[Search] [txt|pdf|bibtex] [Tracker] [WG] [Email] [Diff1] [Diff2] [Nits]

Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 rfc4235                                  
SIPPING                                                     J. Rosenberg
Internet-Draft                                               dynamicsoft
Expires: December 29, 2003                                H. Schulzrinne
                                                     Columbia University
                                                           June 30, 2003


      An INVITE Inititiated Dialog Event Package  for the Session
                       Initiation Protocol (SIP)
                  draft-ietf-sipping-dialog-package-02

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that other
   groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at http://
   www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

   This Internet-Draft will expire on December 29, 2003.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003). All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

   This document defines a dialog event package for the SIP Events
   architecture, along with a data format used in notifications for this
   package. The dialog package allows users to subscribe to another
   user, an receive notifications about the changes in state of INVITE
   initiated dialogs that the user is involved in.








Rosenberg & Schulzrinne    Expires December 29, 2003            [Page 1]


Internet-Draft               Dialog Package                    June 2003


Table of Contents

   1.     Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.     Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   3.     Dialog Event Package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   3.1    Event Package Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   3.2    Event Package Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   3.3    SUBSCRIBE Bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   3.4    Subscription Duration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   3.5    NOTIFY Bodies  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   3.6    Notifier Processing of SUBSCRIBE Requests  . . . . . . . .   8
   3.7    Notifier Generation of NOTIFY Requests . . . . . . . . . .   8
   3.7.1  The Dialog State Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   3.7.2  Applying the state machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   3.8    Subscriber Processing of NOTIFY Requests . . . . . . . . .  12
   3.9    Handling of Forked Requests  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   3.10   Rate of Notifications  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   3.11   State Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   4.     Dialog Information Format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   4.1    Structure of Dialog Information  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   4.1.1  Dialog Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   4.1.2  State  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   4.1.3  Local URI  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   4.1.4  Remote URI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   4.1.5  Local Session Description  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   4.1.6  Remote Session Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   4.1.7  Remote Target  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   4.1.8  Local CSeq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   4.1.9  Remote CSeq  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   4.1.10 Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   4.2    Constructing Coherent State  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   4.3    Schema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   4.4    Example  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
   5.     Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
   6.     IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
   6.1    application/dialog-info+xml MIME Registration  . . . . . .  24
   6.2    URN Sub-Namespace Registration for
          urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
   6.3    Schema Registration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
   7.     Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
          Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
          Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
          Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
          Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . .  29







Rosenberg & Schulzrinne    Expires December 29, 2003            [Page 2]


Internet-Draft               Dialog Package                    June 2003


1. Introduction

   The SIP Events framework [1] defines general mechanisms for
   subscription to, and notification of, events within SIP networks. It
   introduces the notion of a package, which is a specific
   "instantiation" of the events mechanism for a well-defined set of
   events. Packages have been defined for user presence [10], watcher
   information [11], and message waiting indicators [12], amongst
   others. Here, we define an event package for INVITE initiated
   dialogs. Dialogs refer to the SIP relationship established between
   two SIP peers [2]. Dialogs can be created by many methods, although
   RFC 3261 defines only one - the INVITE method. RFC 3265 defines the
   SUBSCRIBE and NOTIFY methods, which also create dialogs. However, the
   usage of this package to model transitions in the state of those
   dialogs is out of the scope of this specification.

   There are a variety of applications enabled through the knowledge of
   INVITE dialog state. Some examples include:

   Automatic Callback: In this basic Public Switched Telephone Network
      (PSTN) application, user A calls user B. User B is busy. User A
      would like to get a callback when user B hangs up. When B hangs
      up, user A's phone rings. When A picks it up, they here ringing,
      and are being connected to B. To implement this with SIP, a
      mechanism is required for B to receive a notification when the
      dialogs at A are complete.

   Presence-Enabled Conferencing: In this application, a user A wishes
      to set up a conference call with users B and C. Rather than
      scheduling it, it is to be created automatically when A, B and C
      are all available. To do this, the server providing the
      application would like to know whether A, B and C are "online",
      not idle, and not in a phone call. Determining whether or not A, B
      and C are in calls can be done in two ways. In the first, the
      server acts as a call stateful proxy for users A, B and C, and
      therefore knows their call state. This won't always be possible,
      however, and it introduces scalability, reliability, and
      operational complexities. Rather, the server would subscriber to
      the dialog state of those users, and receive notifications as it
      changes. This enables the application to be provided in a
      distributed way; the server need not reside in the same domain as
      the users.

   IM Conference Alerts: In this application, a user can get an IM sent
      to their phone whenever someone joins a conference that the phone
      is involved in. The IM alerts are generated by an application
      separate from the conference server.




Rosenberg & Schulzrinne    Expires December 29, 2003            [Page 3]


Internet-Draft               Dialog Package                    June 2003


   In general, the dialog package allows for construction of distributed
   applications, where the application requires information on dialog
   state, but is not co-resident with the end user on which that state
   resides.















































Rosenberg & Schulzrinne    Expires December 29, 2003            [Page 4]


Internet-Draft               Dialog Package                    June 2003


2. Terminology

   In this document, the key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED",
   "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY",
   and "OPTIONAL" are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [9] and
   indicate requirement levels for compliant implementations.













































Rosenberg & Schulzrinne    Expires December 29, 2003            [Page 5]


Internet-Draft               Dialog Package                    June 2003


3. Dialog Event Package

   This section provides the details for defining a SIP Events package,
   as specified by [1].

