[Search] [txt|ps|pdf|bibtex] [Tracker] [WG] [Email] [Diff1] [Diff2] [Nits]

Versions: 00 01 02 03 rfc1819                                           
ST Working Group                                            L. Delgrossi
Internet-Draft                                             November 1994
File: draft-ietf-st2-spec-01.txt                     Expires: April 1995



                Internet Stream Protocol Version 2 (ST2)


                 Protocol Specification - Version ST2+


Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft. Internet-Drafts are working
   documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its Areas,
   and its Working Groups. Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
   months. Internet-Drafts may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by
   other documents at any time. It is not appropriate to use Internet-
   Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as "work in
   progress".

   To learn the current status of any Internet-Draft, please check the
   "1id-abstracts.txt" listing contained in the Internet-Drafts Shadow
   Directories on ds.internic.net (US East Coast), nic.nordu.net
   (Europe), ftp.isi.edu (US West Coast), or munnari.oz.au (Pacific
   Rim).


   Abstract:

   This memo contains a revised specification of the Internet STream
   Protocol Version 2 (ST2). ST2 is an experimental resource reservation
   protocol intended to provide end-to-end real-time guarantees over an
   internet.  It allows its applications to build multi-destination
   simplex data streams with a desired quality of service. The revised
   version of ST2 specified in this memo is called ST2+.


   Editor's Note:

   This memo is available both in ASCII format (file: draft-ietf-st2-
   spec-00.txt) and in PostScript (file: draft-ietf-st2-spec-00.ps). The
   PostScript version contains some additional pictures that help to
   clarify the text, and it is therefore recommended.

   This draft is not complete. It will serve as the basis for
   discussions at the December IETF ST2 sessions. The work remaining
   is largely nontechnical. No major technical details are expected to
   change, some minor details do need to be updated or are not yet
   documented.


L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                              [Page 1]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   1 Introduction  6

           1.1 What is ST2?        6

           1.2 Protocol History    7

           1.3 Streams     7

           1.4 Data Transmission   8

           1.5 Flow Specifications 9

           1.6 ST2 and IP  9

           1.7 Outline of This Document    10

   2 ST User Service Description   11

           2.1 Stream Operations and Primitive Functions   11

           2.2 State Diagrams      12

           2.3 State Transition Tables     15

   3 SCMP Functional Description   16

           3.1 Stream Setup        17

           3.1.1 Initial Setup at the Origin       17

           3.1.1.1 Invoking the Routing Function   17

           3.1.1.2 Reserving Resources     17

           3.1.2 Sending CONNECT Messages  18

           3.1.2.1 Empty Target List       18

           3.1.2.2 Long Target Lists       19

           3.1.3 Processing CONNECT Messages       19

           3.1.3.1 CONNECT Processing by an Intermediate ST agent  19

           3.1.3.2 Setup at the Targets    19

           3.1.4 Processing ACCEPT Messages        20




L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                              [Page 2]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


           3.1.4.1 ACCEPT Processing by an Intermediate ST agent   20

           3.1.4.2 ACCEPT Processing by the Origin 20

           3.1.5 Processing REFUSE Messages        20

           3.1.5.1 REFUSE Processing by the Intermediate ST agent  20

           3.1.5.2 REFUSE Processing by the Origin 21

           3.2 Stream Options      21

           3.2.1 No Recovery       21

           3.2.2 Join Authorization Level  21

           3.3 Data Transfer       22

           3.4 Modifying an Existing Stream        22

           3.4.1 The Origin Adding New Targets     23

           3.4.2 A Target Joining a Stream 23

           3.4.2.1 ST FlowSpec     24

           3.4.2.2 Router as Origin        25

           3.4.3 The Origin Removing Targets       25

           3.4.4 A Target Deleting Itself  26

           3.4.5 Changing a Stream's FlowSpec      26

           3.5 Stream Tear Down    26

   4 Exceptional Cases     28

           4.1 Setup Failures      28

           4.1.1 Setup Failure due to CONNECT Timeout      28

           4.1.2 Setup Failure due to ACCEPT Timeout       28

           4.1.3 Setup Failure due to Routing Failures     28

           4.2 Further Issues      29




L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                              [Page 3]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


           4.2.1 Problems due to Routing Inconsistency     29

           4.2.2 Path Convergence  30

           4.2.3 Problems in Reserving Resources   30

           4.2.4 Problems Caused by CHANGE Messages        31

   5 Failure Detection and Recovery        32

           5.1 Failure Detection   32

           5.1.1 Network Failures  32

           5.1.2 Detecting ST Agents Failures      32

           5.2 Failure Recovery    34

           5.2.1 Problems in Stream Recovery       35

           5.3 Stream Preemption   36

   6 A Group of Streams    37

           6.1 Group Name Generator        37

           6.2 Basic ST Relationships      38

           6.2.1 Bandwidth Sharing 38

           6.2.2 Fate Sharing      38

           6.2.3 Route Sharing     39

           6.2.4 Subnet Resources Sharing  39

           6.3 Relationships Orthogonality 39

   7 Ancillary Functions   40

           7.1 Stream IDs Generation       40

           7.2 Checksum Computation        40

           7.3 SCMP Reliability    40

           7.4 Network MTU Discovery       40




L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                              [Page 4]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


           7.5 Packet Discarding on Network Congestion     41

           7.6 IP Encapsulation of ST      41

           7.7 IP Multicasting     42

           7.8 Routing     42

   8 FlowSpec      42

           8.1 FlowSpec Versions   43

           8.2 The Null FlowSpec (#0)      43

           8.3 The ST Current FlowSpec (#7)        43

           8.3.1 Qos Classes       44

           8.3.2 Maximum Message Size      44

           8.3.3 Rate or Throughput        44

           8.3.4 Maximum Delay and Delay Jitter    44

   9 ST State Machines     45

   10 ST Protocol Data Units       46

           10.1 ST Data Packets    47

           10.1.1 Stream ID        47

           10.2 ST Control Messages        47

           10.3 Common SCMP Elements       48

           10.3.1 ErroredPDU       49

           10.3.2 FlowSpec 49

           10.3.3 Group    50

           10.3.4 MulticastAddress 50

           10.3.5 NextHopIPAddress 51

           10.3.6 Origin   51




L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                              [Page 5]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


           10.3.7 ReasonCode       51

           10.3.8 Target and TargetList    53

           10.3.9 UserData 54

   11 ST Control Message PDUs      55

           11.1 ACCEPT     55

           11.2 ACK        56

           11.3 CHANGE     56

           11.4 CONNECT    57

           11.5 DISCONNECT 58

           11.6 ERROR      59

           11.7 HELLO      59

           11.8 JOIN-REQUEST       60

           11.9 NOTIFY     60

           11.10 REFUSE    61

           11.11 STATUS    62

           11.12 STATUS-RESPONSE   63

   12 Suggested Protocol Constants 64

           12.1 SCMP Messages      64

           12.2 SCMP Parameters    64

   13 Notation     64

   14 Further Study        64

   15 References   65 1  Introduction

   1.1  What is ST2?

   The Internet Stream Protocol, Version 2 (ST2) is a connection-
   oriented internetworking protocol that operates at the same layer as



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                              [Page 6]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   connectionless IP. It has been developed to support the efficient
   delivery of data streams to single or multiple destinations in
   applications that require guaranteed data throughput and controlled
   delay characteristics. The main application area of the protocol is
   the real-time transport of digital audio and video packet streams
   across internets.

   ST2 can be used to reserve bandwidth for multimedia streams across
   network routes. This reservation, together with appropriate network
   access and packet scheduling mechanisms in all nodes running the
   protocol, guarantees a well-defined quality of service to ST2
   applications. It ensures that each multimedia packet is delivered
   within its deadline, that is, at the time where it needs to be
   presented. This facilitates a smooth playout of digital audio and
   video that is essential for this time-critical data, but can
   typically not be provided by best-effort IP communication.

   Just like IP, ST2 actually consists of two protocols: ST for the data
   transport and SCMP, the Stream Control Message Protocol, for all
   control functions, mainly those for resource reservation. ST is
   simple and contains only one PDU that is designed for fast and
   efficient data forwarding in order to achieve low communication
   delays. SCMP, however, is quite complex. As with ICMP and IP, SCMP
   packets are transferred within ST packets as shown in Figure 1.

   1.2  Protocol History

   The first version of ST was published in the late 1970's and was used
   throughout the 1980's for experimental voice and video transmission.
   The experience gained in these applications led to the development of
   the revised protocol version ST2. The revision extends the original
   protocol to make it more complete and more applicable to emerging
   multimedia environments. The specification of this protocol version
   is contained in Internet RFC 1190 which was published in October 1990
   [RFC1190].

   With more and more developments of commercial distributed multimedia
   applications underway and with a growing dissatisfaction at the
   transmission quality for audio and video over IP in the MBONE,
   interest in ST2 has grown over the last years. Companies such as BBN
   have products available incorporating the protocol. The BERKOM
   project of the German PTT uses ST2 as its core protocol for the
   provision of multimedia teleservices such as conferencing and
   mailing. Among others, Digital, HP, IBM, and Siemens-Nixdorf
   participate in this project. In addition, implementations of ST2 for
   Sun, Silicon Graphics, Macintosh, NeXT, and PC platforms are
   available.




L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                              [Page 7]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   In 1993, the IETF has started a new working group on ST2. Its mission
   is to clean up the current protocol specification to ensure better
   interoperability between the existing and emerging implementations.
   It shall also reflect the experiences gained with the current ST2
   implementations and applications. This has led to the specification
   of the ST2+ version contained in this document.

   1.3  Streams

   Streams form the core concepts of ST2. They are established between a
   sending origin and one or more receiving targets in the form of a
   routing tree. Nodes in the tree represent so-called ST agents,
   entities executing the ST2 protocol; links in the tree are called
   hops.

   Figure 2 illustrates a stream from an origin to four targets, where
   the ST agent on Target 2 also functions as a router. Let us use this
   Target 2/Router node to explain some basic ST2 terminology: the
   direction of the stream from this node to Target 3 and 4 is called
   downstream, the direction towards the Origin node upstream. ST agents
   that are one hop away from a given node are called previous-hops in
   the upstream, and next-hops in the downstream direction.

   Streams are maintained using SCMP messages. Typical SCMP messages are
   CONNECT and ACCEPT to build a stream, DISCONNECT and REFUSE to close
   a stream, or CHANGE to modify the quality of service associated with
   a stream.

   Each ST agent maintains state information describing the streams
   flowing through it. It can actively gather and distribute such
   information. If, for example, an intermediate ST agent fails, the
   neighboring ST agents can recognize this via HELLO messages that are
   periodically exchanged between ST agents that share streams. STATUS
   packets can be used to ask other ST agents about a particular stream.
   These ST agents then send back a STATUS-RESPONSE message. NOTIFY
   messages serve to inform ST agents of changes such as a route change.

   ST2 offers a wealth of functionalities for stream management. Streams
   can be grouped together to minimize allocated resources or to process
   them in the same way in case of failures. During audio conferences,
   for example, only one person should speak at a time. Using the group
   mechanism, resources for only one audio stream of the group need to
   be reserved. Using the same concept, an entire group of related audio
   and video streams can be dropped if one of them fails.

   1.4  Data Transmission

   Data transfer in ST2 is simplex in the downstream direction. Data



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                              [Page 8]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   transport through streams is very efficient. ST2 puts only a small
   header in front of the user data. The header contains a protocol
   identification that distinguishes ST2 from IP packets, an ST2 version
   number, a priority field (specifying a relative importance of streams
   in cases of conflict), a length counter, a stream identification, and
   a checksum. These elements form an 8-byte header which can be
   extended by an optional 8-byte timestamp.

   Efficiency is also achieved by avoiding fragmentation and reassembly
   on router nodes. Negotiations at stream establishment time yield a
   maximum transmission unit (MTU) for data packets on a stream. This
   MTU is communicated to the upper layers, so that they provide data
   packets of suitable size to ST2.

   Communication with multiple next-hops can be made even more efficient
   using MAC Layer multicast. If a subnet supports multicast, a single
   multicast packet is sufficient to reach all next- hops connected to
   this subnet. This leads to a significant reduction of the bandwidth
   requirements of a stream. If multicast is not provided, separate
   packets need to be sent to each next-hop.

   As ST2 relies on reservation, it does not contain error correction
   mechanisms features for data exchange such as retransmission known
   from TCP. It is assumed that digital audio and video require
   partially correct delivery only. In many cases, retransmitted packets
   would arrive too late to meet their real-time delivery requirements.
   On the other hand, depending on the data encoding and the particular
   application, a small number of errors in audio and video streams are
   acceptable. In any case, reliability can be provided by layers on top
   of ST2 if needed.

   1.5  Flow Specifications

   As part of establishing a connection, SCMP negotiates quality-of-
   service parameters for a stream. In ST2 terminology, these parameters
   form a flow specification (FlowSpec, for short) which is associated
   with the stream. Different versions of FlowSpecs exist and can be
   distinguished by a version number. Typically, they contain parameters
   such as average and maximum throughput, end-to-end delay, and delay
   variance of a stream.

   Three kinds of entities participate in the quality-of-service
   negotiation: application entities on the origin and target sites as
   the service users, ST agents, and local resource managers (LRM). The
   origin application supplies the initial FlowSpec requesting a
   particular service quality. Each ST agent which obtains the
   specification as part of a connection establishment message initiates
   the reservation of local resources by the corresponding resource



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                              [Page 9]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   manager. These resource managers control the usage of CPU capacity
   for protocol processing, buffer space for storing messages, and
   bandwidth in the outgoing network. ST2 does not determine how
   resource managers make reservations and how resources are scheduled
   according to these reservations; ST2, however, assumes these
   mechanisms as its basis.

   The FlowSpec negotiation procedure is illustrated in Figure 3.
   Depending on the success of its local reservations, an ST agent
   updates the FlowSpec while the connection establishment message
   passes downstream (for example, keeping track of accumulated delay).
   The final FlowSpec is communicated to the target application which
   may base its accept/reject decision for establishing the connection
   on it and may finally also modify the FlowSpec. If a target accepts
   the connection, the (possibly modified) FlowSpec is propagated back
   to the origin which can then calculate an overall service quality for
   all targets. If all targets in a particular ST2 connection need to
   adhere to the same FlowSpec, the origin may - during a second phase
   of connection establishment - issue a CHANGE request to adjust
   reservations.

