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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 rfc2769                   Standards Track
Internet Draft                                       Curtis Villamizar
Expires  June 23, 2000                                   Avici Systems
draft-ietf-rps-dist-06.txt                         Cengiz Alaettinoglu
                                                                   ISI
                                                       Ramesh Govindan
                                                                   ISI
                                                        David M. Meyer
                                                                 Cisco
                                                     December 23, 1999


                   Routing Policy System Replication





Status of this Memo


This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with all
provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task
Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that other
groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts.

Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet- Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as ``work in progress.''

The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt

The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

Copyright (C) The Internet Society (December 23, 1999).  All Rights
Reserved.

The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119.


Internet Draft    Routing Policy System Replication  December 23, 1999

Abstract


The RIPE database specifications and RPSL define languages used as
the basis for representing information in a routing policy system.
A repository for routing policy system information is known as a
routing registry.  A routing registry provides a means of exchanging
information needed to address many issues of importance to the
operation of the Internet.  The implementation and deployment of a
routing policy system must maintain some degree of integrity to be
of any use.  The Routing Policy System Security RFC [3] addresses the
need to assure integrity of the data by proposing an authentication
and authorization model.  This document addresses the need to
distribute data over multiple repositories and delegate authority
for data subsets to other repositories without compromising the
authorization model established in Routing Policy System Security
RFC.




































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Internet Draft    Routing Policy System Replication  December 23, 1999

Contents


1  Overview                                                          5


2  Data Representation                                               6



3  Authentication and Authorization                                  7


4  Repository Hierarchy                                              8


5  Additions to RPSL                                                 8

   5.1  repository object . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .  9

   5.2  delegated attribute .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . 11

   5.3  integrity attribute .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . 12


6  Interactions with a Repository or Mirror                         13

   6.1  Initial Transaction Submission. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . 14

   6.2  Redistribution of Transactions. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . 14

   6.3  Transaction Commit and Confirmation . .. . . . . .. . . . . 14


7  Data Format Summaries, Transaction Encapsulation and Processing  15

   7.1  Transaction Submit and Confirm. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . 15

   7.2  Redistribution of Transactions. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . 18

   7.3  Redistribution Protocol Description . .. . . . . .. . . . . 18

        7.3.1 Explicitly Requesting Transactions . . . . .. . . . . 22

        7.3.2 Heartbeat Processing . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . 24

   7.4  Transaction Commit  .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . 24

   7.5  Database Snapshot . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . 25

   7.6  Authenticating Operations  . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . 27


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A  Examples                                                         28

   A.1  Initial Object Submission and Redistribution . . .. . . . . 28

   A.2  Transaction Redistribution Encoding . .. . . . . .. . . . . 30

   A.3  Transaction Protocol Encoding . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . 32

   A.4  Transaction Redistribution . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . 33


B  Technical Discussion                                             33

   B.1  Server Processing . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . 33

        B.1.1 getting connected  . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . 34

        B.1.2 rolling transaction logs forward and back  .. . . . . 35

        B.1.3 committing or disposing of transactions  . .. . . . . 36

        B.1.4 dealing with concurrency. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . 36

   B.2  Repository Mirroring for Redundancy . .. . . . . .. . . . . 36

   B.3  Trust Relationships .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . 37

   B.4  A Router as a Minimal Mirror .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . 38

   B.5  Dealing with Errors .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . 39


C  Deployment Considerations                                        39



D  Privacy of Contact Information                                   39
















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1  Overview


A routing registry must maintain some degree of integrity to be of any
use.  The IRR is increasingly used for purposes that have a stronger
requirement for data integrity and security.  There is also a desire
to further decentralize the IRR. This document proposes a means of
decentralizing the routing registry in a way that is consistent with
the usage of the IRR and which avoids compromising data integrity and
security even if the IRR is distributed among less trusted
repositories.

Two methods of authenticating the routing registry information have
been proposed.



authorization and authentication checks on transactions:  The
   integrity of the routing registry data is insured by repeating
   authorization checks as transactions are processed.  As
   transactions are flooded each remote registry has the option to
   repeat the authorization and authentication checks.  This scales
   with the total number of changes to the registry regardless of
   how many registries exist.  When querying, the integrity of the
   repository must be such that it can be trusted.  If an organization
   is unwilling to trust any of the available repositories or
   mirrors they have the option to run their own mirror and repeat
   authorization checks at that mirror site.  Queries can then
   be directed to a mirror under their own administration which
   presumably can be trusted.

signing routing registry objects:  An alternate which appears on
   the surface to be attractive is signing the objects themselves.
   Closer examination reveals that the approach of signing objects by
   itself is flawed and when used in addition to signing transactions
   and rechecking authorizations as changes are made adds nothing.
   In order for an insertion of critical objects such as inetnums
   and routes to be valid, authorization checks must be made which
   allow the insertion.  The objects on which those authorization
   checks are made may later change.  In order to later repeat the
   authorization checks the state of other objects, possibly in other
   repositories would have to be known.  If the repository were not
   trusted then the change history on the object would have to be
   traced back to the object's insertion.  If the repository were not
   trusted, the change history of any object that was depended upon
   for authorization would also have to be rechecked.  This trace back
   would have to go back to the epoch or at least to a point where
   only trusted objects were being relied upon for the authorizations.
   If the depth of the search is at all limited, authorization could
   be falsified simply by exceeding the search depth with a chain of
   authorization references back to falsified objects.  This would
   be grossly inefficient.  Simply verifying that an object is signed

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   provides no assurance that addition of the object addition was
   properly authorized.



A minor distinction is made between a repository and a mirror.  A
repository has responsibility for the initial authorization and
authentication checks for transactions related to its local objects
which are then flooded to adjacent repositories.  A mirror receives
flooded transactions from remote repositories but is not the
authoritative source for any objects.  From a protocol standpoint,
repositories and mirrors appear identical in the flooding topology.

Either a repository or a mirror may recheck all or a subset of
transactions that are flooded to it.  A repository or mirror may elect
not to recheck authorization and authentication on transactions
received from a trusted adjacency on the grounds that the adjacent
repository is trusted and would not have flooded the information
unless authorization and authentication checks had been made.

If it can be arranged that all adjacencies are trusted for a given
mirror, then there is no need to implement the code to check
authorization and authentication.  There is only a need to be able to
check the signatures on the flooded transactions of the adjacent
repository.  This is an important special case because it could allow
a router to act as a mirror.  Only changes to the registry database
would be received through flooding, which is a very low volume.  Only
the signature of the adjacent mirror or repository would have to be
checked.



2  Data Representation


RPSL provides a complete description of the contents of a routing
repository [1].  Many RPSL data objects remain unchanged from the
RIPE, and RPSL references the RIPE-181 specification as recorded in
RFC-1786 [2].  RPSL provides external data representation.  Data may
be stored differently internal to a routing registry.  The integrity
of the distributed registry data requires the use of the authorization
and authentication additions to RPSL described in [3].

Some additions to RPSL are needed to locate all of the repositories
after having located one of them and to make certain parameters
selectable on a per repository basis readily available.  These
additions are described in Section 5.

Some form of encapsulation must be used to exchange data.  The
de-facto encapsulation has been that which the RIPE tools accept, a
plain text file or plain text in the body of an RFC-822 formatted mail
message with information needed for authentication derived from the

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Internet Draft    Routing Policy System Replication  December 23, 1999

mail headers.  Merit has slightly modified this using the PGP signed
portion of a plain text file or PGP signed portion of the body of a
mail message.

The exchange that occurs during flooding differs from the initial
submission.  In order to repeat the authorization checks the state of
all repositories containing objects referenced by the authorization
checks needs to be known.  To accomplish this a sequence number is
associated with each transaction in a repository and the flooded
transactions must contain the sequence number of each repository on
which authorization of the transaction depends.

In order to repeat authorization checks it must be possible to
retrieve back revisions of objects.  How this is accomplished is a
matter local to the implementation.  One method which is quite simple
is to keep the traversal data structures to all current objects even
if the state is deleted, keep the sequence number that the version of
the object became effective and keep back links to prior versions of
the objects.  Finding a prior version of an object involves looking
back through the references until the sequence number of the version
of the object is less than or equal to the sequence number being
searched for.

The existing very simple forms of encapsulation are adequate for the
initial submission of a database transaction and should be retained as
long as needed for backward compatibility.  A more robust
encapsulation and submission protocol, with optional confirmation is
defined in Section 6.1.  An encapsulation suitable for exchange of
transaction between repositories is addressed in Section 6.  Query
encapsulation and protocol is outside the scope of this document.