3.1 Event Package Name

   The name of this event package is "dialog". This package name is
   carried in the Event and Allow-Events header, as defined in [1].

3.2 Event Package Parameters

   This package defines three Event Package parameters. They are
   call-id, to-tag and from-tag. If a subscription to a specific dialog
   is requested, all three of these parameters MUST be present. They
   identify the dialog that is being subscribed to. The to-tag is
   matched against the local tag, the from-tag is matched against the
   remote tag, and the call-id is matched against the Call-ID.

   It is also possible to subscribe to the set of dialogs created as a
   result of a single INVITE sent by a UAC. In that case, the call-id
   and to-tag MUST be present. The to-tag is matched against the local
   tag, and the call-id is matched against the Call-ID.

   The BNF for these parameters is:

   call-id     =  "call-id" EQUAL SWS DQUOTE callid DQUOTE
                    ;;callid, EQUAL, SWS, DQUOTE from RFC3261
   from-tag    =  "from-tag" EQUAL token
   to-tag      =  "to-tag" EQUAL token

   Note that the call-id parameter is a quoted string. This is because
   the BNF for word (which is used by callid) allows for characters not
   allowed within token.

3.3 SUBSCRIBE Bodies

   A SUBSCRIBE for a dialog package MAY contain a body. This body
   defines a filter to apply to the subscription. Filter documents are
   not specified in this document, and at the time of writing, are
   expected to be the subject of future standardization activity.

   A SUBSCRIBE for a dialog package MAY be sent without a body. This
   implies the default subscription filtering policy. The default policy
   is:

   o  If the Event header field contained dialog identifiers,
      notifications are generated every time there is a change in the



Rosenberg & Schulzrinne    Expires December 29, 2003            [Page 6]


Internet-Draft               Dialog Package                    June 2003


      state of any matching dialogs for the user identified in the
      request URI of the SUBSCRIBE.

   o  If there were no dialog identifiers in the Event header field,
      notifications are generated every time there is any change in the
      state of any dialogs for the user identified in the request URI of
      the SUBSCRIBE.

   o  Notifications do not normally contain full state; rather, they
      only indicate the state of the dialog whose state has changed. The
      exception is a NOTIFY sent in response to a SUBSCRIBE. These
      NOTIFYs contain the complete view of dialog state.

   o  The notifications contain the identities of the participants in
      the dialog, and the dialog identifiers. Additional information,
      such as the route set, remote target URI, CSeq numbers, SDP
      information, and so on, are not included normally unless
      explicitly requested and/or explicitly authorized.


3.4 Subscription Duration

   Dialog state changes fairly quickly; once established, a typical
   phone call lasts a few minutes (this is different for other session
   types, of course). However, the interval between new calls is
   typically infrequent. As such, we arbitrarily choose a default
   duration of one hour. Clients SHOULD specify an explicit duration.

   There are two distinct use cases for dialog state. The first is when
   a subscriber is interested in the state of a specific dialog or
   dialogs (and they are authorized to find out about just the state of
   those dialogs). In that case, when the dialogs terminate, so too does
   the subscription. In these cases, the value of the subscription
   duration is largely irrelevant, and SHOULD be longer than the typical
   duration of a dialog, about two hours would cover most dialogs.

   In another case, a subscriber is interested in the state of all
   dialogs for a specific user. In these cases, a shorter interval makes
   more sense. The default is one hour for these subscriptions.

3.5 NOTIFY Bodies

   As described in RFC 3265 [1], the NOTIFY message will contain bodies
   that describe the state of the subscribed resource. This body is in a
   format listed in the Accept header field of the SUBSCRIBE, or a
   package-specific default if the Accept header field was omitted from
   the SUBSCRIBE.




Rosenberg & Schulzrinne    Expires December 29, 2003            [Page 7]


Internet-Draft               Dialog Package                    June 2003


   In this event package, the body of the notification contains a dialog
   information document. This document describes the state of one or
   more dialogs associated with the subscribed resource. All subscribers
   and notifiers MUST support the "application/dialog-info+xml" data
   format described in Section 4. The subscribe request MAY contain an
   Accept header field. If no such header field is present, it has a
   default value of "application/dialog-info+xml". If the header field
   is present, it MUST include "application/dialog-info+xml", and MAY
   include any other types capable of representing dialog state.

   Of course, the notifications generated by the server MUST be in one
   of the formats specified in the Accept header field in the SUBSCRIBE
   request.

3.6 Notifier Processing of SUBSCRIBE Requests

   The dialog information for a user contains sensitive information.
   Therefore, all subscriptions SHOULD be authenticated and then
   authorized before approval. All implementors of this package MUST
   support the digest authentication mechanism as a baseline.
   Authorization policy is at the discretion of the administrator, as
   always. However, a few recommendations can be made.

   It is RECOMMENDED that, if the policy of user B is that user A is
   allowed to call them, dialog subscriptions from user A be allowed.
   However, the information provided in the notifications does not
   contain any dialog identification information; merely an indication
   of whether the user is in one or more calls, or not. Specifically,
   they should not be able to find out any more information than if they
   sent an INVITE.

   It is RECOMMENDED that if a user agent registers with the
   address-of-record X, that this user agent authorize subscriptions
   that come from any entity that can authenticate itself as X. Complete
   information on the dialog state SHOULD be sent in this case. This
   authorization behavior allows a group of devices representing a
   single user to all become aware of each other's state. This is useful
   for applications such as single-line-extension.

