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Versions: 00                                                            
     INTERNET DRAFT  Tunnels/RSVP Interoperability       March 1997
     INTERNET DRAFT                                John J. Krawczyk
     RSVP Working Group                          Bay Networks, Inc.
     draft-ietf-rsvp-tunnels-interop-00.txt          March 11, 1997
                                           Expires: September, 1997
            Designing Tunnels for Interoperability with RSVP
     1.  Status of this Memo
     This document is an Internet-Draft.  Internet-Drafts are
     working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force
     (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that other
     groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
     Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
     months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other
     documents at any time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-
     Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as
     "work in progress".
     To learn the current status of any Internet-Draft, please
     check the "1id-abstracts.txt" listing contained in the
     Internet-Drafts Shadow Directories on ftp.is.co.za (Africa),
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     ds.internic.net (US East Coast), or ftp.isi.edu (US West
     2.  Abstract
     This memo provides information for designers of tunneling
     protocols that use IP-in-IP encapsulation.  It describes how
     to design a tunnel header so that RSVP [RSVPv1] can be used to
     signal the Quality of Service requirements for individual
     flows within an IP-in-IP tunnel.
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     INTERNET DRAFT  Tunnels/RSVP Interoperability       March 1997
     3.  Introduction
     There are many issues concerning the use of RSVP when data is
     encapsulated within IP-in-IP tunnels.  This memo discusses the
     problem of classifying flows within a tunnel.  It is hoped
     that this will aid those designing new tunneling mechanisms to
     make their proposals "RSVP friendly".
     A problem with most of the existing IP-in-IP tunneling
     mechanisms is the inability to distinguish between flows
     within a tunnel based upon the tunnel "wrapper", or outer
     header.  Therefore, while it is possible to make a reservation
     for the tunnel itself, all traffic in the tunnel is then
     treated in the same manner.
     Performing classification based upon the tunnel payload is
     undesirable.  Two major reasons are:
          Examing additional fields in a packet can have severe
          performance penalties.
          The payload may be encrypted.
     Therefore, it is desirable to be able to distinguish flows
     based on fields in the encapsulating header.  This memo
     explains how to design a tunnel header to meet this goal.
     4.  Requirements for an RSVP-Friendly Tunnel Header
     We will assume here that any simplex IP-in-IP tunnel, unicast
     or multicast, can, at a minimum, be identified by the source
     and destination IP addresses and an IP protocol number [e.g.,
     RFC2003].  In order to classify individual flows within a
     tunnel, at least one additional field is needed.  To be
     compliant with RSVP version 1, the following alternatives can
     be considered:
          UDP/TCP ports, or fields in the same location in the
          packet for protocols other than UDP and TCP.
          For IPv6, the Flow ID.
          Any mechanism compliant with the Generalized Port
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     INTERNET DRAFT  Tunnels/RSVP Interoperability       March 1997
          Identifier as described in [RSVPIPSEC].
     If classification on any other fields is desired, new RSVP
     be defined.
     5.  An Example: UDP Encapsulation
     A UDP encapsulation scheme would be compatible with RSVP
     version 1.  A well-known port number is necessary for the UDP
     destination port field.  Up to 65534 individual flows could
     then be multiplexed over the tunnel by using a different value
     for the UDP source port for each flow.
     6.  Security Considerations
     Using a tunnel header as described in this document allows for
     a type of traffic pattern analysis. The required level of
     exposure may be acceptable in many situations because the
     actual source and destination of the traffic will not be
     visible if the end-to-end packet format does not make it so.
     If this exposure is unacceptable, per-flow classification is
     not possible.
     7.  References
     [RSVPv1] R. Braden, L. Zhang, S. Berson, S. Herzog, S. Jamin,
     "Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) -- Version 1 Functional
     Specification", Internet Draft draft-ietf-rsvp-spec-14.txt,
     November, 1996.
     [RFC2003] C. Perkins, "IP Encapsulation within IP", IETF RFC
     2003, October, 1996.
     [RSVPIPSEC] L. Berger, T. O'Malley, "RSVP Extensions for IPSEC
     Data Flows", Internet Draft draft-berger-rsvp-ext-06.txt, Jan,
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     INTERNET DRAFT  Tunnels/RSVP Interoperability       March 1997
     8.  Author's Address
     John J. Krawczyk
     Bay Networks, Inc.
     2 Federal Street
     Billerica, MA  01821
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