3  Authentication and Authorization


Control must be exercised over who can make changes and what changes
they can make.  The distinction of who vs what separates
authentication from authorization.


o  Authentication is the means to determine who is attempting to make
   a change.

o  Authorization is the determination of whether a transaction passing
   a specific authentication check is allowed to perform a given
   operation.



A submitted transaction contains a claimed identity.  Depending on the
type of transaction, the authorization will depend on related objects.

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The ``mnt-by'', ``mnt-routes'', or ``mnt-lower'' attributes in those
related objects reference ``maintainer'' objects.  Those maintainer
objects contain ``auth'' attributes.  The auth attributes contain an
authorization method and data which generally contains the claimed
identity and some form of public encryption key used to authenticate
the claim.

Authentication is done on transactions.  Authentication should also be
done between repositories to insure the integrity of the information
exchange.  In order to comply with import, export, and use
restrictions throughout the world no encryption capability is
specified.  Transactions must not be encrypted because it may be
illegal to use decryption software in some parts of the world.



4  Repository Hierarchy


With multiple repositories, ``repository'' objects are needed to
propagate the existence of new repositories and provide an automated
means to determine the supported methods of access and other
characteristics of the repository.  The repository object is described
in Section 5.

In each repository there should be a special repository object named
ROOT. This should point to the root repository or to a higher level
repository.  This is to allow queries to be directed to the local
repository but refer to the full set of registries for resolution of
hierarchically allocated objects.

Each repository may have an ``expire'' attribute.  The expire
attribute is used to determine if a repository must be updated before
a local transaction that depends on it can proceed.

The repository object also contains attributes describing the access
methods and supported authentication methods of the repository.  The
``query-address'' attribute provides a host name and a port number
used to direct queries.  The ``response-auth-type'' attribute provides
the authentication types that may be used by the repository when
responding to queries.  The ``submit-address'' attribute provides a
host name and a port number used to submit objects to the repository.
The ``submit-auth-type'' attribute provides the authentication types
that may be used by the repository when responding to submissions.


5  Additions to RPSL


There are very few additions to RPSL defined here.  The additions to
RPSL are referred to as RPSL ``objects''.  They reside in the


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repository database and can be retrieved with ordinary queries.
Objects consist of ``attributes'', which are name/value pairs.
Attributes may be mandatory or optional.  They may be single or
multiple.  One or more attributes may be part of a key field.  Some
attributes may have the requirement of being unique.

Most of the data formats described in this document are encapsulations
used in transaction exchanges.  These are referred to as
``meta-objects''.  These ``meta-objects'', unlike RPSL ``objects'' do
not reside in the database but some must be retained in a transaction
log.  A similar format is used to represent ``meta-objects''.  They
also consist of ``attributes'' which are name/value pairs.

This section contains all of the additions to RPSL described in this
document.  This section describes only RPSL objects.  Other sections
described only meta-objects.



5.1  repository object

A root repository must be agreed upon.  Ideally such a repository
would contain only top level delegations and pointers to other
repositories used in these delegations.  It would be wise to allow
only cryptographically strong transactions in the root repository [3].

The root repository contains references to other repositories.  An
object of the following form identifies another repository.



  repository:         RIPE
  query-address:      whois://whois.ripe.net
  response-auth-type: PGPKEY-23F5CE35 # pointer to key-cert object
  response-auth-type: none
  remarks:            you can request rsa signature on queries
  remarks:            PGP required on submissions
  submit-address:     mailto://auto-dbm@ripe.net
  submit-address:     rps-query://whois.ripe.net:43
  submit-auth-type:   pgp-key, crypt-pw, mail-from
  remarks:            these are the authentication types supported
  mnt-by:             maint-ripe-db
  expire:             0000 04:00:00
  heartbeat-interval: 0000 01:00:00
  ...
  remarks:            admin and technical contact, etc
  source:             IANA



The attributes of the repository object are listed below.


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  repository      key  mandatory  single
  query-address        mandatory  multiple
  response-auth-type   mandatory  multiple
  submit-address       mandatory  multiple
  submit-auth-type     mandatory  multiple
  repository-cert      mandatory  multiple
  expire               mandatory  single
  heartbeat-interval   mandatory  single
  descr                optional   multiple
  remarks              optional   multiple
  admin-c              mandatory  multiple
  tech-c               mandatory  multiple
  notify               optional   multiple
  mnt-by               mandatory  multiple
  changed              mandatory  multiple
  source               mandatory  single



In the above object type only a small number of the attribute types
are new.  These are:



repository  This attribute provides the name of the repository.  This
   is the key field for the object and is single and must be globally
   unique.  This is the same name used in the source attribute of all
   objects in that repository.

query-address  This attribute provides a url for directing queries.
   ``rps-query'' or ``whois'' can be used as the protocol identifier.
response-auth-type  This attribute provides an authentication type
   that may be used by the repository when responding to user queries.
   Its syntax and semantics is same as the auth attribute of the
   maintainer class.

submit-address  This attribute provides a url for submitting objects
   to the repository.

submit-auth-type  This attribute provides the authentication types
   that are allowed by the repository for users when submitting
   registrations.
repository-cert  This attribute provides a reference to a public key
   certificate in the form of an RPSL key-cert object.  This attribute
   can be multiple to allow the repository to use more than one method
   of signature.

heartbeat-interval  Heartbeat meta-objects are sent by this repository
   at the rate of one heartbeat meta-object per the interval
   indicated.  The value of this attribute shall be expressed in the
   form ``dddd hh:mm:ss'', where the ``dddd'' represents days, ``hh''
   represents hours, ``mm'' minutes and ``ss'' seconds.

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expire  If no heartbeat or new registrations are received from a
   repository for expire period, objects from this repository should
   be considered non-authoritative, and cannot be used for
   authorization purposes.  The value of this attribute shall be
   expressed in the form ``dddd hh:mm:ss'', where the ``dddd''
   represents days, ``hh'' represents hours, ``mm'' minutes and ``ss''
   seconds.  This value should be bigger than heartbeat-interval.



Please note that the ``heartbeat'' meta-objects mentioned above, like
other meta-objects described in this document are part of the protocol
to exchange information but are not placed in the database itself.
See Section 7.3.2 for a description of the heartbeat meta-object.

The remaining attributes in the repository object are defined in RPSL.


5.2  delegated attribute


For many RPSL object types a particular entry should appear only in
one repository.  These are the object types for which there is a
natural hierarchy, ``as-block'', ``aut-num'', ``inetnum'', and
``route''.  In order to facilitate putting an object in another
repository, a ``delegated'' attribute is added.



delegated  The delegated attribute is allowed in any object type with
   a hierarchy.  This attribute indicates that further searches for
   object in the hierarchy must be made in one or more alternate
   repositories.  The current repository may be listed.  The ability
   to list more than one repository serves only to accommodate
   grandfathered objects (those created prior to using an
   authorization model).  The value of a delegated attribute is a list
   of repository names.


If an object contains a ``delegated'' attribute, an exact key field
match of the object may also be contained in each repository listed in
the ``delegated'' attribute.  For the purpose of authorizing changes
only the ``mnt-by'' in the object in the repository being modified is
considered.

The following is an example of the use of a ``delegated'' attribute.



  inetnum:        193.0.0.0 - 193.0.0.255
  delegated:      RIPE


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  ...
  source:         IANA



This inetnum simply delegates the storage of any more specific inetnum
objects overlapping the stated range to the RIPE repository.  An exact
match of this inetnum may also exist in the RIPE repository to provide
hooks for the attributes referencing maintainer objects.  In this
case, when adding objects to the RIPE repository, the ``mnt-lower'',
``mnt-routes'', and ``mnt-by'' fields in the IANA inetnum object will
not be considered, instead the values in the RIPE copy will be used.



5.3  integrity attribute

The ``integrity'' attribute can be contained in any RPSL object.  It
is intended solely as a means to facilitate a transition period during
which some data has been moved from repositories prior to the use of a
strong authorization model and is therefore questionable, or when some
repositories are not properly checking authorization.