3.7 Notifier Generation of NOTIFY Requests

   Notifications are generated for the dialog package when an INVITE
   request is sent, when a new dialog comes into existence at a UA, or
   when the state or characteristics of an existing dialog changes.
   Therefore, a model of dialog state is needed in order to determine
   precisely when to send notifications, and what their content should
   be. The SIP specification has a reasonably well defined lifecycle for
   dialogs. However, it is not explicitly modelled. This specification



Rosenberg & Schulzrinne    Expires December 29, 2003            [Page 8]


Internet-Draft               Dialog Package                    June 2003


   provides an explicit model of dialog state through a finite state
   machine.

   It is RECOMMENDED that NOTIFY requests only contain information on
   the dialogs whose state has changed. However, if a notifier receives
   a SUBSCRIBE request, the triggered NOTIFY SHOULD contain the state of
   all dialogs that the subscriber is authorized to see.

3.7.1 The Dialog State Machine

   Modelling of dialog state is complicated by two factors. The first is
   forking, which can cause a single INVITE to generate many dialogs at
   a UAC. The second is the differing views of state at the UAC and UAS.
   We have chosen to handle the first issue by extending the dialog FSM
   to include the states between transmission of the INVITE and the
   creation of actual dialogs through receipt of 1xx and 2xx responses.
   As a result, this specification supports the notion of dialog state
   for dialogs before they are fully instantiated.

   We have also chosen to use a single FSM for both UAC and UAS.


                +----------+            +----------+
                |          | 1xx-notag  |          |
                |          |----------->|          |
                |  Trying  |            |Proceeding|-----+
                |          |---+  +-----|          |     |
                |          |   |  |     |          |     |
                +----------+   |  |     +----------+     |
                     |   |     |  |          |           |
                     |   |     |  |          |           |
                     +<--C-----C--+          |1xx-tag    |
                     |   |     |             |           |
            cancelled|   |     |             V           |
             rejected|   |     |1xx-tag +----------+     |
                     |   |     +------->|          |     |2xx
                     |   |              |          |     |
                     +<--C--------------|  Early   |-----C----+1xx-tag
                     |   |              |          |     |    | w. new tag
                     |   |              |          |<----C----+ (new
                     |   |              +----------+     |       FSM
                     |   |   2xx             |           |       instance
                     |   +----------------+  |           |       created)
                     |                    |  |2xx        |
                     |                    |  |           |
                     V                    V  V           |
                +----------+            +----------+     |
                |          |            |          |     |



Rosenberg & Schulzrinne    Expires December 29, 2003            [Page 9]


Internet-Draft               Dialog Package                    June 2003


                |          |            |          |     |
                |Terminated|<-----------| Confirmed|<----+
                |          |    hungup  |          |
                |          |    error   |          |
                +----------+    timeout +----------+
                                          |      ^
                                          |      |
                                          |      |
                                          +------+
                                           2xx w. new tag
                                            (new FSM instance
                                             created)

                                Figure 2

   The FSM for dialog state is shown in Figure 2. The FSM is best
   understood by considering the UAC and UAS cases separately.

   The FSM is created in the "trying" state when the UAC sends an INVITE
   request. Upon receipt of a 1xx without a tag (the "1xx-notag" event),
   the FSM transitions to the "proceeding" state. Note that there is no
   actual dialog yet, as defined by the SIP specification. However,
   there is a "half-dialog", in the sense that two of the three
   components of the dialog ID are known (the call identifier and local
   tag). If a 1xx with a tag is received, the FSM transitions to the
   early state. The full dialog identifier is now defined. Had a 2xx
   been received, the FSM would have transitioned to the "confirmed"
   state.

   If, after transitioning to the "early" or ``confirmed'' states, the
   UAC receives another 1xx or 2xx respectively with a different tag,
   another instance of the FSM is created, initialized into the "early"
   or "confirmed" state respectively. The benefit of this approach is
   that there will be a single FSM representing the entire state of the
   invitation and resulting dialog when dealing with the common case of
   no forking.

   If the UAC should send a CANCEL, and then subsequently receive a 487
   to its INVITE transaction, all FSMs spawned from that INVITE
   transition to the "terminated" state with the event ``cancelled''. If
   the INVITE transaction terminates with a non-2xx response for any
   other reason,  all FSMs spawned from that INVITE transition to the
   terminated state with the event "rejected".

   Once in the confirmed state, the call is active. It can transition to
   the terminated state if the UAC sends a BYE or receives a BYE
   (corresponding to the "hungup" event), if a mid-dialog request
   generates a 481 or 408 response (corresponding to the "error" event),



Rosenberg & Schulzrinne    Expires December 29, 2003           [Page 10]


Internet-Draft               Dialog Package                    June 2003


   or a mid-dialog request generates no response (corresponding to the
   "timeout" event).

   From the perspective of the UAS, when an INVITE is received, the FSM
   is created in the "trying" state. If it sends a 1xx without a tag,
   the FSM transitions to the "proceeding" state. If a 1xx is sent with
   a tag, the FSM transitions to the "early" state, and if a 2xx is
   sent, it transitions to the "confirmed" state. If the UAS should
   receive a CANCEL request and then generate a 487 response to the
   INVITE (which can occur in the proceeding and early states), the FSM
   transitions to the terminated state with the event "cancelled". If
   the UAS should generate any other non-2xx final response to the
   INVITE request, the FSM transitions to the terminated state with the
   event "rejected". Once in the ``confirmed'' state, the transitions to
   the "terminated" state occur for the same reasons they do in the case
   of UAC.

      There should never be a transition from the "trying" state to the
      "terminated" state with the event ``cancelled'', since the SIP
      specification prohibits transmission of CANCEL until a provisional
      response is received. However, this transition is defined in the
      FSM just to unify the transitions from trying, proceeding, and
      early to the terminated state.


3.7.2 Applying the state machine

   The notifier MAY generate a NOTIFY request on any event transition of
   the FSM. Whether it does or not is policy dependent. However, some
   general guidelines are provided.

   When the subscriber is unauthenticated, or is authenticated, but
   represents a third party with no specific authorization policies, it
   is RECOMMENDED that subscriptions to an individual dialog, or to a
   specific set of dialogs, is forbidden. Only subscriptions to all
   dialogs (i.e., there are no dialog identifiers in the Event header
   field) are permitted. In that case, actual dialog states across all
   dialogs not be reported. Rather, a single "virtual" dialog FSM be
   used, and event transitions on that FSM be reported. If there is any
   dialog at the UA whose state is "confirmed", the virtual FSM is in
   the "confirmed" state. If there are no dialogs at the UA in the
   confirmed state, but there is at least one in the "early" state, the
   virtual FSM is in the "early" or "confirmed" state. If there are no
   dialogs in the confirmed or early states, but there is at least one
   in the "proceeding" state, the virtual FSM is in the "proceeding",
   "early" or "confirmed" state. If there are no dialogs in the
   confirmed, early, or proceeding states, but there is at least one in
   the "trying" state, the virtual FSM is in the "trying", "proceeding",



Rosenberg & Schulzrinne    Expires December 29, 2003           [Page 11]


Internet-Draft               Dialog Package                    June 2003


   "early" or "confirmed" state. The choice about which state to use
   depends on whether the UA wishes to let unknown users that their
   phone is ringing, as opposed to in an active call. It is RECOMMENDED
   that, in the absence of any preference, "confirmed" is used in all
   cases. Furthermore, it is RECOMMENDED that the notifications of
   changes in the virtual FSM machine not convey any information except
   the state of the FSM and its event transitions - no dialog
   identifiers (which are ill-defined in this model in any case). The
   use of this virtual FSM allows for minimal information to be
   conveyed. A subscriber cannot know how many calls are in progress, or
   with whom, just that there exists a call. This is the same
   information they would receive if they simply sent an INVITE to the
   user instead; a 486 response would indicate that they are on a call.

   When the subscriber is authenticated, and has authenticated itself
   with the same address-of-record that the UA itself uses, if no
   explicit authorization policy is defined, it is RECOMMENDED that all
   state transitions on dialogs that have been subscribed to (which is
   either all of them, if no dialog identifiers were present in the
   Event header field, or a specific set of them identified by the Event
   header field parameters) be reported, along with complete dialog IDs.

   The notifier MAY generate a NOTIFY request on any change in the
   characteristics associated with the dialog. Since these include CSeq
   numbers and SDP, receipt of re-INVITEs and UPDATE requests [3] which
   modify this information MAY trigger notifications.

3.8 Subscriber Processing of NOTIFY Requests

   The SIP Events framework expects packages to specify how a subscriber
   processes NOTIFY requests in any package specific ways, and in
   particular, how it uses the NOTIFY requests to contruct a coherent
   view of the state of the subscribed resource.

   Typically, the NOTIFY for the dialog package will only contain
   information about those dialogs whose state has changed. To construct
   a coherent view of the total state of all dialogs, a subscriber to
   the dialog package will need to combine NOTIFYs received over time.

   Notifications within this package can convey partial information;
   that is, they can indicate information about a subset of the state
   associated with the subscription. This means that an explicit
   algorithm needs to be defined in order to construct coherent and
   consistent state. The details of this mechanism are specific to the
   particular document type. See Section 4.2 for information on
   constructing coherent information from an application/dialog-info+xml
   document.




Rosenberg & Schulzrinne    Expires December 29, 2003           [Page 12]


Internet-Draft               Dialog Package                    June 2003


3.9 Handling of Forked Requests

   Since dialog state is distributed across the UA for a particular
   user, it is reasonable and useful for a SUBSCRIBE request for dialog
   state to fork, and reach multiple UA.

   As a result, a forked SUBSCRIBE request for dialog state can install
   multiple subscriptions. Subscribers to this package MUST be prepared
   to install subscription state for each NOTIFY generated as a result
   of a single SUBSCRIBE.

3.10 Rate of Notifications

   For reasons of congestion control, it is important that the rate of
   notifications not become excessive. As a result, it is RECOMMENDED
   that the server not generate notifications for a single subscriber at
   a rate faster than once every 5 seconds.

3.11 State Agents

   Dialog state is ideally maintained in the user agents in which the
   dialog resides. Therefore, the elements that maintain the dialog are
   the ones best suited to handle subscriptions to it. However, in some
   cases, a network agent may also know the state of the dialogs held by
   a user. As such, state agents MAY be used with this package.


























Rosenberg & Schulzrinne    Expires December 29, 2003           [Page 13]


Internet-Draft               Dialog Package                    June 2003


4. Dialog Information Format

   Dialog information is an XML document [4] that MUST be well-formed
   and SHOULD be valid. Dialog information documents MUST be based on
   XML 1.0 and MUST be encoded using UTF-8. This specification makes use
   of XML namespaces for identifying dialog information documents and
   document fragments. The namespace URI for elements defined by this
   specification is a URN [5], using the namespace identifier 'ietf'
   defined by [6] and extended by [7]. This URN is:

   urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info

   A dialog information document begins with the root element tag
   "dialog-info".

4.1 Structure of Dialog Information

   A dialog information document starts with a dialog-info element. This
   element has three mandatory attributes:

   version: This attribute allows the recipient of dialog information
      documents to properly order them. Versions start at 0, and
      increment by one for each new document sent to a subscriber.
      Versions are scoped within a subscription. Versions MUST be
      representable using a 32 bit integer.

   state: This attribute indicates whether the document contains the
      full dialog information, or whether it contains only information
      on those dialogs which have changed since the previous document
      (partial).

   entity: This attribute contains a URI that identifies the user whose
      dialog information is reported in the remainder of the document.
      This user is referred to as the "observed user".

   The dialog-info element has a series of dialog sub-elements. Each of
   those represents a specific dialog.

4.1.1 Dialog Element

   The dialog element reports information on a specific dialog or
   "half-dialog". It has a single mandatory attribute, id. The id
   attribute provides a single string that can be used as an identifier
   for this dialog or "half-dialog". This is a different identifier than
   the dialog ID defined in RFC 3261 [2], but related to it.

   For a caller, the id is created when an INVITE request is sent. When
   a 1xx with a tag, or a 2xx is received, the dialog is formally



Rosenberg & Schulzrinne    Expires December 29, 2003           [Page 14]


Internet-Draft               Dialog Package                    June 2003


   created. The id remains unchanged. However, if an additional 1xx or
   2xx is received, resulting in the creation of another dialog (and
   resulting FSM), that dialog is allocated a new id.

   For a callee, the id is created when an INVITE outside of an existing
   dialog is received. When a 2xx or a 1xx with a tag is sent, creating
   the dialog, the id remains unchanged.

   The id MUST be unique amongst all dialogs at a UA.

   There are a number of optional attributes which provide
   identification information about the dialog:

   call-id: This attribute is a string which represents the call-id
      component of the dialog identifier.

   local-tag: This attribute is a string which represents the local-tag
      component of the dialog identifier.

   remote-tag: This attribute is a string which represents the
      remote-tag component of the dialog identifier. The remote tag
      attribute won't be present if there is only a "half-dialog",
      resulting from the generation of an INVITE for which no final
      responses or provisional responses with tags has been received.

   direction: This attribute is either initiator or recipient, and
      indicates whether the observed user was the initiator of the
      dialog, or the recipient of the INVITE that created it.

   The sub-elements of the dialog element provide additional information
   about the dialog. The only mandatory one is state.

4.1.2 State

   The state element indicates the state of the dialog. Its value is an
   enumerated type describing one of the states in the FSM above. It has
   an optional event attribute that can be used to indicate the event
   which caused the transition into the current state, and an optional
   code attribute that indicates the response code associated with the
   transition, assuming the event was caused by a response.

4.1.3 Local URI

   The local-uri element indicates the local URI, as defined in [2]. It
   has an optional attribute, display-name, that contains the display
   name from the local URI.





Rosenberg & Schulzrinne    Expires December 29, 2003           [Page 15]


Internet-Draft               Dialog Package                    June 2003


4.1.4 Remote URI

   The remote-uri element indicates the remote URI, as defined in [2].
   It has an optional attribute, display-name, that contains the display
   name from the remote URI.

4.1.5 Local Session Description

   The local-session-description element contains the session
   description used by the observed user for its end of the dialog. This
   element should generally NOT be included in the notifications, unless
   explicitly requested by the subscriber. It has a single attribute,
   type, which indicates the MIME media type of the session description.

4.1.6 Remote Session Description

   The remote-session-description element contains the session
   description used by the peer of the observed user for its end of the
   dialog. This element should generally NOT be included in the
   notifications, unless explicitly requested by the subscriber. It has
   a single attribute, type, which indicates the MIME media type of the
   session description.

4.1.7 Remote Target

   The remote-target contains the remote-target URI as constructed by
   the user agent for this dialog, as defined in RFC 3261 [2]. This
   element should generally not be included in notifications, unless
   explicitly requested by the subscriber.

4.1.8 Local CSeq

   The local-cseq element contains the most recent value of the CSeq
   header used by the UA in an outgoing request on the dialog. This
   element should generally NOT be included in the notifications, unless
   explicitly requested by the subscriber. If no CSeq has yet been
   defined, the value of the element is -1.

4.1.9 Remote CSeq

   The remote-cseq element contains the most recent value of the CSeq
   header seen by the UA in an incoming request on the dialog. This
   element should generally NOT be included in the notifications, unless
   explicitly requested by the subscriber. If no CSeq has yet been
   defined, the value of the element is -1.

4.1.10 Duration




Rosenberg & Schulzrinne    Expires December 29, 2003           [Page 16]


Internet-Draft               Dialog Package                    June 2003


   The duration element contains the amount of time, in seconds, since
   the FSM was created.

4.2 Constructing Coherent State

   The dialog information subscriber maintains a table for the list of
   dialogs. The table contains a row for each dialog. Each row is
   indexed by an ID, present in the "id" attribute of the "dialog"
   element. The contents of each row contain the state of that dialog as
   conveyed in the document. The table is also associated with a version
   number. The version number MUST be initialized with the value of the
   "version" attribute from the "dialog-info" element in the first
   document received. Each time a new document is received, the value of
   the local version number, and the "version" attribute in the new
   document, are compared. If the value in the new document is one
   higher than the local version number, the local version number is
   increased by one, and the document is processed. If the value in the
   document is more than one higher than the local version number, the
   local version number is set to the value in the new document, and the
   document is processed. If the document did not contain full state,
   the subscriber SHOULD generate a refresh request to trigger a full
   state notification. If the value in the document is less than the
   local version, the document is discarded without processing.

   The processing of the dialog information document depends on whether
   it contains full or partial state. If it contains full state,
   indicated by the value of the "state" attribute in the "dialog-info"
   element, the contents of the table are flushed. They are repopulated
   from the document. A new row in the table is created for each
   "dialog" element. If the document contains partial state, as
   indicated by the value of the "state" attribute in the "dialog-info"
   element, the document is used to update the table. For each "dialog"
   element in the document, the subscriber checks to see whether a row
   exists for that dialog. This check is done by comparing the ID in the
   "id" attribute of the "dialog" element with the ID associated with
   the row. If the dialog doesn't exist in the table, a row is added,
   and its state is set to the information from that "dialog" element.
   If the dialog does exist, its state is updated to be the information
   from that "dialog" element. If a row is updated or created, such that
   its state is now terminated, that entry MAY be removed from the table
   at any time.

4.3 Schema

   The following is the schema for the application/dialog-info+xml type:


   <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>



Rosenberg & Schulzrinne    Expires December 29, 2003           [Page 17]


Internet-Draft               Dialog Package                    June 2003


   <xs:schema
     targetNamespace="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info"
     xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
     xmlns:tns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info"
     elementFormDefault="qualified"
     attributeFormDefault="unqualified">
     <!-- This import brings in the XML language attribute xml:lang-->
     <xs:import namespace="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace"
        schemaLocation="http://www.w3.org/2001/03/xml.xsd"/>
     <xs:element name="dialog-info">
       <xs:complexType>
         <xs:sequence>
           <xs:element ref="tns:dialog" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
           <xs:any namespace="##other" processContents="lax"
              minOccurs="0"  maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
         </xs:sequence>
         <xs:attribute name="version" type="xs:nonNegativeInteger"
              use="required"/>
         <xs:attribute name="state" use="required">
           <xs:simpleType>
             <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
               <xs:enumeration value="full"/>
               <xs:enumeration value="partial"/>
             </xs:restriction>
           </xs:simpleType>
         </xs:attribute>
         <xs:attribute name="entity" type="xs:anyURI" use="required"/>
       </xs:complexType>
     </xs:element>
     <xs:element name="dialog">
       <xs:complexType>
         <xs:sequence>
           <xs:element ref="tns:state"/>
           <xs:element name="duration" type="xs:nonNegativeInteger"
             minOccurs="0"/>
           <xs:element name="local-uri" type="tns:nameaddr"
             minOccurs="0"/>
           <xs:element name="remote-uri" type="tns:nameaddr"
             minOccurs="0"/>
           <xs:element name="local-session-description" type="tns:sessd"
             minOccurs="0"/>
           <xs:element name="remote-session-description" type="tns:sessd"
             minOccurs="0"/>
           <xs:element name="remote-target" type="tns:nameaddr"
             minOccurs="0"/>
           <xs:element name="local-cseq" type="xs:nonNegativeInteger"
             minOccurs="0"/>
           <xs:element name="remote-cseq" type="xs:nonNegativeInteger"



Rosenberg & Schulzrinne    Expires December 29, 2003           [Page 18]


Internet-Draft               Dialog Package                    June 2003


             minOccurs="0"/>
           <xs:any namespace="##other" processContents="lax"
             minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
         </xs:sequence>
         <xs:attribute name="id" type="xs:string" use="required"/>
         <xs:attribute name="call-id" type="xs:string" use="optional"/>
         <xs:attribute name="local-tag" type="xs:string" use="optional"/>
         <xs:attribute name="remote-tag" type="xs:string" use="optional"/>
         <xs:attribute name="direction" use="optional">
           <xs:simpleType>
             <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
               <xs:enumeration value="initiator"/>
               <xs:enumeration value="recipient"/>
             </xs:restriction>
           </xs:simpleType>
         </xs:attribute>
       </xs:complexType>
     </xs:element>
     <xs:complexType name="nameaddr">
       <xs:simpleContent>
         <xs:extension base="xs:anyURI">
           <xs:attribute name="display-name" type="xs:string"/>
         </xs:extension>
       </xs:simpleContent>
     </xs:complexType>
     <xs:complexType name="sessd">
       <xs:simpleContent>
         <xs:extension base="xs:string">
           <xs:attribute name="type" type="xs:string"/>
         </xs:extension>
       </xs:simpleContent>
     </xs:complexType>
     <xs:element name="state">
       <xs:complexType>
         <xs:simpleContent>
           <xs:extension base="xs:string">
             <xs:attribute name="event" use="optional">
               <xs:simpleType>
                 <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
                   <xs:enumeration value="1xx-notag"/>
                   <xs:enumeration value="1xx-tag"/>
                   <xs:enumeration value="2xx"/>
                   <xs:enumeration value="cancelled"/>
                   <xs:enumeration value="rejected"/>
                   <xs:enumeration value="hungup"/>
                   <xs:enumeration value="error"/>
                   <xs:enumeration value="timeout"/>
                 </xs:restriction>



Rosenberg & Schulzrinne    Expires December 29, 2003           [Page 19]


Internet-Draft               Dialog Package                    June 2003


               </xs:simpleType>
             </xs:attribute>
             <xs:attribute name="code" use="optional">
               <xs:simpleType>
                 <xs:restriction base="xs:positiveInteger">
                   <xs:minInclusive value="100"/>
                   <xs:maxInclusive value="699"/>
                 </xs:restriction>
               </xs:simpleType>
             </xs:attribute>
           </xs:extension>
         </xs:simpleContent>
       </xs:complexType>
     </xs:element>
   </xs:schema>



4.4 Example

   For example, if a UAC sends an INVITE that looks like, in part:


   INVITE sip:bob@example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pc33.example.com;branch=z9hG4bKnashds8
   Max-Forwards: 70
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=1928301774
   Call-ID: a84b4c76e66710
   CSeq: 314159 INVITE
   Contact: <sip:alice@pc33.example.com>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: 142

   [SDP not shown]

   The XML document in a notification from Alice might look like:


   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <dialog-info xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info"
                version="0"
                state="full"
                entity="sip:alice@example.com">
     <dialog id="as7d900as8" call-id="a84b4c76e66710"
             local-tag="1928301774" direction="initiator">
       <state>trying</state>
     </dialog>



Rosenberg & Schulzrinne    Expires December 29, 2003           [Page 20]


Internet-Draft               Dialog Package                    June 2003


   </dialog-info>

   If the following 180 response is received:


   SIP/2.0 180 Ringing
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pc33.example.com;branch=z9hG4bKnashds8
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>;tag=456887766
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=1928301774
   Call-ID: a84b4c76e66710
   CSeq: 314159 INVITE
   Contact: <sip:bob@host.example.com>

   The XML document in a notification might look like:


   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <dialog-info xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info"
                version="1"
                state="full"
                entity="sip:alice@example.com">
     <dialog id="as7d900as8" call-id="a84b4c76e66710"
             local-tag="1928301774" remote-tag="456887766"
             direction="initiator">
       <state>early</state>
     </dialog>
   </dialog-info>

   If it receives a second 180 with a different tag:


   SIP/2.0 180 Ringing
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pc33.example.com;branch=z9hG4bKnashds8
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>;tag=hh76a
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=1928301774
   Call-ID: a84b4c76e66710
   CSeq: 314159 INVITE
   Contact: <sip:jack@host.example.com>

   This results in the creation of a second dialog:











Rosenberg & Schulzrinne    Expires December 29, 2003           [Page 21]


Internet-Draft               Dialog Package                    June 2003


   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <dialog-info xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info"
                version="2"
                state="full"
                entity="sip:alice@example.com">
     <dialog id="as7d900as8" call-id="a84b4c76e66710"
             local-tag="1928301774" remote-tag="456887766"
             direction="initiator">
       <state>early</state>
     </dialog>
     <dialog id="as7d900as8" call-id="a84b4c76e66710"
             local-tag="1928301774" remote-tag="hh76a"
             direction="initiator">
       <state>early</state>
     </dialog>
   </dialog-info>

   If a 200 OK is received on the second dialog, it moves to confirmed:


   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <dialog-info xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info"
                version="3"
                state="partial"
                entity="sip:alice@example.com">
     <dialog id="as7d900as8" call-id="a84b4c76e66710"
             local-tag="1928301774" remote-tag="hh76a"
             direction="initiator">
       <state>confirmed</state>
     </dialog>
   </dialog-info>

   32 seconds later, the other early dialog terminates because no 2xx is
   received for it. This implies that it was successfully cancelled, and
   therefore the following notification is sent:


   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <dialog-info xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info"
                version="4"
                state="partial"
                entity="sip:alice@example.com">
     <dialog id="as7d900as8" call-id="a84b4c76e66710"
             local-tag="1928301774" remote-tag="hh76a"
             direction="initiator">
       <state event="cancelled">terminated</state>
     </dialog>
   </dialog-info>



Rosenberg & Schulzrinne    Expires December 29, 2003           [Page 22]


Internet-Draft               Dialog Package                    June 2003


5. Security Considerations

   Subscriptions to dialog state can reveal sensitive information. For
   this reason, Section 3.6 discusses authentication and authorization
   of subscriptions, and provides guidelines on sensible authorization
   policies. All implementations of this package MUST support the digest
   authentication mechanism.

   Since the data in notifications is sensitive as well, end-to-end SIP
   encryption mechanisms using S/MIME MAY be used to protect it.









































Rosenberg & Schulzrinne    Expires December 29, 2003           [Page 23]


Internet-Draft               Dialog Package                    June 2003


6. IANA Considerations

   This document registers a new MIME type, application/dialog-info+xml
   and registers a new XML namespace.

6.1 application/dialog-info+xml MIME Registration

   MIME media type name: application

   MIME subtype name: dialog-info+xml

   Mandatory parameters: none

   Optional parameters: Same as charset parameter application/xml as
      specified in RFC 3023 [8].

   Encoding considerations: Same as encoding considerations of
      application/xml as specified in RFC 3023 [8].

   Security considerations: See Section 10 of RFC 3023 [8] and Section 5
      of this specification.

   Interoperability considerations: none.

   Published specification: This document.

   Applications which use this media type: This document type has been
      used to support SIP applications such as call return and
      auto-conference.

   Additional Information:

      Magic Number: None

      File Extension: .dif or .xml

      Macintosh file type code: "TEXT"

   Personal and email address for further information: Jonathan
      Rosenberg, <jdrosen@jdrosen.net>

   Intended usage: COMMON

   Author/Change controller: The IETF.







Rosenberg & Schulzrinne    Expires December 29, 2003           [Page 24]


Internet-Draft               Dialog Package                    June 2003


6.2 URN Sub-Namespace Registration for
    urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info

   This section registers a new XML namespace, as per the guidelines in
   [7].

   URI: The URI for this namespace is
      urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info.

   Registrant Contact: IETF, SIPPING working group, <sipping@ietf.org>,
      Jonathan Rosenberg <jdrosen@jdrosen.net>.

   XML:


   BEGIN
   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML Basic 1.0//EN"
             "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml-basic/xhtml-basic10.dtd">
   <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
   <head>
     <meta http-equiv="content-type"
        content="text/html;charset=iso-8859-1"/>
     <title>Dialog Information Namespace</title>
   </head
   <body>
     <h1>Namespace for Dialog Information</h1>
     <h2>urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:dialog-info</h2>
     <p>See <a href="[[[URL of published RFC]]]">RFCXXXX</a>.</p>
   </body>
   </html>
   END


6.3 Schema Registration

   This specification registers a schema, as per the guidelines in in
   [7].

      URI: please assign.

      Registrant Contact: IETF, SIPPING Working Group
      (sipping@ietf.org), Jonathan Rosenberg (jdrosen@jdrosen.net).

      XML: The XML can be found as the sole content of Section 4.3.






Rosenberg & Schulzrinne    Expires December 29, 2003           [Page 25]


Internet-Draft               Dialog Package                    June 2003


7. Acknowledgements

   The author would like to thank Sean Olson for his comments.
















































Rosenberg & Schulzrinne    Expires December 29, 2003           [Page 26]


Internet-Draft               Dialog Package                    June 2003


Normative References

   [1]  Roach, A., "Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)-Specific Event
        Notification", RFC 3265, June 2002.

   [2]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston, A.,
        Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M. and E. Schooler, "SIP:
        Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261, June 2002.

   [3]  Rosenberg, J., "The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) UPDATE
        Method", RFC 3311, October 2002.

   [4]  Bray, T., Paoli, J., Sperberg-McQueen, C. and E. Maler,
        "Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Second Edition)", W3C REC
        REC-xml-20001006, October 2000.

   [5]  Moats, R., "URN Syntax", RFC 2141, May 1997.

   [6]  Moats, R., "A URN Namespace for IETF Documents", RFC 2648,
        August 1999.

   [7]  Mealling, M., "The IETF XML Registry",
        draft-mealling-iana-xmlns-registry-05 (work in progress), June
        2003.

   [8]  Murata, M., St. Laurent, S. and D. Kohn, "XML Media Types", RFC
        3023, January 2001.

   [9]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
        Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.





















Rosenberg & Schulzrinne    Expires December 29, 2003           [Page 27]


Internet-Draft               Dialog Package                    June 2003


Informative References

   [10]  Rosenberg, J., "A Presence Event Package for the Session
         Initiation Protocol (SIP)", draft-ietf-simple-presence-10 (work
         in progress), January 2003.

   [11]  Rosenberg, J., "A Watcher Information Event Template-Package
         for the Session Initiation  Protocol (SIP)",
         draft-ietf-simple-winfo-package-05 (work in progress), January
         2003.

   [12]  Mahy, R., "A Message Summary and Message Waiting Indication
         Event Package for the  Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)",
         draft-ietf-sipping-mwi-02 (work in progress), March 2003.


Authors' Addresses

   Jonathan Rosenberg
   dynamicsoft
   600 Lanidex Plaza
   Parsippany, NJ  07054
   US

   Phone: +1 973 952-5000
   EMail: jdrosen@dynamicsoft.com
   URI:   http://www.jdrosen.net


   Henning Schulzrinne
   Columbia University
   M/S 0401
   1214 Amsterdam Ave.
   New York, NY  10027
   US

   EMail: schulzrinne@cs.columbia.edu
   URI:   http://www.cs.columbia.edu/~hgs













Rosenberg & Schulzrinne    Expires December 29, 2003           [Page 28]


Internet-Draft               Dialog Package                    June 2003


Intellectual Property Statement

   The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any
   intellectual property or other rights that might be claimed to
   pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in
   this document or the extent to which any license under such rights
   might or might not be available; neither does it represent that it
   has made any effort to identify any such rights. Information on the
   IETF's procedures with respect to rights in standards-track and
   standards-related documentation can be found in BCP-11. Copies of
   claims of rights made available for publication and any assurances of
   licenses to be made available, or the result of an attempt made to
   obtain a general license or permission for the use of such
   proprietary rights by implementors or users of this specification can
   be obtained from the IETF Secretariat.

   The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
   copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary
   rights which may cover technology that may be required to practice
   this standard. Please address the information to the IETF Executive
   Director.


Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003). All Rights Reserved.

   This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
   others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
   or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
   and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
   kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
   included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this
   document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
   the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
   Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of
   developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for
   copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be
   followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than
   English.

   The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
   revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assignees.

   This document and the information contained herein is provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING
   TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING
   BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION



Rosenberg & Schulzrinne    Expires December 29, 2003           [Page 29]


Internet-Draft               Dialog Package                    June 2003


   HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
   MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


Acknowledgement

   Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the
   Internet Society.











































Rosenberg & Schulzrinne    Expires December 29, 2003           [Page 30]