000>.

   [QUIC-INVARIANTS]
              Thomson, M., "Version-Independent Properties of QUIC",
              RFC 8999, DOI 10.17487/RFC8999, May 2021,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8999>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2119>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8174>.

   [TCP]      Postel, J., "Transmission Control Protocol", STD 7,
              RFC 793, DOI 10.17487/RFC0793, September 1981,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc793>.






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   [TLS]      Rescorla, E., "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol
              Version 1.3", RFC 8446, DOI 10.17487/RFC8446, August 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8446>.

Acknowledgments

   The authors would like to thank Nick Banks, Mike Bishop, Ryan
   Hamilton, Roberto Peon, Anthony Rossi, and Martin Thomson for their
   input and contributions.

Authors' Addresses

   David Schinazi
   Google LLC
   1600 Amphitheatre Parkway
   Mountain View, CA 94043
   United States of America
   Email: dschinazi.ietf@gmail.com


   Eric Rescorla
   Mozilla
   Email: ekr@rtfm.com




























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