   1.6  ST2 and IP

   ST2 is designed to coexist with IP on each node. A typical
   distributed multimedia application would use both protocols: IP for
   the transfer of traditional data and control information, and ST2 for
   the transfer of digital audio and video. Whereas IP typically will be
   accessed from TCP or UDP, ST2 will have new multimedia end-to-end
   protocols on top of it.

   Both ST2 and IP apply the same addressing schemes to identify
   different hosts and use ARP for address resolution. ST2 can easily be
   modified to include the longer host addresses of the next generation
   IP. ST2 uses the same Layer 2 SAPs as IP. ST2 and IP packets differ
   in the first four bits, containing the internetwork protocol version
   number: number 5 is reserved for ST2 (IP itself has version number
   4). An ST agent receives a packet over the IP SAP using the first 4
   bits of the frame to select ST2 packets.

   As a special function, ST2 messages can be encapsulated in IP
   packets. This allows them to pass through routers which do not run
   ST2. Resource management is typically not available for these IP
   route segments. IP encapsulation is, therefore, suggested only for
   portions of the network which do not constitute a system bottleneck.

   1.7  Outline of This Document

   This document contains the specification for the ST2+ version of the



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 10]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   ST2 protocol. In the rest of the document, whenever the terms "ST" or
   "ST2" are used, they refer to ST2+.

   The document is organized as follows: Section 2 describes the ST user
   service; Section 3.1 through Section 3.5 describe stream setup,
   modification, and tear down; exceptional cases are handled in Section
   4; failure detection and groups of streams respectively in Section 5
   and Section 6; the FlowSpec is presented in Section ; finally, the
   formats of the different protocol elements and PDUs are defined by
   Section 10 through Section 15.  Figure 1: ST2 Data and Control Path
   Figure 2: The Stream Concept Figure 3: Quality-of-Service Negotiation
   with FlowSpecs Figure 6: ST Service at the Target Figure 4:
   Primitives for the OPEN Stream Operation Figure 5: ST Service at the
   Origin 2  ST User Service Description

   This section describes the ST user service from the high-level point
   of view of an application. It defines the ST stream operations and
   primitive functions. It specifies which operations on streams can be
   invoked by the applications built on top of ST and when the ST
   primitive functions can be legally executed. Note that the ST
   primitives do not form an API. They are used here with the only
   purpose of illustrating the service model for ST.

   2.1  Stream Operations and Primitive Functions

   An ST application at the origin may create, expand, reduce, change,
   send data to, and delete a stream. When a stream is expanded, new
   targets are added to the stream; when a stream is reduced, some of
   the current targets are dropped from it. When a stream is changed,
   the associated quality of service is modified.

   An ST application at the target may join, receive data from, and
   leave a stream.

   This translates into the following stream operations:

   o       OPEN: create new stream [origin], CLOSE: delete stream
   [origin],

   o       ADD: expand stream, i.e. add new targets to it [origin],

   o       DROP: reduce stream, i.e. drop targets from it [origin],

   o       JOIN: join a stream [target], LEAVE: leave a stream [target],

   o       DATA: send data through stream [origin],

   o       CHG: change a stream's qos [origin],



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 11]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   Each stream operation may require the execution of several primitive
   functions to be completed. For instance, to open a new stream, a
   request is first issued by the sender and an indication is generated
   at the receiver; then, the receiver may accept or refuse the request
   and the correspondent indication is generated at the sender. This is
   shown in Figure 4 below.

   Table 1 defines the ST service primitive functions associated to each
   stream operation. The column labelled "O/T" indicates whether the
   primitive is executed at the origin or at the target.

   2.2  State Diagrams

   It is not sufficient to define the set of ST stream operations. It is
   also necessary to specify when the operations can be legally
   executed. For this reason, a set of states is now introduced and the
   transitions from one state to the others are specified. States are
   defined with respect to a single stream. The previously defined
   stream operations can be legally executed only from an appropriate
   state.

   An ST agent may, with respect to an ST stream, be in one of the
   following states:

   o       IDLE: the stream has not been created yet.

   o       PENDING: the stream is in the process of being established.

   o       ACTIVE: the stream is established and active.

   o       ADDING: the stream is established. A stream expansion is
   underway.

   o       CHGING: the stream is established. A stream change is
   underway.

   Previous experience with ST suggested to impose limits on the stream
   operations that can be executed at the same time. These restrictions
   are:

   1.      A single ADD or CHG operation can be processed at one time.
   If another ADD or CHG is already underway, further requests are
   queued by the ST agent and handled only after the previous operation
   has been completed. It also applies to two subsequent requests of the
   same kind, e.g. two ADD or two CHG operations. The second operation
   is not executed until the first one has been completed.

   2.      Deleting a stream, leaving a stream, or dropping targets from



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 12]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   a stream is possible only after stream establishment has been
   completed. A stream is considered to be established when all the
   next-hops of the origin have either accepted or refused the stream.
   Note that stream refuse is automatically forced after timeout if no
   reply comes from a next-hop.

   3.      An ST agent forwards data only along already established
   paths to the targets. A path is con- sidered to be established when
   the next-hop on the path has explicitly accepted the stream. This
   implies that the target and all other intermediate ST agents are
   ready to handle the incoming data packets. In no cases an ST agent
   will forward data to a next-hop ST agent that has not explicitly
   accepted the stream. To be sure that all targets receive the data, an
   applica- tion should send the data only after all paths have been
   established, i.e. the stream is estab- lished.

   4.      It is allowed to send data from the CHGING and ADDING states.
   When sending data from the CHGING state the quality of service to the
   targets affected by the change is undefined. When sending data from
   the ADDING state the targets that receive the data include at least
   all the targets that were already part of the stream at the time the
   ADD operation was invoked.

   The rules introduced above require ST agents to queue incoming
   requests when the current state does not allow to process them
   immediately. In order to preserve the semantics, ST agents have to
   maintain the order of the requests, i.e. implement FIFO queuing.
   Exceptionally, the CLOSE request at the origin and the LEAVE request
   at the target may be immediately processed: in this cases, the queue
   is deleted and it is possible that requests in the queue are not
   processed.

   The following state diagrams define the ST service. Separate diagrams
   are presented for the origin and the targets. To keep the figure
   simple, only the primitives that cause state transitions are
   represented.

   The symbol (a/r)* indicates that all targets in the target list have
   explicitly accepted or refused the stream, or refuse has been forced
   after timeout. If the target list is empty, i.e. it contains no
   targets, the (a/r)* condition is immediately satisfied, so the empty
   stream is created and state ESTBL is entered.

   2.3  State Transition Tables

   Table 2 and Table 3 define which primitives can be processed from
   which states and the possible state transitions. Figure 7: Sample
   Topology for an ST Stream 3  SCMP Functional Description



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 13]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   ST agents create and manage streams using the ST Control Message
   Protocol (SCMP). Conceptually, SCMP resides immediately above ST (as
   does ICMP above IP). SCMP follows a request-response model. SCMP
   messages are made reliable through the use of retransmission after
   timeout, cf. Section 7.3.

   This section contains a functional description of SCMP. To help
   clarify the SCMP exchanges used to setup and maintain ST streams, we
   include an example of a simple network topology, represented in
   Figure 7. The topology is used to illustrate the protocol
   interactions during the execution of stream operations. For instance,
   an ST application may:

   o       Create a stream from A to the peers at B, C and D,

   o       Add a peer at E,

   o       Drop peers B and C, and

   o       Let F join the stream

   o       Delete the stream.

   We begin with a description of stream setup, see Section 3.1; stream
   option are presented in Section 3.2; data transfer in Section 3.3;
   Section 3.4 illustrates stream modification including stream
   expansion, reduction, changes of the quality of service associated to
   a stream. Finally, stream deletion is handled in Section 3.5.

   3.1  Stream Setup

   This section presents a description of stream setup. For simplicity,
   we assume that everything succeeds, e.g. any required resources are
   available, and the routing is correct. Possible failures in the setup
   phase are handled in Section 4.1.

   3.1.1  Initial Setup at the Origin

   Before stream setup can be started, the application has to collect
   the necessary information to determine the structure of the
   communication. This includes identifying the participants and
   selecting the characteristics of the data flow. Such information is
   passed to the ST agent at the stream's origin. The ST agent performs
   the following operations:

   o       allocates a stream ID (SID) for the stream, cf. Section 7.1,

   o       invokes the routing function to determine the set of next-



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 14]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   hops for the stream, cf. Section 3.1.1.1,

   o       invokes the Local Resource Manager (LRM), cf. Section
   3.1.1.2, to reserve local and net- work resources

   o       creates local database entries to store information on the
   new stream,

   o       propagates the stream creation request to the next-hops
   determined by the routing function, see Section 3.1.2.

   3.1.1.1  Invoking the Routing Function

   An ST agent that is setting up a stream invokes the routing function
   to find a path to reach each of the targets specified by the target
   list provided by the application. This is similar to the routing
   decision in IP. However, in this case the route is to a multitude of
   targets rather than to a single destination. The routing function is
   not part of the ST protocol and therefore it is not specified by this
   document.

   The result of the routing function is a set of next-hop ST agents.
   The set of next-hops selected by the routing function is not
   necessarily the same as the set of next-hops that IP would select
   given a number of independent IP datagrams to the same destinations.
   The routing algorithm may attempt to optimize parameters other than
   the number of hops that the packets will take, such as delay, local
   network bandwidth consumption, or total internet bandwidth
   consumption.

   3.1.1.2  Reserving Resources

   An ST agent helps reserving both local and network resources. Local
   resources may include CPU processing time and buffer space at the
   local host. Network resources may comprise bandwidth over the
   outgoing links to the next-hops determined by the routing function.
   Resource reservation is not part of the ST protocol and therefore it
   is not specified by this document. ST invokes at every host the Local
   Resource Manager (LRM) to perform the appropriate reservations.
   Functions as resource scheduling and reservation enforcement are part
   of the LRM's tasks and not of an ST agent's.

   The ST FlowSpec contains all the information needed to allocate the
   necessary resources. The information contained in the FlowSpec is
   passed to the LRM as parameter of the reservation functions. The LRM
   updates the FlowSpec information before it passes it back to the ST
   agent. Further information on the ST FlowSpec can be found in Section
   .



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 15]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   Note that if the data has to be sent across a network to a single
   next-hop, then only the point-to- point bandwidth needs to be
   reserved. If the data has to be sent to multiple next-hop ST agents
   across a single network and network layer multicasting is not
   available, the ST agent replicates the data to each next-hop ST agent
   and therefore bandwidth has to be reserved by the LRM for all the
   next-hops. If network layer multicast is supported, its use reduces
   the bandwidth required since one single copy of the data is received
   by all next-hop ST agents. The membership of a stream in a Group may
   also affect the amount of resources that have to be allocated by the
   LRM, cf. Section 6.

   Effects similar to reservation of the necessary resources may be
   obtained even when the network cannot provide direct support for the
   reservation. Certainly if total reservations are a small fraction of
   the overall resources, such as packet switch processing bandwidth,
   buffer space, or network bandwidth, then the desired performance can
   be honoured if the degree of confidence is consistent with the
   requirements as stated in the FlowSpec. Other solutions can be
   designed for specific networks.

   3.1.2  Sending CONNECT Messages

   The ST agent sends a CONNECT message to each of the next-hop ST
   agents identified by the routing function. Each CONNECT message
   contains the SID, an updated FlowSpec, and a TargetList. In general,
   the FlowSpec and TargetList depend on both the next-hop and the
   intervening network. Each TargetList is a subset of the original
   TargetList, identifying the targets that are to be reached through
   the next-hop to which the CONNECT message is being sent.

   The TargetList may be empty, see Section 3.1.2.1.; if the TargetList
   causes a too long CONNECT message to be generated, the CONNECT
   message is partitioned as explained in Section 3.1.2.2. If multiple
   next-hops are to be reached through a network that supports network
   level multicast, a different CONNECT message must nevertheless be
   sent to each next-hop since each will have a different TargetList.

   Let us consider the network topology in Figure 7 on page 16. Suppose
   that the original TargetList contains targets B, C, and D. The
   routing function invoked at A returns that B is reachable via Router
   1 and C and D are reachable via Router 2. Thus, A generates two
   CONNECT messages, one for Router 1 and one for Router 2. The CONNECT
   message for Router 1 contains a TargetList including target B only;
   the CONNECT message for Router 2 contains a TargetList including
   targets C and D.

   3.1.2.1  Empty Target List



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 16]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   An application at the origin may request the local ST agent to create
   empty streams. It does so by passing an empty TargetList to the local
   ST agent during the initial stream setup. When the local ST agent
   receives request to create an empty stream, it allocates the stream
   ID (SID), updates its local database entries to store information on
   the new stream and notifies the application that stream setup is
   complete. The local ST agent does not generate any CONNECT message
   for streams with an empty TargetList.

   3.1.2.2  Long Target Lists

   Each ST agent knows the MTU of the networks to which it is connected,
   and those MTUs restrict the size of the SCMP message it can send.
   SCMP messages with long TargetList can cause the size of the SCMP
   message to exceed the network MTU. The ST agent which receives an
   SCMP message bigger than its MTU must break the original message into
   multiple fragments, each carrying part of the TargetList. The effect
   of this partition is to compromise the performance but still carry
   out the function of the SCMP message. If the original SCMP message
   contains any Userdata parameters, these parameters are replicated in
   each fragment for delivery to all targets. Applications that support
   a large number of receivers may avoid using long target lists by
   exploiting the stream joining functions, cf. Section 3.4.2.

   3.1.3  Processing CONNECT Messages

   3.1.3.1  CONNECT Processing by an Intermediate ST agent

   An ST agent receiving a CONNECT message, assuming no errors, responds
   to the previous-hop with an ACK. The ACK message must identify the
   CONNECT to which it corresponds by including the reference number
   indicated by the Reference field of the CONNECT message. The
   intermediate ST agent invokes the routing function, reserves
   resources via the LRM, and then propagates the CONNECT messages to
   its next-hops, as described in the previous section.

   3.1.3.2  Setup at the Targets

   An ST agent that is the target of a CONNECT message, assuming no
   errors, responds to the previous-hop with an ACK. The ST agent
   reserves local resources and inquires from the specified application
   process whether or not it is willing to accept the connection.

   In particular, the application must be presented with parameters from
   the CONNECT, such as the SID, FlowSpec, Options, and Group, to be
   used as a basis for its decision. The application is identified by a
   combination of the NextPcol field and the SAP field included in the
   correspondent (usually single remaining) Target of the TargetList.