The ``integrity'' attribute may have the values ``legacy'',
``no-auth'', ``auth-failed'', or ``authorized''.  If absent, the
integrity is considered to be ``authorized''.  The integrity values
have the following meanings:



legacy:  This data existed prior to the use of an adequate
   authorization model.  The data is highly suspect.

no-auth:  This data was added to a repository during an initial
   transition use of an authorization model but authorization depended
   on other objects whose integrity was not ``authorized''.  Such an
   addition is being allowed during the transition but would be
   disallowed later.
auth-failed:  The authoritative repository is not checking
   authorization.  Had it been doing so, authorization would have
   failed.  This attribute may be added by a repository that is
   mirroring before placing the object in its local storage, or can
   add this attribute to an encapsulating meta-object used to further
   propagate the transaction.  If the failure to enforce authorization
   is intentional and part of a transition (for example, issuing
   warnings only), then the authoritative repository may add this
   attribute to the encapsulating meta-object used to further
   propagate the transaction.

authorized:  Authorization checks were passed.  The maintainer
   contained a ``referral-by'' attribute, a form of authentication
   deemed adequate by the repository was used, and all objects that

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   were needed for authorization were objects whose integrity was
   ``authorized''.



Normally once an object is added to a repository another object cannot
overwrite it unless authorized to do so by the maintainers referenced
by the ``mnt-by'' attributes in the object itself.  If the integrity
attribute is anything but ``authorized'', an object can be overwritten
or deleted by any transaction that would have been a properly
authorized addition had the object of lesser integrity not existed.

During such a transition grandfathered data and data added without
proper authorization becomes advisory until a properly authorized
addition occurs.  After transition additions of this type would no
longer be accepted.  Those objects already added without proper
authorization would remain but would be marked as candidates for
replacement.



6  Interactions with a Repository or Mirror


This section presents an overview of the transaction distribution
mechanisms.  The detailed format of the meta-objects for encapsulating
and distributing transactions, and the rules for processing
meta-objects are described in Section 7.  There are a few different
types of interactions between routing repositories or mirrors.


Initial submission of transactions:  Transactions may include
   additions, changes, and deletions.  A transaction may operate on
   more than one object and must be treated as an atomic operation.
   By definition initial submission of transactions is not applicable
   to a mirror.  Initial submission of transactions is described in
   Section 6.1.

Redistribution of Transactions:  The primary purpose of the
   interactions between registries is the redistribution of
   transactions.  There are a number of ways to redistribute
   transactions.  This is discussed in Section 6.2.

Queries:  Query interactions are outside the scope of this document.
Transaction Commit and Confirmation:  Repositories may optionally
   implement a commit protocol and a completion indication that gives
   the submitter of a transaction a response that indicates that a
   transaction has been successful and will not be lost by a crash of
   the local repository.  A submitter may optionally request such a
   confirmation.  This is discussed in Section 6.3.



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 6.1  Initial Transaction Submission


 The simplest form of transaction submission is an object or set of
 objects submitted with RFC-822 email encapsulation.  This form is
 still supported for backwards compatibility.  A preferred form allows
 some meta-information to be included in the submission, such as a
 preferred form of confirmation.  Where either encapsulation is used,
 the submitter will connect to a host and port specified in the
 repository object.  This allows immediate confirmation.  If an email
 interface similar to the interface provided by the existing RIPE code
 is desired, then an external program can provide the email interface.

 The encapsulation of a transaction submission and response is
 described in detail in Section 7.


 6.2  Redistribution of Transactions


 Redistribution of transactions can be accomplished using one of:



1.  A repository snapshot is a request for the complete contents of a
    given repository.  This is usually done when starting up a new
    repository or mirror or when recovering from a disaster, such as a
    disk crash.
2.  A transaction sequence exchange is a request for a specific set of
    transactions.  Often the request is for the most recent sequence
    number known to a mirror to the last transactions.  This is used in
    polling.

3.  Transaction flooding is accomplished through a unicast adjacency.



 This section describes the operations somewhat qualitatively.  Data
 formats and state diagrams are provided in Section 7.


 6.3  Transaction Commit and Confirmation


 If a submission requires a strong confirmation of completion, or if a
 higher degree of protection against false positive confirmation is
 desired as a matter of repository policy, a commit may be performed.

 A commit request is a request from the repository processing an
 initial transaction submission to another repository to confirm that
 they have been able to advance the transaction sequence up to the
 sequence number immediately below the transaction in the request and

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are willing to accept the transaction in the request as a further
advance in the sequence.  This indicates that either the authorization
was rechecked by the responding repository and passed or that the
responding repository trusts the requesting repository and has
accepted the transaction.

A commit request can be sent to more than one alternate repository.
One commit completion response is sufficient to respond to the
submitter with a positive confirmation that the transaction has been
completed.  However, the repository or submitter may optionally
require more than one.



7  Data Format Summaries, Transaction Encapsulation and Processing


RIPE-181 [2] and RPSL [1] data is represented externally as ASCII
text.  Objects consist of a set of attributes.  Attributes are
name/value pairs.  A single attribute is represented as a single line
with the name followed by a colon followed by whitespace characters
(space, tab, or line continuation) and followed by the value.  Within
a value all consecutive whitespace characters is equivalent to a
single space.  Line continuation is supported by putting a white space
or '+' character to the beginning of the continuation lines.  An
object is externally represented as a sequence of attributes.  Objects
are separated by blank lines.

Protocol interactions between registries are activated by passing
``meta objects''.  Meta objects are not part of RPSL but conform to
RPSL object representation.  They serve mostly as delimiters to the
protocol messages or to carry the request for an operation.


7.1  Transaction Submit and Confirm


The de-facto method for submitting database changes has been via
email.  This method should be supported by an external application.
Merit has added the pgp-from authentication method to the RADB
(replaced by ``pgpkey'' in [4]), where the mail headers are
essentially ignored and the body of the mail message must be PGP
signed.

This specification defines a different encapsulation for transaction
submission.  When submitting a group of objects to a repository, a
user MUST append to that group of objects, exactly one ``timestamp''
and one or more ``signature'' meta-objects, in that order.

The ``timestamp'' meta-object contains a single attribute:



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timestamp  This attribute is mandatory and single-valued.  This
   attribute specifies the time at which the user submits the
   transaction to the repository.  The format of this attribute is
   ``YYYYMMDD hh:mm:ss [+/-]xx:yy'', where ``YYYY'' specifies the four
   digit year, ``MM'' represents the month, ``DD'' the date, ``hh''
   the hour, ``mm'' the minutes, ``ss'' the seconds of the timestamp,
   and ``xx'' and ``yy'' represents the hours and minutes respectively
   that that timestamp is ahead or behind UTC.


A repository may reject a transaction which does not include the
``timestamp'' meta-object.  The timestamp object is used to prevent
replaying registrations.  How this is actually used is a local matter.
For example, a repository can accept a transaction only if the value
of the timestamp attribute is greater than the timestamp attribute in
the previous registration received from this user (maintainer), or the
repository may only accept transactions with timestamps within its
expire window.

Each ``signature'' meta-object contains a single attribute:

signature  This attribute is mandatory and single-valued.  This
   attribute, a block of free text, contains the signature
   corresponding to the authentication method used for the
   transaction.  When the authentication method is a cryptographic
   hash (as in PGP-based authentication), the signature must include
   all text upto (but not including) the last blank line before the
   first ``signature'' meta-object.


A repository must reject a transaction that does not include any
``signature'' meta-object.

The group of objects submitted by the user, together with the
``timestamp'' and ``signature'' meta-objects, constitute the
``submitted text'' of the transaction.

The protocol used for submitting a transaction, and for receiving
confirmation of locally committed transactions, is not specified in
this document.  This protocol may define additional encapsulations
around the submitted text.  The rest of this section gives an example
of one such protocol.  Implementations are free to choose another
encapsulation.

The meta-objects ``transaction-submit-begin'' and
``transaction-submit-end'' delimit a transaction.  A transaction is
handled as an atomic operation.  If any part of the transaction fails
none of the changes take effect.  For this reason a transaction can
only operate on a single database.

A socket connection is used to request queries or submit transactions.
An email interface may be provided by an external program that

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connects to the socket.  A socket connection must use the
``transaction-submit-begin'' and ``transaction-submit-end'' delimiters
but can request a legacy style confirmation.  Multiple transactions
may be sent prior to the response for any single transaction.
Transactions may not complete in the order sent.

The ``transaction-submit-begin'' meta-object may contain the following
attributes.



transaction-submit-begin  This attribute is mandatory and single.  The
   value of the attribute contains name of the database and an
   identifier that must be unique over the course of the socket
   connection.

response-auth-type  This attribute is optional and multiple.  The
   remainder of the line specifies an authentication type that would
   be acceptable in the response.  This is used to request a response
   cryptographically signed by the repository.
transaction-confirm-type  This attribute is optional and single.  A
   confirmation type keyword must be provided.  Keywords are ``none'',
   ``legacy'', ``normal'', ``commit''.  The confirmation type can be
   followed by the option ``verbose''.



The ``transaction-submit-end'' meta-object consists of a single
attribute by the same name.  It must contain the same database name
and identifier as the corresponding ``transaction-submit-begin''
attribute.

Unless the confirmation type is ``none'' a confirmation is sent.  If
the confirmation type is ``legacy'', then an email message of the form
currently sent by the RIPE database code will be returned on the
socket (suitable for submission to the sendmail program).

A ``normal'' confirmation does not require completion of the commit
protocol.  A ``commit'' confirmation does.  A ``verbose'' confirmation
may contain additional detail.

A transaction confirmation is returned as a ``transaction-confirm''
meta-object.  The ``transaction-confirm'' meta-object may have the
following attributes.


transaction-confirm  This attribute is mandatory and single.  It
   contains the database name and identifier associated with the
   transaction.

confirmed-operation  This attribute is optional and multiple.  It
   contains one of the keywords ``add'', ``delete'' or ``modify''

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   followed by the object type and key fields of the object operated
   on.

commit-status  This attribute is mandatory and single.  It contains
   one of the keywords ``succeeded'', ``error'', or ``held''.  The
   ``error'' keyword may be followed by an optional text string.  The
   ``held'' keyword is returned when a repository containing a
   dependent object for authorization has expired.



7.2  Redistribution of Transactions

In order to redistribute transactions, each repository maintains a TCP
connection with one or more other repositories.  After locally
committing a submitted transaction, a repository assigns a sequence
number to the transaction, signs and encapsulates the transaction, and
then sends one copy to each neighboring (or ``peer'') repository.  In
turn, each repository authenticates the transaction (as described in
Section 7.6), may re-sign the transaction and redistributes the
transaction to its neighbors.  We use the term ``originating
repository'' to distinguish the repository that redistributes a
locally submitted transaction.

This document also specifies two other methods for redistributing
transactions to other repositories:  a database snapshot format used
for initializing a new registry, and a polling technique used by
mirrors.

In this section, we first describe how a repository may encapsulate
the submitted text of a transaction.  We then describe the protocol
for flooding transactions or polling for transactions, and the
database snapshot contents and format.



7.3  Redistribution Protocol Description

The originating repository must first authenticate a submitted
transaction using methods described in [3].

Before redistributing a transaction, the originating repository must
encapsulate the submitted text of the transaction with several
meta-objects, which are described below.

The originating repository must prepend the submitted text with
exactly one ``transaction-label'' meta-object.  This meta-object
contains the following attributes:


transaction-label  This attribute is mandatory and single.  The value
   of this attribute conforms to the syntax of an RPSL word, and

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   represents a globally unique identifier for the database to which
   this transaction is added.

sequence  This attribute is mandatory and single.  The value of this
   attribute is an RPSL integer specifying the sequence number
   assigned by the originating repository to the transaction.
   Successive transactions distributed by the same originating
   repository have successive sequence numbers.  The first transaction
   originated by a registry is assigned a sequence number 1.  Each
   repository must use sequence numbers drawn from a range at least as
   large as 64 bit unsigned integers.

timestamp  This attribute is mandatory and single-valued.  This
   attribute specifies the time at which the originating repository
   encapsulates the submitted text.  The format of this attribute is
   ``YYYYMMDD hh:mm:ss [+/-]xx:yy'', where ``YYYY'' specifies the four
   digit year, ``MM'' represents the month, ``DD'' the date, ``hh''
   the hour, ``mm'' the minutes, ``ss'' the seconds of the timestamp,
   and ``xx'' and ``yy'' represents the hours and minutes respectively
   that that timestamp is ahead or behind UTC.
integrity  This attribute is optional and single-valued.  It may have
   the values ``legacy'', ``no-auth'', ``auth-failed'', or
   ``authorized''.  If absent, the integrity is considered to be
   ``authorized''.


The originating repository may append to the submitted text one or
more ``auth-dependency'' meta-objects.  These meta-objects are used to
indicate which other repositories' objects were used by the
originating registry to authenticate the submitted text.  The
``auth-dependency'' meta-objects should be ordered from the most
preferred repository to the least preferred repository.  This order is
used by a remote repository to tie break between the multiple
registrations of an object with the same level of integrity.  The
``auth-dependency'' meta-object contains the following attributes:


auth-dependency  This attribute mandatory and single-valued.  It
   equals a repository name from which an object is used to
   authorize/authenticate this transaction.
sequence  This attribute mandatory and single-valued.  It equals the
   transaction sequence number of the dependent repository known at
   the originating repository at the time of processing this
   transaction.

timestamp  This attribute mandatory and single-valued.  It equals the
   timestamp of the dependent repository known at the originating
   repository at the time of processing this transaction.


If the originating repository needs to modify submitted objects in a
way that the remote repositories can not re-create, it can append an

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``override-objects'' meta-object followed by the modified versions of
these objects.  An example modification can be auto assignment of NIC
handles.  The ``override-objects'' meta-object contains the following
attributes:


override-objects  A free text remark.


Other repositories may or may not honor override requests, or limit
the kinds of overrides they allow.

Following this, the originating repository must append exactly one
``repository-signature'' meta-object.  The ``repository-signature''
meta-object contains the following attributes:

repository-signature  This attribute is mandatory and single-valued.
   It contains the name of the repository.

integrity  This attribute is optional and single-valued.  It may have
   the values ``legacy'', ``no-auth'', ``auth-failed'', or
   ``authorized''.  If absent, the value is same as the value in the
   transaction-label.  If a different value is used, the value here
   takes precedence.

signature  This attribute is optional and single-valued.  This
   attribute, a block of free text, contains the repository's
   signature using the key in the repository-cert attribute of the
   repository object.  When the authentication method is a
   cryptographic hash (as in PGP-based authentication), the signature
   must include all text upto (but not including) this attribute.
   That is, the ``repository-signature'' and ``integrity'' attributes
   of this object are included.  This attribute is optional since
   cryptographic authentication may not be available everywhere.
   However, its use where it is available is highly reccomended.

A repository must reject a redistributed transaction that does not
include any ``repository-signature'' meta-object.

The transaction-label, the submitted text, the dependency objects, the
override-objects, the overriden objects, and the repository's
signature together constitute what we call the ``redistributed text''.

In preparation for redistributing the transaction to other
repositories, the originating repository must perform the following
protocol encapsulation.  This protocol encapsulation may involve
transforming the redistributed text according to one of the
``transfer-method''s described below.

The transformed redistributed text is first prepended with exactly one
``transaction-begin'' meta-object.  One newline character separates


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 this meta-object from the redistributed text.  This meta-object has
 the following attributes:


 transaction-begin  This attribute is mandatory and single.  The value
    of this attribute is the length, in bytes, of the transformed
    redistributed text.

 transfer-method  This attribute is optional and single-valued.  Its
    value is either ``gzip'', or ``plain''.  The value of the attribute
    describes the kind of text encoding that the repository has
    performed on the redistributed text.  If this attribute is not
    specified, its value is assumed to be ``plain''.  An implementation
    must be capable of encoding and decoding both of these types.

 The ``transaction-begin'' meta-object and the transformed
 redistributed text constitute what we call the ``transmitted text''.
 The originating repository may distribute the transmitted text to one
 or more peer repositories.

 When a repository receives the transmitted text of a transaction, it
 must perform the following steps.  After performing the following
 steps, a transaction may be marked successful or failed.


1.  It must decapsulate the ``transaction-begin'' meta-object, then
    decode the original redistributed text according to the value of
    the transfer-method attribute specified in the
    ``transaction-begin'' meta-object.
2.  It should then extract the "transaction-label" meta-object from the
    transmitted text.  If this transaction has already been processed,
    or is currently being held, the repository must silently discard
    this incarnation of the same transaction.

3.  It should verify that the signature of the originating repository
    matches the first ``repository-signature'' meta-object in the
    redistributed text following the ``auth-dependency'' meta-objects.

4.  If not all previous (i.e., those with a lower sequence number)
    transactions from the same repository have been received or
    completely processed, the repository must ``hold'' this
    transaction.
5.  It may check whether any subsequent ``repository-signature''
    meta-objects were appended by a trusted repository.  If so, this
    indicates that the trusted repository verified the transaction's
    integrity and marked its conclusion in the integrity attribute of
    this object.  The repository may verify the trusted repositories
    signature and also mark the transaction with the same integrity,
    and skip the remaining steps.

6.  It should verify the syntactic correctness of the transaction.  An
    implementation may allow configurable levels of syntactic

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    conformance with RPSL [1].  This enables RPSL extensions to be
    incrementally deployed in the distributed registry scheme.

7.  The repository must authorize and authenticate this transaction.
    To do this, it may need to reference objects and transactions from
    other repositories.  If these objects are not available, the
    repository must ``hold'' this transaction as described in
    Section 7.6, until it can be authorized and authenticated later.
    In order to verify authorization/authentication of this
    transaction, the repository must not use an object from a
    repository not mentioned in an ``auth-dependency'' meta-obect.  The
    repository should also only use the latest objects (by rolling back
    to earlier versions if necessary) which are within the transaction
    sequence numbers of the ``auth-dependency'' meta-objects.


 A non-originating repository must redistribute a failed transaction in
 order not to cause a gap in the sequence.  (If the transaction was to
 fail at the originating registry, it would simply not be assigned a
 sequence number).

 To the redistributed text of a transaction, a repository may append
 another ``repository-signature'' meta-object.  This indicates that the
 repository has verified the transaction's integrity and marked it in
 the ``integrity'' attribute of this object.  The signature covers the
 new redistributed text from (and including) the transaction-label
 object to this object's signature attribute (including the
 ``repository-signature'' and ``integrity'' attributes of this object,
 but excluding the ``signature'' attribute).  The original
 redistributed text, together with the new ``repository-signature''
 meta-object constitutes the modified redistributed text.

 To redistribute a successful or failed transaction, the repository
 must encapsulate the (original or modified) redistributed text with a
 ``transaction-begin'' object.  This step is essentially the same as
 that performed by the originating repository (except that the
 repository is free to use a different ``transfer-method'' from the one
 that was in the received transaction.


 7.3.1  Explicitly Requesting Transactions


 A repository may also explicitly request one or more transactions
 belonging to a specified originating repository.  This is useful for
 catching up after a repository has been off-line for a period of time.
 It is also useful for mirrors which intermittently poll a repository
 for recently received transactions.

 To request a range of transactions from a peer, a repository must send
 a ``transaction-request'' meta-object to the peer.  A


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``transaction-request'' meta-object may contain the following
attributes:


transaction-request  This attribute is mandatory and single.  It
   contains the name of the database whose transactions are being
   requested.

sequence-begin  This attribute is optional and single.  It contains
   the sequence number of the first transaction being requested.
sequence-end  This attribute is optional and single.  It contains the
   sequence number of the last transaction being requested.


Upon receiving a ``transaction-request'' object, a repository performs
the following actions.  If the ``sequence-begin'' attribute is not
specified, the repository assumes the request first sequence number to
be 1.  The last sequence number is the lesser of the value of the
``sequence-end'' attributed and the highest completed transaction in
the corresponding database.  The repository then, in order, transmits
the requested range of transactions.  Each transaction is prepared
exactly according to the rules for redistribution specified in
Section 7.3.

After transmitting all the transactions, the peer repository must send
a ``transaction-response'' meta-object.  This meta-object has the
following attributes:


transaction-response  This attribute is mandatory and single.  It
   contains the name of the database whose transactions are were
   requested.
sequence-begin  This attribute is optional and mandatory.  It contains
   the value of the ``sequence-begin'' attribute in the original
   request.  It is omitted if the corresponding attribute was not
   specified in the original request.

sequence-end  This attribute is optional and mandatory.  It contains
   the value of the ``sequence-end attribute in the original request.
   It is omitted if the corresponding attribute was not specified in
   the original request.


After receiving a ``transaction-response'' meta-object, a repository
may tear down the TCP connection to its peer.  This is useful for
mirrors that intermittently resynchronize transactions with a
repository.  If the TCP connection stays open, repositories exchange
subsequent transactions according to the redistribution mechanism
specified in Section  7.3.  While a repository is responding to a
transaction-request, it MAY forward heartbeats and other transactions
from the requested repository towards the requestor.


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7.3.2  Heartbeat Processing


Each repository that has originated at least one transaction must
periodically send a ``heartbeat'' meta-object.  The interval between
two successive transmissions of this meta-object is configurable but
must be less than 1 day.  This meta-object serves to indicate the
liveness of a particular repository.  The repository liveness
determines how long transactions are held (See Section 7.6).

The ``heartbeat'' meta-object contains the following attributes:


heartbeat  This attribute is mandatory and single.  It contains the
   name of the repository which originates this meta-object.
sequence  This attribute is mandatory and single.  It contains the
   highest transaction sequence number that has been assigned by the
   repository.

timestamp  This attribute is mandatory and single.  It contains the
   time at which this meta-object was generated.  The format of this
   attribute is ``YYYYMMDD hh:mm:ss [+/-]xx:yy'', where ``YYYY''
   specifies the four digit year, ``MM'' represents the month, ``DD''
   the date, ``hh'' the hour, ``mm'' the minutes, ``ss'' the seconds
   of the timestamp, and ``xx'' and ``yy'' represents the hours and
   minutes respectively that that timestamp is ahead or behind UTC.


Upon receiving a heartbeat meta-object, a repository must first check
the timestamp of the latest previously received heartbeat message.  If
that timestamp exceeds the timestamp in the received heartbeat
message, the repository must silently discard the heartbeat message.
Otherwise, it must record the timestamp and sequence number in the
heartbeat message, and redistribute the heartbeat message, without
modification, to each of its peer repositories.

If the heartbeat message is from a repository previously unknown to
the recipient, the recipient may send a ``transaction-request'' to one
or more of its peers to obtain all transactions belonging to the
corresponding database.  If the heartbeat message contains a sequence
number higher than the highest sequence number processed by the
recipient, the recipient may send a ``transaction-request'' to one or
more of its peers to obtain all transactions belonging to the
corresponding database.


7.4  Transaction Commit


Submitters may require stronger confirmation of commit for their
transactions (Section 6.3).  This section describes a simple
request-response protocol by which a repository may provide this

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stronger confirmation, by verifying if one or more other repositories
have committed the transaction.  Implementation of this
request-response protocol is optional.

After it has redistributed a transaction, the originating repository
may request a commit confirmation from one or more peer repositories
by sending to them a ``commit-request'' meta-object.  The
``commit-request'' contains two attributes:


commit-request  This attribute is mandatory and single.  It contains
   the name of the database for whom a commit confirmation is being
   requested.

sequence  This attribute is mandatory and single.  It contains the
   transaction sequence number for which a commit confirmation is
   being requested.

A repository that receives a ``commit-request'' must not redistribute
the request.  It must delay the response until the corresponding
transaction has been processed.  For this reason, the repository must
keep state about pending commit requests.  It should discard this
state if the connection to the requester is lost before the response
is sent.  In that event, it is the responsibility of the requester to
resend the request.

Once a transaction has been processed (Section 7.3), a repository must
check to see if there exists any pending commit request for the
transaction.  If so, it must send a ``commit-response'' meta-object to
the requester.  This meta-object has three attributes:


commit-response  This attribute is mandatory and single.  It contains
   the name of the database for whom a commit response is being sent.

sequence  This attribute is mandatory and single.  It contains the
   transaction sequence number for which a commit response is being
   sent.
commit-status  This attribute is mandatory and single.  It contains
   one of the keywords ``held'', ``error'', or ``succeeded''.  The
   ``error'' keyword may be followed by an optional text string.  The
   ``held'' keyword is returned when a repository containing a
   dependent object for authorization has expired.



7.5  Database Snapshot

A database snapshot provides a complete copy of a database.  It is
intended only for repository initialization or disaster recovery.  A
database snapshot is an out of band mechanism.  A set of files are


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created periodically at the source repository.  These files are then
transferred to the requestor out of band (e.g.  ftp transfer).  The
objects in these files are then registered locally.

A snapshot of repository X contains the following set of files:


X.db  This file contains the RPSL objects of repository X, separated
   by blank lines.  In addition to the RPSL objects and blank lines,
   comment lines can be present.  Comment lines start with the
   character '#'.  The comment lines are ignored.  The file X.db ends
   in a special comment line ``# eof''.

X.<class>.db  This optional file if present contains the RPSL objects
   in X.db that are of class <class>.  The format of the file is same
   as that of X.db.
X.transaction-label  This file contains a transaction-label object
   that records the timestamp and the latest sequence number of the
   repository at the time of the snapshot.


Each of these files can be optionally compressed uzing gzip.  This is
signified by appending the suffix .gz to the file name.  Each of these
files can optionally be PGP signed.  In this case, the detached
signature with ASCII armoring and platform-independent text mode is
stored in a file whose name is constructed by appending .sig to the
file name of the file being signed.

In order to construct a repository's contents from a snapshot, a
repository downloads these files.  After uncompressing and checking
signatures, the repository records these objects in its database.  No
RPS authorization/authentication is done on these objects.  The
transaction-label object provides the seed for the replication
protocol to receive the follow on transactions from this repository.
Hence, it is not crucial to download an up to the minute snapshot.

After successfully playing a snapshot, it is possible that a
repository may receive a transaction from a third repository that
has a dependency on an earlier version of one of the objects in
the snapshot.  This can only happen within the expire period of the
repository being downloaded, plus any possible network partition
period.  This dependency is only important if the repository wants
to re-verify RPS authorization/authentication.  There are three
allowed alternatives in this case.  The simplest alternative is
for the repository to accept the transaction and mark it with
integrity ``no-auth''.  The second choice is to only peer with trusted
repositories during this time period, and accept the transaction
with the same integrity as the trusted repository (possibly as
``authorized'').  The most preferred alternative is not to download
an up to the minute snapshot, but to download an older snapshot,
at minimum twice the repositories expire time, in practice few days
older.  Upon replaying an older snapshot, the replication protocol

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will fetch the more current transactions from this repository.
Together they provide the necessary versions of objects to re-verify
rps authorization/authentication.



7.6  Authenticating Operations

The ``signature'' and ``repository-signature'' meta-objects represent
signatures.  Where multiple of these objects are present, the
signatures should be over the original contents, not over other
signatures.  This allows signatures to be checked in any order.

A maintainer can also sign a transaction using several authentication
methods (some of which may be available in some repositories only).

In the case of PGP, implementations should allow the signatures of the
``signature'' and ``repository-signature'' meta-objects to be either
the detached signatures produced by PGP or regular signatures produced
by PGP. In either case, ASCII armoring and platform-independent text
mode should be used.

Note that the RPSL objects themselves are not signed but the entire
transaction body is signed.  When exchanging transactions among
registries, the meta-objects (e.g.  ``auth-dependency'') prior to the
first ``repository-signature'' meta object in the redistributed text
are also signed over.

Transactions must remain intact, including the signatures, even if an
authentication method provided by the submitter is not used by a
repository handling the message.  An originating repository may chose
to remove clear text passwords signatures from a transaction, and
replace it with the keyword ``clear-text-passwd'' followed by the
maintainer's id.


  signature: clear-text-passwd <maintainer-name>


Note that this does not make the system less secure since clear text
password is an indication of total trust to the originating repository
by the maintainer.

A repository may sign a transaction that it verified.  If at any point
the signature of a trusted repository is encountered, no further
authorization or authentication is needed.







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A  Examples


RPSL provides an external representation of RPSL objects and
attributes.  An attribute is a name/value pair.  RPSL is line
oriented.  Line continuation is supported, however most attributes fit
on a single line.  The attribute name is followed by a colon, then any
amount of whitespace, then the attribute value.  An example of the
ASCII representation of an RPSL attribute is the following:



    route:     140.222.0.0/16



An RPSL object is a set of attributes.  Objects are separated from
each other by one or more blank lines.  An example of a complete RPSL
object follows:



    route:         140.222.0.0/16
    descr:         ANS Communications
    origin:        AS1673
    member-of:     RS-ANSOSPFAGGREGATE
    mnt-by:        ANS
    changed:       tck@ans.net 19980115
    source:        ANS



A.1  Initial Object Submission and Redistribution


Figure 1 outlines the steps involved in submitting an object and the
initial redistribution from the authoritative registry to its flooding
peers.

If the authorization check requires objects from other repositories,
then the sequence numbers of the local copies of those databases is
required for mirrors to recheck the authorization.

To simply resubmit the object from the prior example, the submitter or
a client application program acting on the submitter's behalf must
submit a transaction.  The legacy method was to send PGP signed email.
The preferred method is for an interactive program to encapsulate a
request between ``transaction-submit-begin'' and
``transaction-submit-end'' meta-objects and encapsulate that as a
signed block as in the following example:



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    +--------------+
    |  Transaction |
    |  signed by   |
    |  submitter   |
    +--------------+
           |
           |  1
           v
    +---------------------+  2
    |  Primary repository |---->+----------+
    |  identified by      |     | database |
    |  RPSL source        |<----+----------+
    +---------------------+  3
           |
           |  4
           v
    +----------------+
    |  Redistributed |
    |  transaction   |
    +----------------+

    1.  submit object
    2.  authorization check
    3.  sequence needed for authorization
    4.  redistribute



        Figure 1:  Initial Object Submission and Redistribution


    transaction-submit-begin:  ANS 1
    response-auth-type:        PGP
    transaction-confirm-type:  normal

    route:         140.222.0.0/16
    descr:         ANS Communications
    origin:        AS1673
    member-of:     RS-ANSOSPFAGGREGATE
    mnt-by:        ANS
    changed:       curtis@ans.net 19990401
    source:        ANS

    timestamp: 19990401 10:30:00 +08:00

    signature:
    + -----BEGIN PGP SIGNATURE-----
    + Version: PGP for Personal Privacy 5.0
    + MessageID: UZi4b7kjlzP7rb72pATPywPxYfQj4gXI
    +
    + iQCVAwUANsrwkP/OhQ1cphB9AQFOvwP/Ts8qn3FRRLQQHKmQGzy2IxOTiF0QXB4U
    + Xzb3gEvfeg8NWhAI32zBw/D6FjkEw7P6wDFDeok52A1SA/xdP5wYE8heWQmMJQLX

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    + Avf8W49d3CF3qzh59UC0ALtA5BjI3r37ubzTf3mgtw+ONqVJ5+lB5upWbqKN9zqv
    + PGBIEN3/NlM=
    + =c93c
    + -----END PGP SIGNATURE-----

    transaction-submit-end:    ANS 1



The signature covers the everything after the first blank line after
the ``transaction-submit-begin'' object to the last blank line before
the ``signature'' meta-object.  If multiple signatures are needed, it
would be quite easy to email this block and ask the other party to add
a signature-block and return or submit the transaction.  Because of
delay in obtaining multiple signatures the accuracy of the
``timestamp'' cannot be strictly enforced.  Enforcing accuracy to
within the ``expire'' time of the database might be a reasonable
compromise.  The tradeoff is between convenience, allowing a longer
time to obtain multiple signatures, and increased time of exposure to
replay attack.

The ANS repository would look at its local database and make
authorization checks.  If the authorization passes, then the sequence
number of any other database needed for the authorization is obtained.

If this operation was successful, then a confirmation would be
returned.  The confirmation would be of the form:



    transaction-confirm:  ANS 1
    confirmed-operation:  change route 140.222.0.0/16 AS1673
    commit-status:        commit
    timestamp:            19990401 10:30:10 +05:00



A.2  Transaction Redistribution Encoding


Having passed the authorization check the transaction is given a
sequence number and stored in the local transaction log and is then
flooded.  The meta-object flooded to another database would be signed
by the repository and would be of the following form:



    transaction-label: ANS
    sequence: 6666
    timestamp: 19990401 13:30:10 +05:00
    integrity: authorized


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    route:         140.222.0.0/16
    descr:         ANS Communications
    origin:        AS1673
    member-of:     RS-ANSOSPFAGGREGATE
    mnt-by:        ANS
    changed:       curtis@ans.net 19990401
    source:        ANS

    timestamp: 19990401 10:30:00 +08:00

    signature:
    + -----BEGIN PGP SIGNATURE-----
    + Version: PGP for Personal Privacy 5.0
    + MessageID: UZi4b7kjlzP7rb72pATPywPxYfQj4gXI
    +
    + iQCVAwUANsrwkP/OhQ1cphB9AQFOvwP/Ts8qn3FRRLQQHKmQGzy2IxOTiF0QXB4U
    + Xzb3gEvfeg8NWhAI32zBw/D6FjkEw7P6wDFDeok52A1SA/xdP5wYE8heWQmMJQLX
    + Avf8W49d3CF3qzh59UC0ALtA5BjI3r37ubzTf3mgtw+ONqVJ5+lB5upWbqKN9zqv
    + PGBIEN3/NlM=
    + =c93c
    + -----END PGP SIGNATURE-----

    auth-dependency: ARIN
    sequence: 555
    timestamp: 19990401 13:30:08 +05:00

    auth-dependency: RADB
    sequence: 4567
    timestamp: 19990401 13:27:54 +05:00

    repository-signature: ANS
    signature:
    + -----BEGIN PGP SIGNATURE-----
    + Version: PGP for Personal Privacy 5.0
    + MessageID: UZi4b7kjlzP7rb72pATPywPxYfQj4gXI
    +
    + iQCVAwUANsrwkP/OhQ1cphB9AQFOvwP/Ts8qn3FRRLQQHKmQGzy2IxOTiF0QXB4U
    + Xzb3gEvfeg8NWhAI32zBw/D6FjkEw7P6wDFDeok52A1SA/xdP5wYE8heWQmMJQLX
    + Avf8W49d3CF3qzh59UC0ALtA5BjI3r37ubzTf3mgtw+ONqVJ5+lB5upWbqKN9zqv
    + PGBIEN3/NlM=
    + =c93c
    + -----END PGP SIGNATURE-----



Note that the repository-signature above is a detached signature for
another file and is illustrative only.  The repository-signature
covers from the ``transaction-label'' meta-object (including) to the
last blank line before the first ``repository-signature'' meta-object
(excluding the last blank line and the ``repository-signature''


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object).



A.3  Transaction Protocol Encoding

    transaction-begin: 1276
    transfer-method: plain

    transaction-label: ANS
    sequence: 6666
    timestamp: 19990401 13:30:10 +05:00
    integrity: authorized

    route:         140.222.0.0/16
    descr:         ANS Communications
    origin:        AS1673
    member-of:     RS-ANSOSPFAGGREGATE
    mnt-by:        ANS
    changed:       curtis@ans.net 19990401
    source:        ANS

    timestamp: 19990401 10:30:00 +08:00

    signature:
    + -----BEGIN PGP SIGNATURE-----
    + Version: PGP for Personal Privacy 5.0
    + MessageID: UZi4b7kjlzP7rb72pATPywPxYfQj4gXI
    +
    + iQCVAwUANsrwkP/OhQ1cphB9AQFOvwP/Ts8qn3FRRLQQHKmQGzy2IxOTiF0QXB4U
    + Xzb3gEvfeg8NWhAI32zBw/D6FjkEw7P6wDFDeok52A1SA/xdP5wYE8heWQmMJQLX
    + Avf8W49d3CF3qzh59UC0ALtA5BjI3r37ubzTf3mgtw+ONqVJ5+lB5upWbqKN9zqv
    + PGBIEN3/NlM=
    + =c93c
    + -----END PGP SIGNATURE-----

    auth-dependency: ARIN
    sequence: 555
    timestamp: 19990401 13:30:08 +05:00

    auth-dependency: RADB
    sequence: 4567
    timestamp: 19990401 13:27:54 +05:00

    repository-signature: ANS
    signature:
    + -----BEGIN PGP SIGNATURE-----
    + Version: PGP for Personal Privacy 5.0
    + MessageID: UZi4b7kjlzP7rb72pATPywPxYfQj4gXI
    +
    + iQCVAwUANsrwkP/OhQ1cphB9AQFOvwP/Ts8qn3FRRLQQHKmQGzy2IxOTiF0QXB4U


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    + Xzb3gEvfeg8NWhAI32zBw/D6FjkEw7P6wDFDeok52A1SA/xdP5wYE8heWQmMJQLX
    + Avf8W49d3CF3qzh59UC0ALtA5BjI3r37ubzTf3mgtw+ONqVJ5+lB5upWbqKN9zqv
    + PGBIEN3/NlM=
    + =c93c
    + -----END PGP SIGNATURE-----



Before the transaction is sent to a peer, the repository prepends a
``transaction-begin'' meta-object.  The value of the
``transaction-begin'' attribute is the number of octets in the
transaction, not counting the ``transaction-begin'' meta-object and
the first blank line after it.

Separating transaction-begin and transaction-label objects enables
different encodings at different flooding peerings.



A.4  Transaction Redistribution

The last step in Figure 1 was redistributing the submitter's
transaction through flooding (or later through polling).  Figure 2
illustrates the further redistribution of the transaction.

If the authorization check was repeated, the mirror may optionally add
a repository-signature before passing the transaction any further.  A
``signature'' can be added within that block.  The previous signatures
should not be signed.

Figure 3 illustrates the special case referred to as a ``lightweight
mirror''.  This is specifically intended for routers.

The lightweight mirror must trust the mirror from which it gets a
feed.  This is a safe assumption if the two are under the same
administration (the mirror providing the feed is a host owned by the
same ISP who owns the routers).  The lightweight mirror simply checks
the signature of the adjacent repository to insure data integrity.



B  Technical Discussion


B.1  Server Processing


This document does not mandate any particular software design,
programming language choice, or underlying database or underlying
operating system.  Examples are given solely for illustrative
purposes.


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    +----------------+
    |  Redistributed |
    |  transaction   |
    +----------------+
           |
           |  1
           v
    +--------------------+  2
    |                    |---->+----------+
    |  Mirror repository |     | database |
    |                    |<----+----------+
    +--------------------+  3
           |
           |  4
           v
    +------------------+
    |+----------------+|
    ||  Redistributed ||
    ||  transaction   ||
    |+----------------+|
    |  Optional        |
    |  signature       |
    +------------------+

    1.  redistribute transaction
    2.  recheck authorization against full DB at the
        time of the transaction using sequence numbers
    3.  authorization pass/fail
    4.  optionally sign then redistribute



             Figure 2:  Further Transaction Redistribution


B.1.1  getting connected

There are two primary methods of communicating with a repository
server.  E-mail can be sent to the server.  This method may be
deprecated but at least needs to be supported during transition.  The
second method is preferred, connect directly to a TCP socket.

Traditionally the whois service is supported for simple queries.  It
might be wise to retain the whois port connection solely for simple
queries and use a second port not in the reserved number space for all
other operations including queries except those queries using the
whois unstructured single line query format.

There are two styles of handling connection initiation is the
dedicated daemon, in the style of BSD sendmail, or launching through a
general purpose daemon such as BSD inetd.  E-mail is normally handled


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    +----------------+
    |  Redistributed |
    |  transaction   |
    +----------------+
           |  1
           v
    +--------------------+  2
    |                    |---->+----------+
    |  Mirror repository |     | database |
    |                    |<----+----------+
    +--------------------+  3
           |  4
           v
    +----------------+
    |  Redistributed |
    |  transaction   |
    +----------------+
           |  5
           v
    +--------------------+
    |  Lightweight       |  6  +----------+
    |  Mirror repository |---->| database |
    |  (router?)         |     +----------+
    +--------------------+

    1.  redistribute transaction
    2.  recheck authorization against full DB at the
        time of the transaction using sequence numbers
    3.  authorization pass/fail
    4.  sign and redistribute
    5.  just check mirror signature
    6.  apply change with no authorization check



           Figure 3:  Redistribution to Lightweight Mirrors


sequentially and can be handled by a front end program which will make
the connection to a socket in the process as acting as a mail delivery
agent.


B.1.2  rolling transaction logs forward and back


There is a need to be able to easily look back at previous states of
any database in order to repeat authorization checks at the time of a
transaction.  This is difficult to do with the RIPE database
implementation, which uses a sequentially written ASCII file and a set
of Berkeley DB maintained index files for traversal.  At the very
minimum, the way in which deletes or replacements are implemented

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would need to be altered.

In order to easily support a view back at prior versions of objects,
the sequence number of the transaction at which each object was
entered would need to be kept with the object.  A pointer would be
needed back to the previous state of the object.  A deletion would
need to be implemented as a new object with a deleted attribute,
replacing the previous version of the object but retaining a pointer
back to it.

A separate transaction log needs to be maintained.  Beyond some age,
the older versions of objects and the the older transaction log
entries can be removed although it is probably wise to archive them.



B.1.3  committing or disposing of transactions

The ability to commit large transaction, or reject them as a whole
poses problems for simplistic database designs.  This form of commit
operation can be supported quite easily using memory mapped files.
The changes can be made in virtual memory only and then either
committed or disposed of.



B.1.4  dealing with concurrency


Multiple connections may be active.  In addition, a single connection
may have multiple outstanding operations.  It makes sense to have a
single process or thread coordinate the responses for a given
connection and have multiple processes or threads each tending to a
single operation.  The operations may complete in random order.

Locking on reads is not essential.  Locking before write access is
essential.  The simplest approach to locking is to lock at the
database granularity or at the database and object type granularity.
Finer locking granularity can also be implemented.  Because there are
multiple databases, deadlock avoidance must be considered.  The usual
deadlock avoidance mechanism is to acquire all necessary locks in a
single operation or acquire locks in a prescribed order.


B.2  Repository Mirroring for Redundancy


There are numerous reasons why the operator of a repository might
mirror their own repository.  Possibly the most obvious are redundancy
and the relative ease of disaster recovery.  Another reason might be
the widespread use of a small number of implementations (but more than
one) and the desire to insure that the major repository software

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releases will accept a transaction before fully committing to the
transaction.

The operation of a repository mirror used for redundancy is quite
straightforward.  The transactions of the primary repository host can
be immediately fed to the redundant repository host.  For tighter
assurances that false positive confirmations will be sent, as a matter
of policy the primary repository host can require commit confirmation
before making a transaction sequence publicly available.

There are many ways in which the integrity of local data can be
assured regardless of a local crash in the midst of transaction disk
writes.  For example, transactions can be implemented as memory mapped
file operations, with disk synchronization used as the local commit
mechanism, and disposal of memory copies of pages used to handle
commit failures.  The old pages can be written to a separate file, the
new pages written into the database.  The transaction can be logged
and old pages file can then be removed.  In the event of a crash, the
existence of a old pages file and the lack of a record of the
transaction completing would trigger a transaction roll back by
writing the old pages back to the database file.

The primary repository host can still sustain severe damage such as a
disk crash.  If the primary repository host becomes corrupted, the use
of a mirror repository host provides a backup and can provide a rapid
recovery from disaster by simply reversing roles.

If a mirror is set up using a different software implementation with
commit mirror confirmation required, any transaction which fails due a
software bug will be deferred indefinitely allowing other transactions
to proceed rather than halting the remote processing of all
transactions until the bug is fixed everywhere.



B.3  Trust Relationships

If all repositories trust each other then there is never a need to
repeat authorization checks.  This enables a convenient interim step
for deployment prior to the completion of software supporting that
capability.  The opposite case is where no repository trusts any other
repository.  In this case, all repositories must roll forward
transactions gradually, checking the authorization of each remote
transaction.

It is likely that repositories will trust a subset of other
repositories.  This trust can reduce the amount of processing a
repository required to maintain mirror images of the full set of data.
For example, a subset of repositories might be trustworthy in that
they take reasonable security measures, the organizations themselves
have the integrity not to alter data, and these repositories trust


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 only a limited set of similar repositories.  If any one of these
 repositories receives a transaction sequence and repeats the
 authorization checks, other major repositories which trusts that
 repository need not repeat the checks.  In addition, trust need not be
 mutual to reap some benefit in reduced processing.

 As a transaction sequence is passed from repository to repository each
 repository signs the transaction sequence before forwarding it.  If a
 receiving repository finds that any trusted repository has signed the
 transaction sequence it can be considered authorized since the trusted
 repository either trusted a preceding repository or repeated the
 authorization checks.



 B.4  A Router as a Minimal Mirror

 A router could serve as a minimal repository mirror.  The following
 simplifications can be made.



1.  No support for repeating authorization checks or transaction
    authentication checks need be coded in the router.

2.  The router must be adjacent only to trusted mirrors, generally
    operated by the same organization.
3.  The router would only check the authentication of the adjacent
    repository mirrors.

4.  No support for transaction submission or query need be coded in the
    router.  No commit support is needed.
5.  The router can dispose of any object types or attributes not needed
    for configuration of route filters.



 The need to update router configurations could be significantly
 reduced if the router were capable of acting as a limited repository
 mirror.

 A significant amount of non-volatile storage would be needed.  There
 are currently an estimated 100 transactions per day.  If storage were
 flash memory with a limited number of writes, or if there were some
 other reason to avoid writing to flash, the router could only update
 the non-volatile copy every few days.  A transaction sequence request
 can be made to get an update in the event of a crash, returning only a
 few hundred updates after losing a few days of deferred writes.  The
 routers can still take a frequent or continuous feed of transactions.

 Alternately, router filters can be reconfigured periodically as they
 are today.

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 B.5  Dealing with Errors


 If verification of an authorization check fails, the entire
 transaction must be rejected and no further advancement of the
 repository can occur until the originating repository corrects the
 problem.  If the problem is due to a software bug, the offending
 transaction can be removed manually once the problem is corrected.  If
 a software bug exists in the receiving software, then the transaction
 sequence is stalled until the bug is corrected.  It is better for
 software to error on the side of denying a transaction than
 acceptance, since an error on the side of acceptance will require
 later removal of the effects of the transaction.


 C  Deployment Considerations


 This section described deployment considerations.  The intention is to
 raise issues rather than to provide a deployment plan.

 This document calls for a transaction exchange mechanism similar to
 but not identical to the existing ``near real time mirroring''
 supported by the code base widely used by the routing registries.  As
 an initial step, the transaction exchange can be implemented without
 the commit protocol or the ability to recheck transaction
 authorization.  This is a fairly minimal step from the existing
 capabilities.

 The transition can be staged as follows:



1.  Modify the format of ``near real time mirroring'' transaction
    exchange to conform to the specifications of this document.
2.  Implement commit protocol and confirmation support.

3.  Implement remote recheck of authorization.  Prior to this step all
    repositories must be trusted.
4.  Allow further decentralization of the repositories.



 D  Privacy of Contact Information


 The routing registries have contained contact information.  The
 redistribution of this contact information has been a delicate issue
 and in some countries has legal implications.

 The person and role objects contain contact information.  These
 objects are referenced by NIC-handles.  There are some attributes such

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Internet Draft    Routing Policy System Replication  December 23, 1999

as the "changed" and "notify" attributes that require an email
address.  All of the fields that currently require an email address
must also accept a NIC-handle.

The person and role objects should not be redistributed by default.
If a submission contains an email address in a field such as a changed
field rather than a NIC-handle the submitter should be aware that they
are allowing that email address to be redistributed and forfeiting any
privacy.  Repositories which do not feel that prior warnings of this
forfeiture are sufficient legal protection should reject the
submission requesting that a NIC-handle be used.

Queries to role and person objects arriving at a mirror must be
referred to the authoritative repository where whatever
authentication, restrictions, or limitations deemed appropriate by
that repository can be enforced directly.

Software should make it possible to restrict the redistribution of
other entire object types as long as those object types are not
required for the authorization of additions of other object types.  It
is not possible to redistribute objects with attributes removed or
altered since this would invalidate the submitter's signature and make
subsequent authentication checks impossible.  Repositories should not
redistribute a subset of the objects of a given type.

Software should also not let a transaction contain both
redistributable (e.g.  policy objects) and non-redustributable objects
(e.g.  person) since there is no way to verify the signature of these
transactions without the non-redustributable objects.

When redistributing legacy data, contact information in attributes
such as "changed" and "notify" should be stripped to maintain privacy.
The "integrity" attribute on these objects should already be set to
"legacy" indicating that their origin is questionable, so the issue of
not being able to recheck signatures is not as significant.



References

[1]  C. Alaettinoglu, C. Villamizar, E. Gerich, D. Kessens, D. Meyer,
     T. Bates, D. Karrenberg, and M. Terpstra.          Routing Policy
     Specification Language (RPSL. Technical Report RFC 2622, Internet
     Engineering Task Force, 1999.

[2]  T. Bates, E. Gerich, L. Joncheray, J-M. Jouanigot, D. Karrenberg,
     M. Terpstra, and J. Yu.  Representation of IP Routing Policies in
     a Routing Registry (ripe-81++).        Technical Report RFC 1786,
     Internet Engineering Task Force, 1995.




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[3]  C. Villamizar, C. Alaettinoglu, D. Meyer, and
     S. Murphy.  Routing Policy System Security.  Technical Report RFC
     2725, Internet Engineering Task Force, 1999.

[4]  J. Zsako. PGP Authentication for RIPE Database Updates. Technical
     Report RFC 2726, Internet Engineering Task Force, 1999.



Security Considerations


An authentication and authorization model for routing policy object
submission is provided by [3].  Cryptographic authentication is
addressed by [4].  This document provides a protocol for the exchange
of information among distributed routing registries such that the
authorization model provided by [3] can be adhered to by all
registries and any deviation (hopefully accidental) from those rules
on the part of a registry can be identified by other registries or
mirrors.


Author's Addresses


Curtis Villamizar                     Cengiz Alaettinoglu
Avici Systems                         ISI
<curtis@avici.com>                    <cengiz@ISI.EDU>



Ramesh Govindan                       David M. Meyer
ISI                                   Cisco
<govindan@ISI.EDU>                    <dmm@cisco.com>



Full Copyright Statement


Copyright (C) The Internet Society (December 23, 1999).  All Rights
Reserved.

This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
or assist in its implmentation may be prepared, copied, published
and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph
are included on all such copies and derivative works.  However, this
document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other


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Internet Draft    Routing Policy System Replication  December 23, 1999

Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of developing
Internet standards in which case the procedures for copyrights defined
in the Internet Standards process must be followed, or as required to
translate it into languages other than English.

The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.

This document and the information contained herein is provided on an
``AS IS'' basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING
TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT
NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN
WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.



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document or the extent to which any license under such rights might
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