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 17]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   The contents of the SAP field may specify the port or other local
   identifier for use by the protocol layer above the host ST layer.
   Subsequently received data packets will carry the SID, that can be
   mapped into this information and be used for their delivery.

   Finally, based on the application's decision, the ST agent sends to
   the previous-hop from which the CONNECT was received an ACCEPT or
   REFUSE message. Since the ACCEPT (or REFUSE) message has to be
   acknowledged by the previous-hop, it is assigned a new Reference
   number that will be returned in the ACK. The CONNECT to which the
   ACCEPT (or REFUSE) is a reply is identified by placing the CONNECT's
   Reference number in the LnkReference field of the ACCEPT (or REFUSE).
   The ACCEPT message contains the FlowSpec as accepted by the
   application at the target.

   3.1.4  Processing ACCEPT Messages

   3.1.4.1  ACCEPT Processing by an Intermediate ST agent

   When an intermediate ST agent receives an ACCEPT, it first verifies
   that the message is a response to an earlier CONNECT. If not, it
   responds to the next-hop ST agent with an ERROR message, with
   ReasonCode (LnkRefUnknown). Otherwise, it responds to the next-hop ST
   agent with an ACK, and propagates the ACCEPT message to the
   previous-hop along the same path traced by the CONNECT but in the
   reverse direction toward the origin.

   The FlowSpec is included in the ACCEPT message so that the origin and
   intermediate ST agents can gain access to the information that was
   accumulated as the CONNECT traversed the internet. Note that the
   resources, as specified in the FlowSpec in the ACCEPT message, may
   differ from the resources that were reserved by the ST agent when the
   CONNECT was originally processed. However, the ST agent does not
   adjust the reservation in response to the ACCEPT. It is expected that
   any excess resource allocation will be released for use by other
   stream or datagram traffic through an explicit CHANGE message
   initiated by the application at the origin if it does not wish to be
   charged for any excess resource allocations.

   3.1.4.2  ACCEPT Processing by the Origin

   The origin will eventually receive an ACCEPT (or REFUSE) message from
   each of the targets. As each ACCEPT is received, the application is
   notified of the target and the resources that were successfully
   allocated along the path to it, as specified in the FlowSpec
   contained in the ACCEPT message. The application may then use the
   information to either adopt or terminate the portion of the stream to
   each target. When ACCEPT (or REFUSE) from all targets have been



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 18]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   received at the origin, the application is notified that stream setup
   is complete. For problems due to CONNECT timeout, please refer to
   Section 4.1.1.

   When an ACCEPT is received by the origin, the path to the target is
   considered to be established and the ST agent is allowed to forward
   the data along this path as explained in Section 3.3 and in the ST
   user service description in Section 2.

   3.1.5  Processing REFUSE Messages

   3.1.5.1  REFUSE Processing by the Intermediate ST agent

   If an application at a target does not wish to participate in the
   stream, it sends a REFUSE message back to the origin with ReasonCode
   (ApplDisconnect). An intermediate ST agent that receives a REFUSE
   message with ReasonCode (ApplDisconnect) acknowledges it by sending
   an ACK to the next-hop, considers which resources are to be released,
   deletes the target entry from the internal database, and propagates
   the REFUSE message back to the previous-hop ST agent.

   If, after deleting the specified target, the next-hop has no
   remaining targets, then those resources associated with that next-hop
   ST agent may be released. Note that network resources may not
   actually be released if network multicasting is being used since they
   may still be required for traffic to other next-hops in the multicast
   group.

   3.1.5.2  REFUSE Processing by the Origin

   When the REFUSE reaches the origin, the origin sends an ACK and
   notifies the application that the target is no longer part of the
   stream and also if the stream has no remaining targets. If there are
   no remaining targets, the application may wish to terminate the
   stream or keep the stream active to allow stream joining as described
   in Section 3.4.2.

   3.2  Stream Options

   An application may select among some stream options. The desired
   options are indicated to the ST agent at the origin when a new stream
   is created. Options apply to single streams and are valid during the
   whole stream's lifetime. The options chosen by the application at the
   origin are included into the initial CONNECT message(s). When a
   CONNECT message reaches a target, the application at the target is
   notified of the stream options that have been selected.

   3.2.1  No Recovery



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 19]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   The NoRecovery option is used to indicate that ST agents should not
   attempt recovery in case of network or component failure. If a
   failure occurs, the origin will be notified via a REFUSE message and
   the targets via a DISCONNECT, with an appropriate ReasonCode
   indicating the reason of the failure. The application at the origin
   may decide whether to rebuild the deleted portion of the stream by
   sending a CONNECT message. The NoRecovery option is specified by
   setting the S-bit in the CONNECT message, see Section 11.4.

   3.2.2  Join Authorization Level

   When a new stream is created, it is necessary to define the join
   authorization level associated with the stream. This level determines
   the protocol behavior in case of stream joining, see Section 3.4.2.
   The join authorization level for a stream is defined by the J-bit and
   N-bit in the CONNECT message header, see Section 11.4. One of the
   following authorization levels has to be selected:

   o       Level 0 - Refuse Join (JN = 00): No targets are allowed to
   join this stream.

   o       Level 1 - Ask Origin (JN = 01): The application at the stream
   origin is asked whether the new target is allowed to join the stream.

   o       Level 2 - OK, Notify Origin (JN = 10): The targets joins the
   stream. The origin is notified that the target has joined.

   o       Level 3 - OK (JN = 11): The targets joins the stream. No
   notifications are sent to the stream origin.

   3.3  Data Transfer

   An application is not guaranteed that the data reaches its
   destinations: ST is unreliable and it does not make any attempt to
   recover from packet loss, e.g. due to the underlying network. In case
   the data reaches its destination, it does it accordingly to the
   negotiated quality of service.

   An ST agent forwards the data only along already established paths to
   targets. A path is considered to be established when the next-hop ST
   agent on the path sends an ACCEPT message. This implies that the
   target and all other intermediate ST agents on the path to the target
   are ready to handle the incoming data packets. In no cases an ST
   agent will forward data to a next-hop ST agent that has not
   explicitly accepted the stream.

   To be fairly sure that all targets receive the data with the desired
   quality of service, an application should send the data only after



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 20]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   the whole stream has been established. Depending on the local API, an
   application may not be prevented to send data before the completion
   of stream setup, but it should be aware that the data could be lost
   or not reach all the intended targets.

   At the end of the connection setup phase, the origin, each target,
   and each intermediate ST agent has a database entry that allows it to
   forward the data packets from the origin to the targets and to
   recover from failures of the intermediate ST agents or networks. The
   database should be optimized to make the packet forwarding task most
   efficient. The time critical operation is an intermediate ST agent
   receiving a packet from the previous-hop ST agent and forwarding it
   to the next-hop ST agents. The database entry must also contain the
   FlowSpec, utilization information, the address of the origin and
   previous-hop, and the addresses of the targets and next-hops, so it
   can perform enforcement and recover from failures.

   An ST agent receives data packets encapsulated by an ST header. A
   data packet received by an ST agent contains the SID. This SID was
   selected at the origin so that it is globally unique and thus can be
   used as an index into the database, to obtain quickly the necessary
   replication and forwarding information.

   The forwarding information will be network and implementation
   specific, but must identify the next-hop ST agents. It is suggested
   that the cached information for a next-hop agent include the local
   network address of the next- hop. If the data packet must be
   forwarded to multiple next- hops across a single network that
   supports multicast, the database may specify the next-hops by a
   (local network) multicast address. If the network does not support
   multicast, or the next-hops are on different networks, multiple
   copies of the data packet must be sent.

   No data fragmentation is supported during the data transfer phase.
   The application is expected to segment its PDUs according to the
   minimum MTU over all paths in the stream. The application receives
   information on the MTUs relative to the paths to the targets as part
   of the ACCEPT message, see also Section . The minimum MTU over all
   paths has to be calculated from the MTUs relative to the single
   paths. If the application at the origin sends a too large data
   packet, the ST agent at the origin generates an error and it does not
   forward the data.

   3.4  Modifying an Existing Stream

   Some applications may wish to modify a stream after it has been
   created. Possible changes include expanding a stream, reducing it,
   and changing its FlowSpec. In ST, changes to a stream may be



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 21]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   initiated both by the origin and the targets. Targets may be added by
   the origin as described in Section 3.4.1 or they may request to join
   the stream as described in Section 3.4.2. The origin can reduce a
   stream by dropping some or all of its targets. This is described in
   Section 3.4.3. Targets may spontaneously decide to leave a stream as
   described in Section 3.4.4. Section 3.4.5 explains how to change a
   stream's FlowSpec.

   As defined by the ST service model, see Section 2, an ST agent can
   handle only one stream modification at a time. If a stream
   modification operation is already underway, further requests are
   queued and handled when the previous operation has been completed.
   This also applies to two subsequent requests of the same kind, e.g.
   two subsequent changes to the FlowSpec.

   3.4.1  The Origin Adding New Targets

   It is possible for an application at the origin to add new targets to
   an existing stream any time after the stream has been established.
   Before new targets are added, the application has to collect the
   necessary information on the new targets. Such information is passed
   to the ST agent at the origin.

   The ST agent at the origin issues a CONNECT message that contains the
   SID, the FlowSpec, and the TargetList specifying the new targets.
   This is similar to sending a CONNECT message during stream
   establishment, with the following exceptions: the origin checks that
   a) the SID is valid, b) the targets are not already members of the
   stream, c) the FlowSpec of the new target, if present, matches the
   FlowSpec of the existing stream, i.e it requires an equal or smaller
   amount of resources to be allocated. If the FlowSpec of the new
   target does not match the FlowSpec of the existing stream, it is
   simply ignored.

   An intermediate ST agent that is already a node in the stream looks
   at the SID and verifies that the stream is the same. It then checks
   if the intersection of the TargetList and the targets of the
   established stream is empty. If this is not the case, it responds
   with an ERROR message with the appropriate ReasonCode (RouteLoop)
   that contains a TargetList of those targets that were duplicates.

   For each new target in the TargetList, processing is much the same as
   for the original CONNECT. The CONNECT is acknowledged, propagated,
   and network resources are reserved. However, it may be possible to
   route to the new targets using previously allocated paths or an
   existing multicast group. In that case, additional resources do not
   need to be reserved but more next-hops might have to be added to an
   existing multicast group.



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 22]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   Intermediate or target ST agents that are not already nodes in the
   stream behave as in case of stream setup (see Section 3.1.3.1 and
   Section 3.1.3.2).

   3.4.2  A Target Joining a Stream

   An application may request to join an existing stream. It has to
   collect information on the stream including the stream ID (SID) and
   the IP address of the stream's origin. This can be done out-of- band,
   e.g. via regular IP. The information is then passed to the local ST
   agent together with the FlowSpec. The ST agent generates a JOIN
   message containing the application's request to join the stream and
   sends it toward the stream origin.

   An ST agent receiving a JOIN message, assuming no errors, responds
   with an ACK. The ACK message must identify the JOIN message to which
   it corresponds by including the Reference number indicated by the
   Reference field of the Join message. If the ST agent is not traversed
   by the stream that has to be joined, it propagates the JOIN message
   toward the stream's origin. Eventually, an ST agent traversed by the
   stream or the stream's origin itself is reached. This ST agent
   responds to the join request based on the join authorization level
   associated with the stream, cf. Section 3.2.2.:

   o       level 0 (refuse join)

   It is not allowed to join the stream. No further actions are taken.

   o       level 1 (ask origin)

   The JOIN message is propagated back until the origin is reached. At
   the origin, the appli- cation is requested to either grant or deny
   the permission to join the stream. If the permis- sion is denied, no
   further actions are taken. Otherwise, the origin issues a CONNECT
   message with a TargetList including the target that requested to join
   the stream. The target is then added as in normal stream setup.

   o       level 2 (ok, notify origin)

   The ST agent sends a CONNECT message with a TargetList including the
   target that requested to join the stream. This results in adding the
   target to the stream. When the ST agent which is already part in the
   stream receives the ACCEPT message indicating that the new target has
   been added, it does not propagate the ACCEPT message backwards.
   Instead, it issues a NOTIFY message with ReasonCode(TargetJoined) to
   inform the origin of the new target.

   o       level 3 (ok)



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 23]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   The ST agent sends a CONNECT message with a TargetList including the
   target that requested to join the stream. This results in adding the
   target to the stream. When the ST agent which is already part in the
   stream receives the ACCEPT message indicating that the new target has
   been added, it does not propagate the ACCEPT message backwards, nor
   it notifies the origin.

   3.4.2.1  ST FlowSpec

   Some rules on the FlowSpec are defined for targets that join an
   existing stream. Targets are allowed to express their wishes in terms
   of FlowSpec as part of the JOIN-REQUEST message, see Section 11.8.
   Let us call this FlowSpec FT and the current FlowSpec for the stream
   F. There are three cases:

   o       F > FT, i.e., F requires a larger amount of resources to be
   allocated than FT. If authorized to join the stream, the target will
   receive a CONNECT message including FlowSpec FT.

   o       F = FT, i.e., F requires the same amount of resources to be
   allocated as FT. If authorized to join the stream, the target will
   receive a CONNECT message including FlowSpec FT = F.

   o       F < FT, i.e., F requires a smaller amount of resources to be
   allocated than FT. If authorized to join the stream, the target will
   receive a CONNECT message including FlowSpec F. The tar- get may
   always REFUSE the stream if FlowSpec F is believed to be
   insufficient, or, it may join the stream and perhaps later request
   the stream origin to modify the whole stream's FlowSpec. This request
   has to be sent out-of-band.

   If the target does not specify any FlowSpec, i.e., no FlowSpec
   parameter is included in the JOIN-REQUEST message, see Section 11.8,
   it will receive FlowSpec F as part of the CONNECT message.

   3.4.2.2  Router as Origin

   When join authorization level 3 is chosen, see Section 3.2.2 and
   Section 3.4.2, it is possible that the stream origin is unaware that
   a target participates in the stream. In this case, the router that
   first sent a CONNECT message to this target has to act as the stream
   origin for the given target. This includes:

   o       if the whole stream is deleted, the router must disconnect
   the target.

   o       if the stream FlowSpec is changed, the router must change the
   FlowSpec for the target as appropriate.



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 24]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   Of course, the router behaves normally for all other targets added to
   the stream as a consequence of a CONNECT message issued by the
   origin. Note that, for targets that joined a stream without notifying
   the origin, some operations are not possible. For instance, the
   origin cannot explicitly drop these targets from the stream.

   3.4.3  The Origin Removing Targets

   The application at the origin specifies a set of targets that are to
   be removed from the stream and an appropriate ReasonCode
   (ApplDisconnect). The targets are partitioned into multiple
   DISCONNECT messages based on the next-hop to the individual targets.
   If the TargetList is too long to fit into one DISCONNECT message, it
   is partitioned as described in Section 3.1.2.2.

   An ST agent that receives a DISCONNECT message acknowledges it by
   sending an ACK back to the previous-hop. The DISCONNECT is also
   propagated to the relevant next-hop ST agents. Before propagating the
   message, the TargetList is partitioned based on next-hop ST agents.

   If, after deleting the specified targets, any next-hop has no
   remaining targets, then those resources associated with that next-hop
   ST agent may be released. Note that network resources may not
   actually be released if network multicasting is being used since they
   may still be required for traffic to other next-hops in the multicast
   group.

   When the DISCONNECT reaches a target, the target sends an ACK and
   notifies the application that it is no longer part of the stream and
   for which reason. The ST agent at the target deletes the stream from
   its database after performing any necessary management and accounting
   functions. Note that the stream is not deleted if the ST agent is
   also a router for the stream and there are remaining downstream
   targets.

   3.4.4  A Target Deleting Itself

   The application at the target may inform ST that it wants to be
   removed from the stream and the appropriate ReasonCode
   (ApplDisconnect). The ST agent then forms a REFUSE message with
   itself as the only entry in the TargetList. The REFUSE is sent back
   to the origin via the previous-hop. If a stream has multiple targets
   and one target leaves the stream using this REFUSE mechanism, the
   stream to the other targets is not affected; the stream continues to
   exist.

   An ST agent that receives such a REFUSE message acknowledges it by
   sending an ACK to the next-hop. The target is deleted and, if the



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 25]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   next-hop has no remaining targets, then the resources associated with
   that next-hop ST agent may be released. Note that network resources
   may not actually be released if network multicasting is being used
   since they may still be required for traffic to other next-hops in
   the multicast group. The REFUSE is also propagated back to the
   previous-hop ST agent.

   When the REFUSE reaches the origin, the origin sends an ACK and
   notifies the application that the target is no longer part of the
   stream.

   3.4.5  Changing a Stream's FlowSpec

   The application at the sender may wish to change the FlowSpec of an
   established stream. To do so, it informs the ST agent at the origin
   of the new FlowSpec and of the list of targets relative to the
   change. The origin then issues one CHANGE message with the new
   FlowSpec per next-hop and sends it to the relevant next-hop ST
   agents. CHANGE messages are structured and processed similarly to
   CONNECT messages.

   A next-hop ST agent that is an intermediate ST agent and receives a
   CHANGE message similarly determines if it can implement the new
   FlowSpec along the hop to each of its next-hop ST agents, and if so,
   it propagates the CHANGE messages along the established paths. If
   this process succeeds, the CHANGE messages will eventually reach the
   targets, which will each respond with an ACCEPT (or REFUSE) message
   that is propagated back to the origin.

   If the change to the FlowSpec is in a direction that makes fewer
   demands of the involved networks, then the change has a high
   probability of success along the path of the established stream. Each
   ST agent receiving the CHANGE message makes the necessary requested
   changes to the network resource allocations, and if successful,
   propagates the CHANGE message along the established paths. If the
   change cannot be made then the ST agent must recover using DISCONNECT
   and REFUSE messages as in the case of a network failure, see Section
   5.2. Note that a failure to change the resources requested for
   specific targets should not cause other targets in the stream to be
   deleted.

   3.5  Stream Tear Down

   A stream is usually terminated by the origin when it has no further
   data to send, but may also be partially torn down by the individual
   targets. These cases will not be further discussed since they have
   already been described above.




L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 26]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   A stream is also torn down if the application should terminate
   abnormally. Processing in this case is identical to the previous
   descriptions except that the ReasonCode (ApplAbort) is different.

   When all targets have left a stream, the origin notifies the
   application of that fact, and the application then is responsible for
   terminating the stream. Note, however, that the application may
   decide to add targets to the stream instead of terminating it.  4
   Exceptional Cases

   The previous descriptions covered the simple cases where everything
   worked. We now discuss what happens when things do not succeed.
   Included are situations where messages are lost, the requested
   resources are not available, the routing fails or is inconsistent.

   4.1  Setup Failures

   4.1.1  Setup Failure due to CONNECT Timeout

   When sending a CONNECT message, an ST agent expects an ACK from the
   next hop ST agent. If the CONNECT fails due to timeout (see Section
   7.3), the ST agent sends a REFUSE message back in the direction of
   the origin with the appropriate ReasonCode (ConnectTimeout).

   4.1.2  Setup Failure due to ACCEPT Timeout

   An ST agent that propagates an ACCEPT message backward toward the
   origin expects an ACK from the previous hop ST agent. If the ACCEPT
   fails due to timeout (see Section 7.3), the ST agent replaces the
   ACCEPT with a REFUSE and sends a DISCONNECT in the direction toward
   the target. Both REFUSE and DISCONNECT must identify the affected
   targets and specify the appropriate ReasonCode (AcceptTimeout).

   4.1.3  Setup Failure due to Routing Failures

   It is possible for an ST agent to receive a CONNECT message that
   contains a known SID, but from an ST agent other than the previous-
   hop ST agent of the stream with that SID. This may be:

   1.      that two branches of the tree forming the stream have joined
   back together,

   2.      the result of an attempted recovery of a partially failed
   stream, or

   3.      an erroneous routing loop.

   The TargetList contained in the CONNECT is used to distinguish the



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 27]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   different cases by comparing each newly received target with those of
   the previously existing stream:

   o       if the IP address of the targets differ, it is case #1;

   o       if the target matches a target in the existing stream, it may
   be case #2 or #3.

   Case #1 is handled in Section 4.2.2 on path convergence. The
   remaining cases requiring recovery, a partially failed stream and an
   erroneous routing loop, are not easily distinguishable. In attempting
   recovery of a failed stream, an ST agent may issue new CONNECT
   messages to the affected targets. Such a CONNECT may reach an ST
   agent downstream of the failure before that ST agent has received a
   DISCONNECT from the neighbourhood of the failure. Until that ST agent
   receives the DISCONNECT, it cannot distinguish between a failure
   recovery and an erroneous routing loop. That ST agent must therefore
   respond to the CONNECT with a REFUSE message with the affected
   targets specified in the TargetList and an appropriate ReasonCode
   (StreamExists).

   The ST agent immediately preceding that point, i.e., the latest ST
   agent to send the CONNECT message, will receive the REFUSE message.
   It must release any resources reserved exclusively for traffic to the
   listed targets. If this ST agent was not the one attempting the
   stream recovery, then it cannot distinguish between a failure
   recovery and an erroneous routing loop. It should repeat the CONNECT
   after a ToConnect timeout, cf. Section 7.3 and Section 4.1.1. If
   after NConnect retransmissions it continues to receive REFUSE
   messages, it should propagate the REFUSE message toward the origin,
   with the TargetList that specifies the affected targets, but with a
   different error code (RouteLoop).

   The REFUSE message with this error code (RouteLoop) is propagated by
   each ST agent without retransmitting any CONNECT messages. At each ST
   agent, it causes any resources reserved exclusively for the listed
   targets to be released. The REFUSE will be propagated to the origin
   in the case of an erroneous routing loop. In the case of stream
   recovery, it will be propagated to the ST agent that is attempting
   the recovery, which may be an intermediate ST agent or the origin
   itself. In the case of a stream recovery, the ST agent attempting the
   recovery may issue new CONNECT messages to the same or to different
   next-hops.

   If an ST agent receives both a REFUSE message and a DISCONNECT
   message with a target in common then it can release the relevant
   resources and propagate neither the REFUSE nor the DISCONNECT.




L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 28]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   If the origin receives such a REFUSE message, it should attempt to
   send a new CONNECT to all the affected targets. Since routing errors
   in an internet are assumed to be temporary, the new CONNECTs will
   eventually find acceptable routes to the targets, if one exists. If
   no further routes exist after NRetryRoute tries, the application
   should be informed so that it may take whatever action it seems
   necessary.

   4.2  Further Issues

   4.2.1  Problems due to Routing Inconsistency

   When an intermediate ST agent receives a CONNECT, it invokes the
   routing algorithm to select the next-hop ST agents based on the
   TargetList and the networks to which it is connected. If the
   resulting next-hop to any of the targets is across the same network
   from which it received the CONNECT (but not the previous-hop itself),
   there may be a routing problem. However, the routing algorithm at the
   previous-hop may be optimizing differently than the local algorithm
   would in the same situation. Since the local ST agent cannot
   distinguish the two cases, it should permit the setup but send back
   to the previous-hop ST agent an informative NOTIFY message with the
   appropriate ReasonCode(RouteBack), pertinent TargetList, and in the
   NextHopIPAddress element the address of the next-hop ST agent
   returned by its routing algorithm.

   The ST agent that receives such a NOTIFY should ACK it. If the ST
   agent is using an algorithm that would produce such behaviour, no
   further action is taken; if not, the ST agent should send a
   DISCONNECT to the next-hop ST agent to correct the problem.

   Alternatively, if the next-hop returned by the routing function is in
   fact the previous-hop, a routing inconsistency has been detected. In
   this case, a REFUSE is sent back to the previous- hop ST agent
   containing an appropriate ReasonCode (RouteInconsist), pertinent
   TargetList, and in the NextHopIPAddress element the address of the
   previous-hop. When the previous-hop receives the REFUSE, it will
   recompute the next-hop for the affected targets. If there is a
   difference in the routing databases in the two ST agents, they may
   exchange CONNECT and REFUSE messages again. Since such routing errors
   in the internet are assumed to be temporary, the situation should
   eventually stabilize.

   4.2.2  Path Convergence

   It is possible for an ST agent to receive a CONNECT message that
   contains a known SID, but from an ST agent other than the previous
   hop ST agent of the stream with that SID. This might be the result of



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 29]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   two branches of the tree forming the stream have joined back
   together. Other cases are discussed in Section 4.1.3.

   This version of ST does not allow streams which have converged path,
   i.e streams are always tree-shaped and not graph-like. The ST agent
   which detects this condition informs the previous hop ST agent (the
   latest ST agent to send the CONNECT message) by sending a NOTIFY
   message with ReasonCode(PathConverge). Upon receipt of the NOTIFY
   message, the previous hop ST agent will find alternate route to the
   listed targets with a different next hop ST agent. If there is no
   next hop ST agent other than the one it receives the NOTIFY message
   from, the ST agent must release any resources reserved for the listed
   targets and send a REFUSE message with ReasonCode(PathConverge) to
   its previous hop ST agent. In the same way, the REFUSE message is
   possibly propagated back by each ST agent. At each ST agent, it
   causes any resources reserved exclusively for the listed targets to
   be released. When the REFUSE reaches the origin, the ST agent at the
   origin should attempt to send a CONNECT with the listed targets to a
   different route. If no route exists, or after NRetryRoute tries, the
   application should be informed so that it may take whatever actions
   it seems necessary.

   4.2.3  Problems in Reserving Resources

   If the local or network resources are not available, an ST agent may:

   o       try alternative paths to the targets: the ST agent calls the
   routing function to find a different path to the targets. If an
   alternative path is found, stream connection setup continues in the
   usual way, as described in Section 3.1.

   o       preempt one or more of the already established streams: this
   way, the ST agent attempts to free enough resources to allow for the
   new stream to be established. Stream preemption is discussed in
   Section 5.3.

   o       refuse to establish the stream along this path: the origin ST
   agent informs the application of the stream setup failure; an ST
   agent at a router or target issues a REFUSE message (as described in
   Section 3.1.5) with ReasonCode (CantGetResrc).

   It depends on the local implementations whether an ST agent tries
   alternative paths or preempts other streams. Also, the order of the
   actions taken is not defined here. In any case, if enough resources
   cannot be found over different paths or as a consequence of stream
   preemption, the ST agent has to explicitly refuse to establish the
   stream.




L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 30]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   4.2.4  Problems Caused by CHANGE Messages

   A CHANGE might fail for several reasons, including:

   o       the request may be for a larger amount of network resources
   when those resources are not available;

   o       it might be required that all the former resources are
   released before the new ones are requested and, due to unlucky
   timing, an unrelated request for network resources might be processed
   between the time the resources are released and the time the new
   resources are requested, so that the former resources are no longer
   available.

   If the attempt to change the FlowSpec fails then the ST agent where
   the failure occurs must intentionally break the affected portion of
   the stream. This is done by sending REFUSE and DISCONNECT messages
   with ReasonCode (ChgFailed).  5  Failure Detection and Recovery

   5.1  Failure Detection

   The ST failure detection mechanism is based on two assumptions:

   1.      If a neighbor of an ST agent is up, and has been up without a
   disruption, and has not notified the ST agent of a problem with
   streams that pass through both, then the ST agent can assume that
   there has not been any problem with those streams.

   2.      A network through which an ST agent has routed a stream will
   notify the ST agent if there is a problem that affects the stream
   data packets but does not affect the control packets.

   The purpose of the robustness protocol defined here is for ST agents
   to determine that the streams through a neighbor have been broken by
   the failure of the neighbor or the intervening network. This protocol
   should detect the overwhelming majority of failures that can occur.
   Once a failure is detected, the recovery procedures described in
   Section 5.2 are initiated by the ST agents.

   5.1.1  Network Failures

   An ST agent can detect network failures by two mechanisms:

   o       the network can report a failure, or

   o       the ST agent can discover a failure by itself.

   They differ in the amount of information that an ST agent has



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 31]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   available to it in order to make a recovery decision. For example, a
   network may be able to report that reserved bandwidth has been lost
   and the reason for the loss and may also report that connectivity to
   the neighboring ST agent remains intact. In this case, the ST agent
   may request the network to allocate bandwidth anew. On the other
   hand, an ST agent may discover that communication with a neighboring
   ST agent has ceased because it has not received any traffic from that
   neighbor in some time period. If an ST agent detects a failure, it
   may not be able to determine if the failure was in the network while
   the neighbor remains available, or the neighbor has failed while the
   network remains intact.

   5.1.2  Detecting ST Agents Failures

   Each ST agent periodically sends each neighbour with which it shares
   one or more streams a HELLO message. This message exchange is between
   ST agents, not entities representing streams or applications. That
   is, an ST agent need only send a single HELLO message to a neighbour
   regardless of the number of streams that flow between them. All ST
   agents (host as well as intermediate) must participate in this
   exchange. However, only ST agents that share active streams need to
   participate in this exchange and it is an error to send a HELLO
   message to a neighbour ST agent with no streams in common, e.g. to
   check whether it is active. Note that STATUS messages can be used to
   poll neighbour ST agents.

   A HELLO message is ACKed if the Reference field is non-zero. As well
   as identifying the sender, the HELLO message has two fields:

   o       a HelloTimer field that is in units of milliseconds modulo
   the maximum for the field size, and

   o       a Restarted-bit specifying that the ST agent has been
   restarted recently.

   The HelloTimer must appear to be incremented every millisecond
   whether a HELLO message is sent or not, but it is allowable for an ST
   agent to create a new HelloTimer only when it sends a HELLO message.
   The HelloTimer wraps around to zero after reaching the maximum value.
   Whenever an ST agent suffers a catastrophic event that may result in
   it losing ST state information, it must reset its HelloTimer to zero
   and must set the Restarted-bit for the following HelloTimerHoldDown
   seconds.

   Each ST stream has a RecoveryTimeout value associated with it. This
   value is assigned by the origin and carried into the CONNECT message,
   see Section 11.4.




L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 32]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   An ST agent must send HELLO messages to its neighbour with a period
   shorter than the smallest RecoveryTimeout of all the active streams
   that pass between the two ST agents, regardless of direction. This
   period must be smaller by a factor, called HelloLossFactor, which is
   at least as large as the greatest number of consecutive HELLO
   messages that could credibly be lost while the communication between
   the two ST agents is still viable.

   An ST agent may send simultaneous HELLO messages to all its neighbors
   at the rate necessary to support the smallest RecoveryTimeout of any
   active stream. Alternately, it may send HELLO messages to different
   neighbors independently at different rates corresponding to
   RecoveryTimeouts of individual streams.

   The ST agent that receives a HELLO message expects to receive at
   least one new HELLO message from a neighbor during the
   RecoveryTimeout of every active stream through that neighbor. It can
   detect duplicate or delayed HELLO messages by saving the HelloTimer
   field of the most recent valid HELLO message from that neighbor and
   comparing it with the HelloTimer field of incoming HELLO messages. It
   will only accept an incoming HELLO message from that neighbor if it
   has a HelloTimer field that is greater than the most recent valid
   HELLO message by the time elapsed since that message was received
   plus twice the maximum likely delay variance from that neighbor. If
   the ST agent does not receive a valid HELLO message within the
   RecoveryTimeout of a stream, it must assume that the neighboring ST
   agent or the communication link between the two has failed and it
   must initiate stream recovery activity.

   Furthermore, if an ST agent receives a HELLO message that contains
   the Restarted-bit set, it must assume that the sending ST agent has
   lost its ST state. If it shares streams with that neighbor, it must
   initiate stream recovery activity. If it does not share streams with
   that neighbor, it should not attempt to create one until that bit is
   no longer set. If an ST agent receives a CONNECT message from a
   neighbor whose Restarted-bit is still set, it must respond with ERROR
   with the appropriate ReasonCode (RemoteRestart). If it receives a
   CONNECT message while its own Restarted-bit is set, it must respond
   with ERROR with the appropriate ReasonCode (RestartLocal).

   5.2  Failure Recovery

   If an intermediate ST agent fails or a network or part of a network
   fails, the previous-hop ST agent and the various next-hop ST agents
   will discover the fact by the failure detection mechanism described
   in Section 5.1.

   The recovery of an ST stream is a relatively complex and time



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 33]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   consuming effort because it is designed in a general manner to
   operate across a large number of networks with diverse
   characteristics. Therefore, it may require information to be
   distributed widely, and may require relatively long timers. On the
   other hand, since a network is a homogeneous system, failure recovery
   in the network may be a relatively faster and simpler operation.
   Therefore an ST agent that detects a failure should attempt to fix
   the network failure before attempting recovery of the ST stream. If
   the stream that existed between two ST agents before the failure
   cannot be reconstructed by network recovery mechanisms alone, then
   the ST stream recovery mechanism must be invoked.

   If stream recovery is necessary, the different ST agents may need to
   perform different functions, depending on their relation to the
   failure:

   o       An ST agent that is a next-hop of a failure should first
   verify that there was a failure. It can do this using STATUS messages
   to query its upstream neighbor. If it cannot communicate with that
   neighbor, then it should first send a REFUSE message with the
   appropriate Reason- Code ("failure") to the neighbor to speed up the
   failure recovery in case the hop is unidirec- tional, i.e., the
   neighbor can hear the ST agent but the ST agent cannot hear the
   neighbor. The ST agent detecting the failure must then send
   DISCONNECT messages with the same Rea- sonCode toward the targets.

   The intermediate ST agents process this DISCONNECT message just like
   the DISCON- NECT that tears down the stream. However, a target ST
   agent that receives a DISCONNECT message with the appropriate
   ReasonCode ("failure") will maintain the stream state and notify the
   next higher protocol of the failure. In effect, these DISCONNECT
   messages tear down the stream from the point of the failure to the
   targets, but inform the targets that the stream may be fixed shortly.

   o       An ST agent that is the previous-hop before the failed
   component first verifies that there was a failure by querying the
   downstream neighbor using STATUS messages. If the neighbor has lost
   its state but is available, then the ST agent may reconstruct the
   stream if the NoRe- covery option is not selected. If it cannot
   communicate with the next-hop, then the ST agent detecting the
   failure releases any resources that are dedicated exclusively to
   sending data on the broken branch and sends a DISCONNECT message with
   the appropriate ReasonCode ("failure") toward the affected targets.
   It does so to speed up failure recovery in case the communication may
   be unidirectional and this message might be delivered successfully.

   The ST agent that is the previous-hop before the failed component can
   attempt to recover the streams for which the NoRecovery option is not



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 34]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   selected:

   o       If the NoRecovery option is selected, then the ST agent sends
   a REFUSE message with the appropriate ReasonCode ("failure") to the
   previous-hop. The TargetList in these messages contains all the
   targets that were reached through the broken branch. Multiple REFUSE
   mes- sages may be required if the PDU is too long for the MTU of the
   intervening network. The REFUSE message is propagated all the way to
   the origin, which can attempt recovery of the stream by sending a new
   CONNECT to the affected targets. The new CONNECT will be treated by
   intermediate ST agents as an addition of new targets into the
   established stream.

   o       If the NoRecovery option is not selected, the ST agent can
   attempt recovery of the stream. It does so by issuing a new CONNECT
   message to the affected targets. If the ST agent can- not find new
   routes to some targets, or if the only route to some targets is
   through the previ- ous-hop, then it sends one or more REFUSE messages
   to the previous-hop with the appropriate ReasonCode ("failure")
   specifying the affected targets in the TargetList. The pre- vious-hop
   can then attempt recovery of the stream by issuing a CONNECT to those
   targets. If it cannot find an appropriate route, it will propagate
   the REFUSE message toward the ori- gin.

   Regardless of which ST agent attempts recovery of a damaged stream,
   it will issue one or more CONNECT messages to the affected targets.
   These CONNECT messages are treated by intermediate ST agents as
   additions of new targets into the established stream. The FlowSpecs
   of the new CONNECT messages are the same as the ones contained in the
   most recent CONNECT or CHANGE messages that the ST agent had sent
   toward the affected targets when the stream was operational.

   5.2.1  Problems in Stream Recovery

   The reconstruction of a broken stream may not proceed smoothly. Since
   there may be some delay while the information concerning the failure
   is propagated throughout an internet, routing errors may occur for
   some time after a failure. As a result, the ST agent attempting the
   recovery may receive ERROR messages for the new CONNECTs that are
   caused by internet routing errors. The ST agent attempting the
   recovery should be prepared to resend CONNECTs before it succeeds in
   reconstructing the stream. If the failure partitions the internet and
   a new set of routes cannot be found to the targets, the REFUSE
   messages will eventually be propagated to the origin, which can then
   inform the application so it can decide whether to terminate or to
   continue to attempt recovery of the stream.

   The new CONNECT may at some point reach an ST agent downstream of the



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 35]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   failure before the DISCONNECT does. In this case, the ST agent that
   receives the CONNECT is not yet aware that the stream has suffered a
   failure, and will interpret the new CONNECT as resulting from a
   routing failure. It will respond with an ERROR message with the
   appropriate ReasonCode (StreamExists). Since the timeout that the ST
   agents immediately preceding the failure and immediately following
   the failure are approximately the same, it is very likely that the
   remnants of the broken stream will soon be torn down by a DISCONNECT
   message with the appropriate ReasonCode ("failure"). Therefore, the
   ST agent that receives the ERROR message with ReasonCode
   (StreamExists) should retransmit the CONNECT message after the
   ToConnect timeout expires. If this fails again, the request will be
   retried for NConnect times. Only if it still fails will the ST agent
   send a REFUSE message with the appropriate ReasonCode (RouteLoop) to
   its previous-hop. This message will be propagated back to the ST
   agent that is attempting recovery of the damaged stream. That ST
   agent can issue a new CONNECT message if it so chooses. The REFUSE is
   matched to a CONNECT message created by a recovery operation through
   the LnkReference field in the CONNECT.

   ST agents that have propagated a CONNECT message and have received a
   REFUSE message should maintain this information for some period of
   time. If an ST agent receives a second CONNECT message for a target
   that recently resulted in a REFUSE, that ST agent may respond with a
   REFUSE immediately rather than attempting to propagate the CONNECT.
   This has the effect of pruning the tree that is formed by the
   propagation of CONNECT messages to a target that is not reachable by
   the routes that are selected first. The tree will pass through any
   given ST agent only once, and the stream setup phase will be
   completed faster.

   If a CONNECT message reaches a target, the target should as
   efficiently as possible use the state that it has saved from before
   the stream failed during recovery of the stream. It will then issue
   an ACCEPT message toward the origin. The ACCEPT message will be
   intercepted by the ST agent that is attempting recovery of the
   damaged stream, if not the origin. If the FlowSpec contained in the
   ACCEPT specifies the same selection of parameters as were in effect
   before the failure, then the ST agent that is attempting recovery
   will not propagate the ACCEPT. If the selections of the parameters
   are different, then the ST agent that is attempting recovery will
   send the origin a NOTIFY message with the appropriate ReasonCode
   (FailureRecovery) that contains a FlowSpec that specifies the new
   parameter values. The origin may then have to change its data
   generation characteristics and the stream's parameters with a CHANGE
   message to use the newly recovered subtree.

   5.3  Stream Preemption



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 36]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   An intermediate ST agent may decide to break a stream intentionally.
   This is called stream preemption. Usually streams are preempted in
   order to free resources for a new stream which has a higher priority.
   ST does not define when stream preemption should be used but it
   provides the means to implement it.

   If an ST agent decides that it is necessary to preempt one or more of
   the stream traversing it, the decision on which streams have to be
   preempted has to be made. ST provides two ways of optimizing such
   decision:

   1.      Streams can be assigned an StreamImportance value from 0
   (most important) to 7 (least important). This value is carried in the
   CONNECT message when the stream is setup, see Section 11.4.

   2.      An application may specify that a set of streams are related
   to each other and that they are all candidate for preemption if one
   of them gets preempted. It can be done by using the fate- sharing
   relationship defined in Section 6. This helps making a good choice
   when more than one stream have to be preempted, because it leads to
   breaking a single application as oppo- site to as many applications
   as the number of preempted streams.

   Stream preemption requires the following actions from the ST agents:

   o       An intermediate ST agent that breaks the stream intentionally
   sends DISCONNECT messages with the appropriate ReasonCode
   (StreamPreempted) toward the affected targets. It sends a REFUSE
   message with the appropriate ReasonCode (StreamPreempted) to the
   previous-hop.

   o       A previous-hop ST agent of the preempted stream acts as in
   case of failure recovery, cf. Section 5.2. If the NoRecovery option
   is set, is propagates the REFUSE message back to the origin. If the
   NoRecovery option is not set, it attempts to rebuild the deleted
   paths and, in case this does not work, it propagates the REFUSE
   message to the previous-hop.

   o       A target or next-hop ST agent of the preempted stream acts as
   in case of failure recovery, cf. Section 5.2. It releases resources
   that are allocated to the stream, but it maintains the inter- nal
   state information describing the stream for some time in case the
   stream is quickly fixed.

   Note that, as opposite to failure recovery, there is no need to
   verify that the failure actually occurred, because this is explicitly
   indicated by the ReasonCode (StreamPreempted).




L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 37]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   6  A Group of Streams

   There may be need to associate related streams. The group mechanism
   is simply an association technique that allows ST agents to identify
   the different streams that are to be associated.

   A group consists of a set of streams and a relationship. The set of
   streams may be empty. The relationship applies to all group members.
   Each group is identified by a group name. The group name is unique
   across the Internet.

   Streams belong to the same group if they have the same GroupName in
   the GroupName field of the Group parameter. The relationship is
   defined by the Relationship field. Group membership must be specified
   at stream creation time and persists for the whole stream lifetime. A
   single stream may belong to multiple groups.

   The ST agent that creates a new group is called group initiator. Any
   ST agent can be a group initiator. The initiator allocates the
   GroupName and the Relationship among group members. The initiator may
   or may not be the origin of a stream belonging to the group. The
   group name has to be generated as described in Section 6.1.
   Relationships defined by this version of the protocol are listed in
   Section 6.2.

   6.1  Group Name Generator

   The GroupName includes a 16-bit unique identifier, a 32-bit IP
   address, and a 32-bit creation timestamp. It is defined in Section
   6.3. An ST implementation has to provide a group name generator
   facility, so that an application or higher layer protocol can obtain
   a unique GroupName from the ST layer. This is a mechanism for the
   application to request the allocation of a GroupName that is
   independent of the request to create a stream. The GroupName is used
   by the application or higher layer protocol when creating the streams
   that are to be part of the group.

   For instance, the following two functions could be made available:

   o       AllocateGroupName() -> result, GroupName

   o       ReleaseGroupName() -> result

   6.2  Basic ST Relationships

   This version of ST defines four basic relationships. An ST2+
   implementation must support all four basic relationships. The basic
   relationships are described in detail below in Section 6.2.1 -



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 38]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   Section 6.2.4.

   ST provides the means to define new relationships as the need for
   them becomes clear in the future. This can be done by assigning one
   of the unused bits of the Relationship field of the Group parameter.

   The next sections describe the four basic relationships.

   6.2.1  Bandwidth Sharing

   Streams belonging to this group share the same network bandwidth.
   This is intended to support applications as audio conferences where,
   of all participants, only some at a time are allowed to speak. In
   such a scenario, global bandwidth utilization can be optimized, e.g.
   it is sufficient to reserve bandwidth for a small set of audio
   streams.

   The N parameter indicates for how many streams at the same time
   bandwidth should be allocated. An ST agent allocates N times the
   bandwidth required by the most demanding stream in the group, say
   Bmax. If the application intends for instance to allow three
   participants to speak at the same time, N has a value of three and
   the ST agent will allocate for the group an amount of bandwidth equal
   to 3*Bmax.

   This mechanism does not always allocate an optimal amount of
   bandwidth (as when a stream requires 4 Mbits/s and all the other
   streams in the same group require 1 Mbits/s only: N=3 causes the
   allocation of 12 Mbits/s). However, it is simple to implement and it
   works well with streams that have homogeneous requirements. An
   alternative would be to keep track of the single streams requirements
   and allocate the exact amount of bandwidth.

   An ST agent always attempts to reserve N*Bmax bandwidth. If less
   bandwidth than N*Bmax is available, the new stream is not built. If
   bandwidth for the group has already been allocated and a new stream
   with a bandwidth demand inferior to Bmax is being established, the ST
   agent, depending on the local implementation, may not need to contact
   the local resource manager and it can proceed directly with the
   stream setup.

   Note that ST agents become aware of a group's requirements only when
   the streams belonging to the group are created. In case of the
   bandwidth sharing relationship, an application should attempt to
   establish the most demanding streams first to minimize stream setup
   efforts. If on the contrary the less demanding streams are built
   first, it will be always necessary to allocate additional bandwidth
   in consecutive steps as the most demanding streams are built.



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 39]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   6.2.2  Fate Sharing

   Streams belonging to this group share the same fate. If a stream is
   deleted, the other members of the group are also deleted. This is
   intended to support stream preemption by indicating which streams are
   mutually related. If preemption of multiple streams is necessary,
   this information can be used to delete a set of related streams, e.g.
   with impact on a single application, instead of making a random
   choice with the possible effect of interrupting several different
   applications.

   This relationship provides a hint on which streams should be
   preempted. Still, the entity responsible for the preemption is not
   forced to behave accordingly, and other streams could be preempted
   first based on different criteria.

   6.2.3  Route Sharing

   Streams belonging to this group share the same paths. This can be
   desirable for several reasons, e.g. to exploit the same allocated
   resources or in the attempt to maintain the transmission order. An ST
   agent attempts to select the same path although the way this is
   implemented depends heavily on the routing algorithm which is used.

   If the routing algorithm is sophisticated enough, an ST agent can
   suggest that a stream is routed over an already established path.
   Otherwise, it can ask the routing algorithm for a set of legal routes
   to the destination and check whether the desired path is included in
   those feasible.

   Route sharing is a hint to the routing algorithm used by ST. Failing
   to route a stream through the shared path does not normally cause the
   deletion of the stream: the stream is built over an alternative path
   whenever possible.

   6.2.4  Subnet Resources Sharing

   Streams belonging to this group share the same MAC layer subnetwork
   addresses. As an example, the same MAC layer multicast address can be
   used for all the streams in a given group. This mechanism allows for
   a better utilization of MAC layer multicast addresses and it is
   especially useful when used with network adapters that offer a very
   small number of MAC layer multicast addresses.

   This relationship provides a hint to the data link layer functions.

   6.3  Relationships Orthogonality




L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 40]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   The four basic relationships, as they have been defined, are
   orthogonal. This means, any combinations of the basic relationships
   are allowed. For instance, let's consider an application that
   requires full-duplex service for a stream with multiple targets.
   Also, let's suppose that only N targets are allowed to send data back
   to the origin at the same time. In this scenario, all the reverse
   streams could belong to the same group. They could be sharing both
   the paths and the bandwidth. The Path&Bandwidth sharing relationship
   is obtained from the basic set of relationships. This example is
   important because it shows how full-duplex service can be obtained in
   ST.

   As new relationships are defined, it should be indicated whether they
   are or not orthogonal with respect to the previously defined ones.
   This will be reflected by illegal values for the Relationship field
   of the Group parameter (see Section 10.3.3).

   7  Ancillary Functions

   7.1  Stream IDs Generation

   To Be Written

   7.2  Checksum Computation

   The standard Internet checksum algorithm is used for ST: "The
   checksum field is the 16-bit one's complement of the one's complement
   sum of all 16-bit words in the header. For purposes of computing the
   checksum, the value of the checksum field is zero (0)." See
   [RFC1071], [RFC1141], and [RFC791] for suggestions for efficient
   checksum algorithms.

   7.3  SCMP Reliability

   The ST Control Message Protocol is made reliable through the use of
   retransmission when response is not received in a timely manner. In
   general, when sending a SCMP messages which requires an ACK back, the
   sending ST agent needs to set the Toxxxx timer (where xxxx is the
   SCMP message type, e.g. ToConnect). If it does not receive an ACK
   back before the Toxxxx timer expires, the ST agent should retransmit
   the SCMP message. If no ACK has been received within Nxxxx
   retransmissions, then a SCMP timeout condition occurs and the ST
   agent enters its SCMP timeout recovery state. The actions performed
   by the ST agent as the result of the SCMP timeout condition differ
   for different SCMP message. In some cases (CONNECT,ACCEPT) the ST
   agent handles the timeout by sending additional SCMP message
   (REFUSE/DISCONNECT) to its neighbour ST agents (see Section 4.1.1 &
   Section 4.1.2), while in other cases (REFUSE, DISCONNECT) it simply



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 41]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   gives up sine there is nothing else it can do.

   For some SCMP messages (CONNECT,CHANGE) the sending ST agent also
   expects a response back (ACCEPT/REFUSE) after ACK has been received.
   For these cases, the ST agent needs to set the Rtoxxxx timer after it
   receives the ACK. If it does not receive the appropriate response
   back when Rtoxxxx expires, the ST agent updates its state data and
   perform appropriate recovery action as described in other sections.

   Timeout and retransmission algorithm is implementation dependent and
   it is outside the scope of this document. However, it must be
   reasonable enough not to cause excessive retransmission of SCMP
   message while maintain the robustness of the protocol. Algorithms on
   this subject are described in [WoHD95], [Jaco88], [KaPa87].

   7.4  Network MTU Discovery

   At connection setup, the application at the origin asks the local ST
   agent to create streams with certain QoS requirements. The local ST
   agent fills out its network MTU value as part of the parameter in the
   CONNECT message and forwards it to the next hop ST agents. Each ST
   agent in the path checks to see if its network MTU is smaller than
   the one specified in the CONNECT message and, if it is, the ST agent
   updates the MTU in the CONNECT message accordingly. If the target
   application decides to accept the stream, the ST agent at the target
   copies the MTU value in the CONNECT message to appropriate field in
   the ACCEPT message and sends it back to the application at the
   origin. The MTU in the ACCEPT message is the minimum MTU of network
   to that target. If the application has multiple targets then the
   minimum MTU of the stream is the smallest MTU received from all the
   ACCEPT messages. It is the responsibility of the application to
   segment its PDUs according to the minimum MTU of the stream since no
   data fragmentation is supported during the data transfer phase.

   7.5  Packet Discarding on Network Congestion

   TBD

   7.6  IP Encapsulation of ST

   ST packets may be encapsulated in IP to allow them to pass through
   routers that don't support the ST Protocol. Of course, ST resource
   management is precluded over such a path, and packet overhead is
   increased by encapsulation, but if the performance is reasonably
   predictable this may be better than not communicating at all.

   IP-encapsulated ST packets begin with a normal IP header. Most fields
   of the IP header should be filled in according to the same rules that



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 42]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   apply to any other IP packet. Three fields of special interest are:

   o       Protocol is 5 to indicate an ST packet is enclosed, as
   opposed to TCP or UDP, for example. The assignment of protocol 5 to
   ST is an arranged coincidence with the assignment of IP Version 5 to
   ST [RFC1190].

   o       Destination Address is that of the next-hop ST agent. This
   may or may not be the target of the ST stream. There may be an
   intermediate ST agent to which the packet should be routed to take
   advantage of service guarantees on the path past that agent. Such an
   intermediate agent would not be on a directly-connected network (or
   else IP encapsulation wouldn't be needed), so it would probably not
   be listed in the normal routing table. Additional routing mechanisms,
   not defined here, will be required to learn about such agents.

   o       Type-of-Service may be set to an appropriate value for the
   service being requested (usually low delay, high throughput, normal
   reliability). This feature is not implemented uniformly in the
   Internet, so its use can't be precisely defined here.

   IP encapsulation adds little difficulty for the ST agent that
   receives the packet. However, when IP encapsulation is performed it
   must be done in both directions. To process the encapsulated IP
   message, the ST agents simply remove the IP header and proceed with
   ST header as usual.

   The more difficult part is during setup, when the ST agent must
   decide whether or not to encapsulate. If the next-hop ST agent is on
   a remote network and the route to that network is through a router
   that supports IP but not ST, then encapsulation is required. The ST
   agents make encapsulation decision based on information provided by
   routing function to indicate whether the routers in the path support
   ST. It is outside the scope of this document to address routing
   function and therefore neither its algorithm nor implementation is
   specified here. ST assumes that appropriate routing algorithm exists
   to which ST has access.

   On forwarding, the (mostly constant) IP Header must be inserted and
   the IP checksum appropriately updated.

   7.7  IP Multicasting

   If an ST agent must use IP encapsulation to reach multiple next-hops
   toward different targets, then either the packet must be replicated
   for transmission to each next-hop, or IP multicasting may be used if
   it is implemented in the next-hop ST agents and in the intervening IP
   routers.



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 43]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   When the stream is established, the collection of next-hop ST agents
   must be set up as an IP multicast group. The ST agent must allocate
   appropriate IP multicast address (see Section 10.3.4) and fill that
   address in the IPMulticastAddress field of the CONNECT message. The
   IP multicast address in the CONNECT message is used to inform the
   next hop ST agents that they should join the multicast group to
   receive subsequent PDUs. Obviously, the CONNECT message itself must
   be sent using unicast. The next hop ST agents must be able to receive
   on the specified multicast address in order to accept the connection.

   The following permanent IP multicast addresses have been assigned to
   ST:

   224.0.0.7 All ST routers

   224.0.0.8 All ST hosts

   In addition, a block of transient IP multicast addresses, 224.1.0.0 -
   224.1.255.255, has been allocated for ST multicast groups. Note that
   in the case of Ethernet, an ST multicast address of "224.1.cc.dd"
   maps to an Ethernet multicast address of "01:00:5E:01:cc:dd", see
   [RFC1112].

   7.8  Routing

   ST requires access to routing information in order to select a path
   from an origin to the destination(s). However, routing is considered
   to be a separate issue and neither the routing algorithm nor its
   implementation is specified here. ST should operate equally well with
   any reasonable routing algorithm.

   While ST may be capable of using several types of information that
   are not currently available, the minimal information required is that
   provided by IP, namely the ability to find an interface and next hop
   router for a specified IP destination address and Type of Service.
   Methods to make more information available and to use it are left for
   further study. For initial ST implementations, any routing
   information that is required but not automatically provided will be
   assumed to be manually configured into the ST agents.

   8  FlowSpec

   The FlowSpec is used to convey stream service requirements end-to-
   end. The contents of the FlowSpec are transparent to the ST agents.
   An ST agent extracts the FlowSpec from the correspondent incoming
   SCMP message and passes it to the LRM as required. The LRM updates
   the FlowSpec values based on the amount of resources that it has
   allocated to the stream.



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 44]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   8.1  FlowSpec Versions

   ST is not dependent on a particular FlowSpec format and it is
   expected that other versions of the FlowSpec than those introduced
   below in this section will be needed in the future. Different
   FlowSpec formats are distinguished by the value of the Version field.
   The following values are reserved:

   0 - Null FlowSpec /* mandatory */

   1 - ST Version 1

   2 - ST Version 1.5

   3 - RFC 1190 FlowSpec

   4 - HeiTS FlowSpec

   5 - BerKom FlowSpec

   6 - RFC 1363 FlowSpec

   7 - ST2+ FlowSpec /* mandatory */

   A single stream is always associated to a single FlowSpec format.
   Changes to the FlowSpec are also relative to the same FlowSpec
   format, i.e. the value of the Version field cannot be changed during
   the lifetime of the stream.

   8.2  The Null FlowSpec (#0)

   The FlowSpec identified by a value of 0 for its Version field is
   called the "Null FlowSpec". An ST agent that receives the Null
   FlowSpec always assumes that sufficient resources for the stream are
   available. The Null FlowSpec fields values are never updated. Stream
   setup takes place in the usual way, but no resources are actually
   reserved.

   The main purpose of the Null FlowSpec is that of facilitating
   interoperability tests by allowing streams to be built without
   actually allocating the correspondent amount of resources. The Null
   FlowSpec may also be used for testing and debugging purposes.

   The complete format is specified in Section 10.3.2.

   8.3  The ST Current FlowSpec (#7)

   FlowSpec #7 is the FlowSpec to be used by the current version of ST.



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 45]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   It contains values for 3 basic QoS parameters: message size,
   throughput, and delay. Also, it is possible to specify a QoS class,
   e.g. guaranteed. Each parameter has to be expressed via a set of
   values:

   o       the "desired" values are assigned by the application and
   never changed by the LRM

   o       the "limit" values are assigned by the application and never
   changed by the LRM

   o       the "actual" values indicate the guarantees that the system
   is able to provide. They are updated by the LRM at each node. The
   "actual" values are always bounded by the "limit" values.

   8.3.1  Qos Classes

   We also define two QoS classes:

   1.      QOS_GUARANTEED

   2.      QOS_PREDICTIVE

   o       The QOS_GUARANTEED service class implies that the negotiated
   QoS for the stream is never violated during the data transfer. For
   instance, the desired rate is the peak rate for the transmission.
   This may sometimes lead to overbooking of resources, but it provides
   strict real-time guarantees.

   o       The QOS_PREDICTIVE service class implies that the negotiated
   QoS may be violated for short time intervals. Reservations are done
   for the average case as opposite to the peak case required by the
   QOS_GUARANTEED service class.

   If a LRM that doesn't support class QOS_PREDICTIVE (QOS_GUARANTEED)
   receives a FlowSpec containing a QOS_PREDICTIVE (QOS_GUARANTEED)
   class, it informs the local ST agent. The ST agent may try different
   paths or delete the correspondent portion of the stream with
   ReasonCode (QoSClassUnknown).

   8.3.2  Maximum Message Size

   This parameter is expressed in bytes. It represents the maximum size
   allowed for messages sent as part of the stream. The LRM first checks
   whether it is possible to get the value desired by the application
   (DesMaxSize). If not, it updates the actual value (ActMaxSize) with
   the available size unless this value is inferior to the minimum
   allowed by the application (LimitMaxSize), in which case it informs



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 46]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   the local ST agent that it is not possible to build the stream along
   this path.

   8.3.3  Rate or Throughput

   This parameter is expressed in bytes/seconds. It represents the
   transmission rate for the stream. The LRM first checks whether it is
   possible to get the value desired by the application (DesRate). If
   not, it updates the actual value (ActRate) with the available rate
   unless this value is inferior to the minimum allowed by the
   application (LimitRate), in which case it informs the local ST agent
   that it is not possible to build the stream along this path.

   8.3.4  Maximum Delay and Delay Jitter

   This parameter is expressed in milliseconds. It represents the
   maximum end-to-end for the stream. The LRM first checks whether it is
   possible to get the value desired by the application (DesMaxDelay).
   If not, it updates the actual value (ActMaxDelay) with the available
   rate unless this value is greater than the maximum delay allowed by
   the application (LimitMaxDelay), in which case it informs the local
   ST agent that it is not possible to build the stream along this path.

   The LRM also updates the MinDelay field by adding the minimum
   possible delay to the next- hop. Information on the minimum possible
   delay allows to calculate another important QoS parameter, the delay
   jitter.

   The complete format is specified in Section 10.3.2.

   9  ST State Machines

   To be separately published.

   10  ST Protocol Data Units

   All ST packets arrive at the same Network Service Access Point (NSAP)
   that IP uses to receive IP datagrams, e.g., ST would use the same
   ethertype (0x800) as does IP. The two types of packets are
   distinguished by the IP Version Number field, i.e. the first four (4)
   bits of the packet; IP currently uses a value of 4, while ST has been
   assigned the value 5 (see [RFC791]). There is no requirement for
   compatibility between IP and ST packet headers beyond the first four
   bits.

   The ST PDUs sent between ST agents consist of an ST Header
   encapsulating either a higher layer PDU or an ST Control Message.
   Data packets are distinguished from control messages via the D-bit
   (bit 8) in the ST header.




L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 47]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   The ST Header also includes an ST Version Number, a total length
   field, a header checksum, a unique id, and the stream origin 32-bit
   IP address. The unique id and the stream origin 32-bit IP address
   form the stream id (SID). This is shown in Figure 8. Please refer to
   Section 13 for an explanation of the notation.

   Figure 8: ST Header

   o       ST is the IP Version Number assigned to identify ST packets.
   The value for ST is 5.

   o       Ver is the ST Version Number. The value for the current ST2+
   version is 3.

   o       D (bit 8) is set to 1 in all ST data packets and to 0 in all
   SCMP control messages.

   o       Pri (bits 9-11) is the packet-drop priority field, to be used
   as described in Section 7.5.

   o       TotalBytes is the length, in bytes, of the entire ST packet,
   it includes the ST Header but does not include any local network
   headers or trailers. In general, all length fields in the ST Proto-
   col are in units of bytes.

   o       HeaderChecksum covers only the ST Header (12 bytes). The ST
   Protocol uses 16-bit checksums here in the ST Header and in each
   Control Message. For checksum computation, see Section 7.2.

   o       UniqueID is the first element of the stream id (SID). It is
   locally unique at the stream origin, see Section 7.1.

   o       OriginIPAddress is the second element of the SID. It is the
   32-bit IP address of the stream origin, see Section 7.1.

   Bits 12-15 must be set to zero (0) in the current ST version. In the
   future, it is possible that this 4-bit field will be used for
   substream filtering, e.g., as described in [WoHD95].

   10.1  ST Data Packets

   ST packets whose D-bit is non-zero are data packets. Their
   interpretation is a matter for the higher layer protocols and
   consequently is not specified here. The data packets are not
   protected by an ST checksum and will be delivered to the higher layer
   protocol even with errors. ST agents will not pass data packets over
   a new hop whose setup is not complete.




L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 48]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   10.1.1  Stream ID

   The UniqueID and OriginIPAddress fields form the Stream ID (SID),
   which is used by the ST agents to identify which stream the data
   packets belong to. Within the same stream, the same SID is used in
   data packets and control messages.

   NOTE: In some exceptional situations, e.g. usually due to a crash and
   subsequent reboot, it is possible that an ST agent receives a data
   packet belonging to a stream of which the ST agent has lost state
   information. In this case, the ST agent is not able to forward the
   packet and has to discard it. Since SIDs include the 32-bit IP
   address of the stream origin, it is possible for the ST agent to
   disconnect from the stream.

   10.2  ST Control Messages

   SCMP control messages are exchanged between neighbor ST agents using
   a D-bit of zero (0). The control protocol follows a request-response
   model with all requests expecting responses. Retransmission after
   timeout (see Section 7.3) is used to allow for lost or ignored
   messages. Control messages do not extend across packet boundaries; if
   a control message is too large for the MTU of a hop, its information
   is partitioned and a control message per partition is sent (see
   Section 3.1.2.2). All control messages have the following format:

   Figure 9: ST Control Message Format

   o       OpCode identifies the type of control message.

   o       Options is used to convey OpCode-specific variations for a
   control message.

   o       TotalBytes is the length of the control message, in bytes,
   including all OpCode specific fields and optional parameters. The
   value is always divisible by four (4).

   o       Reference is a transaction number. Each sender of a request
   control message assigns a Refer- ence number to the message that is
   unique with respect to the stream. The Reference number is used by
   the receiver to detect and discard duplicates. Each acknowledgment
   carries the Reference number of the request being acknowledged.
   Reference zero (0) is never used, and Reference numbers are assumed
   to be monotonically increasing with wraparound so that the older-than
   and more-recent-than relations are well defined.

   o       LnkReference contains the Reference field of the request
   control message that caused this request control message to be



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 49]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   created. It is used in situations where a single request leads to
   multiple responses from the same ST agent. Examples are CONNECT and
   CHANGE mes- sages that are first acknowledged hop-by-hop and then
   lead to an ACCEPT or REFUSE response from each target.

   o       SenderIPAddress is the 32-bit IP address of the network
   interface that the ST agent used to send the control message. This
   value changes each time the packet is forwarded by an ST agent (hop-
   by-hop).

   o       Checksum is the checksum of the control message. Because the
   control messages are sent in packets that may be delivered with bits
   in error, each control message must be checked before it is acted
   upon.

   o       ReasonCode is set to zero (0 = NoError) in most SCMP
   messages. Otherwise, it can be set to an appropriate value to
   indicate an error situation as defined in Section 10.3.7.

   o       OpCodeSpecificData contains any additional information that
   is associated with the control message. It depends on the specific
   control message and is explained further below. In some response
   control messages, fields of zero (0) are included to allow the format
   to match that of the corresponding request message. The
   OpCodeSpecificData may also contain any of the optional parameters
   defined in Section 10.3.

   10.3  Common SCMP Elements

   Several fields and parameters (referred to generically as elements)
   are common to two or more PDUs. They are described in detail here
   instead of repeating their description several times. In many cases,
   the presence of a parameter is optional. To permit the parameters to
   be easily defined and parsed, each is identified with a PCode byte
   that is followed by a PBytes byte indicating the length of the
   parameter in bytes (including the PCode, PByte, and any padding
   bytes). If the length of the information is not a multiple of four
   (4) bytes, the parameter is padded with one to three zero (0) bytes.
   PBytes is thus always a multiple of four (4). Parameters can be
   present in any order.

   10.3.1  ErroredPDU

   The ErroredPDU parameter (PCode = 1) is used for diagnostic purposes
   to encapsulate a received ST PDU that contained an error. It may be
   optionally included in the ERROR message. Its use is primarily
   diagnostic.




L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 50]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   Figure 10: ErroredPDU

   o       PDUBytes indicates how many bytes of the PDUInError are
   actually present.

   o       PDUInError is the PDU in error, beginning with the ST Header.

   10.3.2  FlowSpec

   The FlowSpec parameter (PCode = 2) is used in several messages to
   convey the FlowSpec. The format of the FlowSpec field depends on the
   Version field. Two FlowSpec versions must be implemented in the
   current ST version, FlowSpec #0 and FlowSpec #7, see Section 8. Their
   format is described below.

   Figure 11: FlowSpec #0

   Figure 12: FlowSpec #7

   10.3.3  Group

   The Group parameter (PCode = 3) is an optional argument used to
   indicate that the stream is a member in the specified group.

   Figure 13: Group Parameter

   o       GroupUniqueID, GroupInitiatorIPAddress, and GroupCreationTime
   together form the GroupName field. They are allocated by the group
   name generator function, see Section 6.1.

   o       Relationship has the following format:

   Figure 14: Relationship Field

   The B, F, P, S bits correspond to Bandwidth, Fate, Path, and Subnet
   resources sharing, see Section 6.2. A value of 1 indicates that the
   relationship exists for this group. All combinations of the four bits
   are allowed. Bits 0-11 of the Relationship field are reserved for
   future use and must be set to 0.

   o       N contains a legal value only if the B-bit is set. It is the
   value of the N parameter to be used as explained in Section 6.2.1.

   10.3.4  MulticastAddress

   The MulticastAddress parameter (PCode = 4) is an optional parameter



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 51]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   that is used when setting up a network level multicast group, to
   communicate an IP and/or local network multicast address to the
   next-hop ST agents that should become members of the group, see
   Section 7.7.

   Figure 15:  MulticastAddress

   o       IPMulticastAddress is the 32-bit IP multicast address to be
   used to receive subsequent data packets for the stream.

   10.3.5  NextHopIPAddress

   The NextHopIPAddress parameter (PCode = 5) is an optional parameter
   of NOTIFY and contains the 32-bit IP address of a suggested next-hop
   ST agent.

   Figure 16:  NextHopIPAddress

   o        NextHopIPAddress is the 32-bit IP address of the suggested
   next-hop ST agent.

   10.3.6  Origin

   The Origin parameter (PCode = 6) is used to identify the next higher
   protocol, and the SAP being used in conjunction with that protocol.

   Figure 17: Origin

   o       NextPcol is an 8-bit field used in demultiplexing operations
   to identify the protocol to be used above ST. The values of NextPcol
   are in the same number space as the IP header's Pro- tocol field and
   are consequently defined in the Assigned Numbers RFC [RFC791].

   o       OriginSAPBytes specifies the length of the OriginSAP,
   exclusive of any padding required to maintain 32-bit alignment.

   o       OriginSAP identifies the origin's SAP associated with the
   NextPcol protocol.

   Note that the 32-bit IP address of the stream origin is not included
   in this parameter because it is always available as part of the ST
   header.

   10.3.7  ReasonCode

   TBD: review ReasonCodes

   Several errors may occur during protocol processing. All ST error



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 52]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   codes are taken from a single number space. The currently defined
   values and their meaning is presented in the list below. Note that
   new error codes may be defined from time to time. All implementations
   are expected to handle new codes in a graceful manner. If an unknown
   ReasonCode is encountered, it should be assumed to be fatal. The
   ReasonCode is an 8-bit field. Following values are defined:

   NoError 0       No error has occurred.

   ErrorUnknown    1       An error not contained in this list has been
   detected

   AcceptTimeout   2       An Accept has not been acknowledged.

   AccessDenied    3       Access denied.

   AckUnexpected   4       An unexpected ACK was received.

   ApplAbort       5       The application aborted the stream
   abnormally.

   ApplDisconnect  6       The application closed the stream normally.

   AuthentFailed   7       The authentication function failed.

   CantGetResrc    8       Unable to acquire (additional) resources.

   CantRelResrc    9       Unable to release excess resources.

   CksumBadCtl     10      Control PDU has a bad message checksum.

   CksumBadST      11      PDU has a bad ST Header checksum.

   DuplicateIgn    22      Control PDU is a duplicate and is being
   acknowledged.

   DuplicateTarget 23      Control PDU contains a duplicate target, or
   an attempt to add an existing target.

   FailureRecovery 24      A notification that recovery is being
   attempted.

   FlowVerBad      25      Control PDU has a FlowSpec Version Number
   that is not supported.

   GroupUnknown    26      Control PDU contains an unknown Group Name.

   SIDUnknown      29      Control PDU contains an unknown SID.



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 53]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   InconsistGroup  31      An inconsistency has been detected with the
   streams forming a group.

   IntfcFailure    32      A network interface failure has been
   detected.

   InvalidSender   34      Control PDU has an invalid SenderIPAddress
   field.

   InvalidTotByt   35      Control PDU has an invalid TotalBytes field.

   LnkRefUnknown   36      Control PDU contains an unknown LnkReference.

   NameUnknown     37      Control PDU contains an unknown stream Name.

   NetworkFailure  38      A network failure has been detected.

   NoRouteToAgent  39      Cannot find a route to an ST agent.

   NoRouteToDest   40      Cannot find a route to the destination.

   NoRouteToHost   41      Cannot find a route to a host.

   NoRouteToNet    42      Cannot find a route to a network.

   OpCodeUnknown   43      Control PDU has an invalid OpCode field.

   PCodeUnknown    44      Control PDU has a parameter with an invalid
   PCode.

   ParmValueBad    45      Control PDU contains an invalid parameter
   value.

   ProtocolUnknown 46      Control PDU contains an unknown next-higher
   layer protocol identifier.

   ProtocolError   47      A protocol error was detected.

   RefUnknown      49      Control PDU contains an unknown Reference.

   RestartLocal    50      The local ST agent has recently restarted.

   RemoteRestart   51      The remote ST agent has recently restarted.

   RetransTimeout  52      An acknowledgment to a control message has
   not been received after several retransmissions.

   RouteBack       53      The routing function indicates that the route



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 54]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   to the next-hop is through the same interface as the previous-hop and
   is not the previous-hop.

   RouteInconsist  54      A routing inconsistency has been detected,
   e.g., a route loop.

   RouteLoop       55      A CONNECT was received that specified an
   existing target.

   SAPUnknown      56      Control PDU contains an unknown next-higher
   layer SAP (port).

   STAgentFailure  57      An ST agent failure has been detected.

   StreamExists    58      A stream with the given Name or SID already
   exists.

   StreamPreempted 59      The stream has been preempted by one with a
   higher precedence.

   STVerBad        60      A received PDU is not ST Version 3.

   TooManySIDs     61      Attempt to add more SIDs to a stream than the
   implementation supports.

   TruncatedCtl    62      Control PDU is shorter than expected.

   TruncatedPDU    63      A received ST PDU is shorter than the ST
   Header indicates.

   UserDataSize    64      UserData parameter too large to permit a
   control message to fit into a network's MTU.

   ConnectTimeOut  65      A CONNECT has not been acknowledged

   ChgFailed       66      An attempt to change the FlowSpec of existing
   stream failed

   QosClassUnknown 67      QoS class is not supported

   PathConverge    68      Two braches of the stream join during the
   CONNECT setup.



   TBD: failure N/A An abbreviation used in the text for any of the more
   specific errors: DropFailAgt, DropFailHst, DropFailIfc, DropFailNet,
   IntfcFailure, NetworkFailure, STAgentFailure, FailureRecovery.



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 55]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   TBD: indicate which ReasonCodes can be used in NOTIFY messages, which
   cause NOTIFY to be propagated back to the Origin.

   10.3.8  Target and TargetList

   Several control messages use a parameter called TargetList (PCode =
   7), which contains information about the targets to which the message
   pertains. For each Target in the TargetList, the information includes
   the 32-bit IP address of the target, the SAP applicable to the next
   higher layer protocol, and the length of the SAP (SAPBytes).
   Consequently, a Target structure can be of variable length. Each
   entry has the format shown in Figure 18.

   Figure 18: Target

   o       TargetIPAddress is the 32-bit IP Address of the Target.

   o       TargetBytes is the length of the Target structure, beginning
   with the TargetIPAddress.

   o       SAPBytes is the length of the SAP, excluding any padding
   required to maintain 32-bit align- ment.

   o       SAP may be longer than 2 bytes and it includes a padding when
   required. There would be no padding required for SAPs with lengths of
   2, 6, 10, etc., bytes.

   Figure 19: TargetList

   10.3.9  UserData

   The UserData parameter (PCode = 8) is an optional parameter that may
   be used by the next higher protocol or an application to convey
   arbitrary information to its peers. Note that since the size of
   control messages is limited by the smallest MTU in the path to the
   targets, the maximum size of this parameter cannot be specified a
   priori. If the parameter is too large for some network's MTU, an
   error with ReasonCode(UserDataSize) will occur. The parameter must be
   padded to a multiple of 32 bits.

   Figure 20:  UserData

   o       UserBytes specifies the number of valid UserInfo bytes.

   o       UserInfo is arbitrary data meaningful to the next higher
   protocol layer or application.

   TBD: GeneratorIPAddress & ReasonCodes 11  ST Control Message PDUs



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 56]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   Each control message is described in a following section. Please
   refer to Section 13 for an explanation of the notation.

   11.1  ACCEPT

   ACCEPT (OpCode = 1) is issued by a target as a positive response to a
   CONNECT message. It implies that the target is prepared to accept
   data from the origin along the stream that was established by the
   CONNECT. ACCEPT is also issued as a positive response to a CHANGE
   message. It implies that the target accepts the proposed stream
   modification.

   The ACCEPT message includes the FlowSpec that contains the cumulative
   information that was calculated by the intervening ST agents as
   CONNECT (or CHANGE) made its way from the origin to the target, as
   well as any modifications made by the application at the target. The
   FlowSpec is not modified on this trip from the target back to the
   origin.

   ACCEPT is relayed by the ST agents from the target to the origin
   along the path established by CONNECT (or CHANGE) but in the reverse
   direction. ACCEPT must be acknowledged with ACK at each hop.

   Since the cumulative FlowSpec information can be different for
   different targets, no attempt is made to combine the ACCEPTs from the
   various targets. The TargetList included in each ACCEPT contains the
   32-bit IP address of a single target, i.e. the one that issued the
   ACCEPT.

   TBD: include network MTU field, MaxRecoveryTimeout.

   Figure 21: ACCEPT Control Message

   o       Reference contains a number assigned by the ST agent sending
   ACCEPT for use in the acknowledging ACK.

   o       LnkReference is the Reference number from the corresponding
   CONNECT (or CHANGE).

   11.2  ACK

   ACK (OpCode = 2) is used to acknowledge a request. The ACK message is
   not propagated beyond the previous-hop or next-hop ST agent.

   Figure 22: ACK Control Message

   o       Reference is the Reference number of the control message
   being acknowledged.



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 57]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   o       ReasonCode is usually NoError, but other possibilities exist,
   e.g., DuplicateIgn.

   11.3  CHANGE

   CHANGE (OpCode = 3) is used to change the FlowSpec of an established
   stream. The CHANGE message is processed similarly to CONNECT, except
   that it travels along the path of an established stream. CHANGE must
   be propagated until it reaches all the stream's targets. CHANGE must
   be acknowledged with ACK at each hop.

   Figure 23: CHANGE Control Message

   o       G (bit 8) is used to request a global, stream-wide change;
   the TargetList parameter may be omitted when the G bit is specified.

   o       Reference contains a number assigned by the ST agent sending
   CHANGE for use in the acknowledging ACK.

   11.4  CONNECT

   CONNECT (OpCode = 4) requests the setup of a new stream or an
   addition to or recovery of an existing stream. Only the origin can
   issue the initial set of CONNECTs to setup a stream, and the first
   CONNECT to each next-hop is used to convey the SID.

   The next-hop initially responds with an ACK, which implies that the
   CONNECT was valid and is being processed. The next-hop will later
   relay back either an ACCEPT or REFUSE from each target. An
   intermediate ST agent that receives a CONNECT behaves as explained in
   Section 3.1.

   Figure 24: CONNECT Control Message

   o       JN (bits 8 and 9) indicate the join authorization level for
   the stream, see Section 3.2.2.

   o       S (bit 10) indicates the NoRecovery option, described in
   Section 3.2.1.

   o       Reference contains a number assigned by the ST agent sending
   CONNECT for use in the acknowledging ACK.

   o       TBD: add MTU field to CONNECT, MaxRecoveryTimeout

   o       TBD: add stream importance filed for preemption to CONNECT

   11.5  DISCONNECT



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 58]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   DISCONNECT (OpCode = 5) is used by an origin to tear down an
   established stream or part of a stream, or by an intermediate ST
   agent that detects a failure between itself and its previous- hop, as
   distinguished by the ReasonCode. The DISCONNECT message specifies the
   list of targets that are to be disconnected. An ACK is required in
   response to a DISCONNECT message. The DISCONNECT message is
   propagated all the way to the specified targets. The targets are
   expected to terminate their participation in the stream.

   Figure 25: DISCONNECT Control Message

   o       G (bit 8) is used to request a DISCONNECT of all the stream's
   targets; the TargetList param- eter may be omitted when the G bit is
   set (1).

   o       Reference contains a number assigned by the ST agent sending
   DISCONNECT for use in the acknowledging ACK.

   o       GeneratorIPAddress is the 32-bit IP address of the host that
   first generated the DISCON- NECT message.

   11.6  ERROR

   ERROR (OpCode = 6) is sent in acknowledgment to a request in which an
   error is detected. No action is taken on the erroneous request. No
   ACK is expected. The ERROR message is not propagated beyond the
   previous-hop or next-hop ST agent. An ERROR is never sent in response
   to another ERROR. The receiver of an ERROR is encouraged to try again
   without waiting for a retransmission timeout.

   Figure 26: ERROR Control Message

   o       Reference is the Reference number of the erroneous request.

   11.7  HELLO

   HELLO (OpCode = 7) is used as part of the ST failure detection
   mechanism, see Section 5.1.

   Figure 27: HELLO Control Message

   o       R (bit 8) is used for the Restarted-bit.

   o       Reference is non-zero to inform the receiver that an ACK
   should be promptly sent so that the sender can update its round-trip
   time estimates. If Reference is zero, no ACK should be sent.

   TBD: HelloTimer



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 59]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   11.8  JOIN-REQUEST

   JOIN-REQUEST (OpCode = 8) is used as part of the ST steam joining
   mechanism, see Section 3.4.2.

   Figure 28: JOIN-REQUEST Control Message

   o       Reference contains a number assigned by the ST agent sending
   JOIN-REQUEST for use in the acknowledging ACK.

   o       GeneratorIPAddress is the 32-bit IP address of the host that
   first generated the JOIN- REQUEST message.

   11.9  NOTIFY

   NOTIFY (OpCode = 9) is issued by an ST agent to inform other ST
   agents of events that may be significant. NOTIFY may be propagated
   beyond the previous-hop or next-hop ST agent depending on the
   ReasonCode, see Section 10.3.7; NOTIFY must be acknowledged with an
   ACK.

   Figure 29: NOTIFY Control Message

   o       Reference contains a number assigned by the ST agent sending
   the NOTIFY for use in the acknowledging ACK.

   o       ReasonCode identifies the reason for the notification.

   o       NextHopIPAddress is the 32-bit IP address of a suggested
   next-hop ST agent.

   o       TargetList is present when the notification is related to one
   or more targets.

   11.10  REFUSE

   REFUSE (OpCode = 10) is issued by a target that either does not wish
   to accept a CONNECT message or wishes to remove itself from an
   established stream. It might also be issued by an intermediate ST
   agent in response to a CONNECT or CHANGE either to terminate a
   routing loop, or when a satisfactory next-hop to a target cannot be
   found. It may also be a separate command when an existing stream has
   been preempted by a higher precedence stream or an ST agent detects
   the failure of a previous-hop, next-hop, or the network between them.
   In all cases, the TargetList specifies the targets that are affected
   by the condition. Each REFUSE must be acknowledged by an ACK.

   The REFUSE is relayed back by the ST agents to the origin (or



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 60]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   intermediate ST agent that created the CONNECT or CHANGE) along the
   path traced by the CONNECT. The ST agent receiving the REFUSE will
   process it differently depending on the condition that caused it, as
   specified in the ReasonCode field. No special effort is made to
   combine multiple REFUSE messages since it is considered most unlikely
   that separate REFUSEs will happen to both pass through an ST agent at
   the same time and be easily combined, e.g., have identical
   ReasonCodes and parameters.

   Figure 30: REFUSE Control Message

   o       Reference contains a number assigned by the ST agent sending
   the REFUSE for use in the acknowledging ACK.

   o       LnkReference is either the Reference number from the
   corresponding CONNECT or CHANGE, if it is the result of such a
   message, or zero when the REFUSE was originated as a separate
   command.

   o       GeneratorIPAddress is the 32-bit IP address of the host that
   first generated the JOIN- REQUEST message.

   11.11  STATUS

   STATUS (OpCode = 11) is used to inquire about the existence of a
   particular stream identified by the SID. Use of STATUS is intended
   for diagnostic purposes and to assist in stream cleanup operations.

   TBD: write section on use of STATUS, STATUS-RESPONSE

   Figure 31: STATUS Control Message

   o       Q (bit 9) is set to one (1) for remote diagnostic purposes
   when the receiving ST agent should return a stream's parameters,
   whether or not the source of the message is believed to be a pre-
   vious-hop or next-hop in the specified stream. Note that this use has
   potential for disclosure of sensitive information.

   11.12  STATUS-RESPONSE

   STATUS-RESPONSE (OpCode = 12) is the reply to a STATUS message. If
   the stream specified in the STATUS message is not known, the STATUS-
   RESPONSE will contain the specified SID but no other parameters. It
   will otherwise contain the current SID, FlowSpec, TargetList, and
   possibly Groups of the stream.

   Figure 32: STATUS-RESPONSE Control Message 12  Suggested Protocol
   Constants



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 61]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   The ST Protocol uses several fields that must have specific values
   for the protocol to work, and also several values that an
   implementation must select. This section specifies the required
   values and suggests initial values for others. It is recommended that
   the latter be implemented as variables so that they may be easily
   changed when experience indicates better values. Eventually, they
   should be managed via the normal network management facilities.

   ST uses IP Version Number 5.

   When encapsulated in IP, ST uses IP Protocol Number 5.

   12.1  SCMP Messages

   1)      ACCEPT

   2)      ACK

   3)      CHANGE

   4)      CONNECT

   5)      DISCONNECT

   6)      ERROR

   7)      HELLO

   8)      JOIN

   9)      NOTIFY

   10)     REFUSE

   11)     STATUS

   12)     STATUS-RESPONSE

   12.2  SCMP Parameters

   1)      ErroredPDU

   2)      FlowSpec

   3)      Group

   4)      MulticastAddress




L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 62]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   5)      NextHopIPAddress

   6)      Origin

   7)      TargetList

   8)      UserData

   15  References

   [RFC1071]

   Braden, Borman, Partridge: Computing the Internet Checksum, RFC 1071,
   USC/Information Sciences Institute, Cray Research, BBN Laboratories,
   Sep- tember 1988.

   [RFC1112]

   Deering, S.: Host Extensions for IP multicasting, RFC 1112, Stanford
   Univer- sity, August 1989.

   [WoHD95]

   L. Wolf, R. G. Herrtwich, L. Delgrossi: Filtering Multimedia Data in
   Reser- vation-based Networks, Kommunikation in Verteilten Systemen
   1995 (KiVS)', Chemnitz-Zwickau, Germany, February 1995.

   [RFC1122]

   Braden, R.: Requirements for Internet Hosts -- Communication Layers,
   RFC 1122, USC/Information Sciences Institute, October 1989.

   [Jaco88]

   Jacobson, V.: Congestion Avoidance and Control, ACM SIGCOMM-88,
   August 1988.

   [KaPa87]

   Karn, P. and C. Partridge: Round Trip Time Estimation, ACM SIGCOMM-



L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 63]


INTERNET DRAFT                                              October 1994


   87, August 1987.

   [RFC1141]

   Mallory, T. and A. Kullberg: Incremental Updating of the Internet
   Checksum, RFC 1141, BBN, January 1990.

   [RFC 1363]

   C. Partridge: A Proposal Flow Specification, RFC 1363.

   [RFC791]

   Postel: Internet Protocol, RFC 791, DARPA, September 1981.

   [RFC1060]

   Reynolds, Postel: Assigned Numbers, RFC 1060, USC/ISI, March 1990.

   [RFC1190]

   Topolcic C.: Internet Stream Protocol Version 2 (ST2), October 1990.





























L. Delgrossi (ed.)                                             [Page